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Diabetologia
Journal Prestige (SJR): 3.228
Citation Impact (citeScore): 5
Number of Followers: 342  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-0428 - ISSN (Online) 0012-186X
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2626 journals]
  • The role of vitamin D in the aetiology of type 1 diabetes
    • PubDate: 2020-06-01
       
  • The role of vitamin D in the aetiology of type 1 diabetes. Reply to
           Korsgren O [letter]
    • PubDate: 2020-06-01
       
  • Why are South Asians prone to type 2 diabetes' A hypothesis based on
           underexplored pathways
    • Abstract: Abstract South Asians have a high prevalence of type 2 diabetes, even at a lower BMI. This review sets out our perspective and hypothesis on the reasons for this. Emerging data from epidemiological studies indicate that South Asians may have a lower ability to secrete insulin, and thus may have less compensatory reserves when challenged with unhealthy lifestyles. Thus, insulin resistance may not be the primary driver of type 2 diabetes in this population. Furthermore, data also suggest that South Asians, on average, have lower muscle mass, and may have a specific propensity to ectopic hepatic fat accumulation and for intramyocellular fat deposition, which cause further disruption in insulin action. We hypothesise that the high diabetes susceptibility in South Asians is evolutionarily set through dual parallel and/or interacting mechanisms: reduced beta cell function and impaired insulin action owing to low lean mass, which is further accentuated by ectopic fat deposition in the liver and muscle. These areas warrant further research.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01
       
  • Lipoprotein(a) plasma levels are not associated with incident
           microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus
    • Abstract: Aims/hypothesis Microvascular disease in type 2 diabetes is a significant cause of end-stage renal disease, blindness and peripheral neuropathy. The strict control of known risk factors, e.g. lifestyle, hyperglycaemia, hypertension and dyslipidaemia, reduces the incidence of microvascular complications, but a residual risk remains. Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] is a strong risk factor for macrovascular disease in the general population. We hypothesised that plasma Lp(a) levels and the LPA gene SNPs rs10455872 and rs3798220 are associated with the incident development of microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes. Methods Analyses were performed of data from the DiaGene study, a prospective study for complications of type 2 diabetes, collected in the city of Eindhoven, the Netherlands (n = 1886 individuals with type 2 diabetes, mean follow-up time = 6.97 years). To assess the relationship between plasma Lp(a) levels and the LPA SNPs with each newly developed microvascular complication (retinopathy n = 223, nephropathy n = 246, neuropathy n = 236), Cox proportional hazards models were applied and adjusted for risk factors for microvascular complications (age, sex, mean arterial pressure, non-HDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, BMI, duration of type 2 diabetes, HbA1c and smoking). Results No significant associations of Lp(a) plasma levels and the LPA SNPs rs10455872 and rs3798220 with prevalent or incident microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes were found. In line with previous observations the LPA SNPs rs10455872 and rs3798220 did influence the plasma Lp(a) levels. Conclusions/interpretation Our data show no association between Lp(a) plasma levels and the LPA SNPs with known effect on Lp(a) plasma levels with the development of microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes. This indicates that Lp(a) does not play a major role in the development of microvascular complications. However, larger studies are needed to exclude minimal effects of Lp(a) on the development of microvascular complications.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01
       
  • One-leg inactivity induces a reduction in mitochondrial oxidative
           capacity, intramyocellular lipid accumulation and reduced insulin
           signalling upon lipid infusion: a human study with unilateral limb
           suspension
    • Abstract: Aims/hypothesis Physical inactivity, low mitochondrial function, increased intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) deposition and reduced insulin sensitivity are common denominators of chronic metabolic disorders, like obesity and type 2 diabetes. Yet, whether low mitochondrial function predisposes to insulin resistance in humans is still unknown. Methods Here we investigated, in an intervention study, whether muscle with low mitochondrial oxidative capacity, induced by one-legged physical inactivity, would feature stronger signs of lipid-induced insulin resistance. To this end, ten male participants (age 22.4 ± 4.2 years, BMI 21.3 ± 2.0 kg/m2) underwent a 12 day unilateral lower-limb suspension with the contralateral leg serving as an active internal control. Results In vivo, mitochondrial oxidative capacity, assessed by phosphocreatine (PCr)-recovery half-time, was lower in the inactive vs active leg. Ex vivo, palmitate oxidation to 14CO2 was lower in the suspended leg vs the active leg; however, this did not result in significantly higher [14C]palmitate incorporation into triacylglycerol. The reduced mitochondrial function in the suspended leg was, however, paralleled by augmented IMCL content in both musculus tibialis anterior and musculus vastus lateralis, and by increased membrane bound protein kinase C (PKC) θ. Finally, upon lipid infusion, insulin signalling was lower in the suspended vs active leg. Conclusions/interpretation Together, these results demonstrate, in a unique human in vivo model, that a low mitochondrial oxidative capacity due to physical inactivity directly impacts IMCL accumulation and PKCθ translocation, resulting in impaired insulin signalling upon lipid infusion. This demonstrates the importance of mitochondrial oxidative capacity and muscle fat accumulation in the development of insulin resistance in humans. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov NCT01576250. Funding PS was supported by a ‘VICI’ Research Grant for innovative research from the Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (Grant 918.96.618).
      PubDate: 2020-06-01
       
  • Effect of maternal smoking during pregnancy on childhood type 1 diabetes:
           a whole-of-population study
    • Abstract: Aims/hypothesis Evidence of an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy (prenatal smoking) and childhood type 1 diabetes is mixed. Previous studies have been small and potentially biased due to unmeasured confounding. The objectives of this study were to estimate the association between prenatal smoking and childhood type 1 diabetes, assess residual confounding with a negative control design and an E-value analysis, and summarise published effect estimates from a meta-analysis. Methods This whole-of-population study (births from 1999 to 2013, participants aged ≤15 years) used de-identified linked administrative data from the South Australian Early Childhood Data Project. Type 1 diabetes was diagnosed in 557 children (ICD, tenth edition, Australian Modification [ICD-10-AM] codes: E10, E101–E109) during hospitalisation (2001–2014). Families not given financial assistance for school fees was a negative control outcome. Adjusted Cox proportional HRs were calculated. Analyses were conducted on complete-case (n = 264,542, type 1 diabetes = 442) and imputed (n = 286,058, type 1 diabetes = 557) data. A random-effects meta-analysis was used to summarise the effects of prenatal smoking on type 1 diabetes. Results Compared with non-smokers, children exposed to maternal smoking only in the first or second half of pregnancy had a 6% higher type 1 diabetes incidence (adjusted HR 1.06 [95% CI 0.73, 1.55]). Type 1 diabetes incidence was 24% lower (adjusted HR 0.76 [95% CI 0.58, 0.99]) among children exposed to consistent prenatal smoking, and 16% lower for exposure to any maternal smoking in pregnancy (adjusted HR 0.84 [95% CI 0.67, 1.08]), compared with the unexposed group. Meta-analytic estimates showed 28–29% lower risk of type 1 diabetes among children exposed to prenatal smoking compared with those not exposed. The negative control outcome analysis indicated residual confounding in the prenatal smoking and type 1 diabetes association. E-value analysis indicated that unmeasured confounding associated with prenatal smoking and childhood type 1 diabetes, with a HR of 1.67, could negate the observed effect. Conclusions/interpretation Our best estimate from the study is that maternal smoking in pregnancy was associated with 16% lower childhood type 1 diabetes incidence, and some of this effect was due to residual confounding.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01
       
  • A core outcome set for studies of gestational diabetes mellitus prevention
           and treatment
    • Abstract: Aims/hypothesis The aim of this systematic review was to develop core outcome sets (COSs) for trials evaluating interventions for the prevention or treatment of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Methods We identified previously reported outcomes through a systematic review of the literature. These outcomes were presented to key stakeholders (including patient representatives, researchers and clinicians) for prioritisation using a three-round, e-Delphi study. A priori consensus criteria informed which outcomes were brought forward for discussion at a face-to-face consensus meeting where the COS was finalised. Results Our review identified 74 GDM prevention and 116 GDM treatment outcomes, which were presented to stakeholders in round 1 of the e-Delphi study. Round 1 was completed by 173 stakeholders, 70% (121/173) of whom went on to complete round 2; 84% (102/121) of round 2 responders completed round 3. Twenty-two GDM prevention outcomes and 30 GDM treatment outcomes were discussed at the consensus meeting. Owing to significant overlap between included prevention and treatment outcomes, consensus meeting stakeholders agreed to develop a single prevention/treatment COS. Fourteen outcomes were included in the final COS. These consisted of six maternal outcomes (GDM diagnosis, adherence to the intervention, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, requirement and type of pharmacological therapy for hyperglycaemia, gestational weight gain and mode of birth) and eight neonatal outcomes (birthweight, large for gestational age, small for gestational age, gestational age at birth, preterm birth, neonatal hypoglycaemia, neonatal death and stillbirth). Conclusions/interpretation This COS will enable future GDM prevention and treatment trials to measure similar outcomes that matter to stakeholders and facilitate comparison and combination of these studies. Trial registration This study was registered prospectively with the Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials (COMET) database: http://www.comet-initiative.org/studies/details/686/
      PubDate: 2020-06-01
       
  • GAD-alum immunotherapy in type 1 diabetes expands bifunctional Th1/Th2
           autoreactive CD4 T cells
    • Abstract: Aims/hypothesis Antigen-specific therapy aims to modify inflammatory T cell responses in type 1 diabetes and restore immune tolerance. One strategy employs GAD65 conjugated to aluminium hydroxide (GAD-alum) to take advantage of the T helper (Th)2-biasing adjuvant properties of alum and thereby regulate pathological Th1 autoimmunity. We explored the cellular and molecular mechanism of GAD-alum action in the setting of a previously reported randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted by Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet. Methods In the clinical trial conducted by Type 1 Diabetes TrialNet, participants were immunised with 20 μg GAD-alum (twice or three times) or alum alone and peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples were banked at baseline and post treatment. In the present study, GAD-specific T cell responses were measured in these samples and GAD-specific T cell lines and clones were generated, which were then further characterised. Results At day 91 post immunisation, we detected GAD-specific IL-13+ CD4 T cell responses significantly more frequently in participants immunised with GAD-alum (71% and 94% treated twice or three times, respectively) compared with those immunised with alum alone (38%; p = 0.003 and p = 0.0002, respectively) accompanied by high secreted levels of IL-13, IL-4 and IL-5, confirming a GAD-specific, GAD-alum-induced Th2 response. Of note, GAD-specific, IL-13+ CD4 T cells observed after immunisation co-secreted IFN-γ, displaying a bifunctional Th1/Th2 phenotype. Single-cell transcriptome analysis identified IL13 and IFNG expression in concert with the canonical Th2 and Th1 transcription factor genes GATA3 and TBX21, respectively. T cell receptor β-chain (TCRB) CDR3 regions of GAD-specific bifunctional T cells were identified in circulating naive and central memory CD4 T cell pools of non-immunised participants with new-onset type 1 diabetes and healthy individuals, suggesting the potential for bifunctional responses to be generated de novo by GAD-alum immunisation or via expansion from an existing public repertoire. Conclusions/interpretation GAD-alum immunisation activates and propagates GAD-specific CD4 T cells with a distinctive bifunctional phenotype, the functional analysis of which might be important in understanding therapeutic responses.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01
       
  • Diabetes through a 3D lens: organoid models
    • Abstract: Abstract Diabetes is one of the most challenging health concerns facing society. Available drugs treat the symptoms but there is no cure. This presents an urgent need to better understand human diabetes in order to develop improved treatments or target remission. New disease models need to be developed that more accurately describe the pathology of diabetes. Organoid technology provides an opportunity to fill this knowledge gap. Organoids are 3D structures, established from pluripotent stem cells or adult stem/progenitor cells, that recapitulate key aspects of the in vivo tissues they mimic. In this review we briefly introduce organoids and their benefits; we focus on organoids generated from tissues important for glucose homeostasis and tissues associated with diabetic complications. We hope this review serves as a touchstone to demonstrate how organoid technology extends the research toolbox and can deliver a step change of discovery in the field of diabetes.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01
       
  • Slow progressors to type 1 diabetes lose islet autoantibodies over time,
           have few islet antigen-specific CD8 + T cells and exhibit a distinct CD95
           hi B cell phenotype
    • Abstract: Aims/hypothesis The aim of this study was to characterise islet autoantibody profiles and immune cell phenotypes in slow progressors to type 1 diabetes. Methods Immunological variables were compared across peripheral blood samples obtained from slow progressors to type 1 diabetes, individuals with newly diagnosed or long-standing type 1 diabetes, and healthy individuals. Polychromatic flow cytometry was used to characterise the phenotypic attributes of B and T cells. Islet autoantigen-specific B cells were quantified using an enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISpot) assay and islet autoantigen-specific CD8+ T cells were quantified using peptide–HLA class I tetramers. Radioimmunoassays were used to detect islet autoantibodies. Sera were assayed for various chemokines, cytokines and soluble receptors via ELISAs. Results Islet autoantibodies were lost over time in slow progressors. Various B cell subsets expressed higher levels of CD95 in slow progressors, especially after polyclonal stimulation, compared with the corresponding B cell subsets in healthy donors (p < 0.05). The phenotypic characteristics of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were similar in slow progressors and healthy donors. Lower frequencies of CD4+ T cells with a central memory phenotype (CD27int, CD127+, CD95int) were observed in slow progressors compared with healthy donors (mean percentage of total CD4+ T cells was 3.00% in slow progressors vs 4.67% in healthy donors, p < 0.05). Autoreactive B cell responses to proinsulin were detected at higher frequencies in slow progressors compared with healthy donors (median no. of spots was 0 in healthy donors vs 24.34 in slow progressors, p < 0.05) in an ELISpot assay. Islet autoantigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses were largely absent in slow progressors and healthy donors. Serum levels of DcR3, the decoy receptor for CD95L, were elevated in slow progressors compared with healthy donors (median was 1087 pg/ml in slow progressors vs 651 pg/ml in healthy donors, p = 0.06). Conclusions/interpretation In this study, we found that slow progression to type 1 diabetes was associated with a loss of islet autoantibodies and a distinct B cell phenotype, consistent with enhanced apoptotic regulation of peripheral autoreactivity via CD95. These phenotypic changes warrant further studies in larger cohorts to determine their functional implications.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01
       
  • Effects of ertugliflozin on renal function over 104 weeks of treatment: a
           post hoc analysis of two randomised controlled trials
    • Abstract: Aims/hypothesis This study aimed to evaluate the effect of ertugliflozin, a sodium–glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, on eGFR and albuminuria (urine albumin/creatinine ratio [UACR]) vs glimepiride or placebo/glimepiride (non-ertugliflozin) over 104 weeks of treatment in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus, using pooled data from two randomised controlled, active comparator studies from the eValuation of ERTugliflozin effIcacy and Safety (VERTIS) programme (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01999218 [VERTIS SU] and NCT02033889 [VERTIS MET]). In the VERTIS SU study, ertugliflozin was evaluated vs glimepiride over 104 weeks. In the VERTIS MET study, ertugliflozin was evaluated vs placebo over 26 weeks; eligible participants were switched from placebo to blinded glimepiride from week 26 to week 104. The glycaemic efficacy of ertugliflozin vs non-ertugliflozin was also assessed in the pooled population. Methods Post hoc, exploratory analysis was used to investigate mean changes from baseline in eGFR and UACR over 104 weeks. Results Overall, mean (SD) baseline eGFR was 88.2 (18.8) ml min−1 (1.73 m)−2 and geometric mean (95% CI) of baseline UACR was 1.31 mg/mmol (1.23, 1.38). At week 6, the changes in eGFR from baseline were −2.3, −2.7 and −0.7 ml min−1 (1.73 m)−2 for the ertugliflozin 5 mg, ertugliflozin 15 mg and non-ertugliflozin groups, respectively. Mean eGFR in the ertugliflozin groups increased over time thereafter, while it decreased in the non-ertugliflozin group. Week 104 changes in eGFR from baseline were −0.2, 0.1 and −2.0 ml min−1 (1.73 m)−2 for the ertugliflozin 5 mg, ertugliflozin 15 mg and non-ertugliflozin groups, respectively. Among 415 patients (21.4% of the cohort) with albuminuria at baseline, the ertugliflozin groups had greater reductions in UACR at all measured time points up to week 104. At week 104, the non-ertugliflozin-corrected difference in UACR (95% CI) was −29.5% (−44.8, −9.8; p < 0.01) for ertugliflozin 5 mg and −37.6% (−51.8, −19.2; p < 0.001) for ertugliflozin 15 mg. Least squares mean changes from baseline in HbA1c (mmol/mol [95% CI]) at week 104 were similar between treatment groups: −6.84 (−7.64, −6.03), −7.74 (−8.54, −6.94) and −6.84 (−7.65, −6.03) in the ertugliflozin 5 mg, ertugliflozin 15 mg and non-ertugliflozin groups, respectively. Least squares mean changes from baseline in HbA1c (% [95% CI]) at week 104 were: −0.63 (−0.70, −0.55), −0.71 (−0.78, −0.64) and −0.63 (−0.70, −0.55) in the ertugliflozin 5 mg, ertugliflozin 15 mg and non-ertugliflozin groups, respectively. Conclusions/interpretation Ertugliflozin reduced eGFR at week 6, consistent with the known pharmacodynamic effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on renal function. Over 104 weeks, eGFR values returned to baseline and were higher with ertugliflozin compared with non-ertugliflozin treatment, even though changes in HbA1c did not differ between the groups. Ertugliflozin reduced UACR in patients with baseline albuminuria. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT01999218 and NCT02033889.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01
       
  • Early puberty and risk for type 2 diabetes in men
    • Abstract: Aims/hypothesis The association between pubertal timing and type 2 diabetes, independent of prepubertal BMI, is not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between pubertal timing and risk of adult type 2 diabetes, independent of prepubertal BMI, in Swedish men. Methods We included 30,697 men who had data for BMI at age 8 and 20 years and age at Peak Height Velocity (PHV), an objective assessment of pubertal timing, available from the BMI Epidemiology Study Gothenburg (BEST Gothenburg), Sweden. Information on type 2 diabetes (n = 1851) was retrieved from the Swedish National Patient Register. HRs and 95% CIs were estimated by Cox regression analysis. We observed violations of the assumption of proportional hazards for the association between age at PHV and the risk of type 2 diabetes and therefore split the follow-up period at the median age of type 2 diabetes diagnosis (57.2 years of age) to define early (≤57.2 years) and late (>57.2 years) type 2 diabetes diagnosis. Results Age at PHV was inversely associated with both early (HR 1.28 per year decrease in age at PHV, 95% CI 1.21, 1.36) and late (HR 1.13, 95% CI 1.06, 1.19) type 2 diabetes. After adjustment for childhood BMI, the associations between age at PHV and both early (HR 1.24, 95% CI 1.17, 1.31) and late (HR 1.11, 95% CI 1.05, 1.17) type 2 diabetes were similar. Moreover, early age at PHV predicted insulin treatment of type 2 diabetes (OR 1.25 per year decrease in age at PHV, 95% CI 1.17, 1.33). Assuming a higher risk among those with an age at PHV below the median, the population attributable factor indicates that 15% fewer of the diagnosed individuals would have developed type 2 diabetes had they not reached puberty early. Conclusions/interpretation These findings indicate that early puberty may be a novel independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01
       
  • Pharmacological targeting of α3β4 nicotinic receptors improves
           peripheral insulin sensitivity in mice with diet-induced obesity
    • Abstract: Aims/hypothesis Treatment with the α3β4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist, 1,1-dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium iodide (DMPP), improves glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese (DIO) mice, but the physiological and molecular mechanisms are unknown. Methods DMPP (10 mg/kg body weight, s.c.) was administered either in a single injection (acute) or daily for up to 14 days (chronic) in DIO wild-type (WT) and Chrnb4 knockout (KO) mice and glucose tolerance, tissue-specific tracer-based glucose metabolism, and insulin signalling were assessed. Results In WT mice, but not in Chrnb4 KO mice, single acute treatment with DMPP induced transient hyperglycaemia, which was accompanied by high plasma adrenaline (epinephrine) levels, upregulated hepatic gluconeogenic genes, and decreased hepatic glycogen content. In contrast to these acute effects, chronic DMPP treatment in WT mice elicited improvements in glucose tolerance already evident after three consecutive days of DMPP treatment. After seven days of DMPP treatment, glucose tolerance was markedly improved, also in comparison with mice that were pair-fed to DMPP-treated mice. The glycaemic benefit of chronic DMPP was absent in Chrnb4 KO mice. Chronic DMPP increased insulin-stimulated glucose clearance into brown adipose tissue (+69%), heart (+93%), gastrocnemius muscle (+74%) and quadriceps muscle (+59%), with no effect in white adipose tissues. After chronic DMPP treatment, plasma adrenaline levels did not increase following an injection with DMPP. In glucose-stimulated skeletal muscle, we detected a decreased phosphorylation of the inhibitory Ser640 phosphorylation site on glycogen synthase and a congruent increase in glycogen accumulation following chronic DMPP treatment. Conclusions/interpretation Our data suggest that DMPP acutely induces adrenaline release and hepatic glycogenolysis, while chronic DMPP-mediated activation of β4-containing nAChRs improves peripheral insulin sensitivity independently of changes in body weight via mechanisms that could involve increased non-oxidative glucose disposal into skeletal muscle.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01
       
  • Impact of glucose on risk of dementia: Mendelian randomisation studies in
           115,875 individuals
    • Abstract: Aims/hypothesis Mendelian randomisation studies have not shown a clear causal effect of high plasma glucose on the risk of Alzheimer’s disease. We tested the hypothesis that high plasma glucose caused by genetic variation has a causal effect on the risk of unspecified dementia, Alzheimer’s disease and vascular dementia in the general population. Methods A Mendelian randomisation design was used with data from 115,875 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study and the Copenhagen City Heart Study. Findings for Alzheimer’s disease were validated in a two-sample Mendelian design with 455,258 individuals, including 71,880 individuals with Alzheimer’s disease or a parent with Alzheimer’s disease. Results In observational multifactorial-adjusted analyses, HRs were 1.15 (95% CI 1.01, 1.32; p = 0.039) for unspecified dementia, 0.91 (95% CI 0.79, 1.06; p = 0.22) for Alzheimer’s disease and 1.16 (95% CI 0.86, 1.55; p = 0.34) for vascular dementia in individuals with a glucose level higher than 7 vs 5–6 mmol/l. Corresponding HRs in individuals with vs without type 2 diabetes were 1.42 (95% CI 1.24, 1.63; p < 0.001), 1.11 (95% CI 0.95, 1.29; p = 0.18) and 1.73 (95% CI 1.31, 2.27; p < 0.001). In genetic causal analyses, a 1 mmol/l higher plasma glucose level had RRs of 2.40 (95% CI 1.18, 4.89; p = 0.016) for unspecified dementia, 1.41 (95% CI 0.82, 2.43; p = 0.22) for Alzheimer’s disease and 1.20 (95% CI 0.82, 1.75; p = 0.36) for vascular dementia. Summary-level data from the Meta-Analyses of Glucose and Insulin-related Traits Consortium (MAGIC) combined with a consortium of the Alzheimer’s Disease Sequencing Project (ADSP), the International Genomics of Alzheimer’s Project (IGAP), the Alzheimer’s Disease Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC-ALZ) and the UK Biobank (UKB) gave an RR for Alzheimer’s disease of 1.02 (95% CI 0.92, 1.13; p = 0.42), and this consortium combined with Copenhagen studies gave an RR for Alzheimer’s disease of 1.03 (95% CI 0.93, 1.13; p = 0.36). Conclusions/interpretation Observational and genetically high plasma glucose are causally related to the risk of unspecified dementia, but not to Alzheimer’s disease or vascular dementia.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01
       
  • Associations of birthweight and history of childhood obesity with beta
           cell mass in Japanese adults
    • Abstract: Aims/hypothesis Low birthweight is associated with a high risk of diabetes, but there are no reports discussing birthweight and pancreatic tissues in humans. The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between birthweight and beta and alpha cell mass in humans. Methods Sixty-four Japanese adults with and without diabetes who underwent pancreatectomy and were able to recall their weight history including birthweight were included. Pancreatic tissues were stained for insulin and glucagon, and fractional beta cell area (BCA) and alpha cell area (ACA) were quantified. Islet size and density and beta cell replication were also quantified and their associations with birthweight were evaluated. Results In participants without diabetes, there was a weak positive correlation between birthweight and BCA (R = 0.34, p = 0.03). The group with a history of childhood obesity, but not the group with a history of obesity in adulthood only, showed higher BCA compared with those without a history of obesity (1.78 ± 0.74% vs 0.99 ± 0.53%, p = 0.01), and the correlation coefficient between birthweight and BCA increased after excluding those with a history of childhood obesity (R = 0.51, p < 0.01). In those with diabetes, there was no correlation between birthweight and BCA. No correlation was found between birthweight and ACA in either those with or without diabetes. Conclusions/interpretation Birthweight and beta, but not alpha, cell mass are positively correlated in non-diabetic adults, and a history of childhood obesity may affect beta cell mass. Graphical abstract
      PubDate: 2020-06-01
       
  • Studies of insulin and proinsulin in pancreas and serum support the
           existence of aetiopathological endotypes of type 1 diabetes associated
           with age at diagnosis
    • Abstract: Aims/hypothesis It is unclear whether type 1 diabetes is a single disease or if endotypes exist. Our aim was to use a unique collection of pancreas samples recovered soon after disease onset to resolve this issue. Methods Immunohistological analysis was used to determine the distribution of proinsulin and insulin in the islets of pancreas samples recovered soon after type 1 diabetes onset (<2 years) from young people diagnosed at age <7 years, 7–12 years and ≥13 years. The patterns were correlated with the insulitis profiles in the inflamed islets of the same groups of individuals. C-peptide levels and the proinsulin:C-peptide ratio were measured in the circulation of a cohort of living patients with longer duration of disease but who were diagnosed in these same age ranges. Results Distinct patterns of proinsulin localisation were seen in the islets of people with recent-onset type 1 diabetes, which differed markedly between children diagnosed at <7 years and those diagnosed at ≥13 years. Proinsulin processing was aberrant in most residual insulin-containing islets of the younger group but this was much less evident in the group ≥13 years (p < 0.0001). Among all individuals (including children in the middle [7–12 years] range) aberrant proinsulin processing correlated with the assigned immune cell profiles defined by analysis of the lymphocyte composition of islet infiltrates. C-peptide levels were much lower in individuals diagnosed at <7 years than in those diagnosed at ≥13 years (median <3 pmol/l, IQR <3 to <3 vs 34.5 pmol/l, IQR <3–151; p < 0.0001), while the median proinsulin:C-peptide ratio was increased in those with age of onset <7 years compared with people diagnosed aged ≥13 years (0.18, IQR 0.10–0.31) vs 0.01, IQR 0.009–0.10 pmol/l; p < 0.0001). Conclusions/interpretation Among those with type 1 diabetes diagnosed under the age of 30 years, there are histologically distinct endotypes that correlate with age at diagnosis. Recognition of such differences should inform the design of future immunotherapeutic interventions designed to arrest disease progression.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01
       
  • Prediction models for development of retinopathy in people with type 2
           diabetes: systematic review and external validation in a Dutch primary
           care setting
    • Abstract: Aims/hypothesis The aims of this study were to identify all published prognostic models predicting retinopathy risk applicable to people with type 2 diabetes, to assess their quality and accuracy, and to validate their predictive accuracy in a head-to-head comparison using an independent type 2 diabetes cohort. Methods A systematic search was performed in PubMed and Embase in December 2019. Studies that met the following criteria were included: (1) the model was applicable in type 2 diabetes; (2) the outcome was retinopathy; and (3) follow-up was more than 1 year. Screening, data extraction (using the checklist for critical appraisal and data extraction for systemic reviews of prediction modelling studies [CHARMS]) and risk of bias assessment (by prediction model risk of bias assessment tool [PROBAST]) were performed independently by two reviewers. Selected models were externally validated in the large Hoorn Diabetes Care System (DCS) cohort in the Netherlands. Retinopathy risk was calculated using baseline data and compared with retinopathy incidence over 5 years. Calibration after intercept adjustment and discrimination (Harrell’s C statistic) were assessed. Results Twelve studies were included in the systematic review, reporting on 16 models. Outcomes ranged from referable retinopathy to blindness. Discrimination was reported in seven studies with C statistics ranging from 0.55 (95% CI 0.54, 0.56) to 0.84 (95% CI 0.78, 0.88). Five studies reported on calibration. Eight models could be compared head-to-head in the DCS cohort (N = 10,715). Most of the models underestimated retinopathy risk. Validating the models against different severities of retinopathy, C statistics ranged from 0.51 (95% CI 0.49, 0.53) to 0.89 (95% CI 0.88, 0.91). Conclusions/interpretation Several prognostic models can accurately predict retinopathy risk in a population-based type 2 diabetes cohort. Most of the models include easy-to-measure predictors enhancing their applicability. Tailoring retinopathy screening frequency based on accurate risk predictions may increase the efficiency and cost-effectiveness of diabetic retinopathy care. Registration PROSPERO registration ID CRD42018089122
      PubDate: 2020-06-01
       
  • Dominant gut Prevotella copri in gastrectomised non-obese diabetic
           Goto–Kakizaki rats improves glucose homeostasis through enhanced FXR
           signalling
    • Abstract: Aims/hypothesis Drug and surgical-based therapies in type 2 diabetes are associated with altered gut microbiota architecture. Here we investigated the role of the gut microbiome in improved glucose homeostasis following bariatric surgery. Methods We carried out gut microbiome analyses in gastrectomised (by vertical sleeve gastrectomy [VSG]) rats of the Goto–Kakizaki (GK) non-obese model of spontaneously occurring type 2 diabetes, followed by physiological studies in the GK rat. Results VSG in the GK rat led to permanent improvement of glucose tolerance associated with minor changes in the gut microbiome, mostly characterised by significant enrichment of caecal Prevotella copri. Gut microbiota enrichment with P. copri in GK rats through permissive antibiotic treatment, inoculation of gut microbiota isolated from gastrectomised GK rats, and direct inoculation of P. copri, resulted in significant improvement of glucose tolerance, independent of changes in body weight. Plasma bile acids were increased in GK rats following inoculation with P. copri and P. copri-enriched microbiota from VSG-treated rats; the inoculated GK rats then showed increased liver glycogen and upregulated expression of Fxr (also known as Nr1h4), Srebf1c, Chrebp (also known as Mlxipl) and Il10 and downregulated expression of Cyp7a1. Conclusions Our data underline the impact of intestinal P. copri on improved glucose homeostasis through enhanced bile acid metabolism and farnesoid X receptor (FXR) signalling, which may represent a promising opportunity for novel type 2 diabetes therapeutics.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01
       
  • Weight change and sulfonylurea therapy are related to 3 year change in
           microvascular function in people with type 2 diabetes
    • Abstract: Aims/hypothesis Although cardiovascular disease is the biggest cause of death in people with diabetes, microvascular complications have a significant impact on quality of life and financial burden of the disease. Little is known about the progression of microvascular dysfunction in the early stages of type 2 diabetes before the occurrence of clinically apparent complications. We aimed to explore the determinants of endothelial-dependent and -independent microvascular function progression over a 3 year period, in people with and without both diabetes and few clinical microvascular complications. Methods Demographics were collected in 154 participants with type 2 diabetes and in a further 99 participants without type 2 diabetes. Skin microvascular endothelium-dependent response to iontophoresis of acetylcholine and endothelium-independent responses to sodium nitroprusside were measured using laser Doppler fluximetry. All assessments were repeated 3 years later. Results People with type 2 diabetes had impaired endothelial-dependent microvascular response compared with those without (AUC 93.9 [95% CI 88.1, 99.4] vs 111.9 [102.3, 121.4] arbitrary units [AU] × min, p < 0.001, for those with vs without diabetes, respectively). Similarly, endothelial-independent responses were attenuated in those with diabetes (63.2 [59.2, 67.2] vs 75.1 [67.8, 82.4] AU × min, respectively, p = 0.002). Mean microvascular function declined over 3 years in both groups to a similar degree (pinteraction 0.74 for response to acetylcholine and 0.69 for response to sodium nitroprusside). In those with diabetes, use of sulfonylurea was associated with greater decline (p = 0.022 after adjustment for co-prescriptions, change in HbA1c and weight), whereas improving glycaemic control was associated with less decline of endothelial-dependent microvascular function (p = 0.03). Otherwise, the determinants of microvascular decline were similar in those with and without diabetes. The principal determinant of change in microvascular function in the whole population was weight change over 3 years, such that those that lost ≥5% weight had very little decline in either endothelial-dependent or -independent function compared with those that were weight stable, whereas those who gained weight had a greater decline in function (change in endothelial-dependent function was 1.2 [95% CI −13.2, 15.7] AU × min in those who lost weight; −15.8 [−10.5, −21.0] AU × min in those with stable weight; and −37.8 [−19.4, −56.2] AU × min in those with weight gain; ptrend < 0.001). This association of weight change with change in endothelial function was driven by people with diabetes; in people without diabetes, the relationship was nonsignificant. Conclusions/interpretation Over 3 years, physiological change in weight was the greatest predictor of change in microvascular function.
      PubDate: 2020-06-01
       
  • Up front
    • PubDate: 2020-05-04
       
 
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