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SOCRATES
Number of Followers: 46  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2347-2146 - ISSN (Online) 2347-6869
Published by SOCRATES Homepage  [1 journal]
  • A New Critical Notice of Robin Cook’s Medical Thriller
           ‘Coma’
    • Authors: Jasmine Fernandez; Upendra C, Nayak Amarjeet
      Abstract: This paper is an exploration of the medical thriller Coma often categorized as popular fiction through a grotesque lens. This study enables to delineate how grotesquery sustains and reinforces the relevance of fiction. Giving space to anxious imaginations about medicine and technology, these texts cannot be dismissed altogether as ‘wrong sort of fiction’ as suggested by Catherine Belling in her critique of Coma. Therefore, the paper argues that the creative audacity of grotesque equips it doubly as a reflection of an anxious society and also as a ‘boundary creature’ as opined by Frances S Connelly. Using the idea of grotesque as hybrid creature, that is as one entity which has several incompatible components jumbled together to construe meaning and sense, its emotional effects on the readers are justified. This paper takes Coma as an instance of medical thrillers and examines the various ways grotesque is embedded in the narrative. The paper concludes by suggesting the genre by extension is grotesque. Thus medical thriller becomes a space for new imaginations and inclusivity that can bring possible progress to humanity while still keeping a control over human experimentation ethics that powerful institutions may or may not employ. The idea that pervades this study is that grotesquery is employed as a template to translate meanings and interpretations of medical thrillers. Through multiple responses as elicited by the grotesque, these thrillers engage with readers differently and hence produce varied responses. This enables us to project the importance and usefulness of the medical thriller genre.
      DOI : 10.5958/2347-6869.2018.00012.2
      PubDate: Sun, 28 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Semiotics of Love in Suhrawardi’s Allegorical Philosophy
    • Authors: Kouchnani Ghasemali; Nadia Maftouni
      Abstract: In his allegorical fictions, Shaykh al-Ishraq Suhrawardi conveys multiple mystical issues one most important of which is love. Also included in his theory of love is the concept of rationality. Fairly surprisingly, for Suhrawardi love in the mystical dimension goes to the heart of rationality. The guiding idea is that the hero of Suhrawardi’s allegorical treatises is a wayfarer who loves God, looking for the right way to the Divine. This love is to be some sort of spiritual emotion rather than a passionate love. Our claim would be proved by analyzing Suhrawardi’s fictions, decoding the allegories. On his way to God, the wayfarer may become waylaid by his own perceptions, i.e., five internal and five external senses. The wayfarer, however, must overcome these senses, that is, he should not be overwhelmed by his perceptions. These ten senses are symbolized in “On the Reality of Love” by five chambers and five gates, in “Treatise on Towers” by ten towers, in “A Tale of Occidental Exile” by ten graves, in “The Simurgh’s Shrill Cry” by ten flyers, and in “The Red Intellect” by ten wardens. And finally, the wayfarer conquers all of them.
      DOI : 10.5958/2347-6869.2018.00013.4
      PubDate: Sun, 28 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The metaphysics of the Time-Machine
    • Authors: Schismenos Alexandros
      Abstract: The concept of time-travel is a modern idea which combines the imaginary signification of rational domination, the imaginary signification of technological omnipotence, the imaginary concept of eternity and the imaginary desire for immortality. It is a synthesis of central conceptual schemata of techno-science, such as the linearity and homogeneity of time, the radical separation of subjectivity from the world, the radical separation of the individual from his/her social-historical environment. The emergence of this idea, its spread during the 20th century as a major theme of science fiction literature alongside its dissemination as a scientific hypothesis, its popularity with both the public and the scientific community, are indications of the religious role of techno-science.  It is my opinion, finally, that, as a chimera, time-travel is non-feasible and impossible. In order to support my claims, I will briefly outline the origins of the time-travel concept and its epistemological and metaphysical/ontological conditions. If these conditions prove to be absurd, the logical impossibility of time-travel will have been demonstrated.
      DOI : 10.5958/2347-6869.2018.00014.6
      PubDate: Sun, 28 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Game Theory and its Application to Penology
    • Authors: Michelle L. Blakely; Curtis R. Blakely
      Abstract: Game theory is the study of the interactions that occur between rational decision-makers and the dynamics that influence strategic behaviors. Paramount to this approach is the realization that an individual’s decisions are often influenced by the actions and/or anticipated actions of others. Of particular importance is Game Theory’s capacity to explain the prison’s disinterest and seeming inability to successfully promote offender rehabilitation. Herein the relationship existing between prisons and prisoners is viewed as a “game” designed to prevent an inmate “win”. As such, contemporary prisoners have (in protest) chosen to oppose all forms of correctional intervention even when doing so is personally detrimental.
      DOI : 10.5958/2347-6869.2018.00015.8
      PubDate: Sun, 28 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Crises of integration in Africa
    • Authors: Rotimi Adeforiti
      Abstract: The paper used secondary data in which newspapers, Journal articles, textbooks, documents, etc. are reviewed and analyzed in identifying the factors responsible for the crises of integration in the Nigeria federal system. These are with the intention of providing information on the crises of integration in Nigeria.
      DOI : 10.5958/2347-6869.2018.00016.X
      PubDate: Sun, 28 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Development and Practice of Citizenship and Citizenship Rights in
           Ethiopia
    • Authors: Gizachew Wondie Gifayehu
      Abstract: Instilling democracy on an unshakable ground in a given society is the main goals of political leaders and political philosophers. This process on its base needs an educated citizen that clearly understands and develops an inherent character about one’s own rights and responsibilities. At its core, ‘Citizenship’ is the legal status of citizens which advocate and empower citizenship rights in the political system. At minimum, there will be the right to be domiciled in and take part in the political decision-making process of the state, usually through voting. Forming an inclusive and responsible citizen is also one of the basic and critical point throughout the history of state formation of Ethiopia. Especially, in multicultural society like Ethiopia, social, cultural, economic and political exclusion will be the basic problem that the country faces. Maybe it will be possible to reduce these social problems through the introduction of different legal statements and rules. However, the legal inclusion can never be a guarantee for developing and ensuring social and cultural inclusion of individuals in a given political community. Rather, educating and creating awareness about citizenship and citizenship rights can possibly mitigate such problems from the grassroot level. Bearing this in mind, the paper attempt to made general assessment and explication about the development and practice of citizenship and citizenship rights in Ethiopia. In doing so, different literature, legal documents, governmental reports and records were used as sources of data. Accordingly, this paper made an assessment, though not made a conclusion, about practice and development and practice of citizenship in to four basic periods namely, pre-Emperor Haile Selassie, Haile Selassie, Derg and the EPRDF.
      DOI : 10.5958/2347-6869.2018.00017.1
      PubDate: Sun, 28 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Water Management in India
    • Authors: Inderjeet Singh Sodhi
      Abstract: Water is a foundation of life and livelihoods and is a key to sustainable development. Successful water management will serve as a foundation for the achievement of many of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), as well as for SDG 6—which is to ‘ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all’. India with 2.4% of the world’s total area has 16% of the world’s population but has only 4% of the total available fresh water. The total water available from precipitation in the country in a year is about 4,000 cubic km. The availability of surface water and replenishable groundwater is 1,869 cubic km. Out of this only 60 per cent can be put to beneficial uses. Thus, the total utilisable water resource in the country is only 1,122 cubic km. This clearly indicates the need for water resource development, conservation, and optimum use. While the total water resource availability in the country remains constant, the per capita availability of water has been steadily declining since the year 1951 due to population growth. The twin indicators of water scarcity are per capita availability and storage. A per capita availability of less than 1700 cubic metres (m3) is termed as a water-stressed condition while if per capita availability falls below 1000 m3, it is termed as a water scarcity condition. Safe and clean drinking water is one of the biggest problems in India. There is a shortage of water for agriculture and industrial sectors also. The main issue is how to make better water management in India. Unplanned development and management of water are leading to water scarcity, an economic and environmental strain which may increase manifold in the coming decades. The main issues and challenges for water management in India are (i) Deterioration of Water Quality (ii) Water Conservation (iii) Lack of Safe and clean drinking water (iv) Insufficient water for irrigation. The Ministry of Water Resource, River Development & Ganga Rejuvenation has been allocated the subject of regulation and development of inter-State rivers, implementation of awards of Tribunals, water quality assessment, bilateral and external assistance and co-operation programmes in the field of water resources and matters relating to rivers. In the 21st century India, there is a declining availability of fresh water and increasing demand, the need has arisen to conserve and effectively manage this precious life-giving a resource for sustainable development. There is need to take quick steps and make effective policies and laws (no doubt, there is water policy 2002, but that is not dealing effectively with these issues), and adopt effective measures for its conservation. There is a need to encourage watershed development, rainwater harvesting, water recycling and reuse, and conjunctive use of water for sustainable water supply in the long run.
      DOI : 10.5958/2347-6869.2018.00018.3
      PubDate: Sun, 28 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Developing sustainable Cities
    • Authors: Kandpal Prakash Chand
      Abstract: Urbanization is generally seen as a symbol of development and progress. But, the unplanned and unregulated expansions of urban areas in India have proved disastrous to both man and nature. Keeping in mind the severity of the problem policy-makers from time to time have formulated and experimented a numbers of measures to control environmental pollution. Delhi has been one of the biggest victims of environmental pollution. The Government of Delhi has tried to protect the environment of the city by implementing measures like, closures of polluted industries, introduction of CNG as a clean fuel, ban on crackers, and experiment of odd-even scheme to control vehicular pollution. This paper will primarily highlight such actions and initiatives undertaken by the Government of Delhi to combat the menace of pollution in Delhi.
      DOI : 10.5958/2347-6869.2018.00019.5
      PubDate: Sun, 28 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Public-Private Partnership in School Education in India
    • Authors: Isha
      Abstract: In India, Public-Private Partnership (PPP) practice has been adopted in all the major sectors, i.e., social and commercial infrastructure, energy, communication, transport and water sanitation. It is no longer confined to the development of roads, airports and railways and so on but has also been expanded to the human development sectors particularly education and health. In the educational sector, it is a method of delivering quality educational services through the government with the greater involvement of the private sector including non-governmental organisations, business corporations and communities in the finance and management of services. The expansion of PPP Model in education sector will be a step forward towards the achievement of improved learning outcomes. Since the implementation of Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE), Act 2009 in India which provides for free and compulsory education to every child till the completion of elementary education, the quality of education has been decreased. Though, the Act was enacted to provide equitable education of good quality but teaching and learning have fallen further. This paper presents the concept of Public-Private Partnership and also evaluates its progress in school education in India.
      DOI : 10.5958/2347-6869.2018.00020.1
      PubDate: Sun, 28 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Virtue of Violent Force and Retaliation
    • Authors: Temesgen Sisay Assemrie
      Abstract: Commonly, employing violent force and retaliation are conceived as irrational and uncivilized ways of human existence. Thus, they are considered morally wrong acts. But, under certain conditions, employing violent force and retaliation can be morally justifiable. In this Article, I tried to illustrate the moral justifiability of employing violence for the purpose of self-defence, freedom, equality, the balance of justice, and maximizing the benefits of the majority in number. By combining both moral and political theories, I attempted to analyze the moral acceptability of violent force and retaliation at the individual and community level; and in the arena of national and international politics. Even though many research works have been done in this area, no one tried to provide a comprehensive analysis of the moral justifiability of violence and retaliation. To fill this gap, I used liberal, Marxian, Retributive and utilitarian theories in combination. Thus, this Article is well organized and elaborated to provide an important background awareness and direction to other researchers on the need of using combined theories (moral and political) to fully conceptualize the moral goodness and natural ground of utilizing violent force and retaliation in certain political circumstances.
      DOI : 10.5958/2347-6869.2018.00021.3
      PubDate: Sun, 28 Apr 2019 00:00:00 +000
       
 
 
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