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Journal Cover Research & Reviews : Journal of Dairy Science and Technology
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   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 2349-3704 - ISSN (Online) 2319-3409
   Published by STM Journals Homepage  [67 journals]
  • Performance Evaluation of Barbari Goats in Semi-Arid Region of India: A
    • Authors: Ajoy Mandal, R. Behera, S. Rai, M. Karunakaran, T.K. Dutta
      Abstract: Barbari goat, a medium sized dual purpose goat breed in India, is known for its good lactation performance, high prolificacy, early maturity, low kidding interval, high kidding rate and better growth rate. The average weights of kids at birth, 3, 6, 9 and 12 month of age were 1.66±0.47, 5.88±0.41, 9.36±0.17, 12.85±0.25 and 16.08±0.35 kg, respectively. The average pre-weaning (0–3 months) daily weight gain was 59.9 g while post weaning (3–12 months) gain was 43.4 g. The feed conversion efficiency of this breed was 8.27±0.40% and is reported to vary from 6 to 10%. The average lactation milk yield at 90 and 140 days of lactation was 49.59±3.71 and 67.56±7.60 l, respectively with an average lactation length of 143.19 days. Regarding reproductive performance, the age of first mating and first kidding for this breed is reported as 12–14 and 17–19 months, respectively. The single, twin and triplet kidding varied from 50.6 to 59.0%, 32.3 to 39.8% and 5.59 to 10.67%, respectively. The average slaughter weight (kg), carcass weight (kg) and dressing (%) of adult animal of this breed was 25.57±1.73, 11.54±0.85 and 45.11±1.61 respectively. As the population of the breed in its home tract is declining over the years, so, there is a need for conservation of this breed. The central institute for research on goats (CIRG), Makhdoom, Uttar Pradesh, India has initiated to conserve this breed in its home tract.   Keywords: Barbari goat, growth performance, milk yield, carcass evaluation, IndiaCite this Article Ajoy Mandal, Behera R, Rai S et al. Performance Evaluation of Barbari Goats in Semi-Arid Region of India: A Review. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2016; 5(2): 25–29p.

      PubDate: 2016-09-08
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Structured Lipids: A Unique Designer Lipid
    • Authors: Harini Venugopal, H.G. Ramachandra Rao, H. Arun Kumar
      Abstract: Structured lipids (SLs) generally refer to any fats that are modified or restructured from natural oils and fats or fatty acids primarily containing short or medium chain fatty acids and preferably essential fatty acids. The function and properties of structured lipids depend on the type of fatty acids moieties present and the position of their attachment to the backbone. Availability of SLs tightly relates to the new discoveries and collection of evidence in nutritional and functional studies. Production of SLs can be done by either chemical or enzymatic inter-esterification or synthesis depending on what products are needed. Randomized SLs can be produced by both methods. However, SLs with defined structures can only be produced by the enzymatic method with specific lipases. On the other hand, functions of SLs with respect to the consideration of medium chain fatty acids or PUFA have gained wide recognition. A number of products, largely with randomized structure, are available for different applications. SLs have potential applications in the delivery of energy and PUFA to persons suffering from malabsorption. Academic research has demonstrated a number of potential aspects from nutritional or biochemical points of view. With the potential perspectives in mind, technological development has already made the possibility of SL synthesis into production level with reasonably acceptable product standards. Keywords: Lipids, fatty acids, malabsorption, triacylglycerols Cite this Article Harini Venugopal, Ramachandra Rao HG, Arun Kumar H. Structured Lipids: A Unique Designer Lipid. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2016; 5(2): 30–39p. 
      PubDate: 2016-09-08
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Heterosis–Genetic Basis and Utilization for Improvement of Dairy
           Cattle: A Review
    • Authors: Manoj Kumar, Poonam Ratwan, Anil Kumar, Vikas Vohra
      Abstract: Heterosis is the phenomenon in which progeny of crosses between inbred lines or purebred populations are better than the expected average of the two populations or lines for a particular trait. Utilization of heterosis is the exclusive goal of crossbreeding. The amount of heterosis maintained in a herd depends on the type of crossbreeding system selected. Heterosis includes greater viability, faster growth rate and greater milk production in dairy cattle. The genetic basis of heterosis is nonadditive gene action (dominance, overdominance, pseudo-overdominance, and epistasis). The main requirements for heterosis are there must be genetic diversity between the breeds crossed and there must be some nonadditive gene effects present for the particular trait involved. No heterosis was observed for traits governed by additive gene action. However, it tends to be greatest for traits with low heritability and least for traits with high heritability. Traits of low heritability (reproductive traits) are generally most benefited from heterosis. They can be improved through the adequate use of crossbreeding systems. Keywords: Crossbreeding, heterosis, cattleCite this Article Kumar M, Ratwan P, Kumar A et al. Heterosis—Genetic Basis and Utilization for Improvement of Dairy Cattle: A Review. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2016; 5(2): 40–50p.
      PubDate: 2016-09-08
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Dairy Farming in a Selected Char Area of Northern Bangladesh: Prospect of
           Profitability and Contribution to Livelihood Improvement
    • Authors: J. U. Ahmed, S. K. Raha, M. H. Rahman
      Abstract: The study was conducted to assess the profitability of dairy farming in a char area of Northern Bangladesh and to evaluate the role of dairy farming to improve farmers’ livelihood. A total of 200 poorest households with dairying (100 treated and 100 controlled) and 200 with non-dairying were selected out of 520 households using simple random sampling technique. Majority of respondents in both the groups were males, aged between 36 and 50 years and had no primary education. Sixty five and 56 percent dairy households had 5 decimal homestead and 10 decimal cultivable land, respectively but 66 and 75 percent nondairy households had 10 decimal homestead and 20 decimal cultivable land, respectively. The status of homestead area and cultivable land of dairy farmers were better than the nondairy farmers. Significantly higher percentage of dairy household had access (P<0.05) to sanitation and drinking water facilities than the nondairy households. Average self-declared daily cash income of each dairy household was Taka 129±11.2. Profitability of dairy farming was measured in terms of gross return (GR), gross margin (GM), net return (NR), and benefit cost ratio (BCR) (undiscounted). Difference in differences (DID) approach was applied for analyzing the impact of dairy farming. Annual GRs from dairy farming was estimated at Tk. 18029 and Tk. 26003 before and after the project intervention, respectively. The estimated NR per cow per year stood at Tk. 537 and Tk. 6060 before and after intervention of the project, respectively. In the study area, BCR before the intervention of the project was 1.03 and 2.04 while it was 1.30 and 2.51 after the intervention on the basis of the full cost and cash cost, respectively. After the intervention of the project, there was a significant fall in the percentage of the farmers engaging with farming and day labourer whereas there was an increase in the percentage of the farmers engaging with only farming. On an average, family male members spent about 5 h a day on dairy cattle while the female members spent about 4 h a day over the study areas. Average total income had increased by 49% after the project intervention but it increased by only 17% in case of the controlled farmers. The highest (34%) treated group’s dairy income level was Tk. 10001.00–15000.00 followed by 33% and 18% of dairy income level of Tk. 15001.00–20000.00 and above Tk. 20000.00, respectively of respondent farmers. Income and expenditure of the treated group increased by 50% and 29%, respectively whereas it was increased by 18% and 8% in the case of control group. The length of time spent (working days) had increased by 100% in the study area. At last the sustainable livelihood framework including the asset pentagon was used to assess the impact of dairy farming on livelihood pattern. Keywords: Char, farming, livelihood, agricultural, dairyCite this Article Ahmed JU, Raha SK, Rahman MH. Dairy Farming in a Selected Char Area of Northern Bangladesh: Prospect of Profitability and Contribution to Livelihood Improvement. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2016; 5(2): 1–20p.
      PubDate: 2016-07-14
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Housing Patterns for Dairy Cattle in Nilgiri District of Tamil Nadu, India
    • Authors: T. Sivakumar, P. T. Suraj, A. Yasotha, Jayashree Phukon
      Abstract: A field work was conducted to assess the effect of climatic variables on dairy cattle under different housing patterns in Nilgiri, the Hilly zone of Tamil Nadu, India.  Initially a survey was conducted in this agroclimatic zone of Tamil Nadu with a prestructured interview schedule for identifying the present dairy cattle housing patterns, production and management measures. The annual compounded growth rates of T. maximum, T. minimum and temperature humidity index (THI) were worked out on the basis of the representative areas selected for the study. The result showed that the highest values for T. Max (Mean±SD) were recorded in metal sheet roofed shelter (22.13±1.66 ºC); whereas T. Min was reported in open housing (11.94±1.09 ºC). However, during cold season there was no significant difference (p<0.05) between the housing systems in temperature and THI at 8:00 am. The overall result of analysis of housing pattern in hilly zone indicated that the prevailing environmental condition in hilly zone is conducive for commercial dairy farming in all seasons. Keywords: Dairy housing, hilly areas, temperature, THI, seasonCite this Article T. Sivakumar, P. T. Suraj, A. Yasotha et al. Housing Patterns for Dairy Cattle in Nilgiri District of Tamil Nadu, India. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2016; 5(2):  21–24p.
      PubDate: 2016-07-14
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Potentiality of Application of Microwave Heating in Dairy Industry
    • Authors: Sachin Lad, Pinto SV, Aparnathi KD
      Abstract: Microwave technology is an advanced technology that has been applied by the food industry in recent years. Microwave processes offer distinct advantages in conduction heating methods in food processing due to their potential for rapid and uniform product with reduced surface temperatures. Microwave radiation leads to lysis of microorganisms in foods resulting in increased shelf life of food products. When a food product is subjected to microwave heating, heat is generated inside the food rapidly when microwave penetrates through it therefore, a higher quality product is obtained in terms of taste, texture, and nutritional content. This review article discusses the mechanism of heating and destruction of microorganisms by microwave irradiation, its advantages and limitations, safety aspects and the application of microwave in dairy products and analysis of foods. Keywords: Microwave technology, milk, Vitamin, cholesterolCite this Article Sachin Lad, Pinto SV, Aparnathi K D. Potentiality of Application of Microwave Heating in Dairy Industry, Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2016; 5(1): 41–55p.
      PubDate: 2016-04-11
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Assessment of In Vitro Probiotic Potential of Lactic Acid Bacteria
    • Authors: Mital R. Kathiriya, S. Hati, J. B. Prajapati, Y. V. Vekariya
      Abstract: Probiotic potential of fermented milks isolates Lactobacillus rhamnosus NS6, Streptococcus thermophilus MD2 and Streptococcus thermophilus MD8 were carried out by performing various in vitro tests. MD2 and MD8 were able to survive at pH 2 and 3 in broth, while NS6 was found to be pH sensitive and could not survive at pH 2, but maintained its viability at
      3 pH. All the cultures were able to survive at 0.5 % (w/v) oxgall (bile) concentration in broth. NS6 was most resistant to bile than rest isolates. They were susceptible to ampicilin, azithromycin, tetracycline, gentamycin and erythromycin while these strains were resistant to nalidixic acid, oxacilin, colistin and kanamycin. Cell supernatant of NS6 showed a higher antimicrobial activity i.e., 24 mm zone against E. coli and S. aureus; 16 mm zone against
      B. cereus and S. typhi and neutralization of cell supernatant showed significant reduction in antimicrobial activity. All the three strains were hydrophobic to both, xylene and
      n-hexadecan. The mean percentage hydrophobicity was higher to xylene than n-hexadecanfor all the strains. Cell-auto-aggregation was found to be rising during 5 h of incubation for cultures. They were able to co-aggregate with B. cereus, S, typhi, E. coli and S. aureus (indicators). None of the culture could hydrolyze sodium taurocholate (bile) while they deconjugated sodium taurocholate to release free cholic acid. NS6 gave maximum bile deconjugation ability (364 µg/ml). Similarly, in case of cholesterol reduction and antioxidative activity (ABTS method), NS6 was more potent than others. Keywords: Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Streptococcus thermophilus, lactic acid bacteria, probiotics, bileCite this Article M.R. Kathiriya, S. Hati, J.B. Prajapati et al. Assessment of In Vitro Probiotic Potential of Lactic Acid Bacteria. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2016: 5(1):  17–30p.
      PubDate: 2016-02-09
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Significance of Growth Rate, Acceptability of Fermented Milk and Release
           of Peptides by Lactic Cultures
    • Authors: M. R. Kathiriya, J. B. Prajapati, S. Hati, Y. V. Vekariya
      Abstract: Ten lactic cultures (S. thermophilus MD2, S. thermophilus MD8, Lc. lactis 009, L. fermentum AI2, L. fermentum AI3, L. fermentum 138, L. plantarum AD29, L. rhamnosus NS4, L. rhamnosus NS6 and E. feacalis ND3) isolated from vegetables and fermented foods were evaluated for their potential to ferment milk, produce good quality curd and ability to release peptides in fermented milk. It was found that S. thermophilus MD8, S. thermophilus MD2 and L. rhamnosus NS6 were found to exhibit maximum growth rate (1.15, 0.98 and 0.49 respectively) and acid production rate (4.65, 5.14 and 5.59 respectively) in skimmed milk compared to other LAB. The curd/fermented milk prepared with S. thermophilus MD2, S. thermophilus MD8 and L. rhamnosus NS6  showed that the maximum acceptability as reflected by highest scores for overall acceptability i.e., 7.19, 7.07 and 7.04 respectively. Therefore, these three isolates were further studied for ACE (angiotensin-1 converting enzyme) inhibitory activity by spectrophotometric method and peptides released in milk medium after fermentation by RP-HPLC (reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography). L. rhamnosus NS6 exhibited relatively higher ACE inhibitory activity as well as released maximum peptides during RP-HPLC analysis than other two isolates. This reflects better acceptability and their application in preparation of acceptable quality fermented milk products. Keywords: Fermentation, growth rate, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), milk, sensory scoreCite this Article M.R. Kathiriya, J.B. Prajapati, S. Hati  et al. Significance of growth rate, acceptability of fermented Milk and release of peptides by lactic cultures. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2016; 5(1): 31–40p.  
      PubDate: 2016-02-09
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • “High Melatonin Milk”- Milk with Intrinsic Health Benefit
    • Authors: Richa Singh, Priyanka Singh Rao
      Abstract: Melatonin C13H16N2O2 (molecular weight: 232) or N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, is chemically an indoleamine and derived from the essential amino acid tryptophan. It is a hormone and due to secretion from pineal gland, it is also called as active pineal factor. Its IUPAC name is N-[2-(5-methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl] acetamide. The indole ring acts as the chromophore showing maximum absorbance at 223 nm, and the functional groups contribute to its fluorescence property. Lerner et al. 1959 reported that extract from beef pineal gland are able to lighten frog’s skin by reversing the darkening effect of melanocyte stimulating hormone and therefore, named this compound as “melatonin” since it caused aggregation of melanin granules. Melatonin hormone is more effective and active when compared to other hormones like adrenaline and nor-adrenaline (100 times), triiodothyronine (200 times), and serotonin (5000 times) in preventing darkening of frog skin by contracting melanophores. It is a white powder having melting point of 117°C. It is an amphiphilic molecule (having solubility in both water and lipid) which facilitates its movement across the cell membrane and various body fluids and makes melatonin a prominent molecule in almost all tissues of mammals. Keywords: Melatonin, tryptophan, hormone of darknessCite this Article Richa Singh, Priyanka Singh Rao. “High Melatonin Milk” - Milk with Intrinsic Health Benefit. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2016; 5(1): 13–16p.
      PubDate: 2016-02-07
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Emerging Pathogens in Dairy Industry
    • Authors: Mogha K.V., Chaudhari A. R., Subrota H.
      Abstract: The epidemiology of food borne disease is changing due to change in food habits of the consumers. New pathogens have emerged, and some have spread worldwide which includes Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Campylobacter, and Yersinia enterocolitica. These pathogens have reservoirs in healthy food animals, from which they spread to an increasing variety of milk and milk products. If raw milk is consumed as such or if there is problem in steps of milk processing than it results in severe case of outbreaks of food borne illness due to consumption of contaminated milk and milk products made with it. This review mainly focuses on the emerging pathogens in dairy industry and rapid methods to detect them and control measures necessary to prevent this pathogens entering the milk processing area and thereby in milk products. Keywords: Food borne disease, milk products, emerging pathogens, reservoirs, outbreaksCite this Article Mogha KV, Chaudhari AR, Subrota Hati. Emerging pathogens in dairy industry. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2016; 5(1): 5–12p.
      PubDate: 2016-02-03
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Use of Area Specific Mineral Mixture to Ameliorate Region Specific
           Reproductive Problems in Ruminants
    • Authors: M. K. Ghosh, M. Mondal, Rakesh Kumar Verma, Nirmala Muwel
      Abstract: Reproductive inefficiency in ruminant cows is one of the most important global problems affecting the profitability of the farm. Some trace minerals like Ca, P, Cu, Zn, Co and Mn have important roles to maximise reproductive performances. Even marginal deficiency of these minerals can impair reproduction showing clinical signs of deficiency. Effects of mineral deficiency and metabolic disorders in all categories of dairy animals have been observed due to lower mineral content and poor availability of essential macro and micro minerals from different feed stuffs. Deficiency associated problem have been observed in cattle of different regions and in most of the cases it differs from one region to another due to different soil composition, intensity of cropping, precipitation pattern and soil erosion pattern and so on. The assessment and preventives of mineral deficiency needs thorough understanding of the factors like age of animals, season, soil profile, plant materials and feeding practices. It is, therefore, important to understand the basics of mineral nutrition very clearly as also to meet the requirement of the animals to overcome the problem of deficiencies or excesses, so as to maintain productivity. The concept of area-specific mineral supplement is a new approach of low input and high output for the end users. In this review, the authors discussed the roles of some trace minerals on some productive and reproductive performance of ruminants with special emphasis on bovine species. Keywords: Trace minerals, ruminants, bovine, growth, reproduction, hormone, metabolitesCite this Article Ghosh M.K., Mondal M., Rakesh Kumar Verma et al. Use of area specific mineral mixture to ameliorate region specific reproductive problems in ruminants. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2016; 5(1): 1–4p.
      PubDate: 2016-01-18
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Scope of Edible Packaging for Micronutrient Fortification of Dairy
    • Authors: Jotarkar Parameshwar Sarangdhar, Narender Raju Panjagari
      Abstract: Edible films and coatings have long been used for food protection and shelf life improvement. Essential components for producing edible films and coatings are biopolymers, plasticizers and certain optional ingredients. Edible films and coatings have been used as vehicles for delivery of minerals such as calcium, zinc, iron and magnesium and also for delivery of vitamins such as niacin, riboflavin, vitamin A, vitamin E and vitamin C in food products such as vegetables, rice, etc. However, there are limited studies focused on dairy products. In the present review, the scope of such edible coatings for delivery of micronutrients is presented. Keywords: Edible films, plasticizers, Polysaccharides, Milk protein Cite this Article Jotarkar Parameshwar Sarangdhar, Narender Raju Panjagari. Scope of edible packaging for micronutrient fortification of dairy products. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2015; 4(3): 22–31p.  
      PubDate: 2015-12-21
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2015)
  • Mithun: A Promising Milch Animal of the Northeastern Hill Region of India
    • Authors: M Mondal, R K Singh, K K Baruah, A Kumar, V Singh
      Abstract: Mithun (Bos frontalis), a rare bovine of Southeast Asia, is the descendent of wild Indian gaur (Bos gaurus gaurus). This unique animal is found mainly in four different states of the North-Eastern Hills region of India viz., Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram, and also in some locations of Bhutan, Myanmar, Bangladesh and China. Though the mithun is mainly reared for meat, it has the potential for milk production. Mithun produces milk of high quality containing double the quantity of energy than cattle cow milk. In addition, mithun milk contains high quantity of lactoferrin; an antimicrobial element combats for pathogenic infection. Unfortunately, mithun has not yet been explored fully as a milch animal. Milk production potential of mithun can be enhanced significantly through using suitable scientific packages of practices and appropriate technological interventions. Keywords: Mithun, milk, lactation, milk yield, milk productsCite this Article Mondal M, Singh RK, Baruah KK et al. Mithun: a promising milch animal of the northeastern hill region of India. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2015; 4(3): 17–21p.
      PubDate: 2015-12-14
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2015)
  • Development of a New Kisspeptin Based Method of Ovulation Synchronization
           for Crossbred Dairy Heifers
    • Authors: M. Mondal, KK Baruah, M Karunakaran, MK Ghosh, TK Dutta
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to develop a new method of synchronization of estrus/ovulation for crossbred cows based on kisspeptin, a potent secretagogue of GnRH. For the purpose, a total of 108 estrous cycles were studied in cyclic heifers. The animals divided equally in to two groups were treated either with ovsynch protocol of estrus synchronization (group-I; GnRH: day 0; PGF2α: day 7 and GnRH: day 9) or with a new method of synchronization based on kisspeptin (group-II; kisspeptin: day 0; PGF2α: day 7 and kisspeptin: day 9). Heifers were monitored regularly with transrectal ultrasonography for follicular dynamics and occurrence of ovulation. It was found that the kisspeptin based protocol induced better growth of follicles than ovsynch one. Ovulation rate was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the animals of group-II than group-I. As revealed through ultrasonography as well as plasma progesterone profiles, the process of luteolysis starts early even before PGF2α injection in kisspeptin based protocol than ovsynch. In conclusion, we developed a new method of synchronization of estrus/ovulation based on kisspeptin in bovine species for the first time. The newly developed method is found to be better than the conventional ovsynch method in terms of percent ovulation in the treated animals. Keywords: Estrus, ovulation, synchronization, kisspeptin, metastin, bovineCite this Article Mondal M, Baruah KK, Karunakaran M et al. Development of a New Kisspeptin Based Method of Ovulation Synchronization for Crossbred Dairy Heifers. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2015; 4(3):12–16p.  
      PubDate: 2015-11-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2015)
  • Carbon Footprints of Dairy Animals: Causes and Its Mitigation
    • Authors: Poonam Ratwan, Ajoy Mandal, Manoj Kumar, M Karunakaran, TK Dutta
      Abstract: Greenhouse gases are building up in the atmosphere to a larger degree leading to “global warming”. The total quantity of gaseous emissions of greenhouse gases emitted by an individual in one year; directly or indirectly is measured in terms of 'carbon footprint'. Livestock play an important role for emission of greenhouse gases through various ways like rumen fermentation, manure and fodder production, milk, beef production etc. The demand for livestock products is increasing regularly and livestock products carry a high carbon footprint as compared to other products. Thus, in order to balance environmental concerns with the emergent global demand for dairy products along with economic feasibility to individual dairy producers there is need of emissions mitigation strategies. Proper management practices can lead to reduction in carbon footprints of livestock which in turn will help to minimize the negative effects of emissions on climate change. Keywords: Carbon footprints, greenhouse, livestock, milk  Cite this Article Poonam Ratwan, Ajoy Mandal, Manoj Kumar et al. Carbon Footprints of Dairy Animals: Causes and its Mitigation. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2015; 4(3):    6–11p. 
      PubDate: 2015-11-19
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2015)
  • A Detailed Study on Impact of Milk Marketing: Modern Constrictions and
           Prospects of Milk Productions Status in India
    • Authors: Vinola R, Swaminathan R, Jeevithan E
      Abstract: India is the second highest milk producer in the world. Generally, milk is sold loose or in bottles or in polythene sachets. The present study was aimed to understand the relationship between consequences of milk packaging and consumer predilections. In brief, the present study deals with the recent trends in sale of milk, satisfaction of respondents toward quality, price, after-sales service and study about the customer satisfaction with regard to price fixing factor of local vendor. To achieve the above goal, different types of surveys were undertaken from different kinds of people. These surveys were compiled from random samples of 150 consumers in the summer 2015. A total of 100 questionnaires were analyzed from 50 household sectors. Fluid milk consumption is also related to consumer attitudes. They were very much cognizant about price and health effects of different kinds of milk and its products. In order to achieve the goal of this present study, the data were collected and further analyzed using different types of statistical tools like chi-square test, f-test, t-test, etc. The present study revealed the preference and esteem of consumer physiognomies toward the approaches of consumption of milk. Keywords: Milk, consumer predilection, marketing function, trends in sale of milk, future aspects Cite this Article Vinola R, Swaminathan R, Jeevithan E. A detailed study on impact of milk marketing: Modern constrictions and prospects of milk productions status in India. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2015; 4(3): 1–5p. 
      PubDate: 2015-11-03
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2015)
  • Wheat and Its Application in Dairy Products: A Review
    • Authors: Aparna S., Komal Patel, Sunil Patel, Suneeta Pinto
      Abstract: Wheat is one of the most important crop among the cereals by area planted; followed in importance by corn, barley and sorghum. It is the best of the cereal foods and provides more nourishment for humans than any other food source. Wheat is a major diet component which supplies about more than 60% of the total daily requirements of protein and calories for the world's population. It contains minerals, vitamins, fats (lipids) and is a good source of fibers making it a highly nutritious product. Cereals and milk are blended to compensate for deficiency of lysine. The proteins from wheat in combination with milk can make up the deficiency of protein quality. Incorporation of wheat as an ingredient in dairy products would help in alleviating its nutritional value. A number of products obtained from wheat with good nutritional value such as wheat germ, aleurone flour and wheat bran are available. Fortification of dairy product with these ingredients would help in the manufacture of neutraceuticals with improved nutritional and functional properties. Keywords: wheat, milk, dairy products, wheat germ, aleurone flourCite this Article Aparna S, Patel K, Patel S, et al. Wheat and its application in dairy products – A review. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2015; 4(2): 19–34p.

      PubDate: 2015-08-25
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2015)
  • Current Status and Comparative Study on the Influences of Cattle Packed
           and Unpacked Milk in Tamil Nadu: A Detailed Survey
    • Authors: Vinola R., Swaminathan R., Jeevithan E.
      Abstract: As milk is a very important component of the people’s diet, this study explores consumer preferences for milk in Perambalur, Tamil Nadu, India, and also tries to determine consumer types based on their references and socio-demographic factors. To reach these objectives, this study was designed a conjoint choice experiment survey and collected primary data in the most populated city of Perambalur. Then the data were analyzed using chi-square test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and F-test to determine milk classes based on the product attributes. Thus, present study was aimed to get detailed knowledge about the packed and unpacked milk in Perambalur district, Tamil Nadu, India. In brief, the study deals with the customer satisfaction regarding both packed milk and unpacked milk; get detailed survey on maximum usages of packed and unpacked milk among people. Further, this study extended to know about the contents which are added into milk during processing and transportation. The primary data were collected through a questionnaire to the individual persons and the secondary data were collected from various books, magazines, journals, and Internet. From the obtained data, we can get more details in terms of tendency of milk, criteria of milk standard quality and sensory properties. Accordingly, this study provides useful information to different stakeholders including cattle farmer and local vendors. In addition, the milk industry and its marketers may benefit from this information by using it to strategically market their milk to different groups. Keywords: Milk, packed, brand, nutritional composition, consumer preference Cite this Article Vinola R, Swaminathan R, Jeevithan E. Current Status and Comparative Study on the Influences of Cattle Packed and Unpacked Milk in Tamil Nadu: A Detailed Survey. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2015; 4(2): 6–11p. 
      PubDate: 2015-08-19
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2015)
  • Influences of Prefresh and Early Fresh Body Condition Score Changes on
           Some Holstein Dairy Performance Traits
    • Authors: Dawod A., Abdel-Hamid T. M., Ramadan S.
      Abstract: This study was performed to investigate the effect of body condition change from the prefresh to early fresh periods on the subsequent milk production performance in Holstein dairy cows. For this purpose, 89 Holstein cows in a private high yielding dairy enterprise (average milk yield 8000 kg/season) were included in this study. Body condition score (BCS) was evaluated at the prefresh period (260–270 day) post last insemination, as well as one month postpartum. Evaluations of BCS were performed via, two evaluators on a scale of 1–5 points and the average BCS value for each cow was detected. BCS loss was estimated via, subtract of postpartum BCS value from the prefresh one. Data of the daily, initial, 305-day, and actual milk yield were collected and recorded. The results of this study revealed that, fatty cows during their prefresh phase (BCS 4.5–5.0 points) had high dairy performance, as these cows depicted the highest values of daily milk yield (37.58 kg), initial milk yield (43.38 kg), 305–day milk yield (11461.00 kg) and actual milk yield (12229.38 kg). Moreover, the cows with a postpartum BCS of 3.5–4.0 points recorded the highest significant daily milk yield (37.93 kg), 305-day milk yield (11566.67 kg), initial milk yield (49.00 kg) and actual milk yield (14945.00 kg). The cow losing from (–0.5)–(–1.0) point BCS has the highest significant daily and 305-day milk yield. In conclusion, BCS significantly influenced the milk performance traits of Holstein cows both at prefresh and postpartum period. For higher performance, the cows should be with somewhat heavy BCS at prefresh and with medium BCS postpartum. The dairy Holstein cows could loss about 0.5–0.75 BCS unit during their early fresh phase with efficient milk production. Further research is needed to prove this presumption. Keywords: body condition score, Holstein, prefresh, postpartum, milk yieldCite this Article Dawod A, Abdel-Hamid TM, Ramadan S. Influences of Prefresh and Early Fresh Body Condition Score Changes on Some Holstein Dairy Performance Traits. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2015; 4(2): 12–18p.
      PubDate: 2015-08-19
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2015)
  • Potential of Herbal Nutraceuticals in Ghee: A Review
    • Authors: Kamal Gandhi, Darshan Lal
      Abstract: Food industries have rather high demand for the products that meet the consumer’s demand for a healthy life style. In this context functional food fortified with the plant ingredients plays an important role. Ghee is widely used as carrier for herbs for efficient absorption of their functional components in ayurvedic medicines. Herbs like Vidarikand, Shatavari, Ashwagandha, Arjuna etc had been incorporated in ghee and were observed to have enhanced absorption of the active components present in them in the body increasing their therapeutic and functional benefits. Ayurvedic medicines being natural are devoid of any side effects and therefore capturing the attention of the researchers all over the world. The purpose of this review is to summarize the studies conducted so far on the ghee incorporated with herbs as the source of functional, therapeutic and antioxidant benefits.   Keywords: Ghee (Butter oil), Vidarikand (Pueraria tuberosa), Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus, Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera),Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum L.), Arjuna(Terminalia arjuna), antioxidant activityCite this Article Kamal Gandhi, Darshan Lal. Potential of Herbal Nutraceuticals in Ghee: A Review. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2015; 4(2): 1–5p.
      PubDate: 2015-07-12
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2015)
  • Food Borne Pathogens: A Threat to Dairy Industry
    • Authors: Vaghela Nileshkumar R., Subrota Hati, Kunal Gawai, Sreeja V.
      Abstract: Food borne diseases is the major concern along with malnutrition in developing countries and developed countries as well. Milk is rich source of nutrition with large number of pathogenic bacteria which are more susceptible to cause illness or death. Millions of people stuck with food borne outbreaks throughout the globe because of presence of pathogenic bacteria – disease causing microbiota like E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Shigella, Listeria, Campylobacter, S.aureus and Clostrida and their heat stable and heat labile toxins. The presence of food borne pathogens in milk and milk products is due to direct contact with contaminated sources in dairy farm environment and to excretion from infected udder of animal suffering from disease. Generally very few percentage (app. 1–2%) people of the globe consume raw milk and milk products while others use pasteurized one. But sometimes inadequate or faulty heat treatment and post processing contamination through infected supply chain may lead to major consequences related to outbreaks.Keywords: Food borne disease, milk and milk products, pathogens, contaminationCite this Article: Vaghela Nileshkumar R, Subrota Hati, Gawai K et al. Food Borne Pathogens: A Threat To Dairy Industry; Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2015; 4(1): 28–36p. 
      PubDate: 2015-04-19
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2015)
  • Development and Acceptability Evaluation of Soy Milk Obtained from Soy
    • Authors: Bharti Jain
      Abstract: Whole soybean is processed to make a rich, creamy milk-like liquid called soy milk. It has a unique delicious flavor. Soy milk makes a great substitute for milk, especially for individuals who cannot tolerate lactose (milk sugar). Soy milk is a good source of high-quality proteins, B-vitamins and iron. Soy milk is also a base for the preparation of many dairy analogs such as soy curd, soy tofu, etc. In the present study, soy milk was prepared from soy genotype JS 93-05 because of its high protein content. The main objective of the study was to find out the acceptability of soy milk and to compare the nutrient and cost of soy milk with cow’s milk. The processing of soybean is required to inactivate the anti-nutritional factors, to minimize the unacceptable beany flavor and improve the digestibility of the protein. About 8 L of soy milk can be obtained from 1 kg of dry soybean. To find out the acceptability of soy milk thirty young adult females of 35 to 40 years of age were selected. Acceptability of cow’s milk was 84.17%. Cow’s milk was compared with the acceptability of plain soy milk and flavored soy milk and the results reveled that acceptability of plain soy milk was 69.17% whereas acceptability of flavored soy milk was 83.33%. From these results it can be concluded that acceptability of flavored milk was equivalent to the cow’s milk. Plain soy milk was less acceptable due to its poor taste (33.33%). Results of nutrient content of soy milk revealed that there was not much difference in the protein and carbohydrate content of soy milk and milk. Major difference was observed in fat content of soy milk and this is due to the fact that higher yield of milk is obtained from 1 kg of soybean. Cost of soy milk (Rs. 8/kg) was less as compared to milk obtained from animal source (Rs. 20/kg).Keywords: Cow’s milk, soy milk, flavored soy milk, anti-nutritional factors, acceptability evaluation, soy genotypeCite this Article: Jain Bharti. Development and acceptability evaluation of soy-milk obtained from soy genotype JS 93-05. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2015. 4(1): 10–14p.
      PubDate: 2015-04-10
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2015)
  • Composition, Functional Properties and Application of Bottle Gourd in Food
    • Authors: Amit Barot, Suneeta Pinto, Smitha Balakrishnan, J.P. Prajapati
      Abstract: Bottle gourd has widespread use as a vegetable in India. It is very valuable for vegetarians since it contains several important constituents which are required for good health and wellbeing. Recently in India, interest in bottle gourd has been growing amongst consumers because consumption of bottle gourd has been associated with a number of benefits and may be regarded as a natural guard against diseases. In Ayurveda, bottle gourd is advocated for treatment of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, flatulence, cooling properties, liver diseases, weight loss and other associated benefits. The nutritive value of bottle gourd makes it a popular diet ingredient in making sweet curries, soups, jams, juices, beverages, cakes, ice creams and tea for value-addition. In this article, the literature available on functional properties, health benefits and applications of bottle gourd in various food products have been reviewed.Keywords: Bottle gourd, composition, properties, medicinal uses, application, dairy productsCite this Article: Amit Barot, Suneeta Pinto, Smitha Balakrishnan, et al. Composition, Functional Properties and Application of Bottle Gourd in Food Products. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2015; 4(1): 15–27p.
      PubDate: 2015-04-10
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2015)
  • Milk-Cereal-based Composite Complementary Foods and their Storage
           Stability: A Mini Review
    • Authors: P. Narender Raju, Manoj Kumar C.T., Ashish Kumar Singh, Sangita Ganguly, Manav Manharbhai Patel
      Abstract: In developing countries, depending upon the socio-economic situation, the nutritional status of the people is enhanced by encouraging increased use of inexpensive and available protein sources in child feeding. Traditional infant-feeding practiced in countries like India, is usually cereal based. Cereals in combination with milk solids are generally used for the preparation of weaning foods to improve the overall quality. Milk-cereal based complementary food is defined as food obtained from milk and milk solids, variety of cereals, pulses, soybean, millets, nuts and edible oil seeds and may contain other food additives and nutritionally significant minerals and vitamins. The quality of these food products during storage is affected by various factors such as inherent composition and exogenous factors such as packaging materials, head space air quality, storage temperature, humidity and handling. The published information about the milk-cereal based complementary foods along with the changes in the quality during storage has been briefly reviewed.Keywords: Milk-cereal based complementary food, protein sources, child feedingCite this Article:Narender Raju P, Manoj Kumar CT, Ashish Kumar Singh, et al. Milk-Cereal-based Composite Complementary Foods and their Storage Stability–A Mini Review. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2015; 4(1): 1–9p.
      PubDate: 2015-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2015)
  • Cow Milk and Human Health: A Review
    • Authors: Sanjiv Kumar, Kaushal Kumar, Sushma Suman, Pankaj Kumar
      Abstract: The milk of every species of mammal is unique and specifically tailored to the requirements of that animal. For example, cows' milk is three to four times richer in protein than human milk. It has five to seven times the mineral content. However, it is markedly deficient in essential fatty acids when compared to human mothers' milk. Mothers' milk has six to ten times as much of the essential fatty acids, especially linoleic acid (incidentally, skimmed cow's milk has no linoleic acid). It simply is not designed for humans. Except for domesticated animals to which we feed milk, humans are the only species that drinks the breast milk of another species, and the only species that continues to drink breast milk into adulthood. Today the top producers give ten times more milk. How was this accomplished? Drugs, antibiotics, hormones, forced feeding plans and specialized breeding; that's how.Keywords: Cow's milk, linoleic acid, lactose
      PubDate: 2014-12-27
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2014)
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