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ISSN (Print) 1432-0460 - ISSN (Online) 0179-051X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2573 journals]
  • An Absorbable Collagen Biomembrane Help Improve Swallowing Function After
           Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery
    • Abstract: Abstract The objective of this study is to investigate the changes in swallowing function after using an absorbable collagen biomembrane during anterior cervical spine surgery (ACSS). A prospective controlled study of patients who underwent two-level anterior cervical decompression and fusion (ACDF) with a zero-profile implant or single-level anterior cervical corpectomy and fusion (ACCF) with cage and plate fixation was performed in our hospital from January 2016. An absorbable collagen biomembrane was used after suturing the prevertebral fascia in the experimental groups. The thickness of prevertebral soft tissue (PST) was measured on lateral X-rays to determine the extent of swelling. In addition, the Bazaz grading system and the Swallowing-Quality of Life (SWAL-QOL) survey were used to assess the swallowing function. A total of 100 patients were included with a follow-up of 12 months. Significant differences in PST swelling were found between the experimental groups and control groups at 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months postoperatively (P < 0.05). Patients in the experimental groups had significantly increased SWAL-QOL scores compared with patients in the control groups at 3 months and 6 months after surgery (P < 0.05). A significant difference in the total incidence of dysphagia was observed at 3 months postoperatively between the experimental groups and control groups (P < 0.05). The application of absorbable collagen biomembrane in ACSS can reduce the total incidence of dysphagia and improve swallowing function early after surgery.
      PubDate: 2019-12-04
  • Investigating Tongue Strength and Endurance in Children Aged 6 to 11 Years
    • Abstract: Abstract Objective measures of tongue strength and endurance are used to assess lingual weakness and fatigue, and may have significant clinical value for dysphagia management. Recent studies investigating age and gender effects on tongue strength in children are limited by small sample sizes. The current study investigated age and gender effects on tongue strength with a larger sample size, and collected preliminary normative data for a paediatric population. This study also investigated the reliability of tongue endurance measures in children using a modified method, which has not previously been investigated. Using a cross-sectional design, this study examined tongue strength and endurance in 119 children aged 6 to 11 years, with no history of speech sound disorders, oro-motor deficits, dysphagia or cognitive impairment. Measures were collected using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument. Children participated in two sessions, 45 min and 10 min in duration. Tongue strength was found to significantly increase with age (p < 0.001), while no gender effects were found. Modified tongue endurance measures involved using only one measure of maximal tongue strength to set parameters for tongue endurance scores. Despite this modification, data did not reach acceptable test–retest reliability, ICC = 0.68, p < 0.001; however, reliability improved from previous studies. These findings provide normative data for tongue strength, as a basis to compare individuals, and highlights the need for more reliable protocols for measuring tongue endurance. Normative data was collected from city-dwelling Australian children.
      PubDate: 2019-12-02
  • Upper Esophageal Sphincter Dysfunction in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
    • PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • A Patient with Dysphagia
    • Abstract: Abstract We report a case of an uncommon type of dysphagia, due to esophagus compression by an aberrant right subclavian artery. This condition, known as dysphagia lusoria, was first recorded in 1787 by London physician David Bayford.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • The Influence of Age, Sex, Visual Feedback, Bulb Position, and the Order
           of Testing on Maximum Anterior and Posterior Tongue Strength in Healthy
           Belgian Children
    • Abstract: Abstract Tongue strength and its role in the pathophysiology of dysphagia in adults are well accepted and studied. An objective and reliable measurement of tongue strength in children necessitates equally good methodology, knowledge of influencing factors, and normative data. Only limited data on testing tongue strength in children are available thereby limiting its potential use. The present study examined tongue strength and several parameters known to be important in adults in the largest sample of healthy children from 3 to 11 years old to date using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument with standard bulbs. Tongue strength increases markedly for children between 6 and 7 years, with slower increases before and after this age. Unlike adults, no influence of sex or location was found on the maximum tongue strength in children, and visual feedback was found to be counterproductive in obtaining the highest tongue pressures. The normative data obtained can be used for objective assessment of tongue weakness and subsequent therapy planning in dysphagic children.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Optimising Radiation Therapy Dose to the Swallowing Organs at Risk: An In
           Silico Study of feasibility for Patients with Oropharyngeal Tumours
    • Abstract: Abstract Recent evidence suggests that reducing radiotherapy dose delivered to specific anatomical swallowing structures [Swallowing Organs at Risk (SWOARs)] may improve swallowing outcomes post-treatment for patients with head and neck cancer. However, for those patients with tumours of the oropharynx, which typically directly overlap the SWOARs, reducing dose to these structures may be unachievable without compromising on the treatment of the disease. To assess the feasibility of dose reduction in this cohort, standard IMRT plans (ST-IMRT) and plans with reduced dose to the SWOARs (SW-IMRT) were generated for 25 oropharyngeal cancer patients (Brouwer et al. in Radiother Oncol 117(1):83–90,, 2015; Christianen et al. in Radiother Oncol 101(3):394–402,, 2011). ST-IMRT and SW-IMRT plans were compared for: mean dose to the SWOARs, volume of pharynx and larynx receiving 50 Gy and 60 Gy (V50 and V60 respectively) and overlap between the tumour volume and the SWOARs. Additionally, two different SWOARs delineation guidelines (Brouwer et al. in Radiother Oncol 117(1):83–90,, 2015; Christianen et al. in Radiother Oncol 101(3):394–402,, 2011) were used to highlight differences in calculated volumes between existing contouring guidelines. Agreement in SWOARs volumes between the two guidelines was calculated using a concordance index (CI). Despite a large overlap between the tumour and SWOARs, significant (p < 0.05) reductions in mean dose to 4 of the 5 SWOARs, and V50/V60 for the pharynx and larynx were achieved with SW-IMRT plans. Low CIs per structure (0.15–0.45) were found between the two guidelines highlighting issues comparing data between studies when different guidelines have been used (Hawkins et al. in Semin Radiat Oncol 28(1):46–52,, 2018; Brodin et al. in Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 100(2):391–407,, 2018). This study found reducing dose to the SWOARs is a feasible practice for patients with oropharyngeal cancer. However, future prospective research is needed to determine if the extent of dose reduction achieved equates to clinical benefits.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Assessment of the Food-Swallowing Process Using Bolus Visualisation and
           Manometry Simultaneously in a Device that Models Human Swallowing
    • Abstract: Abstract The characteristics of the flows of boluses with different consistencies, i.e. different rheological properties, through the pharynx have not been fully elucidated. The results obtained using a novel in vitro device, the Gothenburg Throat, which allows simultaneous bolus flow visualisation and manometry assessments in the pharynx geometry, are presented, to explain the dependence of bolus flow on bolus consistency. Four different bolus consistencies of a commercial food thickener, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 Pa s (at a shear rate of 50 s−1)—corresponding to a range from low honey-thick to pudding-thick consistencies on the National Dysphagia Diet (NDD) scale—were examined in the in vitro pharynx. The bolus velocities recorded in the simulator pharynx were in the range of 0.046–0.48 m/s, which is within the range reported in clinical studies. The corresponding wall shear rates associated with these velocities ranged from 13 s−1 (pudding consistency) to 209 s−1 (honey-thick consistency). The results of the in vitro manometry tests using different consistencies and bolus volumes were rather similar to those obtained in clinical studies. The in vitro device used in this study appears to be a valuable tool for pre-clinical analyses of thickened fluids. Furthermore, the results show that it is desirable to consider a broad range of shear rates when assessing the suitability of a certain consistency for swallowing.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Radiation Risks to Adult Patients Undergoing Modified Barium Swallow
    • Abstract: Abstract Modified Barium Swallow Studies (MBSSs) are a fluoroscopic exam that exposes patients to ionizing radiation. Even though radiation exposure from MBSSs is relatively small, it is necessary to understand the excess cancer risk to the patient, in order to ensure a high benefit-to-risk ratio from the exam. This investigation was aimed at estimating the excess radiation risks during MBSSs. We examined 53 adult MBSSs performed using the full Modified Barium Swallow Impairment Profile (MBSImP) protocol. For each exam, the radiation dose (in terms of dose area product), patient age, and sex was recorded. Using published methodology, we determined the effective dose and organ specific dose then used BEIR VII data to calculate the excess cancer incidence related to radiation exposure from MBSSs in adults. Excess cancer incidence risks due to MBSSs were 11 per million exposed patients for 20-year-old males, 32 per million exposed patients for 20-year-old females, 4.9 per million exposed patients for 60-year-old males, and 7.2 per million exposed patients for 60-year-old females. Radiation exposure to the thyroid, lung, and red bone marrow contributed over 90% of the total cancer incidence risk. For the 20-year-old males, the excess cancer incidence risk is 4.7%/Sv, which is reduced to 1.0%/Sv in the 80-year-olds. For the 20-year-old females, the excess cancer incidence risk is 14%/Sv, which is reduced to 1.3%/Sv for 80-year-olds. Overall, the risk per unit effective dose from MBSSs is lower than the risk estimates for uniform whole-body irradiation. Patient age is the most important determinant of patient cancer risk from MBSSs.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Simultaneous Radiological and Fiberendoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing
           (“SIRFES”) in Patients After Surgery of Oropharyngeal/Laryngeal Cancer
           and Postoperative Dysphagia
    • Abstract: Abstract To compare the results of a simultaneously performed videofluoroscopic swallowing study and fiberendoscopic evaluation of swallowing in patients with dysphagia after surgery and radiotherapy for oropharyngeal or laryngeal cancer. This prospective study included 31 patients who were examined simultaneously with a standardized protocol. The fiberendoscopic and videofluoroscopic swallowing loops were independently scored by two otorhinolaryngologists/phoniatricians and two radiologists. The presence of penetration/aspiration, the amount of pharyngeal residues and the position of the bolus head when triggering of pharyngeal swallow begins were evaluated. Generalized linear models were used to model the impact of rater, method, bolus and quantities as well as specified moderation effects on scorings. In addition, post hoc Wilcoxon tests were used. Rater agreement was assessed using weighted kappas and their 95% confidence intervals. A total of 202 swallow sequences in 29 patients was evaluated. Interrater agreement was substantial to excellent for both methods (weighted k = 0.979–0.613). Significant differences between both methods were found when assessing the penetration-aspiration scale (p = 0.001, tendency of higher scores by videofluoroscopic (median = 2.59) as opposed to fiberendoscopic (median = 2.14) and the residue severity scores in the valleculae (p = 0.029) and the sinus piriformes (p = 0.002) with larger residues scored by fiberendoscopic evaluation of swallowing. No significant differences were found regarding the time point of triggering (p = 0.273). Simultaneous evaluation of swallowing with FEES and VFSS showed significantly different results in symptomatic patients after tumor operation and radiotherapy.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • The Modified Barium Swallow Impairment Profile as a Predictor of Clinical
           Outcomes of Admission for Pneumonia or Choking in Dysphagic Patients with
           Parkinson’s Disease
    • Abstract: Abstract Dysphagia increases risk of pneumonia in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, no studies have investigated the association between objective measures of swallowing dysfunction and clinical outcomes. Therefore, we aimed to study the link between scores obtained on the modified barium swallow impairment scale profile (MBSImP) and hospital admissions for pneumonia and choking, in groups of patients with PD on different feeding modes. 157 patients who completed MBS studies were divided into three groups based on their feeding modes (oral, enteral, and rejected enteral feeding with oral feeding at own risk). Videos were analysed using the MBSImP. We evaluated the association of the oral, pharyngeal, and combined scores, with risk of admission for pneumonia and choking. Kaplan–Meier plots and log-rank tests were used to compare survival distributions among feeding groups. Cox regression models were generated to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals. Patients in the group that rejected enteral feeding scored the highest on the MBSImP, followed by enteral then oral feeding. Within the group that rejected enteral feeding, higher pharyngeal (HR = 3.73, p = 0.036) and combined scores (HR = 1.63, p = 0.034) significantly increased the risk of pneumonia and choking. In the enteral feeding group, higher oral subscores (HR = 2.16, p = 0.011) increased risk for the event, while higher pharyngeal (HR = 0.40, p = 0.004) subscores reduced risk for pneumonia and choking. This is the first study to analyse the association of MBSImP scores with clinical outcomes in PD patients. Patients who rejected enteral feeding had the highest risk for pneumonia and choking that could be predicted by their MBSImP scores. In the enteral feeding group, this risk was partially reversed. Compliance with feeding modes reduces the risk of pneumonia and choking.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Dysphagia Research Society 27th Anniversary Annual Meeting March 7–9,
           2019 Wyndham San Diego Bayside, San Diego, California
    • PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Pharyngeal Swallowing During Wake and Sleep
    • Abstract: Abstract Sleep is associated with stages of relative cortical quiescence, enabling evaluation of swallowing under periods of reduced consciousness and, hence, absent volition. The aim of this study was to measure and characterize changes in the characteristics of pharyngeal swallows during sleep and wake using high-resolution manometry (HRM). Pharyngeal swallows were recorded with a ManoScan™ HRM in wake-upright, wake-supine, and sleep conditions in 20 healthy participants (mean 27 years; range 21–52). Velopharyngeal and hypopharyngeal segments were analysed separately. Contractile integral, mean peak pressure, inverse velocity of superior-to-inferior pharyngeal pressure, and time to first maximum pressure were analysed with custom-designed software. The supine-wake condition was compared to both upright-wake and sleep conditions using linear mixed effects models. No significant differences were found between supine-wake and upright-wake conditions on any measures. The mean peak pharyngeal pressure was lower during sleep than during the supine-wake condition for both the velopharynx (− 60 mmHg, standard error [SE] = 11, p < 0.001) and hypopharynx (− 59 mmHg, SE = 9, p = 0.001), as was the pharyngeal inverse velocity (− 12 ms/cm, SE = 4, p = 0.012) for the hypopharyngeal segment and the pharyngeal contractile integral (− 32 mmHg s cm, SE = 6, p < 0.001). No significant differences were found in time to the first pharyngeal maximum pressure. This study used HRM to characterize and compare pharyngeal pressures during swallowing in both wake and sleep conditions. No differences were found between upright and supine awake conditions, a finding important to pharyngeal manometric measures made during supine positioning, such as in fMRI. Higher pressures and longer time-related measures of volitional pharyngeal swallowing when awake indicate that cortical input plays an important role in modulation of pharyngeal swallowing.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Dysphagia in Parkinson’s Disease Improves with Vocal Augmentation
    • Abstract: While voice-related disorders in Parkinson’s disease (PD) are commonly discussed in the literature, dysphagia in PD is less widely published. Vocal fold augmentation, including injection laryngoplasty (IL), is a well-established treatment for glottal insufficiency (Cates et al. in Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 155(3):454–457, 2016). This study aimed to observe the effects of IL in PD patients with vocal bowing, with or without therapy, on glottic closure and patient-reported dysphagia outcomes. The study design was based on retrospectively collected database and cohort–case series. PD patients selected for retrospective review over a 2-year period were referred and evaluated in the Voice, Swallowing, and Airway multidisciplinary clinic by speech language pathologist and laryngologist, and were undergoing IL. Charts were reviewed for age, gender, Body Mass Index (BMI), onset of PD, and Movement Disorders Society-Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale Part 3 (MDS-UPDRS) scoring. We compared pre/postoperatively (> 1 < 3 months) using validated patient-reported outcome tools: Reflux Symptom Index (RSI), Glottal Function Index (GFI), Eating Assessment Tool-10 (EAT), and stroboscopic examinations. The study included 14 patients undergoing 22 IL or 1.6 IL/patient: mean age 70 years (63–80), 100% male, and BMI 25.9 ± 4.3 (mean ± SD). MDS-UPDRS scoring 33 ± 20 (moderate severity), with time between PD diagnosis and IL 8 ± 10 years. All patients had pre- and post-stroboscopic examinations; however, only 4:14 underwent formal swallowing evaluation. Overall, 14 IL patients improved on patient-reported measures (ΔRSI = 4; ΔGFI = 3; ΔEAT = 4). Based on the findings of the study, we conclude that PD is a progressive neurodegenerative condition with dysphagia. The presented pilot data suggest that IL may be considered as a beneficial adjunct for PD patients with glottal insufficiency. Level of Evidence 4.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Vocal Fold Paralysis/Paresis as a Marker for Poor Swallowing Outcomes
           After Thoracic Surgery Procedures
    • Abstract: Abstract (1) To examine the association between vocal fold paresis/paralysis (VFP) and poor swallowing outcomes in a thoracic surgery cohort at the population level, and (2) to assess utilization of ENT/speech-language pathology intervention in these cases. The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) represents a 20% stratified sample of discharges from US hospitals. Using ICD-9 codes, discharges undergoing general thoracic surgical procedures between 2008 and 2013 were identified in the NIS. Sub-cohorts of discharges with VFP and those who utilized ENT/SLP services were also identified. Weighted logistic regression models were used to compare binary outcomes such as dysphagia, aspiration pneumonia, and other complications; generalized linear models with generalized estimating equations (GEE) were used to compare total hospital costs and length of stay (LOS). We identified a weighted estimate of 673,940 discharges following general thoracic surgery procedures. The weighted frequency of VFP was 3738 (0.55%). Compared to those without VFP, patients who discharged with VFP had increased odds of dysphagia (6.56, 95% CI 5.07–8.47), aspiration pneumonia (2.54, 95% CI 1.74–3.70), post-operative tracheotomy (3.10, 95% CI 2.16–4.45), and gastrostomy tube requirement (2.46, 95% CI 1.66–3.64). Discharges with VFP also had a longer length of stay and total hospital costs. Of the discharges with VFP, 15.7% received ENT/SLP intervention. VFP after general thoracic procedures is associated with negative swallowing-related health outcomes and higher costs. Despite these negative impacts, most patients with VFP do not receive ENT/SLP intervention, identifying a potential opportunity for improving adverse swallowing-related outcomes.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Open Versus Endoscopic Surgery of Zenker’s Diverticula: A Systematic
           Review and Meta-analysis
    • Abstract: Abstract Most Zenker’s diverticula (ZD) cohort studies are single-institution retrospective observational studies of recurrence rates. There is a gap in the literature regarding patient-reported outcomes after ZD surgery. This study was conducted to compare if open transcervical diverticulectomy (OD) is better than endoscopic laser diverticulectomy (ELD) or endoscopic stapler-assisted diverticulectomy (ESD). The study design is of systematic review and meta-analysis. The following databases were searched: SCOPUS, EMBASE, PubMed, and Word of Science through December 2017. The quality of the studies was evaluated using 22-item STROBE checklist with 3 independent physician reviewers. The Inter-rater reliability was calculated both as a percent and utilizing Cohen’s Kappa. For the meta-analysis, Cohen’s d for an effect size was calculated for all studies comparing dysphagia results before and after surgery. A total of 865 patients were treated across 11 selected publications, of which 106 patients were treated OD, 310 ELD, and 449 with an ESD approach. Patient-reported dysphagia outcomes were reported as Cohen’s d (confidence interval): OD, ELD, and ESD were 1.31 (0.88, 1.74), 1.91 (1.62, 2.20), and 2.45 (2.04, 2.86), respectively. The pooled effect of all studies for dysphagia was 2.22 (1.85, 2.59) and regurgitation 2.20 (1.80, 2.59). We did not prove that OD has superior outcomes compared to ESD and ELD. Any method of surgical intervention yields a large effect (i.e., improvement in dysphagia and regurgitation) comparing patient-reported symptoms before and after surgery. Future research, currently underway, includes a prospective, multi-institutional study comparing standardized outcomes between treatments of ZD including symptom resolution, complications, and recurrences using validated measures to define long-term outcomes. Level of Evidence 3
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Effects of Motor Imagery and Visual Neurofeedback on Activation in the
           Swallowing Network: A Real-Time fMRI Study
    • Abstract: Abstract Motor imagery of movements is used as mental strategy in neurofeedback applications to gain voluntary control over activity in motor areas of the brain. In the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we first addressed the question whether motor imagery and execution of swallowing activate comparable brain areas, which has been already proven for hand and foot movements. Prior near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) studies provide evidence that this is the case in the outer layer of the cortex. With the present fMRI study, we want to expand these prior NIRS findings to the whole brain. Second, we used motor imagery of swallowing as mental strategy during visual neurofeedback to investigate whether one can learn to modulate voluntarily activity in brain regions, which are associated with active swallowing, using real-time fMRI. Eleven healthy adults performed one offline session, in which they executed swallowing movements and imagined swallowing on command during fMRI scanning. Based on this functional localizer task, we identified brain areas active during both tasks and defined individually regions for feedback. During the second session, participants performed two real-time fMRI neurofeedback runs (each run comprised 10 motor imagery trials), in which they should increase voluntarily the activity in the left precentral gyrus by means of motor imagery of swallowing while receiving visual feedback (the visual feedback depicted one’s own fMRI signal changes in real-time). Motor execution and imagery of swallowing activated a comparable network of brain areas including the bilateral pre- and postcentral gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, basal ganglia, insula, SMA, and the cerebellum compared to a resting condition. During neurofeedback training, participants were able to increase the activity in the feedback region (left lateral precentral gyrus) but also in other brain regions, which are generally active during swallowing, compared to the motor imagery offline task. Our results indicate that motor imagery of swallowing is an adequate mental strategy to activate the swallowing network of the whole brain, which might be useful for future treatments of swallowing disorders.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Comparison of 125 Iodine Seed-Loaded Stents with Different Diameters in
           Esophageal Cancer: A Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Study
    • Abstract: Abstract Currently, there are no recommendations or guidelines concerning the preferred diameter of esophageal stents for palliative treatment, owing to the lack of adequate evidence. We therefore conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate whether 18 mm stents would achieve a similar function of dysphagia relief with fewer complications and longer survival compared to 20 mm stents. Esophageal cancer patients who underwent 125 iodine seed-loaded stent placement with a diameter of either 18 mm (n = 103) or 20 mm (n = 54) were included at five hospitals in China. The stabilized inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) was used to control potential confounding factors and bias that are inherent in a retrospective study. The primary endpoint was dysphagia relief. Stent-related complications and overall survival were assessed as the secondary endpoints. In the IPTW-adjusted analysis, no significant difference was found in the dysphagia score between the two groups either at 1 week after stent placement or at the last week before death. Despite a comparable rate of overall complications, there was a significantly lower incidence of severe retrosternal pain (15.4% vs. 32.7%, p = 0.013) and a trend toward longer survival (median survival, 176 days [95% confidence interval (CI) 144 to 209] vs. 109 days [92 to 126], p = 0.057) in the 18 mm group. An irradiated stent with a diameter of 18 mm showed a similar outcome of dysphagia relief to that achieved with a 20 mm diameter stent, but halved the incidence of retrosternal pain after stent placement.
      PubDate: 2019-11-26
  • Poor Correlation of Oral Swabs with Esophageal Eosinophil Counts
    • Abstract: Abstract Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic condition that requires repeated endoscopies/biopsies to track the disease and treatment response. This invasive procedure involves risk to the patient and has significant costs. We studied whether the detection of specific proteins (cytokines and eosinophil degranulation products) from oral swabs could serve as a minimally invasive test for EoE. Swabs of the oral cavity (buccal and oropharyngeal) were obtained prior to endoscopy/biopsies in patients with EoE, possible EoE, and non-EoE patients in addition to obtaining additional esophageal biopsy tissue. ELISAs measuring the levels of cytokines IL-5, IL-8, IL-13, and eosinophil degranulation products including major basic protein (MBP), eosinophil derived neurotoxin (EDN), and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) were performed on the samples. Comparisons were made to peak esophageal eosinophil counts. Tolerability of the swabs was evaluated. 43 patients, 4–17 years old, participated in the study. Swabs were well tolerated and all showed measurable protein. 26 patients had EoE [14 active (> 15 eosinophils/high power field), 12 non-active], 17 patients did not have EoE. Results obtained from oral swabs showed poor correlation with those from esophageal tissue. Only measurement of eosinophil degranulation products EDN and EPO from esophageal tissues showed strong correlations with eosinophil counts. In this study, the levels of cytokines and eosinophil degranulation products detected from oral swabs did not correlate with esophageal eosinophilia, and their detection would be insufficient to displace endoscopy/biopsies.
      PubDate: 2019-11-26
  • The Effects of Different Exercise Trainings on Suprahyoid Muscle
    • Abstract: Abstract Suprahyoid muscle activation and tongue pressure force play a critical role for swallowing function. In addition, dysphagia limit is one of most important factors indicating swallowing efficiency. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of 8-week training sessions of three different exercises including chin tuck against resistance (CTAR), Shaker exercises and chin tuck exercise with theraband on suprahyoid muscle activity, anterior tongue pressure and dysphagia limit in healthy subjects. Thirty-six healthy volunteers aged between 18 and 40 years who scored below 3 points from Turkish version of Eating Assessment Tool (T-EAT-10) were included in the study, and all participants were divided into three groups randomly. Maximal suprahyoid muscle activations and dysphagia limit of participants were assessed by superficial electromyography. CTAR and chin tuck exercise with theraband increased the maximum suprahyoid muscle activation (p1 = 0.004, p2 = 0.018), whereas Shaker exercise did not increase maximal suprahyoid muscle activation (p = 0.507) after exercise training. CTAR and chin tuck exercise with theraband increased tongue pressure (p1 = 0.045, p2 = 0.041), while Shaker exercise did not increase anterior tongue pressure (p = 0.248). There was no statistically significant difference in dysphagia limits in three groups between before and after exercise training (p > 0.05). As a result, although CTAR seems to be the most effective exercise in most parameters, chin tuck exercise with theraband can also be used as an alternative to CTAR to improve suprahyoid muscle activity and tongue pressure.
      PubDate: 2019-11-25
  • Patients’ Perspectives on What Makes a Better Care Experience While
           Undergoing Treatment for Oropharyngeal Dysphagia Secondary to Head and
           Neck Cancer
    • Abstract: Abstract Patients’ perceptions on what makes a better care experience for head and neck cancer (HNca) have not been widely sought. Patients’ perceptions can play a crucial role in shaping quality care and client involvement. To investigate patients’ perspectives on what makes a better care experience while undergoing rehabilitation for oropharyngeal dysphagia secondary to HNca. Qualitative data were collected in the form of semi-structured interviews from eight patients after they had undergone rehabilitation for HNca. The data were thematically analysed by two researchers independently. Six themes, plus subthemes, were identified. These themes were Supportive network is essential; Reassurance from staff professionalism; Access to service; Using own motivation and resilience; Receiving the right information and Ongoing shock and adjustment. Results are discussed in context of the literature and clinical implications and future research are recommended. Collation of patients’ perspectives is valuable to increase insight into what makes a better rehabilitative journey for patients with HNca. Rehabilitation that is holistic, specialised and patient-specific is highly valued by patients with HNca.
      PubDate: 2019-11-20
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