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ISSN (Print) 1432-0460 - ISSN (Online) 0179-051X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • Effects of Verbal Cueing on Respiratory-Swallow Patterning, Lung Volume
           Initiation, and Swallow Apnea Duration in Parkinson’s Disease
    • Abstract: Respiratory-swallow coordination (RSC) is important for swallowing safety. Atypical RSC is common in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and is associated with the presence of dysphagia and aspiration. Verbal cueing is known to affect RSC in healthy adults, yet an understanding of its effect on RSC in PD is unknown. Therefore, the aims of this study were to: (1) assess the effects of verbal cueing on respiratory-swallow patterning, lung volume initiation, and swallow apnea duration in PD; and (2) determine when during tidal breathing verbal cues should be given in order to increase the likelihood of eliciting optimal RSC. People with PD were prospectively recruited for respiratory-swallowing assessments during cued and non-cued swallowing conditions. Non-cued trials consisted of swallowing in an unprompted fashion, while cued trials consisted of swallowing only once participants were verbally instructed. Verbal cues were given at four specific points during tidal breathing. Nonparametric tests were used to compare differences in patterning, lung volume, and swallow apnea duration between the cued and non-cued swallows. Twenty-five people with PD were enrolled, yielding an analysis of 375 swallows. Verbal cueing significantly affected respiratory-swallow patterning (p < 0.0005), lung volume initiation (p < 0.0005), and swallow apnea duration (p < 0.0005). The effects of verbal cueing on RSC differed significantly depending on when during tidal breathing verbal cues were given. Cues given at high tidal inhalation were most likely to elicit optimal RSC, while cues given at low tidal exhalation were the least likely to elicit optimal RSC. The results of this study demonstrate that verbal cueing significantly affects RSC in PD. Depending on when verbal cues are given during tidal breathing, RSC can become more safe and coordinated or more atypical and risky. Clinicians should be cognizant of these effects by avoiding verbal cues if attempting to evaluate normal RSC during swallowing evaluations and cueing for swallows at the time of high tidal inhalation when targeting more optimal RSC in PD.
      PubDate: 2019-08-22
  • Assessment of the Concerns of Caregivers of Children with Repaired
           Esophageal Atresia–Tracheoesophageal Fistula Related to
           Feeding–Swallowing Difficulties
    • Abstract: The study aimed to assess concerns of caregivers of children with EA-TEF related to feeding–swallowing difficulties, compare the concerns according to type of atresia and repair time, and investigate its relationship with time to start oral feeding. Caregivers accompanying 64 children with EA-TEF were included. Age, sex, type of atresia, repair time, and time to start oral feeding were noted. Parents completed the Turkish version of the Feeding/Swallowing Impact Survey (T-FS-IS) to assess the concerns of caregivers related to feeding–swallowing difficulties. The T-FS-IS has three subscales including daily activities, worry, and feeding difficulties. The median age of patients was 3 (min = 1, max = 12) years, of which 57.8% were male. 43.8% of cases were isolated-EA, and 56.3% were EA-distal TEF. 57.8% of cases received early repair, and 42.2% had delayed repair. The median time to start oral feeding was 4 weeks (min = 1, max = 128). The mean scores of daily activities, worry, feeding difficulties, and total score from the T-FS-IS were 2.43 ± 1.18, 2.73 ± 1.28, 2.10 ± 0.97, and 2.44 ± 1.09, respectively. Caregivers of children with isolated-EA reported more problems in total score and all subscales of the T-FS-IS than EA-distal TEF (p < 0.01). Caregivers of children who received delayed repair reported more problems in total score and all subscales of the T-FS-IS than children with early repair (p < 0.05). Moderate to strong correlations were found between the T-FS-IS and time to start oral feeding (p < 0.01, r = 0.55–0.65). This study suggests that caregivers of children with isolated-EA and/or delayed repair and/or delay in oral intake may have higher concerns related to feeding–swallowing difficulties.
      PubDate: 2019-08-13
  • Management of an Unusual Case of Dysphagia
    • PubDate: 2019-08-07
  • A Surgical Mouse Model for Advancing Laryngeal Nerve Regeneration
    • Abstract: Iatrogenic recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) injury is a morbid complication of anterior neck surgical procedures. Existing treatments are predominantly symptomatic, ranging from behavioral therapy to a variety of surgical approaches. Though laryngeal reinnervation strategies often provide muscle tone to the paralyzed vocal fold (VF), which may improve outcomes, there is no clinical intervention that reliably restores true physiologic VF movement. Moreover, existing interventions neglect the full cascade of molecular events that affect the entire neuromuscular pathway after RLN injury, including the intrinsic laryngeal muscles, synaptic connections within the central nervous system, and laryngeal nerve anastomoses. Systematic investigations of this pathway are essential to develop better RLN regenerative strategies. Our aim was to develop a translational mouse model for this purpose, which will permit longitudinal investigations of the pathophysiology of iatrogenic RLN injury and potential therapeutic interventions. C57BL/6J mice were divided into four surgical transection groups (unilateral RLN, n = 10; bilateral RLN, n = 2; unilateral SLN, n = 10; bilateral SLN, n = 10) and a sham surgical group (n = 10). Miniaturized transoral laryngoscopy was used to assess VF mobility over time, and swallowing was assessed using serial videofluoroscopy. Histological assays were conducted 3 months post-surgery for anatomical investigation of the larynx and laryngeal nerves. Eight additional mice underwent unilateral RLN crush injury, half of which received intraoperative vagal nerve stimulation (iVNS). These 8 mice underwent weekly transoral laryngoscopy to investigate VF recovery patterns. Unilateral RLN injury resulted in chronic VF immobility but only acute dysphagia. Bilateral RLN injury caused intraoperative asphyxiation and death. VF mobility was unaffected by SLN transection (unilateral or bilateral), and dysphagia (transient) was evident only after bilateral SLN transection. The sham surgery group retained normal VF mobility and swallow function. Mice that underwent RLN crush injury and iVNS treatment demonstrated accelerated and improved VF recovery. We successfully developed a mouse model of iatrogenic RLN injury with impaired VF mobility and swallowing function that can serve as a clinically relevant platform to develop translational neuroregenerative strategies for RLN injury.
      PubDate: 2019-08-06
  • Which Factors Affect the Severity of Dysphagia in Lateral Medullary
    • Abstract: The purpose of this study was to identify factors associated with the severity of dysphagia after lateral medullary infarction (LMI). Patients with dysphagia after lateral medullary infarction who were admitted to a rehabilitation unit were included and divided into two groups (non-severe vs. severe). Severe dysphagia was defined as the condition showing decreased bilateral pharyngeal constriction without esophageal passage in a videofluoroscopic swallowing study that initially required enteral tube feeding. Their clinical data (age, sex, lesion side, duration of the illness, penetration-aspiration scale, functional oral intake scale, Modified Barthel index, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and anatomical lesion on diffusion-weighted MRI) were compared to find differences between the two groups. Twelve patients had absence of esophageal passage among a total of 30 patients with dysphagia after LMI. Only anatomical lesion location and extent were significantly different between the two groups. The severe group showed posterolateral involvement in the upper and lower parts of the medulla. Otherwise, there were no significant differences between the two groups. The location and extent of involvement in the medulla were the most important factors associated with the severity of dysphagia after LMI.
      PubDate: 2019-08-03
  • Whiplash-Associated Dysphagia: Considerations of Potential Incidence and
    • Abstract: Non-specific self-reports of dysphagia have been described in people with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) following motor vehicle collision (MVC); however, incidence and mechanistic drivers remain poorly understood. Alterations in oropharyngeal dimensions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), along with heightened levels of stress, pain, and changes in stress-dependent microRNA expression (e.g., miR-320a) have been also associated with WAD, suggesting multi-factorial issues may underpin any potential swallowing changes. In this exploratory paper, we examine key biopsychosocial parameters in three patients with persistent WAD reporting swallowing change and three nominating full recovery after whiplash with no reported swallowing change. Parameters included (1) oropharyngeal volume with 3D MRI, (2) peritraumatic miR-320a expression, and (3) psychological distress. These factors were explored to highlight the complexity of patient presentation and propose future considerations in relation to a potential deglutition disorder following WAD. The three participants reporting changes in swallowing all had smaller oropharyngeal volumes at < 1 week and at 3 months post injury and lower levels of peritraumatic miR-320a. At 3 months post MVC, oropharyngeal volumes between groups indicated a large effect size (Hedge’s g = 0.96). Higher levels of distress were reported at both time points for those with persistent symptomatology, including self-reported dysphagia, however, this was not featured in those nominating recovery. This paper considers current evidence for dysphagia as a potentially under-recognized feature of WAD and highlights the need for future, larger-scaled, multidimensional investigation into the incidence and mechanisms of whiplash-associated dysphagia.
      PubDate: 2019-08-03
  • Interventions for Feeding and Swallowing Disorders in Adults with
           Intellectual Disability: A Systematic Review of the Evidence
    • Abstract: Feeding and swallowing disorders are prevalent in adults with Intellectual Disability (ID) and can potentially lead to discomfort, malnutrition, dehydration, aspiration, and choking. Most common interventions include: diet modification, compensatory strategies, swallowing therapy, and non-oral feeding. Despite their common use, the research evidence for these interventions is lacking. The current study aimed to systematically review the evidence for the safety and the effectiveness of interventions for feeding and swallowing disorders in adults with ID. Seven electronic databases, conference proceedings, and reference lists of relevant studies were reviewed from online availability to March 2019, with no language restrictions. Eligibility criteria encompassed experimental or non-experimental study design, adults (> 18 years) with ID and feeding and/or swallowing disorders (any etiology and severity) and any intervention for feeding and/or swallowing disorders. Methodological quality was assessed by two independent reviewers using the Downs and Black checklist. Four articles met the inclusion criteria. All included studies considered enteral feeding as an intervention strategy and had a retrospective observational design. Overall, included studies reported positive change in nutritional status and a high incidence of adverse events following enteral feeding initiation. Risk of bias was high with variability in methodological quality. The safety and effectiveness of interventions for feeding and swallowing in adults with ID is unclear. This review highlights the lack of evidence-based practice in this area. Directions for further research are provided. Before enteral feeding initiation, risks and benefits should be appropriately balanced on an individual basis, and caregivers should be involved in the decision-making process.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
  • Reply to Wakabayashi Regarding “Sarcopenia is an Independent Risk Factor
           for Dysphagia in Community-Dwelling Older Adults”
    • PubDate: 2019-08-01
  • Office-Based Cricopharyngeus Balloon Dilation for Post Chemoirradiation
           Dysphagia in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients: A Pilot Study
    • Abstract: Dysphagia is a common sequela post chemo/radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), with cricopharyngeal dysfunction often a contributing factor. This study examined the impact of balloon dilation of the cricopharyngeus and cervical oesophagus on swallow competence for dysphagic patients with cricopharyngeal dysfunction post NPC. Patients with NPC were screened for dysphagia and cricopharyngeal dysfunction using fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation. Thirteen symptomatic patients, median 14.1 years post chemoradiotherapy for NPC, then underwent balloon dilation under local anesthesia. Before and 1 month post dilation, swallow function was assessed with fluoroscopy, and rated using the penetration–aspiration scale, temporal swallowing measures, and MBSImP pharyngoesophageal segment opening and esophageal clearance parameter. The MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI; Chinese version) and the Functional Oral Intake Scale (FOIS) were collected pre-, 1 month, and approximately 3 months post dilation. Post-dilation, significant improvements were noted in mean FOIS scores (5.00 to 5.62), duration of cricopharyngeus opening (0.42 s to 0.53 s), MBSImP pharyngoesophageal opening scores (1.61 to 1.08), penetration-aspiration scale scores (4.85 to 3.92) and MDADI Composite score (46.48 to 52.43). At 3 months post dilation, the MDADI Composite Score showed sustained benefit. The procedure was well tolerated and without complication. In patients with cricopharyngeal dysfunction post NPC, balloon dilation significantly improved swallow function, reduced aspiration risk and improved quality of life. Evidence from a larger cohort with long-term follow-up is warranted to determine sustained benefit.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
  • Dysphagia and Associated Pneumonia in Stroke Patients from Brazil: A
           Systematic Review
    • Abstract: Dysphagia and its associated complications are expected to be relatively more frequent in stroke patients in Brazil than in similar patients treated in developed countries due to the suboptimal stroke care in many Brazilians medical services. However, there is no estimate of dysphagia and pneumonia incidence for the overall stroke population in Brazil. We conducted a systematic review of the recent literature to address this knowledge gap, first screening citations for relevance and then rating full articles of accepted citations. At both levels, judgements were made by two independent raters according to a priori criteria. Fourteen accepted articles underwent critical appraisal and data extraction. The frequency of dysphagia in stroke patients was high (59% to 76%). Few studies assessed pneumonia and only one study stratified patients by both dysphagia and pneumonia, with an increased Relative Risk for pneumonia in patients with stroke and dysphagia of 8.4 (95% CI 2.1, 34.4). Across all articles, we identified bias related to: heterogeneity in number and type of stroke; no rater blinding; and, assessments that were not reproducible, reliable or validated. Despite the high frequency of dysphagia and associated pneumonia in stroke patients in Brazil, the quality of the available literature is low and that there is little research focused on these epidemiologic data. Future rigorously designed studies are in dire need to accurately determine dysphagia incidence and its impact on stroke patients in Brazil. These data will be critical to properly allocate limited national resources that maximize the quality of stroke care.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
  • Validation and Reliability of the French Version of the Sydney Swallow
    • Abstract: Oropharyngeal dysphagia is frequently under-reported and early detection may lead to adapt strategies of rehabilitation and management decisions. The Sydney Swallow Questionnaire (SSQ), a self-reported questionnaire for the detection and quantification of oropharyngeal dysphagia, was previously adapted and validated in other languages but not in French. The purposes of this study were to develop and validate a French version of SSQ (SSQ-f) and to assess its psychometric properties. This SSQ-f, obtained by back-translation and cross-cultural adaptation, was validated in 27 patients with impaired swallowing and 27 healthy controls. After inclusion, patients filled in the SSQ-f and performed a videofluoroscopic swallow study. The penetration aspiration scale (PAS) and Dysphagia outcome and severity scale (DOSS) were assigned to assess construct validity. Sensitivity and specificity of cut-off scores for the SSQ-f were assessed by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Moreover, the SSQ-f was repeated after 2 weeks to evaluate its test–retest reliability. The results supported that SSQ-f was considered understandable. Its total score was strongly correlated to the DOSS (r = − 0.873) and to the PAS (r = 0.738). It demonstrated acceptable internal consistency, with Cronbach’s alpha values ranging from 0.744 to 0.956. The test–retest reliability was excellent. According to the ROC curve, cut-off scores of 118.5 or 218.5 were proposed for determining oropharyngeal dysphagia using DOSS as a reference and 755.0, using PAS as reference. No ceiling or floor effects were observed. In conclusion, the SSQ-f is a valid and reliable instrument to measure and detect oropharyngeal dysphagia in French-speaking subjects and can be used in a clinical setting.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
  • What Are We Really Measuring' A Content Comparison of Swallowing
           Outcome Measures for Head and Neck Cancer Based on the International
           Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF)
    • Abstract: A combination of outcome measures are required to provide important information on the physiological profile and associated impact of dysphagia in head and neck cancer (HNC). Choosing the most appropriate tool can be a difficult and time-consuming process. The aim of this study was to identify and then compare the content of tools commonly used to assess swallowing post HNC care using the International Classification of Functioning Disability and Health (ICF) as a reference. A literature audit of 11 databases was conducted for relevant articles published between January 2004 and June 2017 and total of 502 papers met the inclusionary criteria. These papers were audited and 27 tools were identified which met the study criteria. The meaningful concepts contained in each tool were mapped to the ICF. Within the 27 tools, 898 meaningful concepts were identified and matched to 60 ICF categories. The most frequently matched ICF categories related to body functions, while comparatively few concepts matched to activity and participation and environmental factors. This study has identified that a large number of tools are currently being used in HNC research to measure swallowing outcomes. The sheer number of tools available to explore dysphagia post HNC highlights the lack of a uniform approach to outcome measurement which limits the potential to compare and combine research studies in order to strengthen treatment evidence. There is a need to develop an international consensus for a core outcome set of swallowing related measures, that capture the holistic impact of dysphagia, for HNC.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
  • Internal Hypopharyngeal Cyst: A Review of Literature
    • Abstract: Detailed information on the hypopharyngeal cyst presentation, terminology, classification, diagnosis, management, and possible complication is scarce though it would lead to life-threatening symptoms. This review article, therefore, meticulously presents and analyzes the majority of the pertaining literature. In this context, a particular emphasis has been placed on the embryological development of the branchial arches while discussing each entity that would improve the current understanding of different pharyngeal cyst’s pathologies.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
  • An Investigation of Factors Related to Food Intake Ability and Swallowing
           Difficulty After Surgery for Thoracic Esophageal Cancer
    • Abstract: Swallowing difficulty is among the major complications that can occur after surgery for thoracic esophageal cancer. Recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis (RLNP) has been considered the most significant cause of a postoperative swallowing difficulty, but association between the two has not been adequately explained. We investigated the relation between postoperative RLNP and swallowing difficulty by means of video fluoroscopy. Our study included 32 patients who underwent subtotal esophagectomy for thoracic esophageal cancer at St. Marianna University School of Medicine between April 2014 and March 2017. We evaluated patients’ age and sex, disease stage, preoperative presence of a swallowing difficulty, nutritional status, extent and duration of surgery, blood loss volume, and postoperative presence of RLNP and/or hoarseness. Patients were divided into two groups according to whether oral food intake was possible when video fluoroscopy was performed on postoperative day (POD) 7, and we analyzed the associated factors. Postoperative RLNP occurred in 21 patients (65.6%); hoarseness occurred in 19 (59.4%). Eleven patients (34.4%) suffered swallowing difficulty that prevented food intake. No significant association was found between postoperative swallowing difficulty and postoperative RLNP or hoarseness, but a significant relation was found between the prognostic nutritional index and intraoperative lymph node dissection. Multivariable analysis revealed a significant relation between postoperative swallowing difficulty and only one factor: cervical lymph node dissection (P = 0.0075). There appears to be no relation between RLNP pursuant to esophageal cancer surgery and swallowing difficulty that prevents oral food intake.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
  • Alteration of Brain Functional Connectivity in Parkinson’s Disease
           Patients with Dysphagia
    • Abstract: Dysphagia is a common non-primary symptom of patients with Parkinson’s disease. The aim of this study is to investigate the underlying alterations of brain functional connectivity in Parkinson’s disease patients with dysphagia by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We recruited 13 Parkinson’s disease patients with dysphagia and ten patients without dysphagia, diagnosed by videofluoroscopic study of swallowing. Another 13 age and sex-matched healthy subjects were recruited. Eigenvector centrality mapping was computed to identify functional connectivity alterations among these groups. Parkinson’s disease patients with dysphagia had significantly increased functional connectivity in the cerebellum, left premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area, the primary motor cortex, right temporal pole of superior temporal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex and insula, compared with patients without dysphagia. This study suggests that functional connectivity changes in swallowing-related cortexes might contribute to the occurrence of dysphagia in Parkinson’s disease patients.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
  • Clinical Approaches to Assess Post-extubation Dysphagia (PED) in the
           Critically Ill
    • Abstract: Swallowing disorders and respective consequences (including aspiration-induced pneumonia) are often observed in extubated ICU patients with data indicating that a large number of patients are affected. We recently demonstrated in a large-scale analysis that the incidence of post-extubation dysphagia (PED) is 12.4% in a general ICU population and about 18% in emergency admissions to the ICU. Importantly, PED was mostly sustained until hospital discharge and independently predicted 28- and 90-day mortality. Although oropharyngeal/laryngeal trauma, neuromuscular ICU-acquired weakness, reduced sensation/sensorium, dyssynchronous breathing, and gastrointestinal reflux, are all considered to contribute to PED, little is known about the underlying pathomechanisms and risk factors leading to PED in critically ill patients. Systematic screening of all potential ICU patients for oropharyngeal dysphagia (OD) seems key for early recognition and follow-up, as well as the design and testing of novel therapeutic interventions. Today, screening methods and clinical investigations for dysphagia differ considerably. In the context of a recently proposed pragmatic screening algorithm introduced by us, we provide a concise review on currently available non-instrumental techniques that could potentially serve for non-instrumental OD assessment in critically ill patients. Following systematic literature review, we find that non-instrumental OD assessments were mostly tested in different patient populations with only a minority of studies performed in critically ill patients. Due to little available data on non-instrumental dysphagia assessment in the ICU, future investigations should aim to validate respective approaches in the critically ill against an instrumental (gold) standard, for example, flexible endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. An international expert panel is encouraged to addresses critical illness—related definitions, screening and confirmatory assessment approaches, treatment recommendations, and identifies optimal patient-centered outcome measures for future clinical investigations.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
  • A Comparative Analysis of Eating Behavior of School-Aged Children with
           Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Their Caregivers' Quality of Life:
           Perspectives of Caregivers
    • Abstract: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) can affect eating behavior in infants and children and this may lead to stressful interactions with their caregivers and potentially impact their caregivers' quality of life. Clinical evaluation of eating behaviors can be time consuming and burdensome. Caregivers can provide a comprehensive assessment of their child’s eating behavior; however, this has not been well studied in children with EoE. In a case–control study, we used Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) to compare caregivers' perception of eating behaviors in children (ages 11 ± 4 years; Mean ± SD) with EoE (cEoE; N = 42) to that of non-EoE controls (cControls; N = 38), and Feeding/Swallowing Impact on Children’s Caregivers Questionnaire (FS-IS) to examine the impact of EoE-related eating problems on their caregivers' quality of life. There were no differences between the cEoE and cControls perceptions of eating behaviors as assessed by CEBQ. In FS-IS, the cEoE indicated that they were worried about the way their child would breathe or if the child would choke while feeding (2.28 ± 0.16 vs. 1.25 ± 0.13; p < 0.001), and also indicated that it was hard for them to feed their child as it took a long time to prepare liquids and foods the “right” way (2.1 ± 0.20 vs. 1.17 ± 0.09; p < 0.001) when compared to cControls. Our results suggest that caregivers' perception of the eating behavior of school-aged children with and without EoE do not differ significantly, yet the perception of feeding/swallowing issues in children with EoE can negatively impact their caregivers' quality of life. Further research is needed to discern the eating behavior in children with EoE and its relationship with their caregivers' quality of life.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
  • Association Between Laryngeal Sensation, Pre-swallow Secretions and
           Pharyngeal Residue on Fiberoptic Endoscopic Examination of Swallowing
    • Abstract: Reduced laryngeal sensation and accumulated pharyngeal secretions are known predictors of aspiration. Yet, their association with residue has not been fully explored. One Hundred and ten fiberoptic endoscopic examination of swallowing (FEES) examinations were retrospectively analyzed. Murray’s secretion scale (MSS) for secretion stasis and laryngeal sensation were tested for association with residue severity (Yale pharyngeal residue severity rating scale, YPR-SRS) and the number of swallows required to clear the bolus. The bolus challenges of each consistency (liquid, purée and solid) with the highest PAS and YPR-SRS scores were analyzed. Impaired laryngeal sensation (ILS) and MSS were both independently significantly associated with higher YPR-SRS for all consistencies examined. Mean YPR-SRS for patients with both ILS and secretion stasis was respectively 2.4 ± 1.1, 2.5 ± 1.2, 2.4 ± 1.2 for liquid, purée and solids in the vallecula, and 2.9 ± 1.3, 2.3 ± 1.1, 2 ± 1 for pyriform sinuses residue compared to 1.8 ± 0.7, 1.6 ± 1, 1.6 ± 1 for vallecular residue and 1.8 ± 0.8, 1.4 ± 0.8, 1.3 ± 0.7 for pyriform sinus residue of patients with normal laryngeal sensation and no stasis (p < 0.05 for all except liquids in vallecula). The combined findings of both ILS and MSS ≥ 1 had a sensitivity of 25.9%, specificity of 94.2%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 83.3% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 53.3% for prediction of pharyngeal residue and a sensitivity of 58.3%, specificity of 88.8%, PPV of 39.9% and a NPV of 94.6% for prediction of aspiration. Both ILS and MSS were significantly associated with increased number of swallows required to clear a bolus. Abnormal laryngeal sensation and secretion stasis are associated with pharyngeal residue severity and reduced residue clearing on FEES.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
  • The Effects of Electrical Stimulation Pulse Duration on Lingual Palatal
           Pressure Measures During Swallowing in Healthy Older Adults
    • Abstract: Limited research in swallowing physiology has suggested that the most common existing transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) protocol (VitalStim) may not penetrate to layers of tissue to affect deep swallowing muscles. TES amplitude is the primary parameter that determines the depth of electrical current penetration (DECP). Preliminary work suggests that replacing a long-pulse duration with a short-pulse duration can increase maximum amplitude tolerance (MAT) within subjects’ comfort level. Increasing MAT may indicate a higher DECP. The current study evaluates this premise in reference to the effects of varying pulse duration on lingual-palatal pressure during swallowing. Thirty healthy older adults (60–70 years of age) participated in this study. Each subject swallowed three trials of 10 mL pudding under three TES conditions: no stimulation, short-pulse duration, and long-pulse duration. TES was delivered using two pairs of surface electrodes on the submental muscles. MAT and perceived discomfort levels were identified separately for short and long-pulse TES conditions. Lingual-palatal peak pressure, pressure integral, and pressure duration were measured under each condition. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted to identify within subject effects of TES condition and tongue bulb location. Lingual-palatal pressure and pressure integral were significantly reduced in the short-pulse duration condition. MAT was significantly higher in the short-pulse duration versus the long-pulse duration condition. Furthermore, MAT was significantly correlated with lingual-palatal pressure. Changing pulse duration had no significant impact on tongue pressure duration. Results suggest that a short-pulse duration may penetrate deeper into muscles involved in swallowing. The specific impact is reflected in a reduced upward pressure of the tongue on the palate during swallowing. This ‘restrictive’ effect of TES on tongue pressure may have the potential to be used during a resistive exercise paradigm for tongue elevation during swallowing.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
  • Relationship Between Laryngeal Sensation, Length of Intubation, and
           Aspiration in Patients with Acute Respiratory Failure
    • Abstract: Dysphagia is common in hospitalized patients post-extubation and associated with poor outcomes. Laryngeal sensation is critical for airway protection and safe swallowing. However, current understanding of the relationship between laryngeal sensation and aspiration in post-extubation populations is limited. Acute respiratory failure patients requiring intensive care unit admission and mechanical ventilation received a Flexible Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing (FEES) within 72 h of extubation. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed to examine the relationship between laryngeal sensation, length of intubation, and aspiration. Secondary outcomes included pharyngolaryngeal secretions, pneumonia, and diet recommendations. One-hundred and three patients met inclusion criteria. Fifty-one patients demonstrated an absent laryngeal adductor reflex (LAR). Altered laryngeal sensation correlated with the presence of secretions (p = 0.004). There was a significant interaction between the LAR, aspiration, and duration of mechanical ventilation. Altered laryngeal sensation was significantly associated with aspiration on FEES only in patients with a shorter length of intubation (p = 0.008). Patients with altered laryngeal sensation were prescribed significantly more restricted liquid (p = 0.03) and solid (p = 0.001) diets. No relationship was found between laryngeal sensation and pneumonia. There is a high prevalence of laryngeal sensory deficits in mechanically ventilated patients post-extubation. Altered laryngeal sensation was associated with secretions, aspiration, and modified diet recommendations especially in those patients with a shorter length of mechanical ventilation. These results demonstrate that laryngeal sensory abnormalities impact the development of post-extubation dysphagia.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
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