Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2332-0036 - ISSN (Online) 2332-0044
Published by Horizon Research Publishing [54 journals]
- Drug Utilization Study in Ophthalmology Outpatients in a Tertiary Care
Abstract: Publication date: Jun 2016
Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy Volume 4 Number 2 Hardik V Vaniya Nishita H Darji Vikas R Patel and Devdatta J Gohel Aims: The present study was carried out to describe the patterns of prescription and drug use in Ophthalmology outpatients at GG hospital, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India. Methods: Total of 600 patients were included during 3 months duration and average number of drugs per encounter, percentage of drugs prescribed by generic name, percentage of encounters with antibiotics prescribed, percentage of encounters with an injection prescribed, percentage of drugs prescribed from the WHO Essential Drug List 2015, number of fixed dose combinations prescribed and percentage of antimicrobial agents prescribed were analyzed. Results: Prescription analysis showed that the average number of drugs per prescription was 3.20%. Eye drops were the most commonly prescribed (66.8%) dosage form, followed by ointment (18.4%), capsules (8.66%) and tablets (6%). Dosage forms were recorded in 99.2% drugs, information about the frequency of drug administration was present in 96% of the drugs and duration of therapy was recorded in 84.7% of the drugs prescribed. The drug classes that were used most frequently were Antibiotics (45%), Ocular lubricants (24.7%), NSAIDS (17.4%) and Anti-allergy medications (8.1%). Conclusion: Common prescription errors were minimum. However polypharmacy was common.
PubDate: Jun 2016
- Toxicological Impact of Co-treatment with Rifampicin and Tenofovir on the
Renal Function of Male Albino Rats
Abstract: Publication date: Feb 2016
Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy Volume 4 Number 1 Adikwu Elias Igbans Rejoice Obele and Brambaifa Nelson This experimental study comparatively evaluated the toxicological effects of treatment with tenofovir, rifampicin and tenofovir- rifampicin (TDF-RIF) combination on kidney function and histology of male albino rats. Male albino rats used in this study were divided into five (5) groups A-E of sixteen (16) animals each. Animals in group A, (placebo control) were treated orally with normal saline, group B (solvent control) were treated orally with 0.1% ethanol while groups C-E were treated orally with 80 mg/kg of RIF, 32 mg/kg of TDF and a combination of TDF- RIF for 2-8 weeks respectively. Animals were sacrificed at the end of drug therapy, blood sample was collected, centrifuged and serum extracted for creatinine, urea and, uric acid evaluation. Kidney was harvested, weighed and examined for histopathological changes. Treatment with tenofovir-rifampicin combination had no significant (p0.05) time-dependent increases in serum creatinine, urea and uric acid levels were observed in animals treated with tenofovir-rifampicin combination when compared with treatment using individual doses of these drugs . Acute tubular necrosis, enlarged glomeruli and obliteration of the Bowman's capsule were observed in the kidneys of rats treated with tenofovir, rifampicin and a combination of tenofovir-rifampicin. This result shows that treatment with tenofovir-rifampicin combination in the management of human immunodeficiency virus /tuberculosis (HIV/TB) co-infection may not be associated with synergistic renal toxicity at the dose level used in this study.
PubDate: Feb 2016
- Pharmaceutical Care in Tbilisi Pharmacies
Abstract: Publication date: Feb 2016
Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy Volume 4 Number 1 N. Nemsitsveridze N. Gorgaslidze T. Chumburidze N. Dughashvili T. Zarkua and S. Voronovi Pharmaceutical care represents the patient-oriented future profession that is focused on identification, eradication and prevention of the problems connected to the drug treatment. The aim of the study was to detect the role of pharmacist in treatment. Thus it was necessary to find out doctors and pharmacists opinion about this topic. The method of the study was anonymous survey, of pharmacists and doctors. 'Pharmaceutical care'' in Tbilisi pharmacies was evaluated. We performed the analysis of the statistical data from the anonymous questionnaires delivered to 30 pharmacists and 30 physicians. Concerning the character of the request, frequently it is connected to the drug selection which is issued without any prescription, according to the 95% (45% often +50% rarely) of the respondents, majority of the patients request the original medicine to be changed with the generic one, which is according to their opinion determined by the high price of the original medicine. On the question about how many patients are advised, 54% of the pharmacists responded that every day from 50-70 patients address them to select drug or give consultation concerning the drug treatment. On the question about how frequently are patients redirected to the doctors, according to the questioning that consists of 50 %, which means that half of the patients' needs consultation of the doctors and pharmacist warn them concerning this issue. For the reason to find the dependence of the doctors on pharmacist's care we made internet survey. 65% of doctors believe that patient care belongs exclusively to the physician and only 35% of responders agreed to share this function with the pharmacist. In conclusion for avoiding misunderstanding between physicians and pharmacists and also for solving other problems detected during this study it is necessary to upgrade the qualification of pharmacists in clinical issues.
PubDate: Feb 2016