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Journal Cover Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy
  [6 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2332-0036 - ISSN (Online) 2332-0044
   Published by Horizon Research Publishing Homepage  [54 journals]
  • Study on Prescribing Pattern of Antihypertensive Drugs in a Tertiary Care
           Hospital

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  5  Number  2  Prabhakar Adake   Nagpati Prabhakar Bhat   Roopa P Nayak   Hafis TK   Bhagyashree A   and Prajna V Raj   Objective: To analyze prescription pattern of antihypertensive drugs in patients with hypertension alone and with coexisting diseases. Methodology: A descriptive cross- sectional study was conducted in outpatient department of tertiary care hospital in south India. A total of 286 prescriptions of patients diagnosed to have hypertension with or without coexisting diseases were collected. Details of prescriptions were entered in the preformed pro forma and analyzed. Result: The study included 138 (48.25%) male and 148 (51.75%) female. Out of 286 hypertensives, 122 (42.66%) patients were having co-existing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). And remaining 164 patients (57.34%) were only hypertensives. Out of 286 patients, 227 (79.31%) patients were on monotherapy, 49 (17.13%) were on dual therapy and remaining 10 patients were on triple anti-hypertensive drugs. Among 150 antihypertensive drugs that are prescribed for hypertensive patients withT2DM, 57 (38%) were calcium channel blocker (CCB), 40 (26.66%) were angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI), 31 (20.66%) were angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB), 13 (8.66%) were diuretics and remaining 9 (6%) were beta blockers. Similarly, among 206 antihypertensive drugs prescribed for hypertension alone patients, 97 (47%) were CCB, 37 (17.96%) were ACEI, 31 (15%) were ARB, 26 (12.62%) were diuretics and remaining 15 (7.28%) were beta blockers. Conclusion: The study has shown that majority of patients were on monotherapy (79.31%) and calcium channel blockers were commonly prescribed for hypertension in patients with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus followed by ACE inhibitors, ARB and beta blockers.
      PubDate: Jul 2017
       
  • Erythrosine Incorporated Fast-Dissolving Patches for Dental Plaque
           Disclosing

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  5  Number  1  Prasopchai Tonglairoum   Theerasak Rojanarata   Tanasait Ngawhirunpat   Prasert Akkaramongkolporn   Ruchadaporn Kaomongkolgit   and Praneet Opanasopit   The aim of this study was to develop erythrosine-loaded electrospun polyvinyl pyrrolidone/ hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (PVP/HPβCD) fiber patches for plaque disclosing. The fiber patches had been fabricated via electrospinning process and were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD). The fiber patches were then further evaluated for wetting and integration abilities, mechanical properties, loading efficiency, loading capacity and release characteristic. These erythrosine-loaded fiber patches exhibited excellent wetting and disintegration properties and prompt released the erythrosine form the patches after contacted with saliva. These erythrosine-loaded fiber patches could be exploited as a plaque-disclosing material. However, further in vivo studies are needed for the application.
      PubDate: Apr 2017
       
  • Subchronic Amitriptyline Influences Open-field Behaviours and Spontaneous
           Working-memory in Healthy Mice

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Apr 2017
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  5  Number  1  Onaolapo Olakunle James   Olabintan Olusegun Oyewole   and Onaolapo Adejoke Yetunde   Objective: We assessed the effects of amitriptyline on open-field locomotion, stereotypic behaviours and spatial working-memory in healthy mice. Method: Five groups of mice were administered vehicle (distilled water), scopolamine (2 mg/kg), or one of three doses of amitriptyline (5, 10 and 15 mg/kg) for 21 days. Behaviours were assessed after the first and final dose of treatment. Result: Administration of the first dose of amitriptyline was associated with enhanced open-field horizontal locomotion, rearing and grooming; with repeated administration, there was suppression of horizontal locomotion and rearing. A dose-related decrease in Y-maze and radial-arm maze spatial working-memory was also observed after repeated administration. Compared to scopolamine, amitriptyline was associated with a significant reduction in open-field behaviours, but a significantly-higher spatial working-memory score. Conclusion: Repeated administration of amitriptyline in healthy mice was associated with suppression of locomotion and grooming; working-memory deficits were also observed. However, working-memory task performance is significantly better than the scopolamine group.
      PubDate: Apr 2017
       
  • Purification, Characterization and Antioxidant Activity of Green Seaweed
           Codium sp

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2016
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  4  Number  2  G. Kallswari   S. Mahendran   P. Subalakshmi   T. Shankar   and P. Ponmanickam   In the present study the Codium sp. polysaccharide was extracted and partially purified in DEAE cellulose. The polysaccharide was estimated for carbohydrate, sulfate content and uronic acid. The elemental analysis of polysaccharides was analyzed for carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur. The antibacterial activity of polysaccharide showed maximum 19 mm of inhibition zone against Bacillus cereus and 12 mm of inhibition zone against Xanthomonas sp. Free radical scavenging activity of polysaccharide from Codium sp. was assayed for total antioxidant capacity, reducing power, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, DPPH, ABTS, hydroxyl scavenging assay, superoxide anion radical scavenging and nitric oxide. The green seaweed Codium sp. polysaccharide showed rich sources of antibacterial and antioxidant activity.
      PubDate: Jun 2016
       
  • Drug Utilization Study in Ophthalmology Outpatients in a Tertiary Care
           Hospital

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jun 2016
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  4  Number  2  Hardik V Vaniya   Nishita H Darji   Vikas R Patel   and Devdatta J Gohel   Aims: The present study was carried out to describe the patterns of prescription and drug use in Ophthalmology outpatients at GG hospital, Jamnagar, Gujarat, India. Methods: Total of 600 patients were included during 3 months duration and average number of drugs per encounter, percentage of drugs prescribed by generic name, percentage of encounters with antibiotics prescribed, percentage of encounters with an injection prescribed, percentage of drugs prescribed from the WHO Essential Drug List 2015, number of fixed dose combinations prescribed and percentage of antimicrobial agents prescribed were analyzed. Results: Prescription analysis showed that the average number of drugs per prescription was 3.20%. Eye drops were the most commonly prescribed (66.8%) dosage form, followed by ointment (18.4%), capsules (8.66%) and tablets (6%). Dosage forms were recorded in 99.2% drugs, information about the frequency of drug administration was present in 96% of the drugs and duration of therapy was recorded in 84.7% of the drugs prescribed. The drug classes that were used most frequently were Antibiotics (45%), Ocular lubricants (24.7%), NSAIDS (17.4%) and Anti-allergy medications (8.1%). Conclusion: Common prescription errors were minimum. However polypharmacy was common.
      PubDate: Jun 2016
       
  • Pharmaceutical Care in Tbilisi Pharmacies

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2016
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  4  Number  1  N. Nemsitsveridze   N. Gorgaslidze   T. Chumburidze   N. Dughashvili   T. Zarkua   and S. Voronovi   Pharmaceutical care represents the patient-oriented future profession that is focused on identification, eradication and prevention of the problems connected to the drug treatment. The aim of the study was to detect the role of pharmacist in treatment. Thus it was necessary to find out doctors and pharmacists opinion about this topic. The method of the study was anonymous survey, of pharmacists and doctors. 'Pharmaceutical care'' in Tbilisi pharmacies was evaluated. We performed the analysis of the statistical data from the anonymous questionnaires delivered to 30 pharmacists and 30 physicians. Concerning the character of the request, frequently it is connected to the drug selection which is issued without any prescription, according to the 95% (45% often +50% rarely) of the respondents, majority of the patients request the original medicine to be changed with the generic one, which is according to their opinion determined by the high price of the original medicine. On the question about how many patients are advised, 54% of the pharmacists responded that every day from 50-70 patients address them to select drug or give consultation concerning the drug treatment. On the question about how frequently are patients redirected to the doctors, according to the questioning that consists of 50 %, which means that half of the patients' needs consultation of the doctors and pharmacist warn them concerning this issue. For the reason to find the dependence of the doctors on pharmacist's care we made internet survey. 65% of doctors believe that patient care belongs exclusively to the physician and only 35% of responders agreed to share this function with the pharmacist. In conclusion for avoiding misunderstanding between physicians and pharmacists and also for solving other problems detected during this study it is necessary to upgrade the qualification of pharmacists in clinical issues.
      PubDate: Feb 2016
       
  • Toxicological Impact of Co-treatment with Rifampicin and Tenofovir on the
           Renal Function of Male Albino Rats

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2016
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  4  Number  1  Adikwu Elias   Igbans Rejoice Obele   and Brambaifa Nelson   This experimental study comparatively evaluated the toxicological effects of treatment with tenofovir, rifampicin and tenofovir- rifampicin (TDF-RIF) combination on kidney function and histology of male albino rats. Male albino rats used in this study were divided into five (5) groups A-E of sixteen (16) animals each. Animals in group A, (placebo control) were treated orally with normal saline, group B (solvent control) were treated orally with 0.1% ethanol while groups C-E were treated orally with 80 mg/kg of RIF, 32 mg/kg of TDF and a combination of TDF- RIF for 2-8 weeks respectively. Animals were sacrificed at the end of drug therapy, blood sample was collected, centrifuged and serum extracted for creatinine, urea and, uric acid evaluation. Kidney was harvested, weighed and examined for histopathological changes. Treatment with tenofovir-rifampicin combination had no significant (p0.05) time-dependent increases in serum creatinine, urea and uric acid levels were observed in animals treated with tenofovir-rifampicin combination when compared with treatment using individual doses of these drugs . Acute tubular necrosis, enlarged glomeruli and obliteration of the Bowman's capsule were observed in the kidneys of rats treated with tenofovir, rifampicin and a combination of tenofovir-rifampicin. This result shows that treatment with tenofovir-rifampicin combination in the management of human immunodeficiency virus /tuberculosis (HIV/TB) co-infection may not be associated with synergistic renal toxicity at the dose level used in this study.
      PubDate: Feb 2016
       
  • A Review on Ethnobiological & Medicinal Potential of Capparaceae Family
           Plant: Capparis decidua (Forssk.) Edgew

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2016
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  4  Number  3  Prashant Kumar Dhakad   Pramod Kumar Sharma   and Sokindra Kumar   Rajasthan state is rich in flora of xerophytic plants. Capparis decidua (Forssk.) Edgew. is a wild bushy plant found in hot arid regions. This plant has wide range of distribution in many parts of India. Ethnobiologically, this plant is useful as its various parts like immature flower buds, semi-mature fruits, young shoots with small leaves are pickled for use as a condiment and traditional people use this plant in treating ailments like digestive diseases, anodyne, sudorific, constipation, gout, cough, flu, dropsy, palsy, asthma, and intestinal worms, lumbago, odontalgia. Capparis decidua (Forssk.) Edgew. contains chemical compounds like alkaloids, flavanoids, terpenoids, phenolic compounds, steroids, vitamins, quarternary ammonium compounds and many more phytoconstituents that are responsible for its medicinal value. Different parts of this plant like seed, root, stem, flowers, fruits and leaves have medicinal importance and has shown numerous pharmacological activities like antimicrobial, antibacterial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anthelmintic, antidiabetic, antisebum, antihyperlipidemic, antisclerotic, antitermite, antiplaque, analgesic, sedative and anticonvulsant. Economic importance of this plant has tended for harvesting, yield and marketing specifically in Thar Desert. Future potential of this crop is very promising as it is a drought and heat tolerant plant which makes it a good weather forecasting species; also it provides people with food (pickle & vegetable), fodder, wood and fuel. The presence of numerous phytoconstituents makes it a medicinally important crop for treating deadly diseases. This review covers taxonomy, distribution, phytochemicals, and nutritional value, and commercial value, traditional and pharmacological aspects of Capparis decidua (Forssk.) Edgew.
      PubDate: Dec 2016
       
  • Anti-inflammatory Activity of an Ornamental Plant Plumeria Obtusa

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2016
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  4  Number  3  Amogh R. Lotankar   Altamash J. Momin   Shaijesh Wankhede   and Jyoti B. Sharma   Aims: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of ethanolic bark extract of Plumeria obtusa. Material and method: Anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated by using two different animal models namely cotton pellet method and carrageenan induce paw edema in male Wistar rats at a dose of 100,200 and 400 mg/kg respectively. Results: Phytochemical examination of the extract exposed the existence of alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and terpenoids. The ethanolic extract elicited highly significant (p
      PubDate: Dec 2016
       
  • Mobile Applications to Improve Medication Adherence: Existing Apps,
           Quality of Life and Future Directions

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2015
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  3  Number  3  Ashley Choi   Annesha White Lovett   Jinhyang Kang   KyungMi Lee   and Lydia Choi   The aims of the study were to review the literature within the last decade with regard to existing applications to improve non-adherence, quality of life, and to discuss the pros and cons of currently marketed mobile applications. Based on review of a total of 33 articles and reports, hundreds of medication-related applications were shown to be currently available on the market. The findings were categorized based on the pros and cons of the applications. Results revealed that various applications are helpful to facilitate patient adherence, yet the majority of them have similar functions. These functions consist of manual reminder alerts and access to sources for drug information. Limited studies were found related to quality of life. Observational studies that were retrieved focused on physiological factors, such as a decrease in hemoglobin A1c. The target populations for mobile applications included caregivers, the elderly, low literacy patients, low income individuals, and other patients. Current mobile applications have a beneficial impact on patients, caregivers, and health-care providers including pharmacists. Although there were some concerns regarding methods for using mobile applications, such as privacy issues, the majority of previous studies showed positive perspectives on mobile applications. Future research on compatible features is encouraged for improved mobile application use in healthcare.
      PubDate: Sep 2015
       
  • Identification of Small Molecule Memapsin Inhibitors via Computation-based
           Virtual Screening

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2015
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  3  Number  3  Afaf H. Al-Nadaf   and Mutasem O. Taha   Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a degenerative disease of the brain common form of dementia. A variety of therapeutic strategies for modulating the progression or prevention of AD are currently being investigated. The etiology of the disease is characterized by aggregates of amyloid plaques, largely composed of amyloid-β peptide formed from the amyloid precursor protein cleaved by Memapsin 2(Beta-secretase / BACE1). Based on its key role in the β -amyloid cascade, inhibition of Memapsin 2 is widely recognized as one of the most promising therapeutic approaches for the treatment and prevention of AD. However, the development of small molecule, brain penetrant Memapsin 2 inhibitors has been challenging. Method: Molecular docking study using LigandFit Docking and Scoring as well as LibDock Docking functions were performed as a preliminary in-silico screening test for National Cancer Institute (NCI) database using binding pocket of Memapsin. Followed by in-vitro enzyme inhibition assay, High-ranking docked conformers and poses were scored using seven scoring functions. The validation for our docking–scoring procedure was performed through employing the same conditions to dock a well-known Memapsin inhibitor IO2. High ranking compounds were evaluated in vitro using Memapsin fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) assay. Results: The docking simulation resulted in a close model to the crystallographic structure. Five of the important interactions are shared between the co-crystallized ligand and in-silico hits. Virtual screening identified low micromolar inhibitory leads from the NCI list of compounds. The most potent hit exhibited Memapsin IC50 values of 11.1μM in enzymatic assay. Conclusion: We have identified a low micro-molar Memapsin inhibitor with IC50 of 11.1μM. Our results suggest that in silico high-throughput screening approach can serve as useful source to identify new hits which can be used as lead candidate for synthetic modification in order to reach more potent enzyme inhibitors.
      PubDate: Sep 2015
       
  • A Validated Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Coupled with
           Liquid-Liquid Extraction for Indacaterol Quantitation in Human Plasma

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2015
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  3  Number  2  Wesam G. Ammari   Zainab Al-Qadhi   Mohammad Khalil   Rabab Tayyem   Samir Qammaz   Ghaleb Oriquat   Iman A. Basheti   and Henry Chrystyn   Indacaterol is a recent ultra-long-acting inhaled β2-agonist bronchodilator. The current work validated an in-house developed high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) bioassay for indacaterol in human plasma. Ethyl acetate was used in a liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method to extract indacaterol from plasma samples. A 200 μL of the mobile phase (water-methanol (30:70, v/v)) was used to reconstitute the indacaterol dry extract. A 5 μL was then eluted on a C18 column at a mobile phase flow of 1 mL/min. Formoterol was the internal standard (IS). The MS/MS was the detector. Method validation followed the International Guidelines. Indacaterol and IS were detected at a mass to charge ratio of 393.3 and 345.2, respectively. Validated calibration curves were linear over 0.075 - 100 ng/mL. Method specificity was established in 8 different plasma batches. No matrix effect was observed. The intra-batch accuracy (precision) percentages for the lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ), Low, Mid and High quality control levels were 113.6 (10.8), 104.7 (9.1), 99.8 (7.6) and 102.2 (8.5), respectively. The inter-batch accuracy, recovery, short-term and long-term stability results were accepted. Validation has confirmed a specific, accurate and precise HPLC-MS/MS coupled with a simple and fast LLE for indacaterol in human plasma.
      PubDate: May 2015
       
  • Preventive Effect of SA13353, a Novel Transient Receptor Potential
           

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2015
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  3  Number  2  Kyoko Ueda   Fumio Tsuji   Tomoko Hirata   Kenji Ueda   Masaaki Murai   Hiroyuki Aono   Masanori Takaoka   and Yasuo Matsumura   Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal injury. We demonstrated recently that the preischemic treatment with resiniferatoxin, a transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) agonist, attenuates renal TNF-α mRNA expression, and improves ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal injury in rats. In the present study, we investigated effects of treatment with SA13353, a novel orally active TRPV1 agonist, on ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal injury in rats. Ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) was induced by occlusion of the left renal artery and vein for 45 min followed by reperfusion, 2 weeks after contralateral nephrectomy. Renal function in vehicle-treated AKI rats markedly decreased at 24 h after reperfusion. Treatment with SA13353 (3, 10, and 30 mg/kg, p.o.) 30 min before ischemia dose-dependently attenuated the ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal dysfunction. Histopathological examination of the kidney of AKI rats revealed severe renal damage, which were significantly suppressed by the SA13353 treatment. In renal tissues exposed to ischemia/reperfusion, TNF-α and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 mRNA expressions were augmented, but these alterations were attenuated by the treatment with SA13353. On the other hand, ischemia/reperfusion-enhanced renal interleukin-10 mRNA expression and its plasma concentration were further augmented by SA13353 treatment. These results demonstrate that the orally active TRPV1 agonist SA13353 prevents the ischemia/reperfusion-induced AKI. This renoprotective effects seem to be closely related to the inhibition of inflammatory response via TRPV1 activation.
      PubDate: May 2015
       
  • Assessment of Knowledge and Practice of the Community towards Malaria and
           its Treatment in Jiren Kebele, Jimma Town Oromia, Ethiopia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2015
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  3  Number  2  Alemayehu Gutasa   Desta Assefa   and Kabaye Kumela   Background: Malaria is the most serious health problem in the world. In order to reduce malaria prevalence, knowing of the level of community awareness towards malaria prevention as well as community practice towards treatment seeking behavior is important. Objective: The aim of the study is to assess and identify the level of community awareness towards malaria, their practice of treatment seeking behavior and its relation to preventive measure. Methods: A community based cross – sectional study was conducted. Data was collected from a sample size of 283 households using structured questionnaires from January 28/2013 to February 8/2013. The questionnaires contain three parts depending on the information they contain. They include information about socio-demography, knowledge of the respondents towards malaria and its prevention and community practice towards malaria and its treatment. Result: A substantial number of respondents responded as they have reasonable knowledge on malaria (90.1%); including correct association between malaria and mosquito bites (87.2 %), and most people (85.8%) mentioned burning waste material as vector control method and few respondents were bed net owner (7%). Nearly greater than half (55.7%) of respondents stated that they would seek treatment within 24 hrs of onset of malaria at health facilities as their first treatment option. Finally data was presented in tables, figure and chart. Conclusion: The community overall awareness about the symptoms, cause, transmission and prevention measure of malaria was found to be high. Increasing awareness and access to early malaria diagnosis prompt treatment before the disease become complicated and participation in the health education is vital components in terms of malaria knowledge and practice.
      PubDate: May 2015
       
  • Lemon Juice Synergistically Preserved with Lactobacilli Ameliorates
           Inflammation in Shigellosis Mice

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2015
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  3  Number  1  M. Abdul Alim Al-Bari   M. Khairul Islam   M. Shakhawat Hasan   Md. Abdullah Al Mamun   and M. Kudrat-E-Zahan   The use of probiotic Lactobacilli has moved from concept to implement in different applications. The study was carried out to establish the synergistic role of co-cultures of Lactobacillus casei, L. delbrueckii, L. plantarum and L. helveticus in lemon juice (LJ) preservation as well as investigate the inflammatory- and toxicity profiles of biopreserved LJ ingested shigellosis mice. Lactobacilli were cultured individually and cocultured with different combinations. Four strain Lactobacilli had significant preservative activity than any other combinations in both free and microencapsulated Lactobacilli. The four microencapsulated bacteria extended shelf-life of the LJ in about two weeks at 4°C. The free or microencapsulated bacteria were increased acidic pH into LJ. It was evidently proved that microencapsulated cocultures of different strains remained viable over a long period of time and the probiotically fermented juice were potentially inhibiting the pathogenic growth. For inflammatory acute shigellosis, therapies were divided into six groups: LJ only; LJ containing pathogenic bacteria (PB); LJ containing curd, the source of Lactobacilli; LJ containing curd and PB; LJ containing four Lactobacilli LAB1,3,4,6 and LJ containing chemical preservatives (PR, prophyl paraben and methyl paraben 9:1). Lactobacilli preserved LJ were found to be favorably lower inflammatory haematological profiles such as ESR, WBC count and C-reactive protein (CRP) agglutination in acute shigellosis mice. In addition, biopreserved LJ was safe owing to normal ranges of SGPT, SGOT, SALP and AA levels in shigellosis mice. Prospective studies on mechanisms of the probiotic activities might be enable their new medical applications for food preservation and treatment of inflammatory dysentery patients.
      PubDate: Feb 2015
       
  • Nanocarriers as Promising Novel Systems for Controlled Delivery of
           Diclofenac Sodium

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Feb 2015
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  3  Number  1  Gannu Praveen Kumar   and Pogaku Rajeshwar Rao   The formulation and evaluation of diclofenac sodium from liposomes, niosomes and nanoemulsion are analyzed. The release profiles of diclofenac sodium were almost similar in all the formulations. It is found that 85% of diclofenac sodium diffused out from the colloidal systems within 8hrs and practically all the drug was released within 12hrs. In addition to this controlled release, the similarity of the release profiles obtained for liposomes, niosomes and nanoemulsion signifies that the internal structure has little role in the release process. The drug released fast and completely from the carriers upon high dilution, but it is slowed down a little when they are not diluted. The maximium amount of diclofenac sodium was released from nano emulsion as well as liposomes after 12 hrs at 1 in 200 dilution where as in niosomes, it was found at 1 in 100 dilution. But surprisingly, the release was decreased upon further dilution. The higher the surfactant content, the higher the globule size of the nanoemulsion. The mean size of the systems was decreased upon increasing dilution. Among all the systems, the mean size of niosomes was decreased upon increasing the dilution up to 1:200. It was finally depicted that the dilution effect on the zeta potential of the systems shifted from negative to positive by adding polysorbate 80. The zeta potential of all the systems was significantly good indicating stable systems.
      PubDate: Feb 2015
       
  • Treatment Profile of Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Saudi Arabia:
           Issues in Treatment Adherence

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2015
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  3  Number  4  Mohammed Hasosah   Mohammed El Mouzan   Omar Saadah   Khalid Al-Saleem   Abdulrahman Al-Hussaini   Ali Al Mehaidib   Badr Al Saleem   Khalid Alquair   and Kevan Jacobson   Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), with its 3 subgroups: Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC), and indeterminate colitis (IC), is a chronic relapsing inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Medication adherence is particularly problematic in pediatric IBD. To date this has not been studied in the Middle East. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe the treatment modalities of IBD and to evaluate adherence to treatment in a population-based cohort of Saudi children. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in all regions of Saudi Arabia. All participating centers were asked to provide information on IBD medications and adherence to prescribed therapies. Results: 354 children with IBD were identified from our database. The age at diagnosis ranged from 1to 14 years, with 145 (41%) diagnosed with UC, 195 (55%) with CD and 14 (4%) with IC. The most common drugs therapy used in IBD was corticosteroids in CD and 5-ASA in UC. Patients with UC were treated with 5-ASA significantly more than patients with CD (76% vs. 62%; P= 0.004). In contrast, patients with CD were treated with infliximab significantly more than patients with UC (22% vs. 6%; P= 0.000). Overall, 15.8% of patients were non-adherent with patients with CD demonstrating a higher level of nonadherence, although this was not significantly different from UC patients (11% vs. 3.8%; P>0.05). Poor adherence to specific drugs was reported significantly more in CD than UC patients; mesalamine (p= 0.022), steroids (p= 0.021) and thiopurines (p= 0.006). Conclusion: Poor adherence occurs most frequently in CD patients and with 5-ASA, corticosteroids and thiopurines. These data can be used to help care providers and policy makers such as the Ministry Of Health define and quantify the burden of IBD among children in Saudi Arabia. Further research in IBD is required to determine the reasons for nonadherence/ poor adherence in the pediatric IBD population so that strategies can be devised to reduce it. Key Points: Medication adherence is particularly problematic in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We found that steroids and 5- Amino salicylic acids are the most widely used medications in pediatric IBD patients. Nonadherence occurs most frequently with 5-ASA, steroids and thiopurines in Crohns. These data should help health care providers quantify the burden of IBD among children.
      PubDate: Dec 2015
       
  • Hepatotoxic Assessment of Co-treatment with Isoniazid and Efavirenz in
           Albino Rats

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2015
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  3  Number  4  Adikwu Elias   Brambaifa Nelson   Igbans Rejoice Obele   and Odoko J. Onyedenyifa   This study comparatively investigated the toxicological effects of treatment with efavirenz, isoniazid and efavirenz-isoniazid (EFV- INH) combination on liver function parameters and histology in adult male albino rats. Animals used in this study were divided into five (5) groups A-E of sixteen (16) animals each. Animals in group A (placebo control) were treated with water while animals in group B (solvent control) were treated with arachis oil orally. Animals in groups C-E were treated orally with 15mg/kg of INH, 10mg/kg of EFV and a combination of INH- EFV for 2-8 weeks respectively. At the end of drug therapy, serum was extracted from centrifuged blood sample and evaluated for alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, total and conjugated bilirubin. Animals were sacrificed and liver was harvested weighed and evaluated for histopathological changes. Effects produced by co-treatment with EFV-INH on absolute liver weight, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, conjugated and total bilirubin were insignificant (p>0.05) when compared with effects produced by treatment with individual doses of EFV and INH. Histopathological evaluation of the liver of animals treated with EFV-INH combination showed vascular congestion, inflammation of parenchyma and hepatocytes degeneration. These results show that co- therapy with EFV-INH in patients with human immunodeficiency virus /tuberculosis co-infection may not be associated with synergistic hepatotoxicity.
      PubDate: Dec 2015
       
  • Reasons for Regimen Change among HIV/AIDS Patients Initiated on First Line
           

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2014
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  2  Number  5  Desta Assefa   and Nezif Hussein   Background: - Highly active antiretroviral therapies are the drugs of HIV/AIDS treatment with no cure. Even though they inhibit viral replication, they may cause a number of adverse effects; which may end with treatment failure and/or regimen changes. Objective: - The study was aimed to determine the reasons for HAART regimen change among HIV/AIDS Patients on first line HAART during 12 months follow up in Fitche Hospital, ART Clinic. Methodology: - Hospital based retrospective study was conducted at Fitche Hospital, ART Clinic from January 28 to February 12, 2013 by reviewing patients' information sheets and physician diagnostic cards. The data was categorized and analyzed manually using calculator for statistical analysis. The results has been interpreted and presented by tables and graphs. Results: - Majority of the patients 29(42.65%) were on D4T/3TC/NVP at the beginning of the Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment. The main reason for regimen change was toxicity 56(72.73%) followed by, treatment failure 11 (14.23%), new drug available 7(9.09%), co morbidity 2(2.60%), and 1(1.30%) patient refused to took the drug. From all the toxicities reported, lipoatrophy, which accounted for 73.47% of the toxicities, was the most common. Conclusion: - Results shows that majority of patients were initiated D4T/3TC/NVP compared to other regimens. Toxicity appears as the main reason for treatment and regimen change in this study. The other reasons include; treatment failure, new drug available, co morbidity and patient refused to took the drug respectively.
      PubDate: Sep 2014
       
  • In-Vitro, Ex-Vivo Characterization of Furosemide Bounded Pharmacosomes for
           Improvement of Solubility and Permeability

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Sep 2014
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  2  Number  5  Vivekanand K. Chatap   Prashant L. Patil   and Savita D. Patil   The design of the present investigation was to prepare furosemide bounded pharmacosomes to enhance solubility and permeability drug by simple reproducible solvent evaporation technique and further investigated. Furosemide bounded pharmacosomes formulation (PMC1 & PMC2) was taken and compared with pure drug by way of enhanced solubility 5.4 fold in the water, 3.33, 4.76 fold in pH 7.4 and pH 5.8 respectively, increases permeability of furosemide bounded pharmacosomes 28.28% when compared with pure drug, drug content showed 94.83, N-octanol/water partition coefficient from 2.33 to 5.15 and in-vitro release profile exhibits excellent sustained drug release properties. Prepared furosemide bounded Pharmacosomes were confirmed from differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FT-IR. The pharmacosomes reported amphiphilic nature may responsible for the improvement of solubility and permeability leads to enhancement of oral bioavailability. From this study it can be concluded that, this formulation strategy becomes important for drug belongs to the BCS class- II & IV.
      PubDate: Sep 2014
       
  • Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative: Case Studies in Health-System Pharmacy

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2014
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  2  Number  3  Quyen Bach   Annesha Lovett   Teresa Pounds   and Pamela Moye   In 2008, the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists introduced the Pharmacy Practice Model Initiative (PPMI). The goal of this model is to promote pharmacy leaders, better manage resources, and increase focus on patient-centered and team-based care. Few studies have assessed the model’s implementation. PubMed and CINAHL were searched using keywords “pharmacy practice model,” “organizational,” and the MeSH term, “organizational,” from 2008 to 2013. Of the forty-nine findings (articles and summit highlights), two case studies met the inclusion criteria. The first case study involved the University of Minnesota Medical Center, a multi-campus academic medical center. This facility used technology such as pagers for decentralized technicians, computerized provider order entry, and wireless computers on wheels. The implementation teams worked on clinical and distributive functions allowing for consistency in care and improved employee satisfaction. The second case study involved Providence Health & Services, a multihospital system in Washington State and Montana. These facilities used technology such as automated dispensing cabinets, order-image scanners, and automated telephone trees to route calls. The outcome was a positive economic impact with a return on investment of $709,321. An important finding was the lack of research assessing the implementation of the PPMI. Based on positive findings, it is evident that further research is warranted.
      PubDate: May 2014
       
  • A Retrospective Analysis of Antipsychotic Medication Use with Concomitant
           Clinical Evaluation in Outpatient Psychiatry Department in Palestine

    • Abstract: Publication date:  May 2014
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  2  Number  3  Manal Ihbeasheh   Ikhlas Jarar   and Waleed Sweileh   Objectives: The objective of this paper was to study antipsychotic medication use in the outpatient psychiatry department in Palestine. Methodology: This is a cross sectional study carried out in Palestine on schizophrenic patients aged between 20 – 65 whose medications have not been changed in the past six months and they did not have an acute attack in the last year. Information regarding antipsychotic medications use was obtained from patients’ medical files; patients’ psychiatric symptoms were evaluated using the Expanded Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS-E).Results: More than half (53.1%) of 150 patients were on antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) with average daily dose of 546.9 ± 254.9 mg chlorpromazine equivalents. The average number (mean ± SD) of medications a patient received was 1.7 ± 0.7. One third of patients on APP regimen received atypical antipsychotic and all of them received at least one conventional antipsychotic. Factors significantly and positively associated with APP were: use of anticholinergic agents (P
      PubDate: May 2014
       
  • Ecological, Physiological and Biochemical Adaptation in Helminth: Trends
           in Evolution of Anthelminthic Chemical Agents

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2014
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  2  Number  2  M.Kh. Dzhafarov  and F.I. Vasilevich  This review discusses the landmark anthelminthic substances – traditional medicine components, different categories of pluripotential synthetic and naturally occurring compounds. Much attention is paid to the sections devoted to recent discoveries (Emodepside, Monepantel, Derquantel, Tribendimidine) and to some promising works. The review is also focused on some aspects of molecular mechanisms of action of anthelminthic substances and of helminth adaptation to anthelminthic substances, and on alternative worming treatment options. Based on the systemic analysis of particular features of the chemical structure of anthelminthic substances, the hypothesis on the viability of the targeted search for such compounds among the derivatives of conditionally progenitor cyclic hydrocarbons – benzene, indene, naphthalene, 1Н-cyclopenth [a]-naphthalene , anthracene and phenanthrene – by alternating absolutely unsaturated and saturated structures, including heterocyclic analogues containing nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur and different substitutes and functional groups, was voiced.
      PubDate: Mar 2014
       
  • Users Satisfaction Regarding the Service Provided in Community Pharmacies

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2014
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  2  Number  2  Ana R. Pinto   Andreia Machado   Elisabete Gonçalves   Luís Salsas   Tiago Vicente   Maria I. B. Ribeiro   and Isabel C. J. F. Pinto   During the last century, the pharmacy professionals have significantly being professionalized, the user is a high priority and not just limited to the sale of pharmaceuticals. As such, it is necessary to know the users, their needs and expectations, their opinions and preferences. This transversal study, observational, correlational, aimed to: determine the degree of satisfaction with the attendance in community pharmacies, if there is a relationship between factors of a personal nature (age and gender) and satisfaction, trying to identify which aspects improve in order to increase satisfaction levels. The sample consisted of 525 respondents. Data collection was conducted in the period from October 2012 to January 2013 in four locations in northern Portugal. It was used a questionnaire consisting of three parts: the first contained items of personal characterization, the second consisted of the scale "Pharmacy Services Questionnaire" (FSQ) validated for the Portuguese language, developed by Larson et al. (2002) and the last had questions about the respondents' opinion. The results showed that the degree of satisfaction with the services of community pharmacies was in majority an average to 39 % and good for 46,1% . Having in mind the factor by gender, females showed a higher degree of satisfaction. Regarding the age group, older users had the highest degree of satisfaction. It was concluded that, generally, community pharmacies bring a higher degree of satisfaction in the older and the female users. "How the pharmacy professionals explain possible side effects" and "how the pharmacy professional answers your questions.", are the two aspects that must be improved to achieve a higher degree of satisfaction.
      PubDate: Mar 2014
       
  • Formulation Development and Evaluation of Venlafaxine HCL Buccal Patch

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Mar 2014
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  2  Number  2  Anand G. Mundhe   Gokul A. Khairnar   and Sadik F. Sayyad   Within the oral mucosal cavity, the buccal region offers an attractive route of administration for Systemic patches. Venlafaxine were Prepared using HPMC K4M, Pectin, and poly vinyl Pyrrolidone, PG as Plasticizers. FTIR and UV spectroscopic and DSC methods revealed that there is no interaction between Venlafaxine and polymers. The patches were evaluated for their thickness uniformity, folding endurance, Weight Uniformity, content uniformity, Swelling behaviour, tensile strength, Mucoadhesion strength and Surface pH. In vitro release studies of Venlafaxine loaded patches in Phosphate buffer (pH, 6.8) exhibited 98 % drug release in the 8 h. The optimized patch was obtained good in vitro result.
      PubDate: Mar 2014
       
  • Pharmacological Test Confirming the Diagnosis: Responding to Stimulants
           Neuropsychiatric ADHD

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2014
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  2  Number  4  Klaus Martin Beckmann   ADHD is a neurodevelopmental life time high prevalence disorder. Many individuals who suffer from ADHD benefit from treatment. For a significant subgroup of patients with the diagnosis ADHD, medication is important for treatment. Diagnostic criteria however as yet are not pathognomonic. A specific test to diagnose the type of ADHD that responds to medication has so far not been promoted as such. This article postulates that many individuals presenting with ADHD syndrome are likely to benefit from such a test. Here such a test is described.
      PubDate: Jul 2014
       
  • Correlation of Treatment Dose Enoxaparin with Anti-Xa Concentrations in
           Adult Hemodialysis Inpatients

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jul 2014
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  2  Number  4  Paul E. Brumley   Miroslav A. Anguelov   Jason P. Hecht   and Dane Shiltz   Enoxaparin, a low-molecular-weight-heparin, is being used in hemodialysis patients despite a lack of guideline or manufacturer dose recommendations. Due to enoxaparin’s renal excretion, the possibility of accumulating anti-Xa concentrations in hemodialysis patients using enoxaparin creates a hemorrhagic risk, calling for more research. The objectives of this study are to determine the correlation between treatment dose enoxaparin use and anti-Xa concentrations within the defined therapeutic range in patients receiving chronic, scheduled hemodialysis to determine the degree of change in anti-Xa concentrations in those cases where a concentration was obtained before and after a specific hemodialysis session, and to determine if there is evidence of enoxaparin accumulation over the course of treatment. This was a retrospective cohort study. Patients that were admitted to Indiana University Health facilities in a two-year period were identified from a Cerner query for inclusion eligibility. Inclusion criteria involved patients that received therapeutic dose enoxaparin based on actual body weight on a once daily basis, maintained a scheduled hemodialysis regimen, and had an anti-Xa concentration obtained after at least one enoxaparin dose. Despite lacking statistical significance, the data collected from this study depicts trends which can be utilized to guide future studies. The results of this study suggest that hemodialysis does not effectively remove enoxaparin.
      PubDate: Jul 2014
       
  • Work Satisfaction within Community Pharmacy Professionals

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2014
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  2  Number  1  Leidy G. Fernandes   Vânia F. Rodrigues   Maria I. B. Ribeiro   and Isabel C. J. F. Pinto   Work is a profession, a craft, or an activity in which man produces something central to his life. The job satisfaction is reflected simultaneously on the worker and the functioning of organizations. Workers more satisfied with their work have higher productivity levels, higher subjective well-being and well-being with life in general. Community pharmacy professionals are categorized in three professional categories: pharmacists, pharmacy technicians and technical pharmacy assistants. Work satisfaction was previously associated with gender, age, job category, years of service, remuneration, security concerning the future of the profession, relationships with colleagues and satisfaction with the professional category. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the satisfaction level of community pharmacy professionals and to identify associated factors. These professionals have revealed, in general, a level of moderated satisfaction. There were no significant differences between job satisfaction and gender, age, years of service, professional category and remuneration.
      PubDate: Jan 2014
       
  • A Retrospective Comparison of Daptomycin Thrice-Weekly versus Q48H Dosing
           in Hemodialysis Patients with Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus (VRE) or
           Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Bacteremia

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Jan 2014
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  2  Number  1  Katie L Axford   and Dane L Shiltz   Background. Multi-drug resistant bacteria are a growing concern in healthcare. Daptomycin is being used with increasing frequency in the treatment of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremias in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Thrice-weekly dosing of daptomycin in this population would allow for coordination of dosing with common outpatient HD schedules. The aim of this study is to determine if thrice-weekly dosing of daptomycin is equivalent to dosing every 48 hours in patients receiving chronic intermittent hemodialysis. Equivalence will be assessed with regard to microbiological cure, clinical cure, hospital length of stay, and mortality. Methods. All patients with positive blood cultures who received at least one dose of daptomycin between January 1st 2009 and December 31st 2010 at Indiana University Health Methodist and University Hospitals were identified. Adult patients with end-stage renal disease on a stable thrice-weekly hemodialysis regimen, confirmed VRE or MRSA bacteremia, and at least three doses of inpatient daptomycin therapy were enrolled in the study. Results. Twelve patients met criteria for inclusion in this study. Nine received daptomycin every 48 hours for the treatment of bacteremia, and three received daptomycin thrice-weekly after dialysis. There was no difference in time to clearance of blood cultures between the Q48H and thrice-weekly groups (2.11±2.15 days vs. 4.33±4.16 days; p=0.241).Length of hospital stay was not statistically significantly different between the two groups (22.8 days vs. 14.9 days; p=0.065).Conclusions. Thrice-weekly dosing of daptomycin may be effective for the treatment of bacteremia in hemodialysis patients.
      PubDate: Jan 2014
       
  • A Review on Role of Peptide Vaccines in Cancer Therapy Treatment of Cancer
           Disease by Peptide Vaccine

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2014
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  2  Number  6  Timothy Allen   Ghazaleh Shoja E Razavi MD   and Giridhar M. N. V   The article discuss about the role of peptide vaccine in Cancer therapy. A peptide vaccine is a type of vaccine in which a peptide of the original pathogen is used to immunize an organism.
      PubDate: Dec 2014
       
  • Comparative Studies on Solubility and Dissolution Enhancement of Different
           Itraconazole Salts and Their Complexes

    • Abstract: Publication date:  Dec 2014
      Source:Advances in Pharmacology and Pharmacy  Volume  2  Number  6  Hemalatha Bagavatula   Srinivas Lankalapalli   VS Vinai Kumar Tenneti   Naga Malleswara Rao Beeraka   and Bhanu Teja Bulusu   Itraconazole is a potent triazole antifungal drug which has low solubility at physiological pH conditions. Itraconazole is weakly basic (pKa =3.7) and highly hydrophobic drug. It is categorized as a BCS class II drug. The main objective of the present investigation was to improve the solubility of itraconazole, by preparation of salt forms itraconazole hydrochloride, mesylate and besylate by using addition reaction with hydrochloric acid, methane sulphonic acid and benzene sulphonic acid. Further inclusion complexes of itraconazole were prepared with Captisol (sulfobutyl ether7 β-cyclodextrin) by using physical mixing, kneading and co-evaporation techniques. The preparations were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier Transformed Infrared spectroscopy and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy. The solubility of prepared salt was found multifold than the solubility of itraconazole. The dissolution studies exhibited higher percentage drug dissolution from itraconazole complexes than that of the pure drug which can be attributed to the increase in drug solubility provoked by the complexation technique.
      PubDate: Dec 2014
       
 
 
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