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  Journal of Fluids
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2356-7376
   Published by Hindawi Publishing Corporation Homepage  [403 journals]
  • Rheological Behavior of Physiological Pulsatile Flow through a Model
           Arterial Stenosis with Moving Wall

    • Abstract: The paper presents a numerical investigation of non-Newtonian modeling effects on unsteady periodic flows in a two-dimensional (2D) constricted channel with moving wall using finite volume method. The governing Navier-Stokes equations have been modified using the Cartesian curvilinear coordinates to handle complex geometries, such as, arterial stenosis. The physiological pulsatile flow has been used at the inlet position as an inlet velocity. The flow is characterized by the Reynolds numbers 300, 500, and 750 that are appropriate for large arteries. The investigations have been carried out to characterize four different non-Newtonian constitutive equations of blood, namely, the (i) Carreau, (ii) Cross, (iii) Modified-Casson, and (iv) Quemada. In these four models, blood viscosity is a nonlinear function of shear rates. The Newtonian model has been investigated to study the physics of fluid and the results are compared with the non-Newtonian viscosity models. The numerical results are presented in terms of streamwise velocity, wall shear stress, pressure distribution as well as the vorticity, streamlines, and vector plots indicating recirculation zones at the poststenotic region. Comparison has also been illustrated in terms of wall pressure and wall shear stress for the Cross model considering different amplitudes of wall oscillation.
      PubDate: Wed, 10 Jun 2015 12:17:41 +000
  • Separation Criteria for Off-Axis Binary Drop Collisions

    • Abstract: Off-axis collisions of two equal size droplets are investigated numerically. Various governing processes in such collisions are discussed. Several commonly used theoretical models that predict the onset of separation after collision are evaluated based on the processes observed numerically. A separation criterion based on droplet deformation is found. The numerical results are used to assess the validity of some commonly used phenomenological models for drop separation after collision. Also, a critical Weber number for the droplet separation after grazing collision is reported. The effect of Reynolds number is investigated and regions of permanent coalescence and separation are plotted in a Weber-Reynolds number plane for high impact parameter collisions.
      PubDate: Mon, 25 May 2015 06:08:33 +000
  • Unsteady/Steady Hydromagnetic Convective Flow between Two Vertical Walls
           in the Presence of Variable Thermal Conductivity

    • Abstract: Unsteady as well as steady natural convection flow in a vertical channel in the presence of uniform magnetic field applied normal to the flow region and temperature dependent variable thermal conductivity is studied. The nonlinear partial differential equations governing the flow have been solved numerically using unconditionally stable and convergent semi-implicit finite difference scheme. For steady case, approximate solutions have been derived for velocity, temperature, skin friction, and the rate of heat transfer using perturbation series method. Results of the computations for velocity, temperature, skin friction, and the rate of heat transfer are presented graphically and discussed quantitatively for various parameters embedded in the problem. An excellent agreement was found during the numerical computations between the steady-state approximate solutions and unsteady numerical solutions at steady-state time. In addition, comparison with previously published work is performed and the results agree well.
      PubDate: Wed, 20 May 2015 06:24:46 +000
  • Effects of Heat and Mass Transfer on the Peristaltic Transport of MHD
           Couple Stress Fluid through Porous Medium in a Vertical Asymmetric Channel

    • Abstract: The intrauterine fluid flow due to myometrial contractions is peristaltic type motion and the myometrial contractions may occur in both symmetric and asymmetric directions. The channel asymmetry is produced by choosing the peristaltic wave train on the walls to have different amplitude, and phase due to the variation of channel width, wave amplitudes and phase differences. In this paper, we study the effects of heat and mass transfer on the peristaltic transport of magnetohydrodynamic couple stress fluid through homogeneous porous medium in a vertical asymmetric channel. The flow is investigated in the wave frame of reference moving with constant velocity with the wave. The governing equations of couple stress fluid have been simplified under the long wave length approximation. The exact solutions of the resultant governing equations have been derived for the stream function, temperature, concentration, pressure gradient, and heat transfer coefficients. The pressure difference and frictional forces at both the walls are calculated using numerical integration. The influence of diverse flow parameters on the fluid velocity, pressure gradient, temperature, concentration, pressure difference, frictional forces, heat transfer coefficients, and trapping has been discussed. The graphical results are also discussed for four different wave shapes. It is noticed that increasing of couple stresses and heat generation parameter increases the size of the trapped bolus. The heat generation parameter increases the peristaltic pumping and temperature.
      PubDate: Mon, 09 Mar 2015 06:43:51 +000
  • Phase Separation Behavior and System Properties of Aqueous Two-Phase
           Systems with Polyethylene Glycol and Different Salts: Experiment and

    • Abstract: The phase separation behaviors of PEG1000/sodium citrate, PEG4000/sodium citrate, PEG1000/ammonium sulfate, and PEG4000/ammonium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems were investigated, respectively. There are two distinct situations for the phase separation rate in the investigated aqueous two-phase systems: one state is top-continuous phase with slow phase separation rate and strong bottom-continuous phase with fast phase separation rate and weak volume ratio dependence. The system properties such as density, viscosity, and interfacial tension between top and bottom phases which have effects on the phase separation rate of aqueous two-phase systems were measured. The property parameter differences between the two phases increased with increasing tie line length and then improved the phase separation rate. Moreover, a modified correlation equation including the phase separation rate, tie line length, and physical properties of the four aqueous two-phase systems has been proposed and successfully tested in the bottom-continuous phase, whose coefficients were estimated through regression analysis. The predicted results of PEG1000/sodium citrate aqueous two-phase systems were verified through the stationary phase retention in the cross-axis countercurrent chromatography.
      PubDate: Tue, 24 Feb 2015 16:31:35 +000
  • Magnetohydrodynamic Mixed Convection Stagnation-Point Flow of a Power-Law
           Non-Newtonian Nanofluid towards a Stretching Surface with Radiation and
           Heat Source/Sink

    • Abstract: Two-dimensional MHD mixed convection boundary layer flow of heat and mass transfer stagnation-point flow of a non-Newtonian power-law nanofluid towards a stretching surface in the presence of thermal radiation and heat source/sink is investigated numerically. The non-Newtonian nanofluid model incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. The basic transport equations are made dimensionless first and the complete nonlinear differential equations with associated boundary conditions are solved numerically by finite element method (FEM). The numerical calculations for velocity, temperature, and nanoparticles volume fraction profiles for different values of the physical parameters to display the interesting aspects of the solutions are presented graphically and discussed. The skin friction coefficient, the local Nusslet number and the Sherwood number are exhibited and examined. Our results are compatible with the existing results for a special case.
      PubDate: Thu, 19 Feb 2015 12:08:56 +000
  • Analysis of Heat and Mass Transfer on MHD Peristaltic Flow through a
           Tapered Asymmetric Channel

    • Abstract: This paper describes the peristaltic flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a tapered asymmetric channel with heat and mass transfer. The fluid is electrically conducting fluid in the presence of a uniform magnetic field. The propagation of waves on the nonuniform channel walls to have different amplitudes and phase but with the same speed is generated the tapered asymmetric channel. The assumptions of low Reynolds number and long wavelength approximations have been used to simplify the complicated problem into a relatively simple problem. Analytical expressions for velocity, temperature, and concentration have been obtained. Graphically results of the flow characteristics are also sketched for various embedded parameters of interest entering the problem and interpreted.
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Jan 2015 12:58:47 +000
  • Suction/Injection Effects on the Swirling Flow of a Reiner-Rivlin Fluid
           near a Rough Surface

    • Abstract: The similarity equations for the Bödewadt flow of a non-Newtonian Reiner-Rivlin fluid, subject to uniform suction/injection, are solved numerically. The conventional no-slip boundary conditions are replaced by corresponding partial slip boundary conditions, owing to the roughness of the infinite stationary disk. The combined effects of surface slip (), suction/injection velocity (), and cross-viscous parameter () on the momentum boundary layer are studied in detail. It is interesting to find that suction dominates the oscillations in the velocity profiles and decreases the boundary layer thickness significantly. On the other hand, injection has opposite effects on the velocity profiles and the boundary layer thickness.
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Jan 2015 10:11:28 +000
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