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Journal Cover Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy
  [6 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2332-0036 - ISSN (Online) 2332-0044
   Published by Horizon Research Publishing Homepage  [54 journals]
  • Nanoparticles as a Platform for Antimicrobial Drug Delivery

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  5  Number  3  Satish Patel   Deependra Singh   Shikha Srivastava   Manju Singh   Kamal Shah   Durgesh Nandini Chauahn   and Nagendra S Chauhan   The hasty developments in nanotechnology will have intense impact on various areas of therapeutic applications like drugs and bioactive delivery, tissue engineering, and other application. This review mainly emphasized on the nanoparticle systems for delivery of antimicrobial drug. Various antimicrobial agents have been used to kill or inhibit the growth of microbes such as bacteria, fungi and viruses. As the pharmacological actions of these drugs have been well established, feeble delivery and degradation could lead to insufficient therapeutic index and cause side effects. Nanoparticles have many advantages like small and controllable size, large surface area to mass ratio, and functionalizable structure. These properties make the nanoparticles, a suitable delivery system of antimicrobials. Along with this, it also overcomes the limitations intra-additional antimicrobial therapeutics. In last few years, development and fabrication of antimicrobial agent in nanoparticle systems has evolved as an innovative and promising alternative that increases therapeutic effectiveness and overcoming the undesirable side effects. In this chapter, we focused on the current progress and challenges in producing nanoparticle system for antimicrobial drugs delivery for the treatment of microbial diseases.
      PubDate: Sep 2017
       
  • Evaluation of the Anticonvulsant Activity of the Hydroethanolic Extract of
           Crinum scillifolium Bulbs (Amaryllidaceae) in Experimental Animals

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  5  Number  2  Koua Kadio Brou Donald   Kouakou Sylvain Landry   Yapo Adou Francis   Yapi Houphouet Felix   N'tamon Amon Diane Marina   Miezan Bile Aka Patrice   and Kouakou Gisèle Siransy   Crinum species is frequently used for the treatment of nervous disorders such as epilepsy. This study aimed to investigate the anticonvulsant activity of the hydroethanolic extract of the Crinum scillifolium bulbs in chemoconvulsant-induced seizures in mice. The anticonvulsant activity of the extract (25, 50, 100, 200 and 400mg/kg), was investigated in isoniazid (INH)-induced seizures in mice. The hydroethanolic extract protected mice from INH-induced seizures in a dose-dependent manner. 100% of protection was observed when the animals were treated with 200 and 400mg/kg of hydroethanolic extract of Crinum scillifolium. At Dose of 50 and 100mg/kg 83% protection was observed; the onset of convulsion significant was delayed, and no mortality was found of the mice against isoniazid-induced convulsion. Mice pretreated with hydroethanolic extract at the dose of 25mg/kg reduced mortality to 27% and significant delayed the onset of death (p
      PubDate: Jul 2017
       
  • Study on Prescribing Pattern of Antihypertensive Drugs in a Tertiary Care
           Hospital

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  5  Number  2  Prabhakar Adake   Nagpati Prabhakar Bhat   Roopa P Nayak   Hafis TK   Bhagyashree A   and Prajna V Raj   Objective: To analyze prescription pattern of antihypertensive drugs in patients with hypertension alone and with coexisting diseases. Methodology: A descriptive cross- sectional study was conducted in outpatient department of tertiary care hospital in south India. A total of 286 prescriptions of patients diagnosed to have hypertension with or without coexisting diseases were collected. Details of prescriptions were entered in the preformed pro forma and analyzed. Result: The study included 138 (48.25%) male and 148 (51.75%) female. Out of 286 hypertensives, 122 (42.66%) patients were having co-existing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). And remaining 164 patients (57.34%) were only hypertensives. Out of 286 patients, 227 (79.31%) patients were on monotherapy, 49 (17.13%) were on dual therapy and remaining 10 patients were on triple anti-hypertensive drugs. Among 150 antihypertensive drugs that are prescribed for hypertensive patients withT2DM, 57 (38%) were calcium channel blocker (CCB), 40 (26.66%) were angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), 31 (20.66%) were angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), 13 (8.66%) were diuretics and remaining 9 (6%) were beta blockers. Similarly, among 206 antihypertensive drugs prescribed for hypertension alone patients, 97 (47%) were CCB, 37 (17.96%) were ACEI, 31 (15%) were ARB, 26 (12.62%) were diuretics and remaining 15 (7.28%) were beta blockers. Conclusion: The study has shown that majority of patients were on monotherapy (79.31%) and calcium channel blockers were commonly prescribed for hypertension in patients with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus followed by ACE inhibitors, ARB and beta blockers.
      PubDate: Jul 2017
       
  • Erythrosine Incorporated Fast-Dissolving Patches for Dental Plaque
           Disclosing

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  5  Number  1  Prasopchai Tonglairoum   Theerasak Rojanarata   Tanasait Ngawhirunpat   Prasert Akkaramongkolporn   Ruchadaporn Kaomongkolgit   and Praneet Opanasopit   The aim of this study was to develop erythrosine-loaded electrospun polyvinyl pyrrolidone/ hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (PVP/HPβCD) fiber patches for plaque disclosing. The fiber patches had been fabricated via electrospinning process and were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD). The fiber patches were then further evaluated for wetting and integration abilities, mechanical properties, loading efficiency, loading capacity and release characteristic. These erythrosine-loaded fiber patches exhibited excellent wetting and disintegration properties and prompt released the erythrosine form the patches after contacted with saliva. These erythrosine-loaded fiber patches could be exploited as a plaque-disclosing material. However, further in vivo studies are needed for the application.
      PubDate: Apr 2017
       
  • Subchronic Amitriptyline Influences Open-field Behaviours and Spontaneous
           Working-memory in Healthy Mice

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  5  Number  1  Onaolapo Olakunle James   Olabintan Olusegun Oyewole   and Onaolapo Adejoke Yetunde   Objective: We assessed the effects of amitriptyline on open-field locomotion, stereotypic behaviours and spatial working-memory in healthy mice. Method: Five groups of mice were administered vehicle (distilled water), scopolamine (2 mg/kg), or one of three doses of amitriptyline (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg) for 21 days. Behaviours were assessed after the first and final dose of treatment. Result: Administration of the first dose of amitriptyline was associated with enhanced open-field horizontal locomotion, rearing and grooming; with repeated administration, there was suppression of horizontal locomotion and rearing. A dose-related decrease in Y-maze and radial-arm maze spatial working-memory was also observed after repeated administration. Compared to scopolamine, amitriptyline was associated with a significant reduction in open-field behaviours, but a significantly-higher spatial working-memory score. Conclusion: Repeated administration of amitriptyline in healthy mice was associated with suppression of locomotion and grooming; working-memory deficits were also observed. However, working-memory task performance is significantly better than the scopolamine group.
      PubDate: Apr 2017
       
  • Microwave Induced Solid Dispersion as a Novel Technique for Enhancing
           Dissolution Rate of Repaglinide

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2013
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  1  Number  2  Laxmikant Zawar and Sanjay Bari The aim of the present study was to enhance the solubility, dissolution rate and thus antihyperglycemic activity of a poorly soluble, BCS class II drug repaglinide, using its solid dispersions (SDs) with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000. Solid dispersions were prepared by kneading, solvent evaporation, conventional fusion method and microwave induced fusion methods. The dispersions were evaluated for various in vitro parameters such as solubility study, dissolution study, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Microwave induced solid dispersions exhibited significant improvement in solubility and dissolution rate compared to that of pure drug. Results of DSC, XRD and SEM study showed translation of crystalline form of RG to amorphous form. Thus, microwave technology offers a simple, efficient, solvent free promising alternative method to prepare solid dispersion of RG with significant enhancement of the in vitro dissolution rate.
      PubDate: Oct 2013
       
  • The Mechanism by which Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Responds to
           Interferon-α Treatment

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2013
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  1  Number  2  Emad Y. Moawad The goal of this work is to determine the mechanism by which addition of interferon-α (IFN-α ) to Dendritic Cells (DC) grown from Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) patients improves its capacity to stimulate T-lymphocyte responses, and decreases the proportion of bcr-abl positive DC. Bone marrow samples were obtained from six patients with CML and six normal donors to prepare mononuclear cells. T lymphocytes were removed, cultured without IFN-α (control sample) and with IFN-α doses of 5, 50, 250, and 500 U/mL. After a culture period of 14 days, DC were harvested and added to freshly allogeneic T cells by a ratio 1:10 for Mixed Lymphocyte Reaction (MLR) assay to identify energy of those mixed cultures (EMLR). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed to quantify the frequency of bcr-abl in fresh samples from newly diagnosed CML patient with cultured DC without IFN-α and with IFN-α dose of 250 U/mL. Variations in EMLR of mixed cultures were attributed to each of the difference in energy of the cultured DC (EDC) obtained from IFN-αdoses, and either of rising the histologic grade (HG) of those cultures due to cell cycle arrest (ECCA) that cause treatment failure or reducing HG due to energy released by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Ψmito ) activating apoptosis in bcr-abl positive cells. Percentage of decrease in bcr-abl positive DC in FISH analysis was 100% identical to that in each of EDC and Ψmito (p≤0.001). Patient-specific approaches that account for HG variations should enable more accurate dose estimates. IFN-α therapy is an energy balance process in which CML cells respond according to the mechanism of the following model: EMLR=HG + EDC & ECCA or Ψmito = Abs (HG.Control-HG).
      PubDate: Oct 2013
       
  • Some Pharmaceutical Recipes for the Treatment of the Bubonic Pest
           Contained into the Kitab Al-Tahsil of Ibn Khatima (D.1369)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2013
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  1  Number  2  Luisa Maria Arvide Cambra This paper is a study of fragments of the work entitled in Arabic Tahsil gharad al-qasid fi-tafsil al-marad al-wafid, which was written in the 14th century by the well known Spanish physician Ibn Khatima and which refers to the epidemics of the pest, the terrible pandemic that struck humanity in the 14th century and devastated Asia, Africa and Europe at that time. The article includes an Introduction about the author and the medical and pharmaceutical significance of the work, as well as a section containing the English translation of a few pages of Part VI, according to the Arabic manuscript 1785 from the Library of El Escorial, relating to the treatment of disease, that contain interesting remedies and recipes from the pharmaceutical and the medical points of view.
      PubDate: Oct 2013
       
  • Mortality Associated with the Use of Inappropriate Drugs According Beers
           Criteria: a Systematic Review

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2013
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  1  Number  2  Karina Sichieri Adriano R.Baldacin Rodrigues Juliana. A.Takahashi Silvia Regina Secoli Moacyr Roberto Cuce Nobre Martinez Altava Mónica and Fernández Garrido Julio The aims of this systematic review are to identify and analyse the scientist literature available evidence about the use of potentially inappropriate medications, according to the Beers Criteria, that is associated with mortality in the elderly people. It have been made a search of publications in most traditional electronic databases among the scientific community (Pubmed / Medline, EMBASE and Web of Science) and it have been selected publications that obey the criteria of 'observational study', 'elderly' and 'Beers Criteria' and that they had as a result the mortality of the study population. After publications selection it proceeded to dump data by two researchers independently to avoid selection bias. The methodological quality of the selected studies was assessed by the checklist Newcastle-Ottawa. The final sample of this systematic review has been made up of 17 studies published in Pubmed and Embase databases majority, 8 of which make up the meta-analysis. In descriptive synthesis has been observed that most of the studies have a level of evidence IV (94'1%) with cohort delineation (94'1%) and non-probability sampling technique (70'6%).Data collection was prospective in 58'8% of cases, with a sample (n) greater than 1000 elderly (64'7%) and followed up for 6 to 12 months (52'9%).The meta-analysis involving 90.611 elders informed that users who take inappropriate drug according to the Beers Criteria had a higher relative risk for mortality outcome (RR = 1.11, 95% CI 1'01-1'22 P = 0'023), regardless of study stage, comorbidity presence, polypharmacy or type of inappropriate medication used.
      PubDate: Oct 2013
       
  • Evaluation of Efficacy and Safety of Premixed Parenteral Nutrition versus
           Customized Parenteral Nutrition in a Large Teaching Hospital

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2013
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  1  Number  2  Teresa  Pounds Annesha  Lovett Susiana  Eng Khalid  Iqbal Israel  Orija and Jessica  Chmielewski In the last two decades, there has been a significant degree of controversy surrounding the use of standardized parenteral solutions. Opponents of standardized parenteral nutrition claim that individualized parenteral nutrition is necessary because the critically ill patient requires daily manipulation of macro- and micro-nutrients secondary to stress associated with complex ailments. The purpose of this study was to determine if premixed parenteral nutrition solutions were equally safe and efficacious, while being less costly, in managing parenteral nutrition of patients at a large metropolitan teaching hospital, as compared to customized parenteral nutrition solutions. This was a randomized controlled trial with no placebo involving 100 patients requiring central parenteral nutrition. Consenting patients received either customized parenteral nutrition or premixed double chamber parenteral nutrition containing protein, carbohydrates and electrolytes. Vitamins and trace elements were added as needed. Each subject enrolled in the study was followed until the parenteral nutrition was either discontinued, the patient was transferred from the facility, or the patient expired during the study. Premixed and customized parenteral nutrition solutions were shown to be equally efficacious in patients as their blood glucose, fluid status, nutritional markers, serum electrolytes, phosphate, and magnesium values were within normal limits (p
      PubDate: Oct 2013
       
  • Fabrication of Specially Designed Novel Mould for Casting of Perindopril
           Erbumine Mouth Dissolving Film

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2013
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  1  Number  2  Vivekanand K. Chatap Abhijit M. Karale Pramod Wagh and Prashant K. Deshmukh In present investigation attempt was made to designed novel mould with aim to overcome the problems occurs during casting of mouth dissolving films. Placebo and Perindopril Erbumine containing mouth dissolving film (MDF) were prepared with Pullulan, HPMC E-15 as film forming agent and other excipient by solvent casting method on specially design mould and regular petri dish. The HPMC E-15 125mg and Propylene Glycol 30 μ ml as plasticizer contains MDFs formulation (H2) were found to be optimized when compared with Pullulan on the basis of physical evaluation parameters like weight variation, drug, thickness in the range 0.01-0.03 mm, disintegration time in
      PubDate: Oct 2013
       
  • Best Practices in Tapering Methods in Patients Undergoing Opioid Therapy

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2013
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  1  Number  2  John Suttner Annesha White Lovett and Kimberly Vernachio The prescribing of opioids for chronic non-cancer pain has escalated over recent years. This pattern has led to a larger number of patients who require discontinuation of opioid therapy. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of best practices for tapering opioid therapy in patients. A systematic review of the current literature concerning tapering of opioid therapy was performed from 2000-2013. 24 studies were selected for review. Considerable variation was found with regard to taper rate and duration. Taper rate ranged from an initial 20-50% daily reduction in opioid dose to a 5% reduction in dose every one to four weeks. The most common titration rate was a 10% reduction in the daily dose each day. General themes were to individualize taper parameters to ensure patient compliance and presentation of withdrawal symptoms, to slow the rate of the taper to about 1/3 of the original dose, and advise a referral of addicted and complex patients to appropriate specialists for treatment. The majority of available information on tapering opioid therapy consists of clinical guidelines that have been created based on practice experience. There is a need for additional experimental research to develop a more standardized taper protocol.
      PubDate: Oct 2013
       
  • Analysis of Anti-Xa Concentrations in Patients on Treatment Dose
           Enoxaparin: A Retrospective Chart Review

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2013
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  1  Number  2  Lauren Levine Nicole Pallme Erik Angelotti and Dane Shiltz The purpose of this retrospective chart review was to determine the correlation between full weight-based enoxaparin use and the frequency of anti-Xa concentrations within the defined therapeutic range; to ascertain if anti-Xa monitoring is being appropriately ordered in relation to the timing of enoxaparin dose (after 3 consistent therapeutic doses and 3-5 hours post-dose); to establish if the evidence-based recommended dose adjustment protocol that was studied in the pediatric population was utilized; and if this yielded anti-Xa concentrations within the target range (0.6 – 1.1 IU/mL) for an adult population. The data may suggest a lack of correlation between BMI and whether or not the anti-Xa concentration is within the therapeutic range. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm this finding, and to determine the utility of the available dose adjustment nomogram.
      PubDate: Oct 2013
       
  • Formulation and Development of Diltiazem Hydrochloride Sustained Release
           Alginate Beads by Ionotropic External Gelation Technique

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2013
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  1  Number  3  Mokale Vinod   Naik Jitendra   Khairnar Gayatri   and Khairnar Gokul   Background of the research: Diltiazem HCL (DTZ), has short biological half life of 3-4 h, requires rather high frequency of administration.Due to repeated administration there may be a chances of patient incompliance and toxicity problems. Objective: The objective of study was to develop sustained release alginate beads of DTZ for reduction in dosing frequency, high bioavailability & better patient compliance. Methodology: Alginate beads were prepared by ionotropic external gelation technique using CaCl2 as cross linking agent. Prepared beads were evaluated for % yield, encapsulation efficiency, swelling index in 0.1N HCL and 7.4 phosphate buffer, drug release study, FT-IR, FE-SEM analysis. In order to improve %EE and drug release, pectin, methyl cellulose and locust bean gum were used as co-polymers along with sodium alginate. Result: Yield was found to be in the range of 72.41-96.43. % EE was 47.3% (F1), 71.1% (F5). In pH 7.4, beads showed increase in swelling index as compare to in 0.1 N HCL. Among use of different copolymers, locust bean gum sustained the DTZ release up to 55.98% (F6) in 12 hrs. FT-IR analysis revealed no drug excipient interference. Prepared beads were found to be rough, with cracks and pores on the surface. Conclusion: It was concluded that DTZ could be successfully entrapped and sustained in sodium alginate beads with use of locust bean gum.
      PubDate: Dec 2013
       
  • Analgesic Activity of Aqueous Extract of Citrullus Lanatus Peels

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2013
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  1  Number  3  Amrita Kumari   Juhi Rao   Jyoti Kumari   Neha Sharma    Pankaj Jain   Vivek Dave   and Swapnil Sharma   The present study was undertaken to evaluate the analgesic activity of aqueous extract of Citrullus lanatus peels (AECL) using Eddy’s hot plate method. The AECL produced a significant analgesic activity in a dose dependent manner. All the doses of AECL (250, 500 and 1000mg/kg) had shown analgesic activity. The reaction time obtained for these three doses after 90 minutes of drug administration was found out to be 5.15 mins, 8.92 mins and 10.82 mins respectively which was comparable to Diclofenac sodium (5 mg/kg) that showed the reaction time of 12.36 mins. It was concluded that the AECL has good analgesic potential and may be adopted as alternative to conventional NSAIDS.
      PubDate: Dec 2013
       
  • A Review on Colorectal Cancer

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2013
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  1  Number  3  Maryam Bincy Thomas   and S.K.Sharma, Lalit Singh   Cancers of the colon and rectum are the second leading cause of cancer death. Fifty percent of the colorectal cancer occurs in either the lower (sigmoid) colon or the rectum and should be easy to detect at an early stage. The majority of the colon cancers are not inherited, but rather are considered sporadic, having developed from an accumulation of mutations throughout the course of a lifetime. The epidemiological risk factors for cancers, other than genetic risk factors, include dietary components, such as the amount of fat and fiber in the diet, intake of calcium, vitamins of the antioxidant class, NSAIDS such as aspirin and specific inhibitors of cyclo-oxygenase. The risk of colon cancer increases with age, the history of previous polyps or cancer, family history of cancer, history of long standing inflammatory bowel disease including ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Colonoscopy plays an important role in the medical care of patients with colorectal cancer. It is generally used for both the diagnosis of different stages of colorectal cancer and the treatment of early colorectal cancers and its precursors.
      PubDate: Dec 2013
       
  • Complementary and Alternative Medicines Use against Neurodegenerative
           Diseases

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2013
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  1  Number  3  M. Fawzi Mahomoodally   Vidooshi Bhugun   and Geerjanand Chutterdharry   The incidence of neurodegenerative diseases is rising due to rapidly aging population around the world and it is estimated that by 2040 they would surpass cancer as the principal cause of death in industrialized countries. Neurodegenerative diseases are relentlessly progressive disorders of the central nervous system characterized by cognitive, motor and/or behavioral dysfunctions. These diseases include Alzheimer’s (AD) and Parkinson disease (PD) as most common ones and less commonly amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington’s disease and vascular dementia. Despite tremendous advances in the understanding of these diseases, pharmacological treatment by conventional medicine has not obtained satisfactory results. For instance, pharmacological therapies for AD such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and for PD such as Levodopa are merely symptomatic. This coupled with the fact that they exhibit various side effects have led to the use of complementary and alternative medicine for the management of AD and PD. This review attempts to explore some of the most commonly used complementary and alternative medicine against AD and PD
      PubDate: Dec 2013
       
  • Relationship between the Risk of Falling and Prescribed Medication in
           Community-Dwelling Elderly Subjects

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug  2013
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  1  Number  1  Pilar Pérez-Ros Francisco Martínez-Arnau Esther Navarro-Illana Inmaculada Tormos-Miñana and Francisco José Tarazona-Santabalbina Introduction: The risk of falling increases with age. A third of the population over 65 has one or more falls per year. Objective: to know the relationship between drug prescription and falls in the elderly. Materials and Methods: a study was carried out through a community intervention in individuals ≥ 70 years of age. Results: the sample was composed of 249 participants, 160 women (64%), with a mean age of 74.47 years (SD 5.33). During the 12 months prior to the study, the mean of falls per person was 0.5 (SD 0.94), the mean of the risk factors was 2.73 (SD 1.4) and the mean of the medication prescribed was 4.2 (SD 3.0). The percentage of the reduction of falls after the study was 12%. The amount of medication prescribed correlated with the incidence of falls before and after the study, r=0.193, p=0.002 y r2=0.170, p=0.009, respectively. Prior to the study, the individuals who were prescribed beta-blockers and antidepressants, had a fall incidence of 0.74 (SD 1.14) and 1.22 (SD 1.09), respectively, however after the intervention there was no relationship between drug prescription and falls. Conclusions: the fall prevention community program was effective since it prevented the negative effects of medication on falls. An interdisciplinary community intervention reduces the global incidence of falls and the incidence of falls related to some specific medication.
      PubDate: Aug 2013
       
  • Information Technology: Outsourcing Strategies in Drug Discovery

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug  2013
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  1  Number  1  Dibyajyoti Saha Outsourcing pharma or biotech research information technology (IT) can be very difficult to implement but with a well-planned strategy the benefits can easily outweigh the risks. Discovery R&D operations can often be chaotic because of intense financial pressures, immature processes and lack of engineering support. Effective IT implementation needs to adapt to this reality and cater to scientific rather than technological goals. An effective discovery IT strategy does not operate in a vacuum and is guided by periodic productivity measures. This feedback loop is the gatekeeper for taking on new ground.
      PubDate: Aug 2013
       
  • Formulation and Evaluation of Nisoldipne Sublingual Tablets Using Pullulan
           & Chitosan for Rapid Oromucosal Absorption

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug  2013
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  1  Number  1  Vivekanand K. Chatap Abhishek R. Maurya Prashant K. Deshmukh and Laxmikant R Zawar Nisoldipine (NSD) is a calcium channel blocker used for treatment of angina pectoris, hypertension and congestive heart failure etc. It belongs to BCS class-II i.e., low solubility & low bioavailability (3.7 to 8.4%) due to extensive pre-systemic metabolism of NSD. Therefore, this research work was carried out with aim to improve solubility and bioavailability. NSD sublingual tablets were prepared by direct compression method with two biodegradable polymer as major components, pullulan as solubility enhancer & chitosan used to reduce flushing action of saliva and further evaluated pre & post-compression parameters, in-vitro drug release study and characterised by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) & Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It was observed that, formulation F3 containing 3 % w/w of pullulan and 4% w/w chitosan showed satisfactory results with disintegration time of 34 second, wetting time of 20 second and dissolution (98.45%) in 45 min. The DSC, XRD & FTIR studies showed no interaction between drug and polymer or with other additives. For rapid absorption and high bioavailability, with subsequent almost immediate onset of pharmacological effect. From this study, It can be concluded that, drug having low solubility and low bioavailability due to pre-systemic metabolism can be improve by cost effective, easy to scale up sublingual oro-mucosal approach.
      PubDate: Aug 2013
       
  • Artificial and Fake Eggs: Dance of Death

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug  2013
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  1  Number  1  S.M. Zahid Hosen Swati Paul and Dibyajyoti Saha In 21th century, the human being has gained the ability to make the clone of natural things and one of the most wonderful examples is fake egg production which is looked real as the original one. Fake egg or artificial egg is made by using various types of raw materials, colors and flavors. Normally eggs provide about six grams of protein-half of this protein is in the egg white. Most of the nutrients in eggs are found in yolk. But artificial eggs are full of chemicals, additives and auxiliary agents. So fake eggs contain no nutritional values compared to the real eggs. In China it was claimed in various news that fake eggs are sold in the local market because of money. The chemicals used for artificial eggs causes metabolic disorders, brain damage, liver disease, cancer and many other diseases . So the productions of fake eggs haven’t any health benefit rather it’s a chemical hazard. Generally the artificial creation of natural things doesn’t blessing for human being.
      PubDate: Aug 2013
       
  • In-Vitro Evaluation of Anti-Microbial and Anti-Oxidant Activity of Emblica
           Officinalis Juice Powder

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug  2013
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  1  Number  1  Maryam Bincy Thomas Kashif Khan S. K. Sharma Lalit Singh and M K Upadhyay The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of Emblica officinalis juice powder. The antimicrobial activity was assessed against gram positive and gram negative bacteria namely E.coli, Pseudomonas fluoresces, Bacillus subtilis, S.aureus, and fungi namely Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, Alternaria alternata, and Fusarium spp by agar well diffusion method. The antioxidant activity of the powder was determined in vitro using hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity method. The amount of total phenolic content was also determined by Folin Ciocalteau method. The result of the study revealed antibacterial and antioxidant activity. The Emblica officinalis powder showed no antifungal activity against the tested strains. The activity was found to be concentration dependent. The results of present study conclude that Emblica officinalis juice powder possess high antibacterial and antioxidant activity and can be further explored for the isolation of its bioactive compound.
      PubDate: Aug 2013
       
  • Oral Cyclophosphamide Confounds the Relationship between CYP2C19 and
           CYP2B6 Pharmacogenetics and Cyclophosphamide-induced premature Ovarian
           Failure in Lupus Nephritis Patients

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug  2013
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  1  Number  1  Nuala Helsby Michael Goldthorpe Peter Gow and Janak de Zoysa Cyclophosphamide treatment of lupus nephritis is associated with ovarian toxicity. Four separate studies have previously demonstrated a lower risk of cyclophosphamide induced premature ovarian failure (POF) in carriers of the CYP2C19*2 null function allele. This hepatic enzyme bioactivates cyclophosphamide. CYP2B6 is also important in the activation of this prodrug however, genetic variants of CYP2B6 have not been associated with POF risk. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between CYP2C19 and CYP2B6 loss of function variants and prevalence of ovarian toxicity following treatment with monthly pulses of intravenous cyclophosphamide in lupus nephritis patients. In 28 pre-menopausal female patients, there was a 25% incidence of POF. In contrast to previous studies of a similar size we could not detect a significant relationship between the risk of POF and genetic variants of CYP2C19, alone or in combination with variants of CYP2B6. However, 71.4% of the cases with POF had been treated with additional daily oral cyclophosphamide compared with only 4.7% of controls (P < 0.02; OR 14.29 (95% CI, 1.4-144.5). Thus the effect of daily oral cyclophosphamide administration in addition to pulsed intravenous monthly doses may have obscured any protective effect of CYP2C19 loss of function in this cohort.
      PubDate: Aug 2013
       
 
 
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