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Journal Cover Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy
   Journal TOC RSS feeds Export to Zotero Follow    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 2332-0036 - ISSN (Online) 2332-0044
     Published by Horizon Research Publishing Homepage  [3 journals]
  • In-Vitro, Ex-Vivo Characterization of Furosemide Bounded Pharmacosomes for
           Improvement of Solubility and Permeability

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2014
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  2  Number  5  Vivekanand K. Chatap   Prashant L. Patil   and Savita D. Patil    The design of the present investigation was to prepare furosemide bounded pharmacosomes to enhance solubility and permeability drug by simple reproducible solvent evaporation technique and further investigated. Furosemide bounded pharmacosomes formulation (PMC1 & PMC2) was taken and compared with pure drug by way of enhanced solubility 5.4 fold in the water, 3.33, 4.76 fold in pH 7.4 and pH 5.8 respectively, increases permeability of furosemide bounded pharmacosomes 28.28% when compared with pure drug, drug content showed 94.83, N-octanol/water partition coefficient from 2.33 to 5.15 and in-vitro release profile exhibits excellent sustained drug release properties. Prepared furosemide bounded Pharmacosomes were confirmed from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FT-IR. The pharmacosomes reported amphiphilic nature may responsible for the improvement of solubility and permeability leads to enhancement of oral bioavailability. From this study it can be concluded that, this formulation strategy becomes important for drug belongs to the BCS class- II & IV.
      PubDate: Sep
       
  • Microwave Induced Solid Dispersion as a Novel Technique for Enhancing
           Dissolution Rate of Repaglinide

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2013
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  1  Number  2  Laxmikant Zawar and Sanjay Bari  The aim of the present study was to enhance the solubility, dissolution rate and thus antihyperglycemic activity of a poorly soluble, BCS class II drug repaglinide, using its solid dispersions (SDs) with polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000. Solid dispersions were prepared by kneading, solvent evaporation, conventional fusion method and microwave induced fusion methods. The dispersions were evaluated for various in vitro parameters such as solubility study, dissolution study, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Microwave induced solid dispersions exhibited significant improvement in solubility and dissolution rate compared to that of pure drug. Results of DSC, XRD and SEM study showed translation of crystalline form of RG to amorphous form. Thus, microwave technology offers a simple, efficient, solvent free promising alternative method to prepare solid dispersion of RG with significant enhancement of the in vitro dissolution rate.
      PubDate: Oct
       
  • The Mechanism by which Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Responds to
           Interferon-α Treatment

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2013
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  1  Number  2  Emad Y. Moawad  The goal of this work is to determine the mechanism by which addition of interferon-α (IFN-α ) to Dendritic Cells (DC) grown from Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML) patients improves its capacity to stimulate T-lymphocyte responses, and decreases the proportion of bcr-abl positive DC. Bone marrow samples were obtained from six patients with CML and six normal donors to prepare mononuclear cells. T lymphocytes were removed, cultured without IFN-α (control sample) and with IFN-α doses of 5, 50, 250, and 500 U/mL. After a culture period of 14 days, DC were harvested and added to freshly allogeneic T cells by a ratio 1:10 for Mixed Lymphocyte Reaction (MLR) assay to identify energy of those mixed cultures (EMLR). Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed to quantify the frequency of bcr-abl in fresh samples from newly diagnosed CML patient with cultured DC without IFN-α and with IFN-α dose of 250 U/mL. Variations in EMLR of mixed cultures were attributed to each of the difference in energy of the cultured DC (EDC) obtained from IFN-αdoses, and either of rising the histologic grade (HG) of those cultures due to cell cycle arrest (ECCA) that cause treatment failure or reducing HG due to energy released by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Ψmito ) activating apoptosis in bcr-abl positive cells. Percentage of decrease in bcr-abl positive DC in FISH analysis was 100% identical to that in each of EDC and Ψmito (p≤0.001). Patient-specific approaches that account for HG variations should enable more accurate dose estimates. IFN-α therapy is an energy balance process in which CML cells respond according to the mechanism of the following model: EMLR=HG + EDC & ECCA or Ψmito = Abs (HG.Control-HG).
      PubDate: Oct
       
  • Some Pharmaceutical Recipes for the Treatment of the Bubonic Pest
           Contained into the Kitab Al-Tahsil of Ibn Khatima (D.1369)

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2013
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  1  Number  2  Luisa Maria Arvide Cambra  This paper is a study of fragments of the work entitled in Arabic Tahsil gharad al-qasid fi-tafsil al-marad al-wafid, which was written in the 14th century by the well known Spanish physician Ibn Khatima and which refers to the epidemics of the pest, the terrible pandemic that struck humanity in the 14th century and devastated Asia, Africa and Europe at that time. The article includes an Introduction about the author and the medical and pharmaceutical significance of the work, as well as a section containing the English translation of a few pages of Part VI, according to the Arabic manuscript 1785 from the Library of El Escorial, relating to the treatment of disease, that contain interesting remedies and recipes from the pharmaceutical and the medical points of view.
      PubDate: Oct
       
  • Mortality Associated with the Use of Inappropriate Drugs According Beers
           Criteria: a Systematic Review

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2013
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  1  Number  2  Karina Sichieri Adriano R.Baldacin Rodrigues Juliana. A.Takahashi Silvia Regina Secoli Moacyr Roberto Cuce Nobre Martinez Altava Mónica and Fernández Garrido Julio  The aims of this systematic review are to identify and analyse the scientist literature available evidence about the use of potentially inappropriate medications, according to the Beers Criteria, that is associated with mortality in the elderly people. It have been made a search of publications in most traditional electronic databases among the scientific community (Pubmed / Medline, EMBASE and Web of Science) and it have been selected publications that obey the criteria of 'observational study', 'elderly' and 'Beers Criteria' and that they had as a result the mortality of the study population. After publications selection it proceeded to dump data by two researchers independently to avoid selection bias. The methodological quality of the selected studies was assessed by the checklist Newcastle-Ottawa. The final sample of this systematic review has been made up of 17 studies published in Pubmed and Embase databases majority, 8 of which make up the meta-analysis. In descriptive synthesis has been observed that most of the studies have a level of evidence IV (94'1%) with cohort delineation (94'1%) and non-probability sampling technique (70'6%).Data collection was prospective in 58'8% of cases, with a sample (n) greater than 1000 elderly (64'7%) and followed up for 6 to 12 months (52'9%).The meta-analysis involving 90.611 elders informed that users who take inappropriate drug according to the Beers Criteria had a higher relative risk for mortality outcome (RR = 1.11, 95% CI 1'01-1'22 P = 0'023), regardless of study stage, comorbidity presence, polypharmacy or type of inappropriate medication used.
      PubDate: Oct
       
  • Evaluation of Efficacy and Safety of Premixed Parenteral Nutrition versus
           Customized Parenteral Nutrition in a Large Teaching Hospital

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2013
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  1  Number  2  Teresa  Pounds Annesha  Lovett Susiana  Eng Khalid  Iqbal Israel  Orija and Jessica  Chmielewski  In the last two decades, there has been a significant degree of controversy surrounding the use of standardized parenteral solutions. Opponents of standardized parenteral nutrition claim that individualized parenteral nutrition is necessary because the critically ill patient requires daily manipulation of macro- and micro-nutrients secondary to stress associated with complex ailments. The purpose of this study was to determine if premixed parenteral nutrition solutions were equally safe and efficacious, while being less costly, in managing parenteral nutrition of patients at a large metropolitan teaching hospital, as compared to customized parenteral nutrition solutions. This was a randomized controlled trial with no placebo involving 100 patients requiring central parenteral nutrition. Consenting patients received either customized parenteral nutrition or premixed double chamber parenteral nutrition containing protein, carbohydrates and electrolytes. Vitamins and trace elements were added as needed. Each subject enrolled in the study was followed until the parenteral nutrition was either discontinued, the patient was transferred from the facility, or the patient expired during the study. Premixed and customized parenteral nutrition solutions were shown to be equally efficacious in patients as their blood glucose, fluid status, nutritional markers, serum electrolytes, phosphate, and magnesium values were within normal limits (p
      PubDate: Oct
       
  • Fabrication of Specially Designed Novel Mould for Casting of Perindopril
           Erbumine Mouth Dissolving Film

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2013
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  1  Number  2  Vivekanand K. Chatap Abhijit M. Karale Pramod Wagh and Prashant K. Deshmukh  In present investigation attempt was made to designed novel mould with aim to overcome the problems occurs during casting of mouth dissolving films. Placebo and Perindopril Erbumine containing mouth dissolving film (MDF) were prepared with Pullulan, HPMC E-15 as film forming agent and other excipient by solvent casting method on specially design mould and regular petri dish. The HPMC E-15 125mg and Propylene Glycol 30 μ ml as plasticizer contains MDFs formulation (H2) were found to be optimized when compared with Pullulan on the basis of physical evaluation parameters like weight variation, drug, thickness in the range 0.01-0.03 mm, disintegration time in
      PubDate: Oct
       
  • Best Practices in Tapering Methods in Patients Undergoing Opioid Therapy

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2013
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  1  Number  2  John Suttner Annesha White Lovett and Kimberly Vernachio  The prescribing of opioids for chronic non-cancer pain has escalated over recent years. This pattern has led to a larger number of patients who require discontinuation of opioid therapy. The purpose of this review was to provide an overview of best practices for tapering opioid therapy in patients. A systematic review of the current literature concerning tapering of opioid therapy was performed from 2000-2013. 24 studies were selected for review. Considerable variation was found with regard to taper rate and duration. Taper rate ranged from an initial 20-50% daily reduction in opioid dose to a 5% reduction in dose every one to four weeks. The most common titration rate was a 10% reduction in the daily dose each day. General themes were to individualize taper parameters to ensure patient compliance and presentation of withdrawal symptoms, to slow the rate of the taper to about 1/3 of the original dose, and advise a referral of addicted and complex patients to appropriate specialists for treatment. The majority of available information on tapering opioid therapy consists of clinical guidelines that have been created based on practice experience. There is a need for additional experimental research to develop a more standardized taper protocol.
      PubDate: Oct
       
  • Analysis of Anti-Xa Concentrations in Patients on Treatment Dose
           Enoxaparin: A Retrospective Chart Review

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Oct 2013
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  1  Number  2  Lauren Levine Nicole Pallme Erik Angelotti and Dane Shiltz  The purpose of this retrospective chart review was to determine the correlation between full weight-based enoxaparin use and the frequency of anti-Xa concentrations within the defined therapeutic range; to ascertain if anti-Xa monitoring is being appropriately ordered in relation to the timing of enoxaparin dose (after 3 consistent therapeutic doses and 3-5 hours post-dose); to establish if the evidence-based recommended dose adjustment protocol that was studied in the pediatric population was utilized; and if this yielded anti-Xa concentrations within the target range (0.6 – 1.1 IU/mL) for an adult population. The data may suggest a lack of correlation between BMI and whether or not the anti-Xa concentration is within the therapeutic range. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm this finding, and to determine the utility of the available dose adjustment nomogram.
      PubDate: Oct
       
  • Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative: Case Studies in Health-System Pharmacy

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2014
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  2  Number  3  Quyen Bach   Annesha Lovett   Teresa Pounds   and Pamela Moye    In 2008, the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists introduced the Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative (PPMI). The goal of this model is to promote pharmacy leaders, better manage resources, and increase focus on patient-centered and team-based care. Few studies have assessed the model’s implementation. PubMed and CINAHL were searched using keywords “pharmacy practice model,” “organizational,” and the MeSH term, “organizational,” from 2008 to 2013. Of the forty-nine findings (articles and summit highlights), two case studies met the inclusion criteria. The first case study involved the University of Minnesota Medical Center, a multi-campus academic medical center. This facility used technology such as pagers for decentralized technicians, computerized provider order entry, and wireless computers on wheels. The implementation teams worked on clinical and distributive functions allowing for consistency in care and improved employee satisfaction. The second case study involved Providence Health & Services, a multihospital system in Washington State and Montana. These facilities used technology such as automated dispensing cabinets, order-image scanners, and automated telephone trees to route calls. The outcome was a positive economic impact with a return on investment of $709,321. An important finding was the lack of research assessing the implementation of the PPMI. Based on positive findings, it is evident that further research is warranted.
      PubDate: May
       
  • A Retrospective Analysis of Antipsychotic Medication Use with Concomitant
           Clinical Evaluation in Outpatient Psychiatry Department in Palestine

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2014
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  2  Number  3  Manal Ihbeasheh   Ikhlas Jarar   and Waleed Sweileh    Objectives: The objective of this paper was to study antipsychotic medication use in the outpatient psychiatry department in Palestine. Methodology: This is a cross sectional study carried out in Palestine on schizophrenic patients aged between 20 – 65 whose medications have not been changed in the past six months and they did not have an acute attack in the last year. Information regarding antipsychotic medications use was obtained from patients’ medical files; patients’ psychiatric symptoms were evaluated using the Expanded Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS-E).Results: More than half (53.1%) of 150 patients were on antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) with average daily dose of 546.9 ± 254.9 mg chlorpromazine equivalents. The average number (mean ± SD) of medications a patient received was 1.7 ± 0.7. One third of patients on APP regimen received atypical antipsychotic and all of them received at least one conventional antipsychotic. Factors significantly and positively associated with APP were: use of anticholinergic agents (P
      PubDate: May
       
  • Ecological, Physiological and Biochemical Adaptation in Helminth: Trends
           in Evolution of Anthelminthic Chemical Agents

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2014
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  2  Number  2  M.Kh. Dzhafarov  and F.I. Vasilevich   This review discusses the landmark anthelminthic substances – traditional medicine components, different categories of pluripotential synthetic and naturally occurring compounds. Much attention is paid to the sections devoted to recent discoveries (Emodepside, Monepantel, Derquantel, Tribendimidine) and to some promising works. The review is also focused on some aspects of molecular mechanisms of action of anthelminthic substances and of helminth adaptation to anthelminthic substances, and on alternative worming treatment options. Based on the systemic analysis of particular features of the chemical structure of anthelminthic substances, the hypothesis on the viability of the targeted search for such compounds among the derivatives of conditionally progenitor cyclic hydrocarbons – benzene, indene, naphthalene, 1Н-cyclopenth [a]-naphthalene , anthracene and phenanthrene – by alternating absolutely unsaturated and saturated structures, including heterocyclic analogues containing nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur and different substitutes and functional groups, was voiced.
      PubDate: Mar
       
  • Users Satisfaction Regarding the Service Provided in Community Pharmacies

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2014
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  2  Number  2  Ana R. Pinto   Andreia Machado   Elisabete Gonçalves   Luís Salsas   Tiago Vicente   Maria I. B. Ribeiro   and Isabel C. J. F. Pinto    During the last century, the pharmacy professionals have significantly being professionalized, the user is a high priority and not just limited to the sale of pharmaceuticals. As such, it is necessary to know the users, their needs and expectations, their opinions and preferences. This transversal study, observational, correlational, aimed to: determine the degree of satisfaction with the attendance in community pharmacies, if there is a relationship between factors of a personal nature (age and gender) and satisfaction, trying to identify which aspects improve in order to increase satisfaction levels. The sample consisted of 525 respondents. Data collection was conducted in the period from October 2012 to January 2013 in four locations in northern Portugal. It was used a questionnaire consisting of three parts: the first contained items of personal characterization, the second consisted of the scale "Pharmacy Services Questionnaire" (FSQ) validated for the Portuguese language, developed by Larson et al. (2002) and the last had questions about the respondents' opinion. The results showed that the degree of satisfaction with the services of community pharmacies was in majority an average to 39 % and good for 46,1% . Having in mind the factor by gender, females showed a higher degree of satisfaction. Regarding the age group, older users had the highest degree of satisfaction. It was concluded that, generally, community pharmacies bring a higher degree of satisfaction in the older and the female users. "How the pharmacy professionals explain possible side effects" and "how the pharmacy professional answers your questions.", are the two aspects that must be improved to achieve a higher degree of satisfaction.
      PubDate: Mar
       
  • Formulation Development and Evaluation of Venlafaxine HCL Buccal Patch

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2014
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  2  Number  2  Anand G. Mundhe   Gokul A. Khairnar   and Sadik F. Sayyad    Within the oral mucosal cavity, the buccal region offers an attractive route of administration for Systemic patches. Venlafaxine were Prepared using HPMC K4M, Pectin, and poly vinyl Pyrrolidone, PG as Plasticizers. FTIR and UV spectroscopic and DSC methods revealed that there is no interaction between Venlafaxine and polymers. The patches were evaluated for their thickness uniformity, folding endurance, Weight Uniformity, content uniformity, Swelling behaviour, tensile strength, Mucoadhesion strength and Surface pH. In vitro release studies of Venlafaxine loaded patches in Phosphate buffer (pH, 6.8) exhibited 98 % drug release in the 8 h. The optimized patch was obtained good in vitro result.
      PubDate: Mar
       
  • Pharmacological Test Confirming the Diagnosis: Responding to Stimulants
           Neuropsychiatric ADHD

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2014
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  2  Number  4  Klaus Martin Beckmann    ADHD is a neurodevelopmental life time high prevalence disorder. Many individuals who suffer from ADHD benefit from treatment. For a significant subgroup of patients with the diagnosis ADHD, medication is important for treatment. Diagnostic criteria however as yet are not pathognomonic. A specific test to diagnose the type of ADHD that responds to medication has so far not been promoted as such. This article postulates that many individuals presenting with ADHD syndrome are likely to benefit from such a test. Here such a test is described.
      PubDate: Jul
       
  • Correlation of Treatment Dose Enoxaparin with Anti-Xa Concentrations in
           Adult Hemodialysis Inpatients

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2014
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  2  Number  4  Paul E. Brumley   Miroslav A. Anguelov   Jason P. Hecht   and Dane Shiltz    Enoxaparin, a low-molecular-weight-heparin, is being used in hemodialysis patients despite a lack of guideline or manufacturer dose recommendations. Due to enoxaparin’s renal excretion, the possibility of accumulating anti-Xa concentrations in hemodialysis patients using enoxaparin creates a hemorrhagic risk, calling for more research. The objectives of this study are to determine the correlation between treatment dose enoxaparin use and anti-Xa concentrations within the defined therapeutic range in patients receiving chronic, scheduled hemodialysis to determine the degree of change in anti-Xa concentrations in those cases where a concentration was obtained before and after a specific hemodialysis session, and to determine if there is evidence of enoxaparin accumulation over the course of treatment. This was a retrospective cohort study. Patients that were admitted to Indiana University Health facilities in a two-year period were identified from a Cerner query for inclusion eligibility. Inclusion criteria involved patients that received therapeutic dose enoxaparin based on actual body weight on a once daily basis, maintained a scheduled hemodialysis regimen, and had an anti-Xa concentration obtained after at least one enoxaparin dose. Despite lacking statistical significance, the data collected from this study depicts trends which can be utilized to guide future studies. The results of this study suggest that hemodialysis does not effectively remove enoxaparin.
      PubDate: Jul
       
  • Work Satisfaction within Community Pharmacy Professionals

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2014
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  2  Number  1  Leidy G. Fernandes   Vânia F. Rodrigues   Maria I. B. Ribeiro   and Isabel C. J. F. Pinto    Work is a profession, a craft, or an activity in which man produces something central to his life. The job satisfaction is reflected simultaneously on the worker and the functioning of organizations. Workers more satisfied with their work have higher productivity levels, higher subjective well-being and well-being with life in general. Community pharmacy professionals are categorized in three professional categories: pharmacists, pharmacy technicians and technical pharmacy assistants. Work satisfaction was previously associated with gender, age, job category, years of service, remuneration, security concerning the future of the profession, relationships with colleagues and satisfaction with the professional category. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the satisfaction level of community pharmacy professionals and to identify associated factors. These professionals have revealed, in general, a level of moderated satisfaction. There were no significant differences between job satisfaction and gender, age, years of service, professional category and remuneration.
      PubDate: Jan
       
  • A Retrospective Comparison of Daptomycin Thrice-Weekly versus Q48H Dosing
           in Hemodialysis Patients with Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus (VRE) or
           Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Bacteremia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2014
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  2  Number  1  Katie L Axford   and Dane L Shiltz    Background. Multi-drug resistant bacteria are a growing concern in healthcare. Daptomycin is being used with increasing frequency in the treatment of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremias in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Thrice-weekly dosing of daptomycin in this population would allow for coordination of dosing with common outpatient HD schedules. The aim of this study is to determine if thrice-weekly dosing of daptomycin is equivalent to dosing every 48 hours in patients receiving chronic intermittent hemodialysis. Equivalence will be assessed with regard to microbiological cure, clinical cure, hospital length of stay, and mortality. Methods. All patients with positive blood cultures who received at least one dose of daptomycin between January 1st 2009 and December 31st 2010 at Indiana University Health Methodist and University Hospitals were identified. Adult patients with end-stage renal disease on a stable thrice-weekly hemodialysis regimen, confirmed VRE or MRSA bacteremia, and at least three doses of inpatient daptomycin therapy were enrolled in the study. Results. Twelve patients met criteria for inclusion in this study. Nine received daptomycin every 48 hours for the treatment of bacteremia, and three received daptomycin thrice-weekly after dialysis. There was no difference in time to clearance of blood cultures between the Q48H and thrice-weekly groups (2.11±2.15 days vs. 4.33±4.16 days; p=0.241).Length of hospital stay was not statistically significantly different between the two groups (22.8 days vs. 14.9 days; p=0.065).Conclusions. Thrice-weekly dosing of daptomycin may be effective for the treatment of bacteremia in hemodialysis patients.
      PubDate: Jan
       
  • Formulation and Development of Diltiazem Hydrochloride Sustained Release
           Alginate Beads by Ionotropic External Gelation Technique

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2013
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  1  Number  3  Mokale Vinod   Naik Jitendra   Khairnar Gayatri   and Khairnar Gokul    Background of the research: Diltiazem HCL (DTZ), has short biological half life of 3-4 h, requires rather high frequency of administration.Due to repeated administration there may be a chances of patient incompliance and toxicity problems. Objective: The objective of study was to develop sustained release alginate beads of DTZ for reduction in dosing frequency, high bioavailability & better patient compliance. Methodology: Alginate beads were prepared by ionotropic external gelation technique using CaCl2 as cross linking agent. Prepared beads were evaluated for % yield, encapsulation efficiency, swelling index in 0.1N HCL and 7.4 phosphate buffer, drug release study, FT-IR, FE-SEM analysis. In order to improve %EE and drug release, pectin, methyl cellulose and locust bean gum were used as co-polymers along with sodium alginate. Result: Yield was found to be in the range of 72.41-96.43. % EE was 47.3% (F1), 71.1% (F5). In pH 7.4, beads showed increase in swelling index as compare to in 0.1 N HCL. Among use of different copolymers, locust bean gum sustained the DTZ release up to 55.98% (F6) in 12 hrs. FT-IR analysis revealed no drug excipient interference. Prepared beads were found to be rough, with cracks and pores on the surface. Conclusion: It was concluded that DTZ could be successfully entrapped and sustained in sodium alginate beads with use of locust bean gum.
      PubDate: Dec
       
  • Analgesic Activity of Aqueous Extract of Citrullus Lanatus Peels

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2013
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  1  Number  3  Amrita Kumari   Juhi Rao   Jyoti Kumari   Neha Sharma    Pankaj Jain   Vivek Dave   and Swapnil Sharma    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the analgesic activity of aqueous extract of Citrullus lanatus peels (AECL) using Eddy’s hot plate method. The AECL produced a significant analgesic activity in a dose dependent manner. All the doses of AECL (250, 500 and 1000mg/kg) had shown analgesic activity. The reaction time obtained for these three doses after 90 minutes of drug administration was found out to be 5.15 mins, 8.92 mins and 10.82 mins respectively which was comparable to Diclofenac sodium (5 mg/kg) that showed the reaction time of 12.36 mins. It was concluded that the AECL has good analgesic potential and may be adopted as alternative to conventional NSAIDS.
      PubDate: Dec
       
  • A Review on Colorectal Cancer

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2013
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  1  Number  3  Maryam Bincy Thomas   and S.K.Sharma, Lalit Singh    Cancers of the colon and rectum are the second leading cause of cancer death. Fifty percent of the colorectal cancer occurs in either the lower (sigmoid) colon or the rectum and should be easy to detect at an early stage. The majority of the colon cancers are not inherited, but rather are considered sporadic, having developed from an accumulation of mutations throughout the course of a lifetime. The epidemiological risk factors for cancers, other than genetic risk factors, include dietary components, such as the amount of fat and fiber in the diet, intake of calcium, vitamins of the antioxidant class, NSAIDS such as aspirin and specific inhibitors of cyclo-oxygenase. The risk of colon cancer increases with age, the history of previous polyps or cancer, family history of cancer, history of long standing inflammatory bowel disease including ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Colonoscopy plays an important role in the medical care of patients with colorectal cancer. It is generally used for both the diagnosis of different stages of colorectal cancer and the treatment of early colorectal cancers and its precursors.
      PubDate: Dec
       
  • Complementary and Alternative Medicines Use against Neurodegenerative
           Diseases

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2013
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  1  Number  3  M. Fawzi Mahomoodally   Vidooshi Bhugun   and Geerjanand Chutterdharry    The incidence of neurodegenerative diseases is rising due to rapidly aging population around the world and it is estimated that by 2040 they would surpass cancer as the principal cause of death in industrialized countries. Neurodegenerative diseases are relentlessly progressive disorders of the central nervous system characterized by cognitive, motor and/or behavioral dysfunctions. These diseases include Alzheimer’s (AD) and Parkinson disease (PD) as most common ones and less commonly amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington’s disease and vascular dementia. Despite tremendous advances in the understanding of these diseases, pharmacological treatment by conventional medicine has not obtained satisfactory results. For instance, pharmacological therapies for AD such as acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and for PD such as Levodopa are merely symptomatic. This coupled with the fact that they exhibit various side effects have led to the use of complementary and alternative medicine for the management of AD and PD. This review attempts to explore some of the most commonly used complementary and alternative medicine against AD and PD
      PubDate: Dec
       
  • Relationship between the Risk of Falling and Prescribed Medication in
           Community-Dwelling Elderly Subjects

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug  2013
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  1  Number  1  Pilar Pérez-Ros Francisco Martínez-Arnau Esther Navarro-Illana Inmaculada Tormos-Miñana and Francisco José Tarazona-Santabalbina  Introduction: The risk of falling increases with age. A third of the population over 65 has one or more falls per year. Objective: to know the relationship between drug prescription and falls in the elderly. Materials and Methods: a study was carried out through a community intervention in individuals ≥ 70 years of age. Results: the sample was composed of 249 participants, 160 women (64%), with a mean age of 74.47 years (SD 5.33). During the 12 months prior to the study, the mean of falls per person was 0.5 (SD 0.94), the mean of the risk factors was 2.73 (SD 1.4) and the mean of the medication prescribed was 4.2 (SD 3.0). The percentage of the reduction of falls after the study was 12%. The amount of medication prescribed correlated with the incidence of falls before and after the study, r=0.193, p=0.002 y r2=0.170, p=0.009, respectively. Prior to the study, the individuals who were prescribed beta-blockers and antidepressants, had a fall incidence of 0.74 (SD 1.14) and 1.22 (SD 1.09), respectively, however after the intervention there was no relationship between drug prescription and falls. Conclusions: the fall prevention community program was effective since it prevented the negative effects of medication on falls. An interdisciplinary community intervention reduces the global incidence of falls and the incidence of falls related to some specific medication.
      PubDate: Aug
       
  • Information Technology: Outsourcing Strategies in Drug Discovery

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug  2013
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  1  Number  1  Dibyajyoti Saha  Outsourcing pharma or biotech research information technology (IT) can be very difficult to implement but with a well-planned strategy the benefits can easily outweigh the risks. Discovery R&D operations can often be chaotic because of intense financial pressures, immature processes and lack of engineering support. Effective IT implementation needs to adapt to this reality and cater to scientific rather than technological goals. An effective discovery IT strategy does not operate in a vacuum and is guided by periodic productivity measures. This feedback loop is the gatekeeper for taking on new ground.
      PubDate: Aug
       
  • Formulation and Evaluation of Nisoldipne Sublingual Tablets Using Pullulan
           & Chitosan for Rapid Oromucosal Absorption

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug  2013
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  1  Number  1  Vivekanand K. Chatap Abhishek R. Maurya Prashant K. Deshmukh and Laxmikant R Zawar  Nisoldipine (NSD) is a calcium channel blocker used for treatment of angina pectoris, hypertension and congestive heart failure etc. It belongs to BCS class-II i.e., low solubility & low bioavailability (3.7 to 8.4%) due to extensive pre-systemic metabolism of NSD. Therefore, this research work was carried out with aim to improve solubility and bioavailability. NSD sublingual tablets were prepared by direct compression method with two biodegradable polymer as major components, pullulan as solubility enhancer & chitosan used to reduce flushing action of saliva and further evaluated pre & post-compression parameters, in-vitro drug release study and characterised by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) & Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It was observed that, formulation F3 containing 3 % w/w of pullulan and 4% w/w chitosan showed satisfactory results with disintegration time of 34 second, wetting time of 20 second and dissolution (98.45%) in 45 min. The DSC, XRD & FTIR studies showed no interaction between drug and polymer or with other additives. For rapid absorption and high bioavailability, with subsequent almost immediate onset of pharmacological effect. From this study, It can be concluded that, drug having low solubility and low bioavailability due to pre-systemic metabolism can be improve by cost effective, easy to scale up sublingual oro-mucosal approach.
      PubDate: Aug
       
  • Artificial and Fake Eggs: Dance of Death

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug  2013
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  1  Number  1  S.M. Zahid Hosen Swati Paul and Dibyajyoti Saha  In 21th century, the human being has gained the ability to make the clone of natural things and one of the most wonderful examples is fake egg production which is looked real as the original one. Fake egg or artificial egg is made by using various types of raw materials, colors and flavors. Normally eggs provide about six grams of protein-half of this protein is in the egg white. Most of the nutrients in eggs are found in yolk. But artificial eggs are full of chemicals, additives and auxiliary agents. So fake eggs contain no nutritional values compared to the real eggs. In China it was claimed in various news that fake eggs are sold in the local market because of money. The chemicals used for artificial eggs causes metabolic disorders, brain damage, liver disease, cancer and many other diseases . So the productions of fake eggs haven’t any health benefit rather it’s a chemical hazard. Generally the artificial creation of natural things doesn’t blessing for human being.
      PubDate: Aug
       
  • In-Vitro Evaluation of Anti-Microbial and Anti-Oxidant Activity of Emblica
           Officinalis Juice Powder

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug  2013
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  1  Number  1  Maryam Bincy Thomas Kashif Khan S. K. Sharma Lalit Singh and M K Upadhyay  The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of Emblica officinalis juice powder. The antimicrobial activity was assessed against gram positive and gram negative bacteria namely E.coli, Pseudomonas fluoresces, Bacillus subtilis, S.aureus, and fungi namely Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, Alternaria alternata, and Fusarium spp by agar well diffusion method. The antioxidant activity of the powder was determined in vitro using hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity method. The amount of total phenolic content was also determined by Folin Ciocalteau method. The result of the study revealed antibacterial and antioxidant activity. The Emblica officinalis powder showed no antifungal activity against the tested strains. The activity was found to be concentration dependent. The results of present study conclude that Emblica officinalis juice powder possess high antibacterial and antioxidant activity and can be further explored for the isolation of its bioactive compound.
      PubDate: Aug
       
  • Oral Cyclophosphamide Confounds the Relationship between CYP2C19 and
           CYP2B6 Pharmacogenetics and Cyclophosphamide-induced premature Ovarian
           Failure in Lupus Nephritis Patients

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Aug  2013
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  1  Number  1  Nuala Helsby Michael Goldthorpe Peter Gow and Janak de Zoysa  Cyclophosphamide treatment of lupus nephritis is associated with ovarian toxicity. Four separate studies have previously demonstrated a lower risk of cyclophosphamide induced premature ovarian failure (POF) in carriers of the CYP2C19*2 null function allele. This hepatic enzyme bioactivates cyclophosphamide. CYP2B6 is also important in the activation of this prodrug however, genetic variants of CYP2B6 have not been associated with POF risk. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between CYP2C19 and CYP2B6 loss of function variants and prevalence of ovarian toxicity following treatment with monthly pulses of intravenous cyclophosphamide in lupus nephritis patients. In 28 pre-menopausal female patients, there was a 25% incidence of POF. In contrast to previous studies of a similar size we could not detect a significant relationship between the risk of POF and genetic variants of CYP2C19, alone or in combination with variants of CYP2B6. However, 71.4% of the cases with POF had been treated with additional daily oral cyclophosphamide compared with only 4.7% of controls (P < 0.02; OR 14.29 (95% CI, 1.4-144.5). Thus the effect of daily oral cyclophosphamide administration in addition to pulsed intravenous monthly doses may have obscured any protective effect of CYP2C19 loss of function in this cohort.
      PubDate: Aug
       
 
 
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