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Dysphagia
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.99
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 175  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-0460 - ISSN (Online) 0179-051X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2353 journals]
  • Correction to: Cervicofacial and Pharyngolaryngeal Lymphedema and
           Deglutition After Head and Neck Cancer Treatment
    • Abstract: The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. Figure 2 was repeated in Figure 3.
      PubDate: 2019-10-10
       
  • Impairments in Food Oral Processing in Patients Treated for Tongue Cancer
    • Abstract: Patients surgically treated for oral cancer are affected by several underestimated deglutition disorders risk factors. This study aims to characterize the level of these food oral processing (FOP) impairments in a group of patients treated by surgery for tongue cancer. Twenty-seven consecutive patients surgically treated for tongue cancer were evaluated concerning their chewing capacity (Mastication-test), and responded to questions concerning their capacity to bite, chew and manipulate food with their tongue, and their quality of life. According to the Mastication-test, 16 patients suffered total FOP incapacities (TI group), characterized by high tumor stage, invasive carcinological surgery and necessity of reconstructive surgery; 12 patients were partially or not impaired (PI/NI-group). Tongue movement score and number of dental units were lower in the TI group than in the PI/NI-group. Subjective FOP criteria were clearly impaired in the TI group and correlated with a poor oral health-related quality of life. One year after surgery, there is a decrease in BMI for TI group patients while the PI group patients had a significant increase in BMI. All patients surgically treated for oral cancer suffered FOP impairments, but not with the same severity. Totally impaired subjects are at higher risk from long-term malnutrition. Functional evaluation of FOP should form part of the post-operative follow-up for all patients suffering from tongue cancer, using a quick combined evaluation of chewing efficiency, oral health quality of life and nutritional status.
      PubDate: 2019-10-09
       
  • Hypopharyngeal Diverticulum: Toward a Unified Understanding of Its
           Etiopathogenesis
    • Abstract: The etiopathogenesis of Zenker’s diverticulum (ZD) remains uncertain. Increased hypopharyngeal pressure due to a hypertonic upper esophageal sphincter results in herniation proximal to the sphincter producing a pulsion diverticulum. Gastroesophageal reflux, which is known to induce shortening of the injured esophagus, likely plays a prominent role in ZD formation by pulling the cricopharyngeus muscle (CPM) away from the anchored inferior constrictor muscle. This creates a “weak zone” encouraging herniation. A bilobed diverticulum may originate from continuation of the fibrous midline raphe inferiorly to developmentally include part of the CPM. We report using laser endoscopy to divide the inter-diverticular septum followed by transmucosal cricopharyngeus myotomy. Presentation of a rare, bilobed diverticulum emphasizes the importance of the midline prevertebral raphe in anchoring the pharyngeal constrictor muscles with respect to the CPM. This lends support to the hypothesis that the etiopathogenesis of ZD is multifactorial while guiding us to a unified understanding of ZD.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
       
  • Comment on “Sarcopenia is an Independent Risk Factor for Dysphagia in
           Community-Dwelling Older Adults”
    • PubDate: 2019-10-01
       
  • Fluid Testing Methods Recommended by IDDSI
    • PubDate: 2019-10-01
       
  • Disruption of the Obligatory Swallowing Sequence in Patients with
           Wallenberg Syndrome
    • Abstract: Although the sequence of events involved in swallowing varies among healthy adults, healthy adults demonstrate some consistent patterns, including opening of the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) prior to maximum laryngeal elevation (LE). Previous animal studies suggested that swallowing is regulated by a neuronal network in the medulla, and lateral medullary infarction, or Wallenberg syndrome, frequently causes dysphagia. This retrospective, observational, multicenter study aimed to determine if the sequence of swallowing events was disturbed in patients with Wallenberg syndrome compared with previously published reference data for healthy adults. The study subjects included 35 patients with Wallenberg syndrome admitted to three hospitals in Japan from 1/4/2009 to 31/3/2017. Sixteen timing events, including maximum LE and UES opening, and the intervals between events were measured. If the sequence of events was the same as in healthy adults, the interval value was positive, and if the sequence of events was opposite to that in healthy adults, the value was negative. The median interval from UES opening to maximum LE was − 0.02 s (range − 0.80 to 0.89, 95% CI − 0.14 to 0.10). About half of the Wallenberg cases showed negative values indicating that the sequence was reversed. These results suggest that lateral medullary infarction impairs the sequence of swallowing events.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
       
  • Sarcopenia is an Independent Risk Factor for Dysphagia in
           Community-Dwelling Older Adults
    • Abstract: Dysphagia is common in older adults and associated with increased socioeconomic burdens. Recently, sarcopenia is considered to be a possible contributor for dysphagia. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association of dysphagia with sarcopenia in a geriatric population in Korea. This is a cross-sectional study using data from the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA). Community-dwelling men and women aged 65 years and older without common causes of dysphagia in Seongnam City, Korea were included (N = 236). Dysphagia was screened using Standardized Swallowing Assessment. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass was calculated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Grip strength and long-distance corridor walk were assessed. Of 236 subjects, 54 (22.9%) showed dysphagia and 38 (16.1%) showed sarcopenia. Fourteen (5.9%) participants were diagnosed with sarcopenic dysphagia. In multiple logistic regression analysis for dysphagia, sarcopenia was the only significant variable with odds ratio of 2.738 (95% confidence interval 1.160–6.466). Sarcopenia was associated with increased risk of dysphagia in community-dwelling older adults having no common causes of dysphagia even after adjusting for possible confounders. A prospective study with a larger sample size is needed to reveal their causal relationship in the future.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
       
  • A Device that Models Human Swallowing
    • Abstract: The pharynx is critical for correct swallowing, facilitating the transport of both air and food transport in a highly coordinated manner, and aberrant co-ordination causes swallowing disorders (dysphagia). In this work, an in vitro model of swallowing was designed to investigate the role of rheology in swallowing and for use as a pre-clinical tool for simulation of different routes to dysphagia. The model is based on the geometry of the human pharynx. Manometry is used for pressure measurements and ultrasonic analysis is performed to analyze the flow profiles and determine shear rate in the bolus, the latter being vital information largely missing in literature. In the fully automated model, bolus injection, epiglottis/nasopharynx movement, and ultrasound transducer positioning can be controlled. Simulation of closing of the airways and nasal cavity is modulated by the software, as is a clamping valve that simulates the upper esophageal sphincter. The actions can be timed and valves opened to different degrees, resembling pathologic swallowing conditions. To validate measurements of the velocity profile and manometry, continuous and bolus flow was performed. The respective velocity profiles demonstrated the accuracy and validity of the flow characterization necessary for determining bolus flow. A maximum bolus shear rate of 80 s−1 was noted for syrup-consistency fluids. Similarly, the manometry data acquired compared very well with clinical studies.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
       
  • Laryngeal Vibration Increases Spontaneous Swallowing Rates in Chronic
           Oropharyngeal Dysphagia: A Proof-of-Principle Pilot Study
    • Abstract: Previously, vibratory stimulation increased spontaneous swallowing rates in healthy volunteers indicating that sensory stimulation excited the neural control of swallowing. Here, we studied patients with severe chronic dysphagia following brain injury or radiation for head and neck cancer to determine if sensory stimulation could excite an impaired swallowing system. We examined (1) if laryngeal vibratory stimulation increased spontaneous swallowing rates over sham (no stimulation); (2) the optimal rate of vibration, device contact pressure, and vibratory mode for increasing swallowing rates; and (3) if vibration altered participants’ urge to swallow, neck comfort, and swallow initiation latency. Vibration was applied to the skin overlying the thyroid lamina bilaterally in thirteen participants to compare vibratory rates 30, 70, 110, 150, or 70 + 110 Hz, different devices to neck pressures (2, 4, or 6 kilopascals), and pulsed versus continuous vibration. Swallows were confirmed from recordings of laryngeal accelerometry and respiratory apneas and viewing neck movement. Participants’ swallowing rates, urge to swallow, discomfort levels, and swallow initiation latencies were measured. Vibration at 70 Hz and at 110 Hz significantly increased swallowing rates over sham. All vibratory frequencies except 70 + 100 Hz increased participants’ urge to swallow, while no pressures or modes were optimal for increasing urge to swallow. No conditions increased discomfort. Vibration did not reduce measures of swallow initiation latency using accelerometry. In conclusion, as non-invasive neck vibration overlying the larynx increased swallowing rates and the urge to swallow without discomfort in patients with chronic dysphagia, the potential for vibratory stimulation facilitating swallowing during dysphagia rehabilitation should be investigated.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
       
  • Economic Analysis of a Three-Arm RCT Exploring the Delivery of Intensive,
           Prophylactic Swallowing Therapy to Patients with Head and Neck Cancer
           During (Chemo)Radiotherapy
    • Abstract: Research advocates for the use of intensive, prophylactic swallowing therapy to help reduce the severity of dysphagia in patients receiving (chemo)radiotherapy ([C]RT) for head/neck cancer (HNC). Unfortunately, the intensity of this therapy, coupled with growing patient numbers and limited clinical resources, provides challenges to many international cancer facilities. Telepractice has been proposed as a potential method to provide patients with greater support in home-practice, whilst minimising burden to the health service. This study investigated the clinical and patient-attributable costs of delivering an intensive, prophylactic swallowing therapy protocol via a new telepractice application “SwallowIT” as compared to clinician-directed FTF therapy and independent patient self-directed therapy. Patients (n = 79) with oropharyngeal HNC receiving definitive (C)RT were randomised to receive therapy via a: clinician-directed (n = 26), patient-directed (n = 27), or SwallowIT-assisted (n = 26) model of care. Data pertaining to health service costs (service time, consumables, therapy resources), patient-attributable costs (travel and wages) and patient-reported health-related quality of life (QoL) (AQoL-6D) were collected. SwallowIT provided a cost-efficient model of care when compared to the clinician-directed model, with significant cost savings to both the health service and to HNC consumers (total saving of $1901.10 AUD per patient; p < 0.001). The SwallowIT model also proved more cost-effective than the patient-directed model, yielding clinically significantly superior QoL at the end of (C)RT, for comparable costs. Overall, when compared to the alternate methods of service-delivery, SwallowIT provided a financially viable and cost-effective method for the delivery of intensive, prophylactic swallowing therapy to patients with HNC during (C)RT.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
       
  • Understanding Dysphagia Care in the Community Setting
    • Abstract: Factors including health policy reform and the aging population are increasing demand for quality healthcare in the community. People with dysphagia are supported by speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in hospital and community settings; however, little is known about the nature of dysphagia services offered by SLPs in the community. The aim of this study was to investigate SLP services and practices provided to community-based adults with dysphagia. A national cohort (n = 144) of SLPs working with community-based clients with dysphagia completed an online survey. Results revealed that clients with neurological conditions comprised the largest proportion of the caseload. Primary referral sources were family doctors (42.4%) or other health professionals (37.5%), with low rates of self-referral. Services were primarily delivered via individual sessions (84.1%), usually within the client’s home (80% saw clients at home). While many clinicians were using both clinical and instrumental assessments, half had to refer clients to the other services to access instrumental assessment. Most provided assessment and rehabilitation services, though a few (28.5%) reported using formal outcome or quality-of-life measures. Only 43.8% referred or encouraged clients or caregivers to access support or social groups and a few SLPs incorporated social participation or client well-being aspects in treatment. Speech-language pathology (SLP) practices in the community appear similar to what occurs in the acute setting, which are inherently biomedical. This may not be optimal care for clients with dysphagia who live at home and their caregivers. Further exploration about what clients and caregivers want from community-based SLP services is warranted.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
       
  • Development of a Non-invasive Device for Swallow Screening in Patients at
           Risk of Oropharyngeal Dysphagia: Results from a Prospective Exploratory
           Study
    • Abstract: Oropharyngeal dysphagia is prevalent in several at-risk populations, including post-stroke patients, patients in intensive care and the elderly. Dysphagia contributes to longer hospital stays and poor outcomes, including pneumonia. Early identification of dysphagia is recommended as part of the evaluation of at-risk patients, but available bedside screening tools perform inconsistently. In this study, we developed algorithms to detect swallowing impairment using a novel accelerometer-based dysphagia detection system (DDS). A sample of 344 individuals was enrolled across seven sites in the United States. Dual-axis accelerometry signals were collected prospectively with simultaneous videofluoroscopy (VFSS) during swallows of liquid barium stimuli in thin, mildly, moderately and extremely thick consistencies. Signal processing classifiers were trained using linear discriminant analysis and 10,000 random training–test data splits. The primary objective was to develop an algorithm to detect impaired swallowing safety with thin liquids with an area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) > 80% compared to the VFSS reference standard. Impaired swallowing safety was identified in 7.2% of the thin liquid boluses collected. At least one unsafe thin liquid bolus was found in 19.7% of participants, but participants did not exhibit impaired safety consistently. The DDS classifier algorithms identified participants with impaired thin liquid swallowing safety with a mean AUC of 81.5%, (sensitivity 90.4%, specificity 60.0%). Thicker consistencies were effective for reducing the frequency of penetration–aspiration. This DDS reached targeted performance goals in detecting impaired swallowing safety with thin liquids. Simultaneous measures by DDS and VFSS, as performed here, will be used for future validation studies.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
       
  • The Relationship Between Leukoaraiosis Involving Contralateral
           Corticobulbar Tract and Dysphagia in Patients with Acute Unilateral Corona
           Radiata Infarction with Corticobulbar Tract Involvement
    • Abstract: This study investigated the impact of leukoaraiosis (LA) involving the contralateral corticobulbar tract (CBT) on dysphagia in patients with unilateral corona radiata (CR) infarction with CBT involvement. Patients admitted to the Department of Neurology (September 2011–August 2014) were evaluated; those with a first episode of acute unilateral CR infarction involving the CBT and with LA were included. The ‘Case’ group comprised patients with LA involving the contralateral CBT; the ‘Control’ group comprised patients with LA not involving the contralateral CBT. The primary outcome was the feeding method at discharge; secondary outcomes were the feeding method at admission and results of the bedside swallowing test, videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS), videofluoroscopic dysphagia scale, penetration–aspiration scale, American Speech–Language–Hearing Association National Outcome Measurement System Swallowing Scale (ASHA NOMS), oral transit time, and pharyngeal transit time. Infarct size was measured using brain magnetic resonance imaging; LA severity was rated using the Fazekas scale. Eighty-one patients were included (mean age 64.6 ± 11.5 years; 64% male; Case group: 20, 5 underwent VFSS; Control group: 67, 11 underwent VFSS). The Case group was older and had higher total Fazekas scale score than the Control group. The feeding method at discharge and ASHA NOMS score were significantly worse in the Case group than in the Control group. Multivariate analysis revealed that LA involving the contralateral CBT independently predicted the feeding method at discharge and ASHA NOMS score. In conclusion, LA involving the contralateral CBT is associated with dysphagia in patients with unilateral CR infarction involving the CBT.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
       
  • 8th ESSD Congress, Dublin 2018
    • PubDate: 2019-10-01
       
  • The Association of 3-D Volume and 2-D Area of Post-swallow Pharyngeal
           Residue on CT Imaging
    • Abstract: Pharyngeal residue, the material that remains in the pharynx after swallowing, is an important marker of impairments in swallowing and prandial aspiration risk. The goals of this study were to determine whether the 2D area of post-swallow residue accurately represents its 3D volume, and if the laterality of residue would affect this association. Thirteen patients with dysphagia due to brainstem stroke completed dynamic 320-detector row computed tomography while swallowing a trial of 10 ml honey-thick barium. 3D volumes of pharyngeal residue were compared to 2D lateral and anterior–posterior areas, and a laterality index for residue location was computed. Although the anteroposterior area of residue was larger than the lateral area, the two measures were positively correlated with one another and with residue volume. On separate bivariate regression analyses, residue volume was accurately predicted by both lateral (R2 = 0.91) and anteroposterior (R2 = 0.88) residue areas, with limited incidence of high residuals. Half of the sample demonstrated a majority of pharyngeal residue lateralized to one side of the pharynx, with no effect of laterality on the association between areas and volume. In conclusion, the area of post-swallow pharyngeal residue was associated with volume, with limitations in specific cases. Direct measurement of pharyngeal residue volume and swallowing physiology with 3D-CT can be used to validate results from standard 2D instrumentation.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
       
  • Changes in the Excitability of Corticobulbar Projections Due to Intraoral
           Cooling with Ice
    • Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the effects of ice applied to the oral cavity on the excitability of corticobulbar projections to the swallowing muscles. The subjects were 8 healthy adult volunteers (mean age 29.0 ± 4.9 years). Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the suprahyoid muscle complex using surface electrodes. Two blocks of 20 MEPs with a test stimulus intensity of 120% of the resting motor threshold were recorded at rest (baseline). Subjects then underwent 5-min thermal stimulation by either of 3 different types: (1) “ice-stick inside mouth,” (2) “ice-stick on neck,” and (3) “room temperature inside mouth.” Blocks of 20 MEPs were then recorded immediately and at 5-min intervals for the following 15 min. There was a significant difference in the effects of the 3 interventions on the amplitude of the MEPs following stimulation (two-way ANOVA: INTERVENTION × TIME; F8,84 = 3.76, p < 0.01). One-way ANOVA was used to evaluate the changes over time for each intervention type. Only “ice-stick inside mouth” caused an increase in the MEPs (one-way ANOVA main effect of TIME: F4,28 = 4.04, p = 0.010) with significant differences between baseline and P10 (mean difference 0.050; confidence interval (CI) 95% 0.019–0.079; p = 0.004). There were no significant effects of either “ice-stick on neck” or “room temperature inside mouth” (F4,28 = 1.13, p = 0.36; F4,28 = 1.36, p = 0.27, respectively). Ice stimulation within the oral cavity increases the excitability of the cortical swallowing motor pathway.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
       
  • Use of the Penetration-Aspiration Scale in Dysphagia Research: A
           Systematic Review
    • Abstract: The penetration-aspiration scale (PAS) is an 8-point scale used to characterize the depth and response to airway invasion during videofluoroscopy. Though widely used in the field of deglutition, there is a lack of consensus regarding the statistical properties of the scale. In order to better understand the state of the literature and the statistical use of the PAS, a systematic review was undertaken to descriptively examine trends in statistical and reporting practices of the PAS since its inception. Online databases were searched for studies citing the original PAS article, which yielded 754 unique articles. Of these, 183 studies were included in the review. Results showed inconsistencies in the statistical use of the scale; 79 studies treated the PAS as ordinal, 71 as categorical, and 49 as interval. Ten types of categorizations were identified. Reporting of power analyses (9%), as well as inter- (26%) and intra-rater (17%) reliability, was uncommon. Among studies that administered multiple bolus volumes or consistencies, 55% reported PAS analyses at the participant/group level only. This review confirms the existence of discrepancies in the statistical treatment of the PAS. A lack of consensus among researchers limits comparisons between studies. The approach to handling this scale dictates the statistical tests used, potentially affecting results and interpretations. Consistent application of statistically sound approaches to PAS analyses is vital for the future of deglutition research.
      PubDate: 2019-09-19
       
  • Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and Esophageal Involvement in Patients with
           Pemphigus Vulgaris
    • Abstract: Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a rare autoimmune blistering disease involving the skin and mucous membranes. The prevalence of esophageal involvement remains uncertain. The aim of our study was to determine the frequency of esophageal involvement in patients with PV. This is a single-center electronic database retrospective review of patients with a diagnosis of PV. Data abstracted included demographics, disease characteristics (biopsy results, symptoms, areas affected, treatments), and esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) reports. Of the 111 patients that met eligibility criteria, only 22 (19.8%) underwent EGD. Demographic data were similar except those who underwent EGD were more likely to be female (77.3% vs. 51.7%, p = 0.05) and have hypertension (50.0% vs. 24.7%, p = 0.04). Esophageal symptoms were common in both groups; however, those experiencing dysphagia were more likely to undergo EGD (50.0% vs. 20.2%, p = 0.007). Those who underwent EGD had more refractory disease (≥ 3 treatment modalities: 100% vs. 58.4%, p < 0.001), but did not differ in areas affected. Of those who underwent EGD, only 4 (18.2%) had esophageal abnormalities either prior to PV diagnosis (1) or during a disease flare (3). Those having a flare were more likely to experience odynophagia (69.2%) or weight loss (61.5%), p = 0.02 and p = 0.05, respectively. While esophageal symptoms were common in our cohort of PV patients, a minority of patients underwent EGD, and the vast majority of those were unremarkable. This suggests that while esophageal symptoms are common in PV, permanent esophageal injury is more rare.
      PubDate: 2019-09-19
       
  • Impact of Multiple Texture-Modified Diets on Oral Intake and Nutritional
           Status in Older Patients with Pneumonia: A Retrospective Cohort Study
    • Abstract: Texture-modified diets (TMD) is often used in clinical practices for the treatment and prevention of pneumonia. However, it is unclear how stages of TMD affect the swallowing ability and nutritional status in patients with pneumonia. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the various stages of TMD and swallowing ability and nutritional status in older inpatients with pneumonia. In this retrospective cohort study, data for patients aged ≥ 65 years with pneumonia were obtained from the Japan Rehabilitation Nutrition Database. We performed coarsened exact matching with Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) on admission. Ultimately, 218 patients (mean age 82.9 ± 9.8 years) were included and divided into two groups based on the stages of TMD in the facility: multiple TMD (M-TMD) group (stages of TMD ≥ 6) and control group (stages of TMD < 6). The main outcome was the rate of improvement in the Food Intake Level Scale (FILS) and the maintenance or improvement in the MNA-SF score. We used the within-hospital correction with generalized estimation equations that are commonly used to analyze clustered data while correcting for confounding factors by clustering. Multivariate multiple logistic analysis showed that M-TMD was independently associated with FILS improvement rate and the maintenance or improvement in the MNA-SF score (odds ratio [OR] 3.252; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.602–6.601; p = 0.001 and OR 1.873; 95% CI 1.054–3.330; p = 0.032, respectively). M-TMD in the facility was associated with the maintenance or improvement in swallowing ability and the nutritional status of patients with pneumonia.
      PubDate: 2019-09-18
       
  • Cervicofacial and Pharyngolaryngeal Lymphedema and Deglutition After Head
           and Neck Cancer Treatment
    • Abstract: One of the sequelae of head and neck cancer treatment is secondary lymphedema, with important impact on breathing, swallowing and vocal functions. The aim of the study was to assess the presence, staging characteristics and relationship of external and internal lymphedema and dysphagia after head and neck cancer treatment. The MDACC Lymphedema Rating Scale in Head and Neck Cancer was employed for the assessment and staging of face and neck lymphedema; the Radiotherapy Edema Scale for internal lymphedema; and a fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) for swallowing. The sample consisted of 46 patients with a diagnosis of head and neck cancer. Lymphedema was detected in 97.8% (45) of the evaluations with predominance of the composite type (73.9%—34). A high percentage of external lymphedema of the neck (71.7%—33) and submandibular (63%—29) were detected, with predominance of the more advanced levels. Internal edema was found in almost all structures and spaces at moderate/severe level. At FEES, residue (higher percentage in valleculae and pyriform sinus), penetration and aspirations were observed. The residue was detected in higher occurrence in patients with composite lymphedema (p = 0.012). The combined treatment with radiotherapy was related to submandibular external lymphedema (p = 0.009), altered pharyngolaryngeal sensitivity (0.040), presence of residue (p = 0.001) and penetration to pasty (p = 0.007) and internal edema in almost all structures. There was also a higher percentage of residue in cases with internal altered pharyngolaryngeal sensitivity, residue, penetration and aspiration. Combined treatment with radiotherapy is an associated factor of edema. Cervicofacial and pharyngolaryngeal lymphedema is a frequent event after treatment for HNC, with important impact on swallowing performance characterised by altered pharyngolaryngeal sensitivity, residue, penetration and aspiration. Combined treatment with radiotherapy is an associated factor.
      PubDate: 2019-09-09
       
 
 
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