Journal Cover Journal of Pediatric and Neonatal Individualized Medicine
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2281-0692
   Published by Hygeia Press Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Microbiota and probiotics

    • Authors: Mara Corpino
      Abstract: Microbiota, the collection of microorganisms peacefully coexisting with their human host, colonize virtually every surface of the human body exposed to the external environment. The complex community of microorganisms living in the digestive tract, the gut microbiota, is determined by the delivery mode, prematurity, sex, genetics and subsequent environmental exposures (diet, drugs).
      It has also been claimed that the constant interaction between the host and the gut microbiota influences the health of the host. Probiotics are defined as live non-pathogenic microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts can replicate and colonize in sufficient numbers the gastrointestinal tract. This is the main reason for the use of probiotics in different clinical settings where they may act as biomodulators of the intestinal microbiota. The therapeutic efficacy of probiotics has been evaluated in randomized controlled trials for various diseases. In this paper, the usage and the efficacy of probiotics in different conditions like necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, diarrhea, functional gastrointestinal disorders, inflammatory bowel disease, allergies are analyzed.
      The usefulness of a probiotic treatment is affected by many factors including: bacterial strain, duration of administration, disease and age and not all products marketed as probiotics provide the same safety and efficacy. Therefore, comparative studies to assess the most effective formulations, timing and the optimal length of therapy are mandatory.
      PubDate: 2017-06-09
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Critical questions on nutrition of preterm infants

    • Authors: Fabio Mosca, Maria Lorella Giannì, Paola Roggero, Camilla Menis, Laura Morlacchi, Nadia Liotto, Beatrice Bracco
      Abstract: Infants born preterm represent a nutritional emergency that must be addressed immediately in order to avoid/limit the development of nutritional deficits that lead to postnatal growth retardation. When taking care of preterm infants from a nutritional point of view, it must be taken into consideration that promotion of growth is achieved by the accomplishment of their high nutritional needs, that become even more demanding with the occurrence of comorbidities. Identification of the factors that determine and/or affect nutrient requirements is therefore mandatory. A full understanding of the most appropriate biological setting that should be used for establishing preterm infants nutritional requirements is desirable. A deeper knowledge with regard to these points would allow for the provision of appropriate amount of specific essential nutrients, avoiding the under- or overexposure to certain nutrients, and for the individualization of nutritional care of preterm infants.
      The avoidance of early malnutrition is of major importance since adequate postnatal growth has been associated with improvement of later neurodevelopment outcome. Limitation of extrauterine growth restriction prevents the need for rapid catch-up growth after discharge which, in turns, has been linked to later adverse metabolic consequences. Increasing evidence has indicated that postnatal growth retardation is accompanied by a fat-free mass deficit, probably related to immature metabolic mechanisms, delayed amino acid administration and protein intakes lower than recommendations. The potential long-lasting effects of these body composition modifications on future health, both in terms of neurodevelopment outcome and metabolic risk, are still under investigation.

      PubDate: 2017-06-05
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Miracles and mysteries of breast milk: from Egyptians to the 3 M’s
           (Metabolomics, Microbiomics, Multipotent stem cells)

    • Authors: Vassilios Fanos, Roberta Pintus, Alessandra Reali, Angelica Dessì
      Abstract: The ancient Egyptians considered breast milk the nectar of Gods that could give life, strength and ensure a very long existence. Nowadays, it is well known that breast milk is a dynamic bioactive mixture that is tailored upon the needs of the neonates. In fact breast milk contains nutritional substances (such as lipids, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins and minerals), bioactive substances (such as hormones, cytokines, chemokines, immunoglobulins, leucocytes) and, according to the newest works, bacteria (microbiome of maternal milk) and multipotent stem cells.
      Metabolomics is one of the newest “omics” sciences that make it possible to have a snapshot of the metabolic state of an individual or a biufluid. Now about 10 papers have been published in the last 3 years on metabolomics in human milk.
      Human breast milk was mistakenly thought to be sterile for almost a century, but nowadays using the modern technologies it is well known that it is “contaminated”: in fact investigators we know that bacteria can be found in breast milk speaks about maternal milk microbiota. A breastfed baby is thought to ingest up to 10 milions of live bacteria per day.  There are as much as 600 species of bacteria in maternal milk.
      The possible future applications of stem cells found in are potentially endless: a tailored regenerative medicine with less ethical problems and better outcomes for the patients could be developed.
      PubDate: 2017-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Promotion and support of breastfeeding: which role for a hospital
           portal'

    • Authors: Giuseppe Giordano
      Abstract: The encouragement and the support of breastfeeding are public health priorities. Since 2013 “Ospedali Riuniti” of Palermo has been running a portal to promote initiation and duration of breastfeeding. The “Allattamenti Riuniti” portal provides women with information and individualized answers in case of breastfeeding problems. The activity of the service between April 2013 and January 2017 has been assessed. We illustrate the characteristics of mothers and the kind of questions asked.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
 
 
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