Journal Cover Belitung Nursing Journal
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2477-4073
   Published by Belitung Raya Publisher Homepage  [1 journal]
  • A VISUAL MANAGEMENT TOOL FOR NURSES TO STANDARDIZE THE ADMINISTRATION OF
           VESICANT CHEMOTHERAPY

    • Authors: Mohamad Omar Alkaiyat, Ahmad Deeb, Mahmoud Salam
      Pages: 158 - 161
      Abstract: none
      PubDate: 2017-06-07
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • OSTEOPOROSIS HEALTH BELIEF, KNOWLEDGE LEVEL AND RISK FACTORS IN
           INDIVIDUALS WHOSE BONE MINERAL DENSITY WAS REQUIRED

    • Authors: Gulpinar ASLAN, Dilek KILIC
      Pages: 162 - 173
      Abstract: Aim: This descriptive-relational study aims to identify osteoporosıs health belief, knowledge level and risk factors in individuals whose bone mineral density was required.Method: Target population of the study was 110 men and 126 women aged 35 and over, who applied to Atatürk University Aziziye - Yakutiye Research Hospital Nuclear Medicine Center Bone Densitometer Unit between January 2010 and October 2010. No sampling was performed, the whole target population was involved in the study. Data were collected through the Personal Information Form that included socio-demographic features, The Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale, the Osteoporosis Self-Efficacy Scale and the Osteoporosis Knowledge Test.Results: The Osteoporosis Health Belief score of the participants was 139.99±14.79, Osteoporosis Knowledge score was 10.06±4.30, and Osteoporosis Self-Efficacy score was 742.00±213.44. Among Osteoporosis health beliefs, women’s Susceptibility, Seriousness, Barriers of Exercise, and Barriers of Calcium mean scores were found to be higher than those of men (p<0.001).  Men’s Osteoporosis Self-Efficacy scale and sub-dimensions mean scores were found to be higher in comparison to women (p<0.001). DEXA analysis results show that 57.1% of the women and 27.3% of the men were diagnosed with osteoporosis. Conclusion:  According to the Logistic regression analysis that aimed to identify the risk factors having roles in Osteoporosis diagnosis, the affecting risk factors were gender, age, and medicine use. As for women, logistic regression analysis showed that the risk factors were education level – being illiterate, medicine use, osteoporosis story in family, and 4 or more deliveries.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • EFFECT OF MUSA BALBISIANA COLLA EXTRACT ON BREAST MILK PRODUCTION IN
           BREASTFEEDING MOTHERS

    • Authors: Diyan Wahyuningsih, Syarief Taufik Hidayat, Nur Khafidhoh, Ari Suwondo, Diyah Fatmasari, Kun Aristiati Susiloretni
      Pages: 174 - 182
      Abstract: Background: Musa balbisiana Colla, known as Jantung Pisang Klutuk/Pisang Batu, is considered as a traditional food that can increase breast milk production. Little is known about its benefit in Indonesia. Thus, to examine the impact of musa balbisiana colla on the production of breast milk is needed.Objective: This study aims to examine the effect of the extract of banana flower (Musa balbisiana Colla) to increase milk production of breastfeeding mothers.Methods: This  was a quasy-experimental study with pre-posttest control group design. This study was conducted in the working area of the Health Center (Puskesmas) of Pesantren II in January – February 2017. There were 16 respondents were recruited by accidental sampling, divided to intervention group (8 respondents) and control group (8 respondents). Randomization was performed to select the respondent in each group. The quantity of milk production was measured based on the volume of milk production, while the quality of milk production was based on the levels of prolactin in early (pre) and late (post) using Electro chemilumi-nescence Immunoassay (ECLIA) method. Independent t-Test was used to analyze the data.Results: Findings showed that the mean of the volume of the breast milk production in the experiment group was 470.681 ml, and in the control group was 364.650 ml with SD 113.502. While the mean of prolactin levels in the experiment group was 35.337 nanogram, and in the control group was -38.381 nanogram. There was a significant effect of consuming Musa balbisiana Colla extract on the volume of breast milk production (p-value 0.003) and prolactin levels (p-value 0.001) (<0.05).Conclusion: There was a significant effect of banana flower (Musa balbisiana Colla) extract on breast milk production and prolactin level in breastfeeding mothers. The findings of this study could be used to be alternative daily menu for postpartum mothers and a solution for midwives to deal with those who have inadequate production of breast milk and low prolactin levels.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • PRACTICES FOR PREVENTION NEEDLESTICK AND SHARPS INJURIES AMONG NURSING
           STUDENTS

    • Authors: Anh Tran Thi Quynh, Katrina Einhellig
      Pages: 183 - 190
      Abstract: Background: Needlestick and sharp injuries are a serious hazard in any health care setting for health care workers and students during clinical practice. Thus, the efforts to prevent the needlestick and sharps injuries are needed and considered a part of the routine practice.Objective: This study aimed to investigate the frequency of nursing students in doing the correct practice in prevention needlestick and sharps injuries.Methods: This cross- sectional study was conducted between 2013 and 2014 in nursing students of Tien Giang Medical College who participated in clinical practice. There were 360 students participated in the study using simple random sampling. Data were collected using the practical assessment checklist and demographic characteristics questionnaire. Data were processed using STATA 12.0, and analyzed using Chi-square and Fisher test.Results: The students who did general practice correctly accounted for 52.50%, and those who did practice incorrectly was 47.5%. The students who used gauze or wool wrap in inhaler were 59.7%, wearing gloves in practice (39.2%), do not disassemble needles from syringes after injection 50%, and removing needles into barrel after injection (65.6%). There was statistically significant relationship between time of participation in clinical practice and correct practice with p-value 0.04 (<0.05)Conclusion: The correct practice of nursing students related to the prevention of needlestick and sharps injuries remains low. There was a significant relationship between time of participation in clinical practice and correct nursing practice. It is suggested that students must be taught about the risk of infection at the beginning of clinical practice, and constantly reminded throughout the learning process, especially for injection safety awareness, knowledge and techniques about the risk of transmission of HBV, HCV and HIV by sharp objects in the healthcare facility.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • THE EFFECT OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAVES ON CHANGE IN BLOOD PROFILE IN
           POSTPARTUM MOTHERS

    • Authors: Arum Estiyani, Ari Suwondo, Sri Rahayu, Suharyo Hadisaputro, Melyana Nurul Widyawati, Kun Aristiati Susiloretni
      Pages: 191 - 197
      Abstract: Background: Postpartum anemia among mothers is a health problem in Indonesia. Consuming Moringa Oleifera is assumed as one of the efforts to deal with anemia. However, lack of the study conducted in the working in the working area of health center of Tlogosari Wetan.Objective: This study was conducted to examine the effect of Moringa Oleifera on blood profile in postpartum mothers.Methods: The study was quasy experimental study with pretest posttest control group design. The sample in this study were all postpartum mothers in the working area of the health center of Tlogosari Wetan. It was 30 respondents recruited by purposive sampling, divided into intervention group (15 respondents) who received Moringa leaf capsule and iron tablet; and control group (15 respondents) were given iron tablet. Data were analyzed using Independent t-test.Results: Findings showed a significant difference in the mean of hemoglobin level (Intervention group 11.9467; control group 11.0600), hematocrit (Intervention group 38.3867; Control group 33.8133), thrombocyte (Intervention group 3.02536; Control group 2.35805), and erythrocyte (Intervention group 4.30137; Control group 3.78206) with p-value < 0.05.Conclusion: there was a significant effect of Moringa Oleifera on changes in blood profile (hemoglobin, hematocrit, erythrocyte, thrombocyte) in postpartum mothers in the working area of the health center of Tlogosari Wetan. Thus, it is suggested that Moringa leaves could be used to prevent anemia in postpartum mothers.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • EFFECT OF CARICA PAPAYA L LEAF ON MENSTRUAL PAIN AND PROSTAGLANDIN LEVEL
           IN ADOLESCENT WITH PRIMARY DYSMENORRHEA: A TRUE EXPERIMENT

    • Authors: Siska Nurul Abidah, Soeharyo Hadisaputro, Runjati Runjati, Syarief Thaufik Hidayat, Ari Suwondo, Donny Kristanto Mulyantoro
      Pages: 198 - 204
      Abstract: Background: Primary dysmenorrhea occurs because of the excessive amount of prostaglandins in the blood. Papaya leaf extract is considered to be able to reduce prostaglandin and menstrual pain.Objective: This study aims to prove that papaya leaf extract (Carica Papaya L.) can decrease the level of menstrual pain and prostaglandin levels in primary dysmenorrhea.Methods: A true experimental study with randomized pretest posttest control group design. There were 32 samples recruited using simple random sampling, with 16 each assigned to an experiment and control group. Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) was used to measure menstrual pain, and the level of prostaglandin was measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Independent t-test and paired t-test were performed for data analysis.Results: There was statistically significant differencec of menstrual pain and prostaglandin level before and after intervention with p-value 0.000 (<0.005), which indiciated that papaya leaf extract had a significant effect on reducing menstrual pain. The decrease of menstrual pain in the experimental group was -3.375 and in the control group was -3.438; while the decrease of prostaglandin level in the experimental group was -56.971 and in the control group was -57.557.Conclusion: Provision of papaya leaf extract (Carica Papaya L.) significantly decreased the level of menstrual pain and prostaglandin levels in primary dysmenorrhea. Papaya leaf extract can be used as a safe and effective herbal medicine for primary dysmenorrhoea which has almost the same efficacy as mefenamic acid.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • USING ADDIE MODEL TO DESIGN EARLY DETECTION SYSTEM OF CHILD GROWTH AND
           DEVELOPMENT IN THE COMMUNITY HEALTH CENTER OF BENDOSARI, SEMARANG
           INDONESIA

    • Authors: Liliana Nur Kholifah, Supriyana Supriyana, Bahiyatun Bahiyatun, Melyana Nurul Widyawati
      Pages: 205 - 212
      Abstract: To reduce the increase of the impaired child grwoth and development, early detection system is needed. The system designed based on information technology will facilitate the health personnels to achieve the desired outcome. In this study, The Early Detection System was developed using ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation) instruction model. The evaluation showed that the Early Detection System was effective in terms of completeness (7.2), ease (13.60), timeliness (7.60), accuracy (17.10), and conformity (8.00). This innovation is expected to contribute positively for child growth and development in Indonesia
      PubDate: 2017-06-07
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • EFFECT OF COMBINATION OF OXYTOCIN MASSAGE AND HYPNOBREASTFEEDING ON
           UTERINE INVOLUTION AND PROLACTIN LEVELS IN POSTPARTUM MOTHERS

    • Authors: Yuni Nor Aini, Hadi Hadi, Sri Rahayu, Noor Pramono, Donny Kristanto Mulyantoro
      Pages: 213 - 220
      Abstract: Background: The absence of contractions after childbirth can lead to a slow-running uterine involution process. Thus, the effort to maintain and accelerate the process is needed. Oxytocin massage and hypnobreastfeeding are considered as an alternative treatment, but the effect of the combination of the two treatments have not yet been examined.Objective: To examine the effect of combination of oxytocin massage and hypnobreastfeeding on uterine involution and prolactin levels in post partum.Methods: A Quasy experimental study with pretest posttest control group design. a total of 40 respondents were recruited using simple random sampling, with 20 respondents assigned in the treatment and control group. Metline and ELISA methods were used to measure uterine involution prolactin levels. Paired t-test and independent t-test were used to analyze the data.Results: There was a significant decrease of uterine involution in the experiment group and control group after intervention with p-value 0.000 (<0.05), and it can be seen that the uterine involution in the experiment group (6.05) was faster than uterin involution in the control group (7.00).  Findings also showed that the prolactin level in the experiment group (273.53) was higher than the prolactin level in the control group (209.37).Conclusion: There was statistically significant effect of the combination of oxytocin massage and hypnobreastfeeding on the uterine involution and prolactin level in postpartum mothers in the General Hospital of Semarang. It is expected that the combination of oxytocin massage and hypnobreastfeeding can be used as consideration and references in providing postpartum midwifery care.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • COMPARISON OF EFFECTS OF ABDOMINAL STRETCHING EXERCISE AND COLD COMPRESS
           THERAPY ON MENSTRUAL PAIN INTENSITY IN TEENAGE GIRLS

    • Authors: Desta Ayu Cahya Rosyida, Agus Suwandono, Ida Ariyanti, Suhartono Suhartono, Imam Djamaluddin Mashoedi, Diyah Fatmasari
      Pages: 221 - 228
      Abstract: Background: Pain during menstruation is not uncommon, especially in young women, which has an impact on their life activities.Objective: To examine the effect of abdominal stretching exercise and cold compress therapy on decreasing intensity of menstrual pain in teenage girls at SMK Bakti Indonesia Medika.Design: A Quasy Experimental Study with two group comparison pretest-postest design. There were 46 respondents selected in this study by consecutive sampling that consisted of 23 samples in the abdominal stretching exercise group and 23 samples in the cold compress group. The menstrual pain was measured using VAS (visual analog scale). Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney, Chi-Square, and Wilcoxon test.Results: Findings showed that the mean of menstrual pain before intervention in the abdominal stretching exercise was 7.04 and in the cold compress therapy was 6.74 with p-value 0.211 (<0.05), which indicated that there was no mean difference of pain between both groups. However, after intervention, the menstrual pain was reduced from 7.04 to 1.91 (5.09 difference) in the abdominal stretching exercise group; and from 6.74 to 5.52 (1.22 difference) in the cold compress group with p-value 0.000 (<0.05), which indicated that there was statistically significant difference of menstrual pain before and after intervention, both abdominal stretching exercise and cold compress therapy.Conclusion: There were statistically significant effects of abdominal stretching exercise and cold compress therapy on menstrual pain in teenage girls. The abdominal stretching exercise is more effective than cold compress therapy in reducing menstrual pain intensity. Thus, it is suggested that abdominal stretching exercise can be an alternative choice of management of dysmenorrhea in teenage girls, and can be a part of subject in the education as non-pharmacological medicine.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • ROSELLE FLOWER (HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA) IN THE TREATMENT OF HYPERTENSION IN
           POSTPARTUM MOTHERS

    • Authors: Nikmah Jalilah Ritonga, Onny Setiani, Umaroh Umaroh, Kamilah Budhi R, Faisal Amri
      Pages: 229 - 237
      Abstract: Background: Roselle flower (Hibiscus sabdariffa) has been used as a food and herbal drinks, in hot and cold beverages, as a herbal medicine.Objective: To examine the effect of consuming roselle dried flower petals on changes in maternal hypertensive blood pressure during postpartum period.Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study with non-equivalent control group design conducted in 2016. There were 30 samples recruited using consecutive sampling with 15 samples in the intervention and control group. Data were analyzed using paired t-test to know the difference of blood pressure value before and after intervention in the intervention and control group, and Independent t-test  to determine the difference of blood pressure decrease between intervention and control group. Mann-whitney and Wilcoxon test were also performed for non-normal data distribution.Results: Findings showed that there were statistically significant differences in systolic and diastolic blood pressure values before and after intervention in the intervention group with p-value 0.000 <0.05 with mean of systolic blood pressure decrease was 39.67 mmHg and diastolic was 22.33 mmHg. Additionally, there was a significant difference in the duration of healing between both groups with p-value 0.000 <0.05, with the average duration of healing in the intervention group was 2 days while in the control group was 3-4 days.Conclusion: There was significant effects of dried petals of rosella flowers (Hibiscus sabdariffa) in lowering blood pressure, and there was significant differences in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and duration of healing between the intervention and control group of mothers who consumed antihypertensive drugs. The results of this study can be applied by midwives or health services in postpartum care with the cases of hypertension. It is expected that this intervention can help the healing process more quickly through a combination of antihypertensive medicines and sedated petals of rosella flowers.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • BREAST MILK AS AN ALTERNATIVE FOR POSTPARTUM PERINEAL CARE

    • Authors: Yuli Admasari, Bedjo Santoso, Titi Suherni, Imam Djamaluddin Mashoedi, Mardiyono Mardiyono
      Pages: 238 - 245
      Abstract: Background: Perineal laceration during childbirth is very common among mothers; however some of them may suffer from its complication if not treated properly.Objective: To prove the effectiveness of breast milk as an alternative topical ingredient in the treatment of perineal wound in postpartum mothers.Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study with non-equivalent control group posttest only design. There were 30 respondents selected in this study, with 15 assigned in the intervention and control group. Accidental sampling was used to select the samples with the criteria that the respondents had perineal laceration in level 1 and 2. Data were analzed using Mann Whitney test.Results: Effective wound healing process can be seen in the intervention group from 80% of poor category in 6-10 hours (1st period) of postpartum became 86.7% of good category in 7 days of postpartum (4th period). Different from the control group that showed the slow progress of wound healing, which was 86.7% of poor category in the 1st period to only 33.3% of good category in the 4th period. Mann Whitney test showed that there was a significant mean difference of the perineal wound healing process between the intervention group (11.23) and the control group (19.77) with p-value 0.002 (<0.05).Conclusion: Breast milk was more effective than povidone iodine in the treatment of perineal wound. It is suggested for health workers, especially midwife to apply this intervention to accelerate the healing of perineal wound in midwifery care.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • EFFECT OF PRENATAL YOGA ON ANXIETY, BLOOD PRESSURE, AND FETAL HEART RATE
           IN PRIMIGRAVIDA MOTHERS

    • Authors: Hamdiah Hamdiah, Ari Suwondo, Triana Sri Hardjanti, Ariawan Soejoenoes, M Choiroel Anwar
      Pages: 246 - 254
      Abstract: Background: Pregnancy increases the risk of developing anxiety that may affect the fetus. Yoga is considered as an alternative therapy to reduce anxiety, blood pressure, and fetal heart rate.Objective: This study aimed to examine the effect of prenatal yoga on anxiety, blood pressure, and fetal heart rate in primigravida mothers.Methods: There were 39 primigravida mothers selected using purposive sampling, which divided to be an experiment group with four-times prenatal yoga and eight-times prenatal yoga, and a control group. The Hamilton Rating Scale For Anxiety (HRSA) was used. Data were analyzed using One way ANOVA and MANOVA.Results: There was a statistically significant difference of prenatal yoga on anxiety (P=0.005), systolic blood pressure (P=0.045), and fetal heart rate (P=0.010). However, there was no significant difference of prenatal yoga on diastolic blood pressure with p-value 0.586 (>0.05)Conclusion: There were significant effects of prenatal yoga on anxiety level, systolic blood pressure, and the fetal heart rates in primigravida mothers. The findings of this study can be an alternative treatment for midwife to deal with anxiety during pregnancy, and an input on the class program of pregnant women to improve the quality of maternal and fetal health.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • EFFECT OF CONSUMING RED DRAGON FRUIT (HYLOCEREUS COSTARICENSIS) JUICE ON
           THE LEVELS OF HEMOGLOBIN AND ERYTHROCYTE AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN

    • Authors: Ari Widyaningsih, Onny Setiyani, Umaroh Umaroh, Muchlis Achsan Udji Sofro, Faisal Amri
      Pages: 255 - 264
      Abstract: Background: Iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia during pregnancy. Red  dragon fruit is assumed having much iron to increase hemoglobin and erythrocyte level.Objective: This study aims to examine the effect of dragon fruit juice on levels of hemoglobin and erythrocytes. Methods: This was a quasi experimental research with non-equivalent control group design. There were 34 respondents recruited in this study using consecutive sampling. The samples were divided into intervention group (17 respondents) and control group (17 respondents). Data were analyzed using Independent t-test and Paired t-test.Results: There was a statistically significant effect of red dragon fruit juice Hb level on the 7th day of intervention with p-value 0.037 (<0.05), but there was no significant effect on hemoglobin level in the 14th day of intervention with p-value 0.140 (>0.05). This study also revealed that there was a statistically significant effect of red dragon fruit juice on pregnant women's erythrocyte level on the 7th day with p-value 0.025 (<0.05), but there was no significant effect on the erythrocyte level in the 14th day of intervention with p-value 0.094 (> 0.05). Conclusion: There was a statistically significant effect of red dragon fruit juice on hemoglobin and erythrocyte levels. This study provides the insight of knowledge that the red dragon fruit juice can be an alternative treatment to deal with anemia among pregnant women.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • BIRD’S NEST EXTRACT CREAM: TREATMENT FOR PERINEAL WOUND IN RATTUS
           NORVEGICUS

    • Authors: Herlina Ofiwijayanti, Syarief Thaufik Hidayat, Nur Khafidhoh
      Pages: 265 - 271
      Abstract: Background: Perineal rupture occurs almost in all the first labor and not infrequently in the next labor. Complex perineal wounds are at risk for non healing and infection.Objective: This study aims to determine the effect of bird’s nest extract on perineal wound healing on rattus norvegicus.Methods: This was a randomised posttest only group design conducted in October 2016 at Animal Laboratory Unit of Diponegoro University, Semarang. There were 30 samples recruited in this study, divided into three groups: 1) The control group (with providine iodine 10% solution), 2) The  first treatment group with a bird’s nest 50% cream, and 3) The second treatment group with a bird’s nest 70% cream. The REEDA scale was used. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, frequency distribution, and one way anova.Results: There were statistically significant mean differences between the three groups with p-value 0.000 (< 0.05). The time of the wound healing was 5-6 days for Iodine 10% group, 4-5 days for bird’s nest 50% group, and 3 days for bird’s nest 70% group. The degree of perineal wound density in the bird’s nest 70% group (0.37) was also better than the bird’s nest 50% group (0.13) and iodine 10% group (0.02).Conclusion: Bird’s nest has a significant effect on wound healing process. Findings indicated that the bird’s nest 70% extract was very effective to accelerate wound healing than bird’s nest 50% extract and Iodine 10%.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH POOR GLYCEMIC CONTROL AMONG TYPE 2 DIABETES
           MELLITUS IN INDONESIA

    • Authors: Rian Adi Pamungkas, St. Hadijah, Andi Mayasari, Nusdin Nusdin
      Pages: 272 - 280
      Abstract: Background: Type 2 Diabetes mellitus becomes the public health problem in the wide world. Reasons for poor glycemic control in Type 2 diabetes are complex.Objectives: To determine factors contributed to poor glycemic control among Indonesian patients with Type 2 DiabetesMethods: This was a cross sectional regression study. There were 70 respondents selected using purposive sampling. Pre-structured questionnaires were used to measure socio demographic, clinical characteristics, self-care management behaviors, medication adherence, barriers to adherence, and family support. Data were analyzed using chi-square and binary logistic regression.Results: Poor glycemic control was defined as HbA1c ≥7% or FBG ≥200 mg/dl. Findings of this study reported that 83% patients had or FBG ≥200 mg/dl, which confirmed as poor glycemic control. Logistic regression showed that increasing duration of diabetes (> 5 years), non-adherence to dietary behaviors recommendation through selecting healthy diet, arranging a meal plan, recognizing the amount calorie needs, managing dietary behaviors challenges, medication adherence, and family support were significantly influence poor glycemic control with increased odds ratio scores.Conclusion: The proportion of patients with poor glycemic control was raised. Increasing duration of diabetes, non- adherence to medication and dietary behaviors management, and lack of family support were associated with poor glycemic control. Thus, integration of diabetes self-management program with social support is needed to deal with patients’ need to achieve the great benefits in diabetes care.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2017)
       
 
 
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