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ISSN (Print) 1432-0428 - ISSN (Online) 0012-186X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2562 journals]
  • A prospective study of associations between in utero exposure to
           gestational diabetes mellitus and metabolomic profiles during late
           childhood and adolescence
    • Abstract: Aims/hypothesis This study aimed to: (1) identify metabolite patterns during late childhood that differ with respect to exposure to maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM); (2) examine the persistence of GDM/metabolite associations 5 years later, during adolescence; and (3) investigate the associations of metabolite patterns with adiposity and metabolic biomarkers from childhood through adolescence. Methods This study included 592 mother–child pairs with information on GDM exposure (n = 92 exposed), untargeted metabolomics data at age 6–14 years (T1) and at 12–19 years (T2), and information on adiposity and metabolic risk biomarkers at T1 and T2. We first consolidated 767 metabolites at T1 into factors (metabolite patterns) via principal component analysis (PCA) and used multivariable regression to identify factors that differed by GDM exposure, at α = 0.05. We then examined associations of GDM with individual metabolites within factors of interest at T1 and T2, and investigated associations of GDM-related factors at T1 with adiposity and metabolic risk throughout T1 and T2 using mixed-effects linear regression models. Results Of the six factors retained from PCA, GDM exposure was associated with greater odds of being in quartile (Q)4 (vs Q1–3) of ‘Factor 4’ at T1 after accounting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, maternal smoking habits during pregnancy, Tanner stage, physical activity and total energy intake, at α = 0.05 (OR 1.78 [95% CI 1.04, 3.04]; p = 0.04). This metabolite pattern comprised phosphatidylcholines, diacylglycerols and phosphatidylethanolamines. GDM was consistently associated with elevations in a subset of individual compounds within this pattern at T1 and T2. While this metabolite pattern was not related to the health outcomes in boys, it corresponded with greater adiposity and a worse metabolic profile among girls throughout the follow-up period. Each 1-unit increment in Factor 4 corresponded with 0.17 (0.08, 0.25) units higher BMI z score, 8.83 (5.07, 12.59) pmol/l higher fasting insulin, 0.28 (0.13, 0.43) units higher HOMA-IR, and 4.73 (2.15, 7.31) nmol/l higher leptin. Conclusions/interpretation Exposure to maternal GDM was nominally associated with a metabolite pattern characterised by elevated serum phospholipids in late childhood and adolescence at α = 0.05. This metabolite pattern was associated with greater adiposity and metabolic risk among female offspring throughout the late childhood-to-adolescence transition. Future studies are warranted to confirm our findings.
      PubDate: 2019-11-13
  • Activation of the HIF1α/PFKFB3 stress response pathway in beta cells
           in type 1 diabetes
    • Abstract: Aims/hypothesis The conserved hypoxia inducible factor 1 α (HIF1α) injury-response pro-survival pathway has recently been implicated in early beta cell dysfunction but slow beta cell loss in type 2 diabetes. We hypothesised that the unexplained prolonged prediabetes phase in type 1 diabetes may also be, in part, due to activation of the HIF1α signalling pathway. Methods RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) data from human islets with type 1 diabetes or after cytokine exposure in vitro was evaluated for activation of HIF1α targets. This was corroborated by immunostaining human pancreases from individuals with type 1 diabetes for 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-biphosphatase 3 (PFKFB3), the key effector of HIF1α-mediated metabolic remodelling, and by western blotting of islets and INS-1 832/13 cells exposed to cytokines implicated in type 1 diabetes. Results HIF1α signalling is activated (p = 4.5 × 10−9) in islets from individuals with type 1 diabetes, and in human islets exposed in vitro to cytokines implicated in type 1 diabetes (p = 1.1 × 10−14). Expression of PFKFB3 is increased fivefold (p < 0.01) in beta cells in type 1 diabetes and in human and rat islets exposed to cytokines that induced increased lactate production. HIF1α attenuates cytokine-induced cell death in beta cells. Conclusions/interpretation The conserved pro-survival HIF1α-mediated injury-response signalling is activated in beta cells in type 1 diabetes and likely contributes to the relatively slow rate of beta cell loss at the expense of early defective glucose-induced insulin secretion.
      PubDate: 2019-11-13
  • Upfront
    • PubDate: 2019-11-12
  • An artificial intelligence-based deep learning algorithm for the diagnosis
           of diabetic neuropathy using corneal confocal microscopy: a development
           and validation study
    • Abstract: Aims/hypothesis Corneal confocal microscopy is a rapid non-invasive ophthalmic imaging technique that identifies peripheral and central neurodegenerative disease. Quantification of corneal sub-basal nerve plexus morphology, however, requires either time-consuming manual annotation or a less-sensitive automated image analysis approach. We aimed to develop and validate an artificial intelligence-based, deep learning algorithm for the quantification of nerve fibre properties relevant to the diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy and to compare it with a validated automated analysis program, ACCMetrics. Methods Our deep learning algorithm, which employs a convolutional neural network with data augmentation, was developed for the automated quantification of the corneal sub-basal nerve plexus for the diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy. The algorithm was trained using a high-end graphics processor unit on 1698 corneal confocal microscopy images; for external validation, it was further tested on 2137 images. The algorithm was developed to identify total nerve fibre length, branch points, tail points, number and length of nerve segments, and fractal numbers. Sensitivity analyses were undertaken to determine the AUC for ACCMetrics and our algorithm for the diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy. Results The intraclass correlation coefficients for our algorithm were superior to those for ACCMetrics for total corneal nerve fibre length (0.933 vs 0.825), mean length per segment (0.656 vs 0.325), number of branch points (0.891 vs 0.570), number of tail points (0.623 vs 0.257), number of nerve segments (0.878 vs 0.504) and fractals (0.927 vs 0.758). In addition, our proposed algorithm achieved an AUC of 0.83, specificity of 0.87 and sensitivity of 0.68 for the classification of participants without (n = 90) and with (n = 132) neuropathy (defined by the Toronto criteria). Conclusions/interpretation These results demonstrated that our deep learning algorithm provides rapid and excellent localisation performance for the quantification of corneal nerve biomarkers. This model has potential for adoption into clinical screening programmes for diabetic neuropathy. Data availability The publicly shared cornea nerve dataset (dataset 1) is available at and
      PubDate: 2019-11-12
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and cardiovascular disease: assessing
           the evidence for causality
    • Abstract: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is highly prevalent among individuals with type 2 diabetes. Although epidemiological studies have shown that NAFLD is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), it remains unknown whether NAFLD is an active contributor or an innocent bystander. Plasma lipids, low-grade inflammation, impaired fibrinolysis and hepatokines are potential mediators of the relationship between NAFLD and CVD. The Mendelian randomisation approach can help to make causal inferences. Studies that used common variants in PNPLA3, TM6SF2 and GCKR as instruments to investigate the relationship between NAFLD and coronary artery disease (CAD) have reported contrasting results. Variants in PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 were found to protect against CAD, whereas variants in GCKR were positively associated with CAD. Since all three genes have been associated with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, the second stage of NAFLD, the question of whether low-grade inflammation is an important mediator of the relationship between NAFLD and CAD arises. In contrast, the differential effects of these genes on plasma lipids (i.e. lipid-lowering for PNPLA3 and TM6SF2, and lipid-raising for GCKR) strongly suggest that plasma lipids account for their differential effects on CAD risk. This concept has recently been confirmed in an extended set of 12 NAFLD susceptibility genes. From these studies it appears that plasma lipids are an important mediator between NAFLD and CVD risk. These findings have important clinical implications, particularly for the design of anti-NAFLD drugs that also affect lipid metabolism.
      PubDate: 2019-11-11
  • Characterising nitric oxide-mediated metabolic benefits of low-dose
           ultraviolet radiation in the mouse: a focus on brown adipose tissue
    • Abstract: Aims/hypothesis Exposure to sunlight has the potential to suppress metabolic dysfunction and obesity. We previously demonstrated that regular exposure to low-doses of ultraviolet radiation (UVR) reduced weight gain and signs of diabetes in male mice fed a high-fat diet, in part via release of nitric oxide from skin. Here, we explore further mechanistic pathways through which low-dose UVR exerts these beneficial effects. Methods We fed mice with a luciferase-tagged Ucp1 gene (which encodes uncoupling protein-1 [UCP-1]), referred to here as the Ucp1 luciferase transgenic mouse (‘Thermomouse’) a high-fat diet and examined the effects of repeated exposure to low-dose UVR on weight gain and development of metabolic dysfunction as well as UCP-1-dependent thermogenesis in interscapular brown adipose tissue (iBAT). Results Repeated exposure to low-dose UVR suppressed the development of glucose intolerance and hepatic lipid accumulation via dermal release of nitric oxide while also reducing circulating IL-6 (compared with mice fed a high-fat diet only). Dietary nitrate supplementation did not mimic the effects of low-dose UVR. A single low dose of UVR increased UCP-1 expression (by more than twofold) in iBAT of mice fed a low-fat diet, 24 h after exposure. However, in mice fed a high-fat diet, there was no effect of UVR on UCP-1 expression in iBAT (compared with mock-treated mice) when measured at regular intervals over 12 weeks. More extensive circadian studies did not identify any substantial shifts in UCP-1 expression in mice exposed to low-dose UVR, although skin temperature at the interscapular site was reduced in UVR-exposed mice. The appearance of cells with a white adipocyte phenotype (‘whitening’) in iBAT induced by consuming the high-fat diet was suppressed by exposure to low-dose UVR in a nitric oxide-dependent fashion. Significant shifts in the expression of important core gene regulators of BAT function (Dio2, increased more than twofold), fatty acid transport (increased Fatp2 [also known as Slc27a2]), lipolysis (decreased Atgl [also known as Pnpla2]), lipogenesis (decreased Fasn) and inflammation (decreased Tnf), and proportions of macrophages (increased twofold) were observed in iBAT of mice exposed to low-dose UVR. These effects were independent of nitric oxide released from skin. Conclusions/interpretation Our results suggest that non-burning (low-dose) UVR suppresses the BAT ‘whitening’, steatotic and pro-diabetic effects of consuming a high-fat diet through skin release of nitric oxide, with some metabolic and immune pathways in iBAT regulated by UVR independently of nitric oxide.
      PubDate: 2019-11-11
  • Autoimmunity plays a role in the onset of diabetes after 40 years of age
    • Abstract: Aims/hypothesis Type 1 and type 2 diabetes differ with respect to pathophysiological factors such as beta cell function, insulin resistance and phenotypic appearance, but there may be overlap between the two forms of diabetes. However, there are relatively few prospective studies that have characterised the relationship between autoimmunity and incident diabetes. We investigated associations of antibodies against the 65 kDa isoform of GAD (GAD65) with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes genetic risk scores and incident diabetes in adults in European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct, a case-cohort study nested in the EPIC cohort. Methods GAD65 antibodies were analysed in EPIC participants (over 40 years of age and free of known diabetes at baseline) by radioligand binding assay in a random subcohort (n = 15,802) and in incident diabetes cases (n = 11,981). Type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes genetic risk scores were calculated. Associations between GAD65 antibodies and incident diabetes were estimated using Prentice-weighted Cox regression. Results GAD65 antibody positivity at baseline was associated with development of diabetes during a median follow-up time of 10.9 years (HR for GAD65 antibody positive vs negative 1.78; 95% CI 1.43, 2.20) after adjustment for sex, centre, physical activity, smoking status and education. The genetic risk score for type 1 diabetes but not type 2 diabetes was associated with GAD65 antibody positivity in both the subcohort (OR per SD genetic risk 1.24; 95% CI 1.03, 1.50) and incident cases (OR 1.97; 95% CI 1.72, 2.26) after adjusting for age and sex. The risk of incident diabetes in those in the top tertile of the type 1 diabetes genetic risk score who were also GAD65 antibody positive was 3.23 (95% CI 2.10, 4.97) compared with all other individuals, suggesting that 1.8% of incident diabetes in adults was attributable to this combination of risk factors. Conclusions/interpretation Our study indicates that incident diabetes in adults has an element of autoimmune aetiology. Thus, there might be a reason to re-evaluate the present subclassification of diabetes in adulthood.
      PubDate: 2019-11-11
  • Higher circulating omentin is associated with increased risk of primary
           cardiovascular events in individuals with diabetes
    • Abstract: Aims/hypothesis Higher concentrations of the adipokine omentin are associated with lower levels of cardiometabolic risk factors in experimental and cross-sectional studies, but with higher risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in population-based cohort studies. However, it is unknown whether high omentin concentrations are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular events in people with established diabetes. Therefore, the present study investigated the association between serum omentin concentrations and the risk of cardiovascular events in individuals with diabetes. Methods This prospective study was based on participants of the German ESTHER cohort with diabetes and without previous cardiovascular event. The ESTHER cohort consists of individuals aged 50–75 years at baseline who were recruited by their general practitioners. After exclusion of individuals with serum C-reactive protein ≥10 mg/l (≥95.24 nmol/l), the final analysis population consisted of 933 individuals. At baseline, serum omentin concentrations were measured by ELISA. Cox regression models were fitted to estimate HRs and their corresponding 95% CIs for associations of omentin tertiles with a composite endpoint of cardiovascular events and separately with incident myocardial infarction, stroke and cardiovascular death. Results During 14 years of follow-up, 228 individuals experienced a primary cardiovascular event (myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular death). After comprehensive adjustment for age, sex, BMI, metabolic and lifestyle factors and medication use, HRs (95% CIs) for the 2nd and 3rd tertile of omentin compared with the 1st tertile were: 1.24 (95% CI 0.86, 1.79) and 1.63 (1.15, 2.32) (ptrend = 0.005) for the composite cardiovascular endpoint; 1.39 (0.78, 2.47) and 1.71 (0.98, 2.99) (ptrend = 0.065) for incident myocardial infarction; 1.40 (0.78, 2.53) and 2.05 (1.17, 3.58) (ptrend = 0.010) for incident stroke; and 1.43 (0.85, 2.40) and 1.72 (1.04, 2.83) (ptrend = 0.040) for cardiovascular death. Effect estimates and p values were almost unaltered after additional adjustment for adiponectin. Conclusions/interpretation Higher omentin concentrations are associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular events in individuals with diabetes after adjustment for multiple cardiovascular risk factors. Given data from preclinical studies, it appears possible that this association reflects a compensatory, but insufficient upregulation of omentin concentrations as a response to stimuli that increase cardiovascular risk.
      PubDate: 2019-11-09
  • Positioning time in range in diabetes management
    • Abstract: Recent upswings in the use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) technologies have given people with diabetes and healthcare professionals unprecedented access to a range of new indicators of glucose control. Some of these metrics are useful research tools and others have been welcomed by patient groups for providing insights into the quality of glucose control not captured by conventional laboratory testing. Among the latter, time in range (TIR) is an intuitive metric that denotes the proportion of time that a person’s glucose level is within a desired target range (usually 3.9–10.0 mmol/l [3.5–7.8 mmol/l in pregnancy]). For individuals choosing to use CGM technology, TIR is now often part of the expected conversation between patient and healthcare professional, and consensus recommendations have recently been produced to facilitate the adoption of standardised TIR targets. At a regulatory level, emerging evidence linking TIR to risk of complications may see TIR being more widely accepted as a valid endpoint in future clinical trials. However, given the skewed distribution of possible glucose values outside of the target range, TIR (on its own) is a poor indicator of the frequency or severity of hypoglycaemia. Here, the state-of-the-art linking TIR with complications risk in diabetes and the inverse association between TIR and HbA1c are reviewed. Moreover, the importance of including the amount and severity of time below range (TBR) in any discussions around TIR and, by inference, time above range (TAR) is discussed. This review also summarises recent guidance in setting ‘time in ranges’ goals for individuals with diabetes who wish to make use of these metrics. For most people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, a TIR >70%, a TBR <3.9 mmol/l of <4%, and a TBR <3.0 mmol/l of <1% are recommended targets, with less stringent targets for older or high-risk individuals and for those under 25 years of age. As always though, glycaemic targets should be individualised and rarely is that more applicable than in the personal use of CGM and the data it provides.
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
  • Recruited fibroblasts reconstitute the peri-islet membrane: a longitudinal
           imaging study of human islet grafting and revascularisation
    • Abstract: Aims/hypothesis Rapid and adequate islet revascularisation and restoration of the islet–extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction are significant factors influencing islet survival and function of the transplanted islets in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Because the ECM encapsulating the islets is degraded during islet isolation, understanding the process of revascularisation and engraftment after transplantation is essential and needs further investigation. Methods Here we apply a longitudinal and high-resolution imaging approach to investigate the dynamics of the pancreatic islet engraftment process up to 11 months after transplantation. Human and mouse islet grafts were inserted into the anterior chamber of the mouse eye, using a NOD.ROSA-tomato.Rag2−/− or B6.ROSA-tomato host allowing the investigation of the expansion of host vs donor cells and the contribution of host cells to aspects such as promoting the encapsulation and vascularisation of the graft. Results A fibroblast-like stromal cell population of host origin rapidly migrates to ensheath the transplanted islet and aid in the formation of a basement membrane-like structure. Moreover, we show that the vessel network, while reconstituted by host endothelial cells, still retains the overall architecture of the donor islets. Conclusions/interpretation In this transplantation situation the fibroblast-like stromal cells appear to take over as main producers of ECM or act as a scaffold for other ECM-producing cells to reconstitute a peri-islet-like basement membrane. This may have implications for our understanding of long-term graft rejection and for the design of novel strategies to interfere with this process.
      PubDate: 2019-11-07
  • Extracellular vesicles in metabolic disease
    • Abstract: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are submicron-sized lipid envelopes that are produced and released from a parent cell and can be taken up by a recipient cell. EVs are capable of mediating cellular signalling by carrying nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and cellular metabolites between cells and organs. Metabolic dysfunction is associated with changes in plasma concentrations of EVs as well as alterations in their EV cargo. Since EVs can act as messengers between parent and recipient cells, they could be involved in cell-to-cell and organ-to-organ communication in metabolic diseases. Recent literature has shown that EVs are produced by cells within metabolic tissues, such as adipose tissue, pancreas, muscle and liver. These vesicles have therefore been proposed as a novel intercellular communication mode in systemic metabolic regulation. In this review, we will describe and discuss the current literature that investigates the role of adipose-derived EVs in the regulation of obesity-associated metabolic disease. We will particularly focus on the EV-dependent communication between adipocytes, the vasculature and immune cells in type 2 diabetes.
      PubDate: 2019-11-05
  • Placebo-controlled randomised trial with liraglutide on magnetic resonance
           endpoints in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a pre-specified secondary
           study on ectopic fat accumulation
    • Abstract: Aims/hypothesis The aim of this work was to assess the effect of liraglutide on ectopic fat accumulation in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods This study is a pre-specified subanalysis of the MAGNetic resonance Assessment of VICTOza efficacy in the Regression of cardiovascular dysfunction In type 2 diAbetes mellitus (MAGNA VICTORIA) study, with primary endpoints being the effects of liraglutide on left ventricular diastolic and systolic function. The MAGNA VICTORIA study was a single-centre, parallel-group trial in 50 individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (BMI >25 kg/m2) who were randomly assigned (1:1, stratified for sex and insulin use) to receive liraglutide 1.8 mg once daily or placebo for 26 weeks, added to standard care. Participants, study personnel and outcome assessors were blinded to treatment allocation. The secondary endpoints of visceral adipose tissue (VAT), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and epicardial fat were measured with MRI. Hepatic triacylglycerol content (HTGC) and myocardial triacylglycerol content (MTGC) were quantified with proton MR spectroscopy. Between-group differences (change from baseline) were tested for significance using ANCOVA. Mean differences with 95% CIs were reported. Results The trial was completed in 2016. Twenty-four participants were randomised to receive liraglutide and 26 to receive placebo. One patient in the liraglutide group withdrew consent before having received the study drug and was not included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Liraglutide (n = 23) vs placebo (n = 26) significantly reduced body weight (liraglutide 98.4 ± 13.8 kg to 94.3 ± 14.9 kg; placebo 94.5 ± 13.1 kg to 93.9 ± 13.2 kg; estimated treatment effect −4.5 [95% CI −6.4, −2.6] kg). HbA1c declined in both groups without a significant treatment effect of liraglutide vs placebo (liraglutide 66.7 ± 11.5 mmol/mol to 55.0 ± 13.2 mmol/mol [8.4 ± 1.1% to 7.3 ± 1.2%]; placebo 64.7 ± 10.2 mmol/mol to 56.9 ± 6.9 mmol/mol [8.2 ± 1.0% to 7.5 ± 0.7%]; estimated treatment effect −2.9 [95% CI −8.1, 2.3] mmol/mol or −0.3 [95% CI −0.8, 0.2]%). VAT did not change significantly between groups (liraglutide 207 ± 87 cm2 to 203 ± 88 cm2; placebo 204 ± 63 cm2 to 200 ± 55 cm2; estimated treatment effect −7 [95% CI −24, 10] cm2), while SAT was reduced by a significantly greater extent with liraglutide than with placebo (liraglutide 361 ± 142 cm2 to 339 ± 131 cm2; placebo 329 ± 107 cm2 to 333 ± 125 cm2; estimated treatment effect −29 [95% CI −51, −8] cm2). Epicardial fat did not change significantly between groups (liraglutide 8.9 ± 4.3 cm2 to 9.1 ± 4.7 cm2; placebo 9.6 ± 4.1 cm2 to 9.6 ± 4.6 cm2; estimated treatment effect 0.2 [95% CI −1.5, 1.8] cm2). Change in HTGC was not different between groups (liraglutide 18.1 ± 11.2% to 12.0 ± 7.7%; placebo 18.4 ± 9.4% to 14.7 ± 10.0%; estimated treatment effect −2.1 [95% CI −5.3, 1.0]%). MTGC was not different after treatment with liraglutide (1.5 ± 0.6% to 1.2 ± 0.6%) vs placebo (1.3 ± 0.5% to 1.2 ± 0.6%), with an estimated treatment effect of −0.1 (95% CI −0.4, 0.2)%. There were no adjudicated serious adverse events. Conclusions/interpretation Compared with placebo, liraglutide-treated participants lost significantly more body weight. Liraglutide primarily reduced subcutaneous fat but not visceral, hepatic, myocardial or epicardial fat. Future larger studies are needed to confirm the results of this secondary endpoint study. Trial registration NCT01761318. Funding This study was funded by Novo Nordisk A/S (Bagsvaerd, Denmark).
      PubDate: 2019-11-05
  • Plasma cathepsin D activity is negatively associated with hepatic insulin
           sensitivity in overweight and obese humans
    • Abstract: Aims/hypothesis Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and liver plays a major role in the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. The hyperinsulinaemic–euglycaemic clamp is considered the gold standard for assessing peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity, yet it is a costly and labour-intensive procedure. Therefore, easy-to-measure, cost-effective approaches to determine insulin sensitivity are needed to enable organ-specific interventions. Recently, evidence emerged that plasma cathepsin D (CTSD) is associated with insulin sensitivity and hepatic inflammation. Here, we aimed to investigate whether plasma CTSD is associated with hepatic and/or peripheral insulin sensitivity in humans. Methods As part of two large clinical trials (one designed to investigate the effects of antibiotics, and the other to investigate polyphenol supplementation, on insulin sensitivity), 94 overweight and obese adults (BMI 25–35 kg/m2) previously underwent a two-step hyperinsulinaemic–euglycaemic clamp (using [6,6-2H2]glucose) to assess hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity (per cent suppression of endogenous glucose output during the low-insulin-infusion step, and the rate of glucose disappearance during high-insulin infusion [40 mU/(m2 × min)], respectively). In this secondary analysis, plasma CTSD levels, CTSD activity and plasma inflammatory cytokines were measured. Results Plasma CTSD levels were positively associated with the proinflammatory cytokines IL-8 and TNF-α (IL-8: standardised β = 0.495, p < 0.001; TNF-α: standardised β = 0.264, p = 0.012). Plasma CTSD activity was negatively associated with hepatic insulin sensitivity (standardised β = −0.206, p = 0.043), independent of age, sex, BMI and waist circumference, but it was not associated with peripheral insulin sensitivity. However, plasma IL-8 and TNF-α were not significantly correlated with hepatic insulin sensitivity. Conclusions/interpretation We demonstrate that plasma CTSD activity, but not systemic inflammation, is inversely related to hepatic insulin sensitivity, suggesting that plasma CTSD activity may be used as a non-invasive marker for hepatic insulin sensitivity in humans.
      PubDate: 2019-11-05
  • Association of genetic variants related to plasma fatty acids with type 2
           diabetes mellitus and glycaemic traits: a Mendelian randomisation study
    • Abstract: Aims/hypothesis Epidemiological data on the associations of circulating fatty acid levels with type 2 diabetes are inconsistent. We conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomisation study to explore the causal associations of plasma levels of ten fatty acids with type 2 diabetes and glycaemic traits. Methods Thirteen SNPs associated with circulating levels of ten individual fatty acids at the genome-wide significance level (p < 5 × 10−8) were selected as instrumental variables for the exposures. For the outcomes, summary-level data were obtained from the DIAbetes Genetics Replication And Meta-analysis (DIAGRAM) consortium for type 2 diabetes (898,130 individuals) and from the Meta-Analyses of Glucose and Insulin-related traits Consortium (MAGIC) for the glycaemic traits (up to 46,186 non-diabetic individuals). The inverse-variance weighted method was used for analyses. Results Genetic predisposition to higher plasma levels of eight of the ten fatty acids were statistically significantly associated with lower or higher odds of type 2 diabetes. The OR per one SD increment of each fatty acid was 0.93 (95% CI 0.90, 0.96; p = 2.21 × 10−5) for α-linolenic acid, 0.96 (95% CI 0.94, 0.98; p = 1.85 × 10−4) for linoleic acid, 0.86 (95% CI 0.81, 0.91; p = 6.68 × 10−7) for palmitoleic acid, 0.87 (95% CI 0.81, 0.93; p = 2.21 × 10−5) for oleic acid, 1.08 (95% CI 1.03, 1.12; p = 0.002) for eicosapentaenoic acid, 1.04 (95% CI 1.02, 1.07; p = 0.001) for docosapentaenoic acid, 1.03 (95% CI 1.02, 1.05; p = 2.51 × 10−5) for arachidonic acid and 1.09 (95% CI 1.03, 1.15; p = 0.003) for stearic acid. The same eight fatty acids were also associated with fasting glucose levels and HOMA-B. The associations, except that for palmitoleic acid, were driven by variants in FADS1/2. Conclusions/interpretation Genetic predisposition to higher circulating levels of eight out of ten fatty acids was associated with type 2 diabetes, fasting glucose and islet beta cell function. However, the associations, except that for palmitoleic acid, were driven by variants in FADS1/2, which encode enzymes with a key role in fatty acid metabolism.
      PubDate: 2019-11-05
  • Association between glucose variation and lower extremity amputation
           incidence in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a nationwide retrospective
           cohort study
    • Abstract: Aims/hypothesis Elevated glucose level is one of the risk factors for lower extremity amputation (LEA), but whether glycaemic variability confers independent risks of LEA remains to be elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the association between visit-to-visit glycaemic variability and minor and major LEA risks during 8 years of follow-up in type 2 diabetic individuals aged 50 years and older. Methods This retrospective cohort study included 27,574 ethnic Chinese type 2 diabetic individuals aged ≥50 years from the National Diabetes Care Management Program in Taiwan. Glycaemic variability measures were presented as the CVs of fasting plasma glucose (FPG-CV) and of HbA1c (A1c-CV). The effect of glycaemic variability on the incidence of LEA events was analysed using Cox proportional hazards models. Results After a median follow-up of 8.9 years, 541 incident cases of LEA with a crude incidence density rate of 2.4 per 1000 person-years were observed. After multivariate adjustment, FPG-CV and A1c-CV were found to be significantly associated with minor LEA, with corresponding HRs of 1.53 (95% CI 1.15, 2.04) and 1.34 (95% CI 1.02, 1.77) for the third tertiles of FPG-CV and A1c-CV, respectively. In addition, these associations were stronger amongst older adults with longer diabetes duration (≥3 years) than amongst those with shorter duration (<3 years) (pinteraction < 0.01). Conclusions/interpretation Our study suggests that visit-to-visit variations in HbA1c and FPG are important predictors of minor LEA amongst older adults with type 2 diabetes, particularly for those with more than 3 years of diabetes duration.
      PubDate: 2019-11-04
  • Diagnostic criteria should be considered when reviewing the effect of
           diabetes prevention studies
    • PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • Correction to: Short-term progression of cardiometabolic risk factors in
           relation to age at type 2 diabetes diagnosis: a longitudinal observational
           study of 100,606 individuals from the Swedish National Diabetes Register
    • Abstract: Unfortunately, the symbols in Fig. 1 were incorrectly described in the legend.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • Up front
    • PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • CD40-targeting KGYY 15 peptides do not efficiently block the
           CD40–CD40L interaction
    • PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • Diabetes prevention and cardiovascular complications
    • PubDate: 2019-11-01
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