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Journal Cover Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy
  [4 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2332-0036 - ISSN (Online) 2332-0044
   Published by Horizon Research Publishing Homepage  [54 journals]
  • Toxicological Impact of Co-treatment with Rifampicin and Tenofovir on the
           Renal Function of Male Albino Rats

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2016
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  4  Number  1  Adikwu Elias   Igbans Rejoice Obele   and Brambaifa Nelson    This experimental study comparatively evaluated the toxicological effects of treatment with tenofovir, rifampicin and tenofovir- rifampicin (TDF-RIF) combination on kidney function and histology of male albino rats. Male albino rats used in this study were divided into five (5) groups A-E of sixteen (16) animals each. Animals in group A, (placebo control) were treated orally with normal saline, group B (solvent control) were treated orally with 0.1% ethanol while groups C-E were treated orally with 80 mg/kg of RIF, 32 mg/kg of TDF and a combination of TDF- RIF for 2-8 weeks respectively. Animals were sacrificed at the end of drug therapy, blood sample was collected, centrifuged and serum extracted for creatinine, urea and, uric acid evaluation. Kidney was harvested, weighed and examined for histopathological changes. Treatment with tenofovir-rifampicin combination had no significant (p0.05) time-dependent increases in serum creatinine, urea and uric acid levels were observed in animals treated with tenofovir-rifampicin combination when compared with treatment using individual doses of these drugs . Acute tubular necrosis, enlarged glomeruli and obliteration of the Bowman's capsule were observed in the kidneys of rats treated with tenofovir, rifampicin and a combination of tenofovir-rifampicin. This result shows that treatment with tenofovir-rifampicin combination in the management of human immunodeficiency virus /tuberculosis (HIV/TB) co-infection may not be associated with synergistic renal toxicity at the dose level used in this study.
      PubDate: Feb 2016
  • Pharmaceutical Care in Tbilisi Pharmacies

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2016
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  4  Number  1  N. Nemsitsveridze   N. Gorgaslidze   T. Chumburidze   N. Dughashvili   T. Zarkua   and S. Voronovi    Pharmaceutical care represents the patient-oriented future profession that is focused on identification, eradication and prevention of the problems connected to the drug treatment. The aim of the study was to detect the role of pharmacist in treatment. Thus it was necessary to find out doctors and pharmacists opinion about this topic. The method of the study was anonymous survey, of pharmacists and doctors. 'Pharmaceutical care'' in Tbilisi pharmacies was evaluated. We performed the analysis of the statistical data from the anonymous questionnaires delivered to 30 pharmacists and 30 physicians. Concerning the character of the request, frequently it is connected to the drug selection which is issued without any prescription, according to the 95% (45% often +50% rarely) of the respondents, majority of the patients request the original medicine to be changed with the generic one, which is according to their opinion determined by the high price of the original medicine. On the question about how many patients are advised, 54% of the pharmacists responded that every day from 50-70 patients address them to select drug or give consultation concerning the drug treatment. On the question about how frequently are patients redirected to the doctors, according to the questioning that consists of 50 %, which means that half of the patients' needs consultation of the doctors and pharmacist warn them concerning this issue. For the reason to find the dependence of the doctors on pharmacist's care we made internet survey. 65% of doctors believe that patient care belongs exclusively to the physician and only 35% of responders agreed to share this function with the pharmacist. In conclusion for avoiding misunderstanding between physicians and pharmacists and also for solving other problems detected during this study it is necessary to upgrade the qualification of pharmacists in clinical issues.
      PubDate: Feb 2016
  • Identification of Small Molecule Memapsin Inhibitors via Computation-based
           Virtual Screening

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2015
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  3  Number  3  Afaf H. Al-Nadaf   and Mutasem O. Taha    Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a degenerative disease of the brain common form of dementia. A variety of therapeutic strategies for modulating the progression or prevention of AD are currently being investigated. The etiology of the disease is characterized by aggregates of amyloid plaques, largely composed of amyloid-β peptide formed from the amyloid precursor protein cleaved by Memapsin 2(Beta-secretase / BACE1). Based on its key role in the β -amyloid cascade, inhibition of Memapsin 2 is widely recognized as one of the most promising therapeutic approaches for the treatment and prevention of AD. However, the development of small molecule, brain penetrant Memapsin 2 inhibitors has been challenging. Method: Molecular docking study using LigandFit Docking and Scoring as well as LibDock Docking functions were performed as a preliminary in-silico screening test for National Cancer Institute (NCI) database using binding pocket of Memapsin. Followed by in-vitro enzyme inhibition assay, High-ranking docked conformers and poses were scored using seven scoring functions. The validation for our docking–scoring procedure was performed through employing the same conditions to dock a well-known Memapsin inhibitor IO2. High ranking compounds were evaluated in vitro using Memapsin fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay. Results: The docking simulation resulted in a close model to the crystallographic structure. Five of the important interactions are shared between the co-crystallized ligand and in-silico hits. Virtual screening identified low micromolar inhibitory leads from the NCI list of compounds. The most potent hit exhibited Memapsin IC50 values of 11.1μM in enzymatic assay. Conclusion: We have identified a low micro-molar Memapsin inhibitor with IC50 of 11.1μM. Our results suggest that in silico high-throughput screening approach can serve as useful source to identify new hits which can be used as lead candidate for synthetic modification in order to reach more potent enzyme inhibitors.
      PubDate: Sep 2015
  • Mobile Applications to Improve Medication Adherence: Existing Apps,
           Quality of Life and Future Directions

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2015
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  3  Number  3  Ashley Choi   Annesha White Lovett   Jinhyang Kang   KyungMi Lee   and Lydia Choi    The aims of the study were to review the literature within the last decade with regard to existing applications to improve non-adherence, quality of life, and to discuss the pros and cons of currently marketed mobile applications. Based on review of a total of 33 articles and reports, hundreds of medication-related applications were shown to be currently available on the market. The findings were categorized based on the pros and cons of the applications. Results revealed that various applications are helpful to facilitate patient adherence, yet the majority of them have similar functions. These functions consist of manual reminder alerts and access to sources for drug information. Limited studies were found related to quality of life. Observational studies that were retrieved focused on physiological factors, such as a decrease in hemoglobin A1c. The target populations for mobile applications included caregivers, the elderly, low literacy patients, low income individuals, and other patients. Current mobile applications have a beneficial impact on patients, caregivers, and health-care providers including pharmacists. Although there were some concerns regarding methods for using mobile applications, such as privacy issues, the majority of previous studies showed positive perspectives on mobile applications. Future research on compatible features is encouraged for improved mobile application use in healthcare.
      PubDate: Sep 2015
  • Assessment of Knowledge and Practice of the Community towards Malaria and
           its Treatment in Jiren Kebele, Jimma Town Oromia, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2015
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  3  Number  2  Alemayehu Gutasa   Desta Assefa   and Kabaye Kumela    Background: Malaria is the most serious health problem in the world. In order to reduce malaria prevalence, knowing of the level of community awareness towards malaria prevention as well as community practice towards treatment seeking behavior is important. Objective: The aim of the study is to assess and identify the level of community awareness towards malaria, their practice of treatment seeking behavior and its relation to preventive measure. Methods: A community based cross – sectional study was conducted. Data was collected from a sample size of 283 households using structured questionnaires from January 28/2013 to February 8/2013. The questionnaires contain three parts depending on the information they contain. They include information about socio-demography, knowledge of the respondents towards malaria and its prevention and community practice towards malaria and its treatment. Result: A substantial number of respondents responded as they have reasonable knowledge on malaria (90.1%); including correct association between malaria and mosquito bites (87.2 %), and most people (85.8%) mentioned burning waste material as vector control method and few respondents were bed net owner (7%). Nearly greater than half (55.7%) of respondents stated that they would seek treatment within 24 hrs of onset of malaria at health facilities as their first treatment option. Finally data was presented in tables, figure and chart. Conclusion: The community overall awareness about the symptoms, cause, transmission and prevention measure of malaria was found to be high. Increasing awareness and access to early malaria diagnosis prompt treatment before the disease become complicated and participation in the health education is vital components in terms of malaria knowledge and practice.
      PubDate: May 2015
  • Preventive Effect of SA13353, a Novel Transient Receptor Potential

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2015
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  3  Number  2  Kyoko Ueda   Fumio Tsuji   Tomoko Hirata   Kenji Ueda   Masaaki Murai   Hiroyuki Aono   Masanori Takaoka   and Yasuo Matsumura    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal injury. We demonstrated recently that the preischemic treatment with resiniferatoxin, a transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) agonist, attenuates renal TNF-α mRNA expression, and improves ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal injury in rats. In the present study, we investigated effects of treatment with SA13353, a novel orally active TRPV1 agonist, on ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal injury in rats. Ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) was induced by occlusion of the left renal artery and vein for 45 min followed by reperfusion, 2 weeks after contralateral nephrectomy. Renal function in vehicle-treated AKI rats markedly decreased at 24 h after reperfusion. Treatment with SA13353 (3, 10, and 30 mg/kg, p.o.) 30 min before ischemia dose-dependently attenuated the ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal dysfunction. Histopathological examination of the kidney of AKI rats revealed severe renal damage, which were significantly suppressed by the SA13353 treatment. In renal tissues exposed to ischemia/reperfusion, TNF-α and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 mRNA expressions were augmented, but these alterations were attenuated by the treatment with SA13353. On the other hand, ischemia/reperfusion-enhanced renal interleukin-10 mRNA expression and its plasma concentration were further augmented by SA13353 treatment. These results demonstrate that the orally active TRPV1 agonist SA13353 prevents the ischemia/reperfusion-induced AKI. This renoprotective effects seem to be closely related to the inhibition of inflammatory response via TRPV1 activation.
      PubDate: May 2015
  • A Validated Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Coupled with
           Liquid-Liquid Extraction for Indacaterol Quantitation in Human Plasma

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2015
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  3  Number  2  Wesam G. Ammari   Zainab Al-Qadhi   Mohammad Khalil   Rabab Tayyem   Samir Qammaz   Ghaleb Oriquat   Iman A. Basheti   and Henry Chrystyn    Indacaterol is a recent ultra-long-acting inhaled β2-agonist bronchodilator. The current work validated an in-house developed high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) bioassay for indacaterol in human plasma. Ethyl acetate was used in a liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method to extract indacaterol from plasma samples. A 200 μL of the mobile phase (water-methanol (30:70, v/v)) was used to reconstitute the indacaterol dry extract. A 5 μL was then eluted on a C18 column at a mobile phase flow of 1 mL/min. Formoterol was the internal standard (IS). The MS/MS was the detector. Method validation followed the International Guidelines. Indacaterol and IS were detected at a mass to charge ratio of 393.3 and 345.2, respectively. Validated calibration curves were linear over 0.075 - 100 ng/mL. Method specificity was established in 8 different plasma batches. No matrix effect was observed. The intra-batch accuracy (precision) percentages for the lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ), Low, Mid and High quality control levels were 113.6 (10.8), 104.7 (9.1), 99.8 (7.6) and 102.2 (8.5), respectively. The inter-batch accuracy, recovery, short-term and long-term stability results were accepted. Validation has confirmed a specific, accurate and precise HPLC-MS/MS coupled with a simple and fast LLE for indacaterol in human plasma.
      PubDate: May 2015
  • Nanocarriers as Promising Novel Systems for Controlled Delivery of
           Diclofenac Sodium

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2015
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  3  Number  1  Gannu Praveen Kumar   and Pogaku Rajeshwar Rao    The formulation and evaluation of diclofenac sodium from liposomes, niosomes and nanoemulsion are analyzed. The release profiles of diclofenac sodium were almost similar in all the formulations. It is found that 85% of diclofenac sodium diffused out from the colloidal systems within 8hrs and practically all the drug was released within 12hrs. In addition to this controlled release, the similarity of the release profiles obtained for liposomes, niosomes and nanoemulsion signifies that the internal structure has little role in the release process. The drug released fast and completely from the carriers upon high dilution, but it is slowed down a little when they are not diluted. The maximium amount of diclofenac sodium was released from nano emulsion as well as liposomes after 12 hrs at 1 in 200 dilution where as in niosomes, it was found at 1 in 100 dilution. But surprisingly, the release was decreased upon further dilution. The higher the surfactant content, the higher the globule size of the nanoemulsion. The mean size of the systems was decreased upon increasing dilution. Among all the systems, the mean size of niosomes was decreased upon increasing the dilution up to 1:200. It was finally depicted that the dilution effect on the zeta potential of the systems shifted from negative to positive by adding polysorbate 80. The zeta potential of all the systems was significantly good indicating stable systems.
      PubDate: Feb 2015
  • Lemon Juice Synergistically Preserved with Lactobacilli Ameliorates
           Inflammation in Shigellosis Mice

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2015
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  3  Number  1  M. Abdul Alim Al-Bari   M. Khairul Islam   M. Shakhawat Hasan   Md. Abdullah Al Mamun   and M. Kudrat-E-Zahan    The use of probiotic Lactobacilli has moved from concept to implement in different applications. The study was carried out to establish the synergistic role of co-cultures of Lactobacillus casei, L. delbrueckii, L. plantarum and L. helveticus in lemon juice (LJ) preservation as well as investigate the inflammatory- and toxicity profiles of biopreserved LJ ingested shigellosis mice. Lactobacilli were cultured individually and cocultured with different combinations. Four strain Lactobacilli had significant preservative activity than any other combinations in both free and microencapsulated Lactobacilli. The four microencapsulated bacteria extended shelf-life of the LJ in about two weeks at 4°C. The free or microencapsulated bacteria were increased acidic pH into LJ. It was evidently proved that microencapsulated cocultures of different strains remained viable over a long period of time and the probiotically fermented juice were potentially inhibiting the pathogenic growth. For inflammatory acute shigellosis, therapies were divided into six groups: LJ only; LJ containing pathogenic bacteria (PB); LJ containing curd, the source of Lactobacilli; LJ containing curd and PB; LJ containing four Lactobacilli LAB1,3,4,6 and LJ containing chemical preservatives (PR, prophyl paraben and methyl paraben 9:1). Lactobacilli preserved LJ were found to be favorably lower inflammatory haematological profiles such as ESR, WBC count and C-reactive protein (CRP) agglutination in acute shigellosis mice. In addition, biopreserved LJ was safe owing to normal ranges of SGPT, SGOT, SALP and AA levels in shigellosis mice. Prospective studies on mechanisms of the probiotic activities might be enable their new medical applications for food preservation and treatment of inflammatory dysentery patients.
      PubDate: Feb 2015
  • Hepatotoxic Assessment of Co-treatment with Isoniazid and Efavirenz in
           Albino Rats

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2015
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  3  Number  4  Adikwu Elias   Brambaifa Nelson   Igbans Rejoice Obele   and Odoko J. Onyedenyifa    This study comparatively investigated the toxicological effects of treatment with efavirenz, isoniazid and efavirenz-isoniazid (EFV- INH) combination on liver function parameters and histology in adult male albino rats. Animals used in this study were divided into five (5) groups A-E of sixteen (16) animals each. Animals in group A (placebo control) were treated with water while animals in group B (solvent control) were treated with arachis oil orally. Animals in groups C-E were treated orally with 15mg/kg of INH, 10mg/kg of EFV and a combination of INH- EFV for 2-8 weeks respectively. At the end of drug therapy, serum was extracted from centrifuged blood sample and evaluated for alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total and conjugated bilirubin. Animals were sacrificed and liver was harvested weighed and evaluated for histopathological changes. Effects produced by co-treatment with EFV-INH on absolute liver weight, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, conjugated and total bilirubin were insignificant (p>0.05) when compared with effects produced by treatment with individual doses of EFV and INH. Histopathological evaluation of the liver of animals treated with EFV-INH combination showed vascular congestion, inflammation of parenchyma and hepatocytes degeneration. These results show that co- therapy with EFV-INH in patients with human immunodeficiency virus /tuberculosis co-infection may not be associated with synergistic hepatotoxicity.
      PubDate: Dec 2015
  • Treatment Profile of Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Saudi Arabia:
           Issues in Treatment Adherence

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2015
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  3  Number  4  Mohammed Hasosah   Mohammed El Mouzan   Omar Saadah   Khalid Al-Saleem   Abdulrahman Al-Hussaini   Ali Al Mehaidib   Badr Al Saleem   Khalid Alquair   and Kevan Jacobson    Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), with its 3 subgroups: Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and indeterminate colitis (IC), is a chronic relapsing inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Medication adherence is particularly problematic in pediatric IBD. To date this has not been studied in the Middle East. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe the treatment modalities of IBD and to evaluate adherence to treatment in a population-based cohort of Saudi children. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in all regions of Saudi Arabia. All participating centers were asked to provide information on IBD medications and adherence to prescribed therapies. Results: 354 children with IBD were identified from our database. The age at diagnosis ranged from 1to 14 years, with 145 (41%) diagnosed with UC, 195 (55%) with CD and 14 (4%) with IC. The most common drugs therapy used in IBD was corticosteroids in CD and 5-ASA in UC. Patients with UC were treated with 5-ASA significantly more than patients with CD (76% vs. 62%; P= 0.004). In contrast, patients with CD were treated with infliximab significantly more than patients with UC (22% vs. 6%; P= 0.000). Overall, 15.8% of patients were non-adherent with patients with CD demonstrating a higher level of nonadherence, although this was not significantly different from UC patients (11% vs. 3.8%; P>0.05). Poor adherence to specific drugs was reported significantly more in CD than UC patients; mesalamine (p= 0.022), steroids (p= 0.021) and thiopurines (p= 0.006). Conclusion: Poor adherence occurs most frequently in CD patients and with 5-ASA, corticosteroids and thiopurines. These data can be used to help care providers and policy makers such as the Ministry Of Health define and quantify the burden of IBD among children in Saudi Arabia. Further research in IBD is required to determine the reasons for nonadherence/ poor adherence in the pediatric IBD population so that strategies can be devised to reduce it. Key Points: Medication adherence is particularly problematic in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We found that steroids and 5- Amino salicylic acids are the most widely used medications in pediatric IBD patients. Nonadherence occurs most frequently with 5-ASA, steroids and thiopurines in Crohns. These data should help health care providers quantify the burden of IBD among children.
      PubDate: Dec 2015
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