Journal Cover Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2332-0036 - ISSN (Online) 2332-0044
   Published by Horizon Research Publishing Homepage  [54 journals]
  • The Impact of Medical Marijuana on Pharmacy Practice

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2018
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  6  Number  1  Carol Motycka   Eric F. Egelund   and Cameron Thomas   Objective: As health care providers, it is important to recognize the potential health issues associated with marijuana use and to educate patients appropriately. As with other types of medication, marijuana has drug interactions, side effects, and the potential for toxicity. In addition, as with other substances that are abused, marijuana has the potential for dependence and addiction. The expanding use of marijuana will increase the pharmacist's involvement with marijuana as part of a patient's regimen. The objective of this paper is to educate health care providers on potential counseling points for patients in regards to side effects, drug interactions and other potential adverse effects from marijuana use. Summary: Currently in the United States, 29 states (plus Washington D.C.) have passed laws allowing for the use of medical marijuana. The possession limit and form of marijuana varies by state. It is imperative that pharmacists understand the laws in their state and the overall effects of marijuana. Conclusion: The increased legalization will continue to expand marijuana's use among patients, necessitating health care providers to be well informed regarding marijuana's side effects, drug interactions, and addiction potential.
      PubDate: Jan 2018
  • Evaluation of Inotropic Activity of Fluorobenzene Derivative Using an
           Isolated Rat Heart Model

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2018
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  6  Number  1  Figueroa-Valverde Lauro   Hau-Heredia Lenin   García-Cervera Elodia   López-Ramos Maria   Díaz-Cedillo Francisco   Pool-Gómez Eduardo   Rosas-Nexticapa Marcela   Herrera-Meza Socorro   Mateu-Armand Virginia   Cauich-Carrillo Regina   and Euan-Hau Saidy   There are studies which indicate that some fluorobenzene derivatives have inotropic activity; nevertheless, the cellular site and mechanism of action at cardiovascular level is very confusing. To clarify these phenomena in this study, a new fluorobenzene derivative was synthesized to evaluate its biological activity on perfusion pressure and left ventricular pressure. The Langendorff technique was used to measure changes on perfusion pressure and coronary resistance in an isolated rat heart model in absence or presence of the fluorobenzene derivative [0.001 nM]. Additionally, to characterize the molecular mechanism involved in the inotropic activity induced by the fluorobenzene derivative was evaluated by measuring left ventricular pressure in absence or presence of following compounds; ouabain, digoxin, levosimendan, cyclopiazonic acid and thapsigargin. The results showed that the fluorobenzene derivative significantly increased the perfusion pressure and coronary resistance in comparison with the control conditions. Additionally, other data indicate that fluorobenzene derivative increase perfusion pressure in a form similar to ouabain and digoxin; however, this effect was different compared with levosimendan. Other results showed that biological activity induced by the fluorobenzene on left ventricular pressure was significantly inhibited by both cyclopiazonic acid [50 mM] and thapsigargin [300 mM]. These data suggest that positive inotropic activity induced by the fluorobenzene on perfusion pressure and left ventricular pressure was via changes of biological activity both Na,K-ATPase and Ca+2-ATPase. This phenomenon is a particularly interesting because the positive inotropic activity induced by this fluorobenzene derivative involves a molecular mechanism different in comparison with other positive inotropic drugs.
      PubDate: Jan 2018
  • Congestive Heart Failure: Current Treatment and Therapies under Realm of

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2018
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  6  Number  2  Altamash J.Momin   and Amogh R. Lotankar   The continuous increase in total congestive heart failure cases and the economic burden associated with it has led to the overwhelming demand for novel therapies. Quite a few drugs for heart failure have shown some promise in preclinical as well as early-phase clinical trials, but most of them were unsuccessful to show the real benefit in pivotal trials. Ivabradine and sacubitril/ valsartan are the new promising drugs to treat heart failure which has been approved recently by the United States Food and Drug Administration. Moreover, some of the newer agents under research offer the potential for noteworthy progress in addition to these drugs. Furthermore, Gene therapy and Stem cell therapy are the recent advances which are being explored and so far have proven to be useful as evidenced by clinical trials. Apart from synthetic molecules, there are also some natural agents such as L-arginine, Coenzyme Q10 etc. which aids in the management of congestive heart failure. In addition to the pharmacological treatment, non-pharmacological intervention also plays an essential role in management of congestive heart failure. To assess the true effectiveness of these attractive compounds future clinical trials with proper patient selection, optimal clinical endpoints and more appropriate study designs are mandatory.
      PubDate: Apr 2018
  • Effect of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Capparis decidua (Forssk.) Edgew on
           Sexual Behavior of Male Rats

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2018
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  6  Number  2  Prashant Kumar Dhakad   Pramod Kumar Sharma   and Sokindra Kumar   Capparis decidua has traditionally been recommended as an aphrodisiac agent. Although, it's medicinal use has not been scientifically proved. The present study therefore evaluated the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of C. decidua roots, stem and leaf on sexual behavior in normal male rats. The hydroalcoholic extract of C. decidua was administered (100 mg/kg, 200mg/kg) to different groups of male wistar rats for 28 days. The female rats were brought in estrous phase before the mating in each group of male rats. Standard group was administered sildenafil citrate at 5mg/kg orally for 28 days. Control group was administered only distilled water. All the experimental groups i.e C. decidua 100mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, per se group (only C. decidua 200 mg/kg), standard group(sildenafil citrate 5mg/kg) were compared with the control group for parameters evaluated for sexual behavior study. C. decidua at 100mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and per se treated groups produced significant arousal of sexual activity in male rats. They significantly increased the frequencies of mount, intromission frequency. The mount latency and intromission latency were significantly reduced but ejaculation latency was prolonged significantly. The results indicated that hydroalcoholic extract of C. decidua enhanced sexual behaviour in male rats. The enhanced sexual behavior in male rats at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight may be due to the presence of phytochemicals like alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids as these phytochemicals has role in increasing sexual strength, androgen enhancing, and antioxidant activity.
      PubDate: Apr 2018
  • Effect of Quercetin Supplement on Some Bone Mineralization Biomarkers in
           Diabetic Type 2 Patients

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2018
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  6  Number  2  Jubran K. Hassan   Adheed Khalid Sharrad   and Falah Hassan Sheri   Background: Diabetes associated with multiple metabolic problems in the body, including bone mineralization remodeling, osteoporosis and increase risk of fracture. Quercetin is natural flavonoids and according to animal studies; it has potent antioxidant, antidiabetic and protective effect against bone loss due to various causes. Objectives: explore effect of quercetin as nutritional supplement administrated orally on some bone mineralization bio-markers such as calcium, vitamin D and osteocalcin in Iraqi diabetic patients. Methods: interventional double-blind placebo randomized controlled study in which 40 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (age range 40-45) assigned randomly (using simple randomization) in either control (n=20) or study (n=20) group. Study group received Quercetin oral supplement as 500mg capsule once daily for three months. Venous blood was used for measuring Serum calcium, 25(OH) vitamin D and osteocalcin at base line and after 3 months. Results: After 3 months treatment with Quercetin; levels of Osteocalcin (28.1±7.6), serum calcium (9.2±1.8) and 25(OH) vitamin D (26.6±8.7) were significantly (p
      PubDate: Apr 2018
  • Schizophrenia Aetiology and Drug Therapy: A Tale of Progressive
           Demystification and Strides in Management

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2018
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  6  Number  2  Onaolapo A Y   and Onaolapo O J   Schizophrenia is a chronic, debilitating and complex neuropsychiatric disorder which is known to be characterised by impairments in perception of reality, cognition, interpersonal relationships, mood and social/work function; and influenced by genes and the environment. Our understanding of the aetiology of schizophrenia and theories seeking to explain the accompanying changes in brain chemistry and structure has continued to undergo revisions, largely due to new insights from preclinical and clinical research. In this review, we discuss the evolution of our understanding of schizophrenia aetiopathogenesis as it relates to disease phenotype, symptom management and drug discovery. We also examine the important roles played by interactions between brain neurotransmitters and their receptors in disease expression and symptom management; and discuss how newer chapters in the management of the disease are being opened through the development and identification of newer disease-modifying and modulating agents.
      PubDate: Apr 2018
  • In vivo Assessment of the Hepatotoxicity of Mixed Gemcitabine and
           5-Fluorouracil Loaded on Microemulsion in Mice Bearing Ehrlich Ascites

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  5  Number  3  Mayson H. Alkhatib   May M. Alasmari   and Faiza Abdo   A combination of two or more chemotherapeutic agents in a nanoparticle is a promising approach to improve the treatment effectiveness and reduce their toxicity. In this study, the formulations of 30mg/kg of gemcitabine (GEM) mixed with 2.5mg/kg of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), either loaded on a microemulsion (GEM+5'FU-ME) or dissolved in water (GEM+5'FU-Sol), were examined to explore their antitumor activity in mice inoculated with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC). Eighty mice were split into eight groups (10 mice/group). Group I served as the untreated EAC bearing mice. Groups II-VIII were EAC bearing mice treated with free GEM (GEM-Sol), GEM-loaded-ME (GEM-ME), free 5-FU (5'FU-Sol), 5-FU-loaded-ME (5'FU-ME), GEM+5'FU-Sol, GEM+5'FU-ME and the blank-ME (B-ME), respectively. The hepatotoxicity was identified by determining the serum enzymes, and studying the histological changes of the liver tissues. The z-average diameter and zeta potential of the nanodroplets of GEM+5'FU-ME were 122.1±26.80nm and -4.40±1.76mV, respectively. Results demonstrated that drug-loaded ME formulations have lowered the enzyme levels of ALT, AST and ALP and did not cause damage in the hepatocytes when compared to the drug solution formulations. In conclusion, the combination treatments of GEM and 5-FU in a ME may protect the drugs from degradation in the liver.
      PubDate: Sep 2017
  • Nanoparticles as a Platform for Antimicrobial Drug Delivery

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  5  Number  3  Satish Patel   Deependra Singh   Shikha Srivastava   Manju Singh   Kamal Shah   Durgesh Nandini Chauahn   and Nagendra S Chauhan   The hasty developments in nanotechnology will have intense impact on various areas of therapeutic applications like drugs and bioactive delivery, tissue engineering, and other application. This review mainly emphasized on the nanoparticle systems for delivery of antimicrobial drug. Various antimicrobial agents have been used to kill or inhibit the growth of microbes such as bacteria, fungi and viruses. As the pharmacological actions of these drugs have been well established, feeble delivery and degradation could lead to insufficient therapeutic index and cause side effects. Nanoparticles have many advantages like small and controllable size, large surface area to mass ratio, and functionalizable structure. These properties make the nanoparticles, a suitable delivery system of antimicrobials. Along with this, it also overcomes the limitations intra-additional antimicrobial therapeutics. In last few years, development and fabrication of antimicrobial agent in nanoparticle systems has evolved as an innovative and promising alternative that increases therapeutic effectiveness and overcoming the undesirable side effects. In this chapter, we focused on the current progress and challenges in producing nanoparticle system for antimicrobial drugs delivery for the treatment of microbial diseases.
      PubDate: Sep 2017
  • Evaluation of the Anticonvulsant Activity of the Hydroethanolic Extract of
           Crinum scillifolium Bulbs (Amaryllidaceae) in Experimental Animals

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  5  Number  2  Koua Kadio Brou Donald   Kouakou Sylvain Landry   Yapo Adou Francis   Yapi Houphouet Felix   N'tamon Amon Diane Marina   Miezan Bile Aka Patrice   and Kouakou Gisèle Siransy   Crinum species is frequently used for the treatment of nervous disorders such as epilepsy. This study aimed to investigate the anticonvulsant activity of the hydroethanolic extract of the Crinum scillifolium bulbs in chemoconvulsant-induced seizures in mice. The anticonvulsant activity of the extract (25, 50, 100, 200 and 400mg/kg), was investigated in isoniazid (INH)-induced seizures in mice. The hydroethanolic extract protected mice from INH-induced seizures in a dose-dependent manner. 100% of protection was observed when the animals were treated with 200 and 400mg/kg of hydroethanolic extract of Crinum scillifolium. At Dose of 50 and 100mg/kg 83% protection was observed; the onset of convulsion significant was delayed, and no mortality was found of the mice against isoniazid-induced convulsion. Mice pretreated with hydroethanolic extract at the dose of 25mg/kg reduced mortality to 27% and significant delayed the onset of death (p
      PubDate: Jul 2017
  • Study on Prescribing Pattern of Antihypertensive Drugs in a Tertiary Care

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  5  Number  2  Prabhakar Adake   Nagpati Prabhakar Bhat   Roopa P Nayak   Hafis TK   Bhagyashree A   and Prajna V Raj   Objective: To analyze prescription pattern of antihypertensive drugs in patients with hypertension alone and with coexisting diseases. Methodology: A descriptive cross- sectional study was conducted in outpatient department of tertiary care hospital in south India. A total of 286 prescriptions of patients diagnosed to have hypertension with or without coexisting diseases were collected. Details of prescriptions were entered in the preformed pro forma and analyzed. Result: The study included 138 (48.25%) male and 148 (51.75%) female. Out of 286 hypertensives, 122 (42.66%) patients were having co-existing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). And remaining 164 patients (57.34%) were only hypertensives. Out of 286 patients, 227 (79.31%) patients were on monotherapy, 49 (17.13%) were on dual therapy and remaining 10 patients were on triple anti-hypertensive drugs. Among 150 antihypertensive drugs that are prescribed for hypertensive patients withT2DM, 57 (38%) were calcium channel blocker (CCB), 40 (26.66%) were angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), 31 (20.66%) were angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), 13 (8.66%) were diuretics and remaining 9 (6%) were beta blockers. Similarly, among 206 antihypertensive drugs prescribed for hypertension alone patients, 97 (47%) were CCB, 37 (17.96%) were ACEI, 31 (15%) were ARB, 26 (12.62%) were diuretics and remaining 15 (7.28%) were beta blockers. Conclusion: The study has shown that majority of patients were on monotherapy (79.31%) and calcium channel blockers were commonly prescribed for hypertension in patients with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus followed by ACE inhibitors, ARB and beta blockers.
      PubDate: Jul 2017
  • Erythrosine Incorporated Fast-Dissolving Patches for Dental Plaque

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  5  Number  1  Prasopchai Tonglairoum   Theerasak Rojanarata   Tanasait Ngawhirunpat   Prasert Akkaramongkolporn   Ruchadaporn Kaomongkolgit   and Praneet Opanasopit   The aim of this study was to develop erythrosine-loaded electrospun polyvinyl pyrrolidone/ hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (PVP/HPβCD) fiber patches for plaque disclosing. The fiber patches had been fabricated via electrospinning process and were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD). The fiber patches were then further evaluated for wetting and integration abilities, mechanical properties, loading efficiency, loading capacity and release characteristic. These erythrosine-loaded fiber patches exhibited excellent wetting and disintegration properties and prompt released the erythrosine form the patches after contacted with saliva. These erythrosine-loaded fiber patches could be exploited as a plaque-disclosing material. However, further in vivo studies are needed for the application.
      PubDate: Apr 2017
  • Subchronic Amitriptyline Influences Open-field Behaviours and Spontaneous
           Working-memory in Healthy Mice

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  5  Number  1  Onaolapo Olakunle James   Olabintan Olusegun Oyewole   and Onaolapo Adejoke Yetunde   Objective: We assessed the effects of amitriptyline on open-field locomotion, stereotypic behaviours and spatial working-memory in healthy mice. Method: Five groups of mice were administered vehicle (distilled water), scopolamine (2 mg/kg), or one of three doses of amitriptyline (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg) for 21 days. Behaviours were assessed after the first and final dose of treatment. Result: Administration of the first dose of amitriptyline was associated with enhanced open-field horizontal locomotion, rearing and grooming; with repeated administration, there was suppression of horizontal locomotion and rearing. A dose-related decrease in Y-maze and radial-arm maze spatial working-memory was also observed after repeated administration. Compared to scopolamine, amitriptyline was associated with a significant reduction in open-field behaviours, but a significantly-higher spatial working-memory score. Conclusion: Repeated administration of amitriptyline in healthy mice was associated with suppression of locomotion and grooming; working-memory deficits were also observed. However, working-memory task performance is significantly better than the scopolamine group.
      PubDate: Apr 2017
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