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Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • A life course perspective on diabetes: developmental origins and beyond
    • PubDate: 2019-10-01
  • Upfront
    • PubDate: 2019-10-01
  • The diabesity epidemic in the light of evolution: insights from the
           capacity–load model
    • Abstract: Abstract The global nutrition transition, which embraces major changes in how food is produced, distributed and consumed, is associated with rapid increases in the prevalence of obesity, but the implications for diabetes differ between populations. A simple conceptual model treats diabetes risk as the function of two interacting traits: ‘metabolic capacity,’ which promotes glucose homeostasis, and ‘metabolic load’, which challenges glucose homoeostasis. Population variability in diabetes prevalence is consistent with this conceptual model, indicating that the effect of obesity varies by ethnicity. Evolutionary life history theory can help explain why variability in metabolic capacity and metabolic load emerges. At the species level (hominin evolution), across human populations and within individual life courses, phenotypic variability emerges under selective pressure to maximise reproductive fitness rather than metabolic health. Those exposed to adverse environments may express or develop several metabolic traits that are individually beneficial for reproductive fitness, but which cumulatively increase diabetes risk. Public health interventions can help promote metabolic capacity, but there are limits to the benefits that can emerge within a single generation. This means that efforts to curb metabolic load (obesity, unhealthy lifestyles) must remain at the forefront of diabetes prevention. Such efforts should go beyond individuals and target the broader food system and socioeconomic factors, in order to maximise their efficacy.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
  • The role of GIP and pancreatic GLP-1 in the glucoregulatory effect of
           DPP-4 inhibition in mice
    • Abstract: Aims/hypothesis Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) are two peptides that function to promote insulin secretion. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors increase the bioavailability of both GLP-1 and GIP but the dogma continues to be that it is the increase in GLP-1 that contributes to the improved glucose homeostasis. We have previously demonstrated that pancreatic rather than intestinal GLP-1 is necessary for improvements in glucose homeostasis in mice. Therefore, we hypothesise that a combination of pancreatic GLP-1 and GIP is necessary for the full effect of DPP-4 inhibitors on glucose homeostasis. Methods We have genetically engineered mouse lines in which the preproglucagon gene (Gcg) is absent in the entire body (GcgRAΔNull) or is expressed exclusively in the intestine (GcgRAΔVilCre) or pancreas and duodenum (GcgRAΔPDX1Cre). These mice were used to examine oral glucose tolerance and GLP-1 and GIP responses to a DPP-4 inhibitor alone, or in combination with incretin receptor antagonists. Results Administration of the DPP-4 inhibitor, linagliptin, improved glucose tolerance in GcgRAΔNull mice and control littermates and in GcgRAΔVilCre and GcgRAΔPDX1Cre mice. The potent GLP-1 receptor antagonist, exendin-[9–39] (Ex9), blunted improvements in glucose tolerance in linagliptin-treated control mice and in GcgRAΔPDX1Cre mice. Ex9 had no effect on glucose tolerance in linagliptin-treated GcgRAΔNull or in GcgRAΔVilCre mice. In addition to GLP-1, linagliptin also increased postprandial plasma levels of GIP to a similar degree in all genotypes. When linagliptin was co-administered with a GIP-antagonising antibody, the impact of linagliptin was partially blunted in wild-type mice and was fully blocked in GcgRAΔNull mice. Conclusions/interpretation Taken together, these data suggest that increases in pancreatic GLP-1 and GIP are necessary for the full effect of DPP-4 inhibitors on glucose tolerance.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
  • Intrauterine programming of obesity and type 2 diabetes
    • Abstract: Abstract The type 2 diabetes epidemic and one of its predisposing factors, obesity, are major influences on global health and economic burden. It is accepted that genetics and the current environment contribute to this epidemic; however, in the last two decades, both human and animal studies have consolidated considerable evidence supporting the ‘developmental programming’ of these conditions, specifically by the intrauterine environment. Here, we review the various in utero exposures that are linked to offspring obesity and diabetes in later life, including epidemiological insights gained from natural historical events, such as the Dutch Hunger Winter, the Chinese famine and the more recent Quebec Ice Storm. We also describe the effects of gestational exposure to endocrine disruptors, maternal infection and smoking to the fetus in relation to metabolic programming. Causal evidence from animal studies, motivated by human observations, is also discussed, as well as some of the proposed underlying molecular mechanisms for developmental programming of obesity and type 2 diabetes, including epigenetics (e.g. DNA methylation and histone modifications) and microRNA interactions. Finally, we examine the effects of non-pharmacological interventions, such as improving maternal dietary habits and/or increasing physical activity, on the offspring epigenome and metabolic outcomes.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
  • Differential expression and release of exosomal miRNAs by human islets
           under inflammatory and hypoxic stress
    • Abstract: Aims/hypothesis Pancreatic islets produce non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) that regulate islet cell function and survival. Our earlier investigations revealed that human islets undergo significant damage due to various types of stresses following transplantation and release miRNAs. Here, we sought to identify and validate exosomal miRNAs (exo-miRNAs) produced by human islets under conditions of cellular stress, preceding loss of cell function and death. We also aimed to identify islet stress signalling pathways targeted by exo-miRNAs to elucidate potential regulatory roles in islet cell stress. Methods Human islets were subjected to proinflammatory cytokine and hypoxic cell stress and miRNA from exosomes was isolated for RNA sequencing and analysis. Stress-induced exo-miRNAs were evaluated for kinetics of expression and release by intact islets for up to 48 h exposure to cytokines and hypoxia. A subset of stress-induced exo-miRNAs were assessed for recovery and detection as biomarkers of islet cell stress in a diabetic nude mouse xenotransplant model and in patients undergoing total pancreatectomy with islet auto-transplantation (TPIAT). Genes and signalling pathways targeted by stress-induced exo-miRNAs were identified by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis and direct interactions of miRNAs with downstream signalling targets were validated in human islet cells using the miRNA Tests for Read Analysis and Prediction (MirTrap) system. Results Global exo-miRNA sequencing revealed that 879 miRNA species were released from human islets and 190 islet exo-miRNAs were differentially expressed in response to proinflammatory cytokines, hypoxia or both. Release of exo-miRNAs hsa-miR-29b-3p and hsa-miR-216a-5p was detected within 6 h of exposure to cytokines and hypoxia. The remaining subset of stress-induced exo-miRNAs, including hsa-miR-148a-3p and islet cell damage marker hsa-miR-375, showed delayed release at 24–48 h, correlating with apoptosis and cell death. Stress and damage exo-miRNAs were significantly elevated in the circulation in human-to-mouse xenotransplant models and in human transplant recipients. Elevated blood exo-miRNAs negatively correlated with post-transplant islet function based on comparisons of stress and damage exo-miRNA indices with Secretory Unit of Islet Transplant Objects (SUITO) indices. KEGG analysis and further validation of exo-miRNA targets by MirTrap analysis revealed significant enrichment of islet mRNAs involved in phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathways. Conclusions/interpretation The study identifies exo-miRNAs differentially expressed and released by islets in response to damage and stress. These exo-miRNAs could serve as potential biomarkers for assessing islet damage and predicting outcomes in islet transplantation. Notably, exo-miRNAs 29b-3p and 216a-5p could be detected in islets prior to damage-released miRNAs and indicators of cellular apoptosis and death. Thus, these stress-induced exo-miRNAs may have potential diagnostic value for detecting early islet stress prior to progressive loss of islet cell mass and function. Further investigations are warranted to investigate the utility of these exo-miRNAs as early indicators of islet cell stress during prediabetic conditions.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
  • Cellular senescence: at the nexus between ageing and diabetes
    • Abstract: Abstract Ageing and diabetes lead to similar organ dysfunction that is driven by parallel molecular mechanisms, one of which is cellular senescence. The abundance of senescent cells in various tissues increases with age, obesity and diabetes. Senescent cells have been directly implicated in the generation of insulin resistance. Recently, drugs that preferentially target senescent cells, known as senolytics, have been described and recently entered clinical trials. In this review, we explore the biological links between ageing and diabetes, specifically focusing on cellular senescence. We summarise the current data on cellular senescence in key target tissues associated with the development and clinical phenotypes of type 2 diabetes and discuss the therapeutic potential of targeting cellular senescence in diabetes.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
  • What should governments be doing to prevent diabetes throughout the life
    • Abstract: Abstract Health systems and governments are increasingly required to implement measures that target at-risk populations to prevent noncommunicable diseases. In this review we lay out what governments should be doing to prevent diabetes throughout the life course. The following four target groups were used to structure the specific recommendations: (1) pregnant women and young families, (2) children and adolescents, (3) working age population, and (4) the elderly. The evidence to date supports the effectiveness of some known government policy measures, such as sugar taxes and regulatory measures in the (pre-)school setting for children and adolescents. Many of these appear to be more effective if they are part of a bundle of strategies and if they are supplemented by communication strategies. Although there is a current focus on strategies that target the individual, governments can make use of evidence-based population-level prevention strategies. More research and continuous evaluation of the overall and subgroup-specific effectiveness of policy strategies using high-quality longitudinal studies are needed.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
  • Paternal impact on the life course development of obesity and type 2
           diabetes in the offspring
    • Abstract: Abstract The aetiologies of obesity and type 2 diabetes are incredibly complex, but the potential role of paternal influences remains relatively understudied. A better understanding of paternal influences on offspring risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes could have profound implications for public health, clinical practice and society. In this review, we outline potential biological and social mechanisms through which fathers might exert an impact on the health of their offspring. We also present a systematically compiled overview of the current evidence linking paternal factors to offspring development of obesity and type 2 diabetes throughout the life course. Although evidence is accumulating to support paternal associations with offspring outcomes, more high-quality research is needed to overcome specific methodological challenges and provide stronger causal evidence.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
  • Synergistic activation of thermogenic adipocytes by a combination of
           PPARĪ³ activation, SMAD3 inhibition and adrenergic receptor activation
           ameliorates metabolic abnormalities in rodents
    • Abstract: Aims/hypothesis To treat obesity and related diseases, considerable effort has gone into developing strategies to convert white adipocytes into thermogenic brown-like adipocytes (‘browning’). The purpose of this study was to identify the most efficient signal control for browning. Methods To identify the most efficient signal control for browning, we examined rat stromal vascular fraction cells. In addition, physiological changes consequent to signal control were examined in vivo using lean and diet-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6J mice. Results Combined treatment with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonist rosiglitazone, the SMAD3 inhibitor SIS3 and the adrenergic receptor agonist noradrenaline (norepinephrine) synergistically induced Ucp1, Fgf21 and Cited1 expression, triggering brown adipogenesis. Synergistic induction of Ucp1 by the three agents was negatively regulated by forkhead box O (FOXO)3 via the inhibition of PPARγ-dependent gene transcription. Moreover, the administration of rosiglitazone, SIS3 and the selective β3 adrenergic receptor agonist CL316,243 to DIO mice reduced the amount of body-fat deposits (body weight from day 0 to 14, 12.3% reduction), concomitant with morphological changes in white adipose tissue, an increase in mitochondrial biosynthesis and a marked induction of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Furthermore, administration of the three agents significantly increased serum adiponectin levels (mean 65.56 μg/ml with the three agents vs 20.79 μg/ml in control mice, p < 0.05) and improved glucose and lipid tolerance. Conclusions/interpretation These results suggest that the combined regulation of PPARγ, SMAD and the adrenergic receptor signalling pathway synergistically induces brown adipogenesis and may serve as an effective strategy to treat obesity and related diseases, including type 2 diabetes.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
  • High maternal early-pregnancy blood glucose levels are associated with
           altered fetal growth and increased risk of adverse birth outcomes
    • Abstract: Aims/hypothesis The study aimed to assess the associations of maternal early-pregnancy blood glucose levels with fetal growth throughout pregnancy and the risks of adverse birth outcomes. Methods In a population-based prospective cohort study among 6116 pregnant women, maternal non-fasting glucose levels were measured in blood plasma at a median 13.2 weeks of gestation (95% range 9.6–17.6). We measured fetal growth by ultrasound in each pregnancy period. We obtained information about birth outcomes from medical records and maternal sociodemographic and lifestyle factors from questionnaires. Results Higher maternal early-pregnancy non-fasting glucose levels were associated with altered fetal growth patterns, characterised by decreased fetal growth rates in mid-pregnancy and increased fetal growth rates from late pregnancy onwards, resulting in an increased length and weight at birth (p ≤0.05 for all). A weaker association of maternal early-pregnancy non-fasting glucose levels with fetal head circumference growth rates was present. Higher maternal early-pregnancy non-fasting glucose levels were also associated with an increased risk of delivering a large-for-gestational-age infant, but decreased risk of delivering a small-for-gestational-age infant (OR 1.28 [95% CI 1.16, 1.41], OR 0.88 [95% CI 0.79, 0.98] per mmol/l increase in maternal early-pregnancy non-fasting glucose levels, respectively). These associations were not explained by maternal sociodemographic factors, lifestyle factors or BMI. Maternal early-pregnancy non-fasting glucose levels were not associated with preterm birth or delivery complications. Conclusions/interpretation Higher maternal early-pregnancy non-fasting glucose levels are associated with decreased fetal growth rates in mid-pregnancy and increased fetal growth rates from late pregnancy onwards, and an increased risk of delivering a large-for-gestational-age infant. Future preventive strategies need to focus on screening for an impaired maternal glucose metabolism from preconception and early pregnancy onwards to improve birth outcomes.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
  • Experimental non-severe hypoglycaemia substantially impairs cognitive
           function in type 2 diabetes: a randomised crossover trial
    • Abstract: Aims/hypothesis Previous studies have demonstrated a relationship between cognitive impairment and hypoglycaemia (<3 mmol/l). This study hypothesised that non-severe insulin-induced hypoglycaemia reduces cognitive function in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Methods In this randomised crossover study, 25 participants with type 2 diabetes attended two experimental visits with hyperinsulinaemic glucose clamping: one hypoglycaemic clamp (plasma glucose 3.0 ± 0.2 mmol/l) and one euglycaemic clamp (plasma glucose 6.0 ± 0.2 mmol/l). Participants were eligible if their diabetes was treated with diet or glucose-lowering medications (except sulfonylureas or insulin), age was 35–70 years, BMI was 23–35 kg/m2 and HbA1c was below 75 mmol/mol (9%). Cognitive function was assessed with a neurocognitive test battery measuring verbal memory, executive function, sustained attention and psychomotor speed. From the examined cognitive domains, a global cognition score was constructed estimating global cognition. A measurement for psychomotor speed was selected as the primary outcome. Participants and people assessing the outcomes were blinded to group assignment. Results Cognitive performance was impaired during hypoglycaemia with a mean score in the primary outcome test, Symbol Digit Modalities Test measuring psychomotor speed, of 48.7 ± 9.8 (hypoglycaemia) vs 56.6 ± 12.0 (euglycaemia); i.e. a change of −7.9 points (95% CI −10.9, −4.9; p < 0.0001). In addition, hypoglycaemia reduced global cognitive score by −0.7 (95% CI −0.9, −0.6; p < 0.0001). A stable glucose plateau was achieved during both experimental visits. For the hypoglycaemic clamp, mean plasma glucose concentration (± SD) during neurocognitive testing was 3.1 (± 0.3) mmol/l. Age, sex, fasting C-peptide, counter-regulatory hormones and the severity of hypoglycaemic symptoms did not influence cognitive function. Conclusions/interpretation Acute non-severe hypoglycaemia (mean plasma glucose 3.1 mmol/l) has a substantial negative impact on cognitive function in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Trial registration NCT03014011. Funding The study was supported in part by a research grant from the Investigator Initiated Studies Program of Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp (MSD-MA-NORD-007-01). The opinions expressed in this paper are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. Funding was also received from Skibsreder Per Henriksen, R. og hustrus Foundation, The Danish Alzheimer Foundation and Savværksejer Jeppe Juhl og hustrus Foundation.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
  • Developmental undernutrition, offspring obesity and type 2 diabetes
    • Abstract: Abstract The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) paradigm posits that a mismatch between circumstances at or around conception and in later life leads to metabolic dysregulation and the development of obesity and diabetes. In this review we highlight three strands of evidence: prospective studies of patterns of growth from birth to adulthood, historical studies of exposure to famine at defined points during gestation and early life, and nutrition intervention studies. We conclude that, while much is still unknown, it is becoming clearer that the combination of early-life undernutrition and later development of obesity is associated with increased risk of diabetes. There is a need to support public health programmes aimed at intergenerational (primordial) prevention of diabetes and other non-communicable disease.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
  • Canagliflozin and fracture risk in individuals with type 2 diabetes:
           results from the CANVAS Program
    • Abstract: Aims/hypothesis An increased risk of fracture with canagliflozin vs placebo was reported from the CANagliflozin cardioVascular Assessment Study (CANVAS) Program, with heterogeneity of findings identified between the two trials that comprise the CANVAS Program, CANVAS and CANVAS-R. The objective of these analyses was to identify reasons for the possibly different effects on fracture observed between CANVAS and CANVAS-R. Methods This study was an analysis of two highly similar trials, CANVAS and CANVAS-R, conducted in 10,142 individuals with type 2 diabetes and history or high risk of cardiovascular disease who received canagliflozin (pooled 100/300 mg once daily) or placebo. Outcomes assessed in this analysis were effects on adjudicated fractures overall and by type, location, association with a fall, dose and follow-up time. Results A total of 496 participants recorded ≥1 fracture event during follow-up (15.40 vs 11.93 per 1000 patient-years with canagliflozin vs placebo; HR 1.26 [95% CI 1.04, 1.52]). There was significant heterogeneity in the effects on fracture (p = 0.005) between CANVAS (n = 4330: HR 1.55 [95% CI 1.21, 1.97]) and CANVAS-R (n = 5812: HR 0.86 [95% CI 0.62, 1.19]). The between-study heterogeneity in fracture risk was not clearly explained by differences in baseline characteristics, interactions of randomised treatment with participant characteristics, dose effects, duration of follow-up, metabolic effects, adverse events related to falls or adverse events possibly causing falls. Conclusions/interpretation There was no evidence to explain clearly the fracture risk observed in the CANVAS Program or the heterogeneity in fracture risk between the two studies. The recently reported null result for fracture in the Canagliflozin and Renal Events in Diabetes with Established Nephropathy Clinical Evaluation (CREDENCE) trial suggests that the observed association in CANVAS is likely to be a chance finding, although an unidentified fall-related mechanism remains a possibility. Trial registration: NCT01032629, NCT01989754.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
  • Factors associated with stillbirth in women with diabetes
    • Abstract: Aims/hypothesis Stillbirth risk is increased in pregnancy complicated by diabetes. Fear of stillbirth has major influence on obstetric management, particularly timing of delivery. We analysed population-level data from Scotland to describe timing of stillbirths in women with diabetes and associated risk factors. Methods A retrospective cohort of singleton deliveries to mothers with type 1 (n = 3778) and type 2 diabetes (n = 1614) from 1 April 1998 to 30 June 2016 was analysed using linked routine care datasets. Maternal and fetal characteristics, HbA1c data and delivery timing were compared between stillborn and liveborn groups. Results Stillbirth rates were 16.1 (95% CI 12.4, 20.8) and 22.9 (95% CI 16.4, 31.8) per 1000 births in women with type 1 (n = 61) and type 2 diabetes (n = 37), respectively. In women with type 1 diabetes, higher HbA1c before pregnancy (OR 1.03 [95% CI 1.01, 1.04]; p = 0.0003) and in later pregnancy (OR 1.06 [95% CI 1.04, 1.08]; p < 0.0001) were associated with stillbirth, while in women with type 2 diabetes, higher maternal BMI (OR 1.07 [95% CI 1.01, 1.14]; p = 0.02) and pre-pregnancy HbA1c (OR 1.02 [95% CI 1.00, 1.04]; p = 0.016) were associated with stillbirth. Risk was highest in infants with birthweights <10th centile (sixfold higher born to women with type 1 diabetes [n = 5 stillbirths, 67 livebirths]; threefold higher for women with type 2 diabetes [n = 4 stillbirths, 78 livebirths]) compared with those in the 10th–90th centile (n = 20 stillbirths, 1685 livebirths). Risk was twofold higher in infants with birthweights >95th centile born to women with type 2 diabetes (n = 15 stillbirths, 402 livebirths). A high proportion of stillborn infants were male among mothers with type 2 diabetes (81.1% vs 50.5% livebirths, p = 0.0002). A third of stillbirths occurred at term, with highest rates in the 38th week (7.0 [95% CI 3.7, 12.9] per 1000 ongoing pregnancies) among mothers with type 1 diabetes and in the 39th week (9.3 [95% CI 2.4, 29.2]) for type 2 diabetes. Conclusions/interpretation Maternal blood glucose levels and BMI are important modifiable risk factors for stillbirth in diabetes. Babies at extremes of weight centiles are at most risk. Many stillbirths occur at term and could potentially be prevented by change in routine care and delivery policies.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
  • Developmental overnutrition and obesity and type 2 diabetes in offspring
    • Abstract: Abstract Childhood obesity has reached pandemic proportions, and youth-onset type 2 diabetes is following suit. This review summarises the literature on the influence of developmental overnutrition, resulting from maternal diabetes, obesity, maternal dietary intake during pregnancy, excess gestational weight gain, and infant feeding practices, on the aetiology of obesity and type 2 diabetes risk during childhood and adolescence. Key goals of this review are: (1) to summarise evidence to date on consequences of developmental overnutrition; (2) describe shared and distinct biological pathways that may link developmental overnutrition to childhood obesity and youth-onset type 2 diabetes; and (3) to translate current knowledge into clinical and public health strategies that not only target primary prevention in youth, but also encourage primordial prevention during the perinatal period, with the aim of breaking the intergenerational cycle of obesity and diabetes.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
  • Early-life factors contributing to type 1 diabetes
    • Abstract: Abstract The incidence of type 1 diabetes has increased since the mid-twentieth century at a rate that is too rapid to be attributed to genetic predisposition alone. While the disease can occur at any age, mounting evidence from longitudinal cohort studies of at-risk children indicate that type 1 diabetes associated autoantibodies can be present from the first year of life, and that those who develop type 1 diabetes at a young age have a more aggressive form of the disease. This corroborates the hypothesis that environmental exposures in early life contribute to type 1 diabetes risk, whether related to maternal influences on the fetus during pregnancy, neonatal factors or later effects during infancy and early childhood. Studies to date show a range of environmental triggers acting at different time points, suggesting a multifactorial model of genetic and environmental factors in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes, which integrally involves a dialogue between the immune system and pancreatic beta cells. For example, breastfeeding may have a weak protective effect on type 1 diabetes risk, while use of an extensively hydrolysed formula does not. Additionally, exposure to being overweight pre-conception, both in utero and postnatally, is associated with increased risk of type 1 diabetes. Epidemiological, clinical and pathological studies in humans support a role for viral infections, particularly enteroviruses, in type 1 diabetes, but definitive proof is lacking. The role of the early microbiome and its perturbations in islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes is the subject of investigation in ongoing cohort studies. Understanding the interactions between environmental exposures and the human genome and metagenome, particularly across ethnically diverse populations, will be critical for the development of future strategies for primary prevention of type 1 diabetes.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
  • Sex differences in the burden of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk
           across the life course
    • Abstract: Abstract By 2017 estimates, diabetes mellitus affects 425 million people globally; approximately 90–95% of these have type 2 diabetes. This narrative review highlights two domains of sex differences related to the burden of type 2 diabetes across the life span: sex differences in the prevalence and incidence of type 2 diabetes, and sex differences in the cardiovascular burden conferred by type 2 diabetes. In the presence of type 2 diabetes, the difference in the absolute rates of cardiovascular disease (CVD) between men and women lessens, albeit remaining higher in men. Large-scale observational studies suggest that type 2 diabetes confers 25–50% greater excess risk of incident CVD in women compared with men. Physiological and behavioural mechanisms that may underpin both the observed sex differences in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes and the associated cardiovascular burden are discussed in this review. Gender differences in social behavioural norms and disparities in provider-level treatment patterns are also highlighted, but not described in detail. We conclude by discussing research gaps in this area that are worthy of further investigation.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
  • Outcomes of people with severe hypoglycaemia requiring prehospital
           emergency medical services management: a prospective study
    • Abstract: Aims/hypothesis The aim of this work was to investigate clinical outcomes following severe hypoglycaemia requiring prehospital emergency medical services (EMS) management. Methods We carried out a prospective, observational study of adults with diabetes attended by prehospital EMS for management of severe hypoglycaemia between April 2016 and July 2017. Information on precipitants, hospitalisation, length of hospital stay and recurrence was collected at 1 and 3 months following the episode of severe hypoglycaemia. Median and logistic regression models examined predictive factors. Results Five hundred and five adults (61% male, median age 67 years) participated in the study. Fifty-two per cent had type 1 diabetes, 43% type 2 diabetes and 5% were unsure of their diabetes type. Following EMS management of the index episode of severe hypoglycaemia, 50.3% were transported to hospital. Of those transported, 41.3% were admitted to hospital for ongoing management (20.8% of all participants). The following factors predicted hospital admission: older age (OR 1.28 [95% CI 1.02, 1.60] per 10 years), greater number of comorbidities (OR 1.27 [95% CI 1.08, 1.48] per morbidity), moderate–severe injury accompanying the hypoglycaemia (OR 5.24 [95% CI 1.07, 25.8] compared with nil–mild injury) and unknown cause of hypoglycaemia (OR 2.21 [95% CI 1.24, 3.94] compared with known cause). The median (interquartile range) length of hospital stay was 4 (2–7) days. During follow-up, recurrent severe hypoglycaemia attended by prehospital EMS was experienced by 10.7% of participants. Predictive factors of recurrent severe hypoglycaemia in 3 months were decreased HbA1c (OR 1.97 [95% CI 1.27, 3.06] per 10 mmol/mol decrease) and a greater number of antecedent severe hypoglycaemia episodes (OR 1.12 [95% CI 1.03, 1.23] per episode). Conclusions/interpretation Following an episode of severe hypoglycaemia managed by EMS, one-fifth of participants required hospital admission, more likely in those with advancing age, increasing comorbidities and injury and one-tenth required EMS again for severe hypoglycaemia in a 3 month period, more likely in those with a greater number of antecedent episodes and lower HbA1c. Knowledge of these factors associated with admission and recurrence provides an opportunity for development of targeted strategies aimed at prevention of severe hypoglycaemia in those most vulnerable.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
  • The effect of mid-life insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes on older-age
           cognitive state: the explanatory role of early-life advantage
    • Abstract: Aims/hypothesis Type 2 diabetes, hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance are associated with cognitive impairment and dementia, but causal inference studies using Mendelian randomisation do not confirm this. We hypothesised that early-life cognition and social/educational advantage may confound the relationship. Methods From the population-based British 1946 birth cohort, a maximum number of 1780 participants had metabolic variables (type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance [HOMA2-IR] and HbA1c) assessed at age 60–64 years, and cognitive state (Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination III [ACE-III]) and verbal memory assessed at age 69 years. Earlier-life measures included socioeconomic position (SEP), cognition at age 8 years and educational attainment. Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) for type 2 diabetes were calculated. We first used a PRS approach with multivariable linear regression to estimate associations between PRSs and metabolic traits and later-life cognitive state. Second, using a path model approach, we estimated the interrelationships between earlier-life measures, features of mid-life type 2 diabetes and cognitive state at age 69 years. All models were adjusted for sex. Results The externally weighted PRS for type 2 diabetes was associated with mid-life metabolic traits (e.g. HOMA2-IR β = 0.08 [95% CI 0.02, 0.16]), but not with ACE-III (β = 0.04 [−0.02, 0.90]) or other cognitive outcomes. While there was an association between HOMA2-IR and subsequent ACE-III (β = −0.09 [−0.15, −0.03]), path modelling showed no direct effect (β = −0.01 [−0.06, 0.03]) after accounting for the association between childhood SEP and education with HOMA2-IR. The same pattern was observed for later-life verbal memory. Conclusions/interpretation Associations between type 2 diabetes and mid-life metabolic traits with subsequent cognitive state do not appear causal, and instead they may be explained by SEP in early life, childhood cognition and educational attainment. Therefore, glucose-lowering medication may be unlikely to combat cognitive impairment in older age.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
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