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Journal Cover Research & Reviews : Journal of Dairy Science and Technology
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   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 2349-3704 - ISSN (Online) 2319-3409
   Published by STM Journals Homepage  [67 journals]
  • Significance of Butyrophilin Gene in Relation to Milk Constituents in
           Dairy Animals
    • Authors: Poonam Ratwan, Manoj Kumar, Vikas Vohra
      Abstract: Butyrophilin (BTN1A1) is a QTL candidate gene that affects milk yield and milk composition (fat) in dairy animals. It has a tissue-specific expression in lactating mammary tissue and gene product BTN1A1 function in secretion of milk fat. BTN1A1 is classified into transmembrane proteins of immunoglobulin family. BTN1A1 constitutes more than 40% by weight of total protein associated with fat globule membrane of bovine milk. BTN1A1 is synthesized as a peptide of 526 amino acids with an amino-terminal hydrophobic signal sequence of 26 amino acids which is cleaved before secretion in association with milk fat globule membrane (MFGM). Among health beneficial components of MFGM is cholesterolemia-lowering factor, inhibitors of cancer cell growth, vitamin binders and inhibitor of various bacterial diseases. The gene frequency of polymorphism in BTN1A1 gene has been found to vary among dairy animals. Association studies relates BTN1A1 gene with high milk yield, fat content and protein yield in dairy animals. These associations provide insight into gene polymorphisms that can be used for selection of superior dairy animals. Keywords: bovine, butyrophilin, milk fat globule membrane (MFGM), milk fat secretionCite this Article Ratwan P, Kumar M, Vohra V. Significance of Butyrophilin Gene in Relation to Milk Constituents in Dairy Animals. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2017; 6(1): 24–30p.

      PubDate: 2017-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Electrospun Structures for Dairy and Food Packaging Applications
    • Authors: Gaurav Kumar Deshwal, Narender Raju Panjagari
      Abstract: Electrospinning is an electrostatic fiber fabrication technique, in which a nonwoven mat of long fibers can be assembled into a three-dimensional structure due to bending instability of the spinning jet. Owing to its versatile nature and potential for applications in diverse fields including food packaging has been gaining more interest. It is a flexible and easy tool for producing ultrathin sized by applying electrical force. In this process, altering the spinning solutions and process parameters could lead to fiber production with different properties enabling scope for different applications such as gas sensors, antimicrobial structures, water absorbing pads, etc. Keywords: Electrospun, food, fibres, packagingCite this Article Deshwal GK, Panjagari NR. Electrospun Structures for Dairy and Food Packaging Applications. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2017; 6(1): 17–23p.

      PubDate: 2017-04-27
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Sexed Semen: A Boon for Indian Dairy Farming
    • Authors: Talokar Amol J., Rajalaxmi Behera, Laishram Arjun Singh, Ajoy Mandal
      Abstract: The sexed semen technology is a breakthrough technology for sorting of X and Y bearing chromosome to produce progeny of a desired sex with 80–90% accuracy. Among several methods of sorting X and Y bearing semen, flow cytometry is the best method, as it doesn’t changes more sperm morphology. The sexed semen technology has several advantages like production of more female calves and more milk, lowered risk of dystocia, increased efficiency of progeny testing (PT), embryo transfer and in-vitro fertilization program. However, involvement of high cost and reduced conception rate with sexed semen are the major hurdles in adoption of this technology. In India, first male calf named Shreyas was born on 1st January, 2011 using sexed semen. After that predetermined sex of female as well as male calves were born. Sexed semen with proper management practices on dairy farms will help to grow herd internally with improved traits of female calves. Thus, with more organized dairy farming, the demand for sexed semen is expected to rise in near future. Keywords: Sexed semen, flow cytometry, X and Y chromosome, sperm sexing, dairyCite this Article Talokar Amol J, Rajalaxmi Behera, Laishram Arjun Singh et al. Sexed Semen: A Boon for Indian Dairy Farming. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2017; 6(1): 10–16p.

      PubDate: 2017-03-22
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Effect of Coat Colour and Sex on Carcass Characteristics of Local Rabbits
           in Northern Region of Ghana
    • Authors: Shuaib M.A. Husein, Jakper Naandam, Serekye Y. Annor, Peter T. Birteeb
      Abstract: This study was conducted to assess the effect of coat colour and sex on carcass characteristics of local rabbits in the northern region of Ghana. Data were collected on 24 rabbits (12 males and 12 females) from six colour varieties. Animals were slaughtered according to standard abattoir procedure and parameters recorded were live weight, bled weight, skinned weight, hot carcass dressing weight, lung weight, heart weight, liver weight, kidney weight, empty intestine weight and cold carcass dressing weight. Carcass data were analyzed using GLM of SPSS to investigate the effect of colour variety and sex on carcass measurements. The effect of colour variety was not significant (p>0.05) for all parameters measured. Sex was a highly significant (p<0.01) source of variation for hot carcass dressing percentage and empty intestine weight. The males had higher (p<0.01) hot carcass dressing percentage (50.57%) than the females (47.43%), and higher (p<0.05) cold carcass dressing percentage (47.04%) than the females (44.56%). However, the females had significantly (p<0.05) heavier liver weight (47.13±2.4g) and significantly (p<0.01) heavier empty intestine weight (104.03± 5.7g) than the respective values of 40.12±2.3g and 82.78±2.5g for the males. Conclusively, coat colour of rabbits showed no substantial differences in all carcass characteristics while males had higher carcass dressing percentage (both hot carcass and cold carcass) than the females). Keywords: Dressing percentage, meat, slaughter, weightCite this Article Shuaib MA Husein, Jakper Naandam, Serekye Y. Annor, et al. Effect of Coat Colour and Sex on Carcass Characteristics of Local Rabbits in Northern Region of Ghana. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2017; 6(1): 5–9p.
       
      PubDate: 2017-03-22
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Role of Dairy Farming in Irrigated Ecosystem: A Village Level Case Study
           from Eastern India
    • Authors: R. Bera, A. Seal, T.H. Das, D. Sarkar, R. Roy Chowdhury
      Abstract: Dairy farming is one of the important components of irrigated ecosystem and plays a major role towards sustaining agricultural livelihoods. In the present study, a detailed survey was conducted regarding the livestock potentials of the farmers in irrigated ecosystem in relation to the socio-economic status. Maintenance of dairy and related economics was evaluated for each socio-economic class as well as the constraints perceived by each group of farmers. While in case of large and medium farmers, absence of proper and organized marketing facility is one of the major constraint, lack of infrastructural facilities like breeding, health care etc. are major setbacks for small and marginal farmers. However, dairy forms an important livelihood component for the farmers especially for small and marginal classes in the irrigated ecosystem.   Keywords: Farmers class, economics, constraints of dairy farmingCite this Article Bera R, Seal A, Das TH, et al. Role of Dairy Farming in Irrigated Ecosystem: A village level case study from Eastern India. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2017; 6(1): 1–4p. 
      PubDate: 2017-03-08
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Ragi: A Powerhouse of Nutrients
    • Authors: Ishwar Patel, Komal Patel, Suneeta Pinto, Sunil Patel
      Abstract: Finger millet (Ragi, Eleusine coracana), is the principal food grain of the rural population in India, especially in South India.  It is very nutritious with respect to minerals, dietary fiber and essential amino acids. Amongst cereals, Ragi provides highest level of calcium including antioxidants and phytochemicals. The total dietary fiber of finger millet grain is relatively higher than that of most of other cereal grains which helps to control blood glucose levels in diabetic patients. It is usually converted into flour and a variety of preparations. Several methods of processing of ragi have been developed to make the final product more attractive in flavour, appearance, taste, and consistency. Keywords: Finger millet, ragi, nutrients, vitamin, bioavailabilityCite this Article Patel I, Patel K, Pinto S, et al. Ragi: A Powerhouse of Nutrients. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2016; 5(3): 36–47p. 
      PubDate: 2016-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Tagatose: A Low Calorie Multifunctional Sweetener
    • Authors: K V Mogha, A.R. Chaudhari, K.D. Aparnathi
      Abstract: A sugar called tagatose is one of the next things that will be appearing on the horizon for products labelled under the pseudo-hygienic appellations of “light”, “lite”, “low calorie”, “sugar free”, “sugarless”, “low fat”, “low sodium”, etc. The only true hygienic starting point, in this day and age of universal deceit, if we want good foods that are optimum for our health, is: “Start with fruit, grains, nuts, and vegetables simply and wholesomely prepared FROM SCRATCH at home”. This review contains a brief study on chemistry of tagatose, how it is produced, applications, limitations and legislations associated with tagatose. Keywords: Tagatose, pseudohygiene, sugar free, sugarlessCite this Article Mogha KV, Chaudhari AR, Aparnathi KD. Tagatose: A Low Calorie Multifunctional Sweetener. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2016; 5(3): 29–35p. 
      PubDate: 2016-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Current and Future Prospects of Colostrum—Indian Ethnic Food
           Supplement
    • Authors: Rajamanickam K., Jayashree Gogoi, Leela V., Suganya G.
      Abstract: Traditional foods of India are called as ‘Functional Foods’ because they contain components such as body healing components, dietary fibres and growth promoters. Colostrum is the first secretion from mammary gland of an animal after parturition which contains high amount of many nutrients such as proteins, vitamins, minerals and biologically active substances like immunoglobulins, enzymes, hormones and growth factors. This physicochemical composition makes it highly useful food substance as nutraceuticals to promote growth and increase performance of athletes. Immunological and physiological considerations of bovine colostrum can be exploited more to explore their uses to its full potency and should be easy to use. Indigenous method of preparation of colostrum-based food products differs in various parts of India; accordingly the composition may also vary. Two main growth factors namely, TGFα and TGFβ and IGF1 and IGF2 has significant muscle and cartilage regeneration, so colostrum proves to be an ideal regenerative material for growth of body cells. Keywords: colostrum, functional foods, nutraceutical and regenerative materialCite this Article Rajamanickam K, Gogoi J, Leela V, et al. Current and Future Prospects of Colostrum—Indian Ethnic Food Supplement. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2016; 5(3): 23–28p. 
      PubDate: 2016-12-29
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Influence of Genetic and Non-Genetic Factors on Lactation Traits in Dairy
           Cattle: A Review
    • Authors: Poonam Ratwan, Manoj Kumar, Ajoy Mandal
      Abstract: India has about 39.73 million crossbred cattle out of total 190.90 million (37.28%) cattle population as per the all India livestock census, 2012. The decade wise trend in livestock population (1997 to 2012) shows a distinctive swing in composition of dairy animal stock in favor of crossbred cattle, as their number increased by 20.18%, while that of indigenous cattle declined by 8.94% [1]. Selection of dairy animals is usually based on the lactation traits. All the lactation traits are affected by various genetic and non-genetic factors like sire, season of calving, period of calving, parity of animals, age group and genetic group of animals. Proper assessment or unbiased prediction of genetic worth (breeding value) depends upon the adjustment of significant effect of environmental or non-genetic factors on the lactation traits. The lactation traits reviewed were 305 days milk yield (305MY), total lactation milk yield (TMY), lactation length (LL), peak yield (PY) and milk production efficiency traits comprised of milk yield per day of lactation length (MY/LL) and milk yield per day of calving interval (MY/CI). In order to enhance the productivity, it is necessary to develop an understanding of the factors affecting lactation traits in dairy cattle. Keywords: Genetic and non-genetic factors, dairy cattle, lactation traits Cite this Article Poonam Ratwan, Manoj Kumar, Ajoy Mandal. Influence of Genetic and Non-Genetic Factors on Lactation Traits in Dairy Cattle: A Review. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2016; 5(3): 7–22p. 
      PubDate: 2016-12-29
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Genetic Variability and Significance of STAT Gene in Dairy Animals
    • Authors: Manoj Kumar, Poonam Ratwan, Vikas Vohra
      Abstract: Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) gene are a family of cytoplasmic proteins that are activated in response to a large number of cytokines, growth factors, and hormones. The interest in the bovine signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) gene has increased because STAT1 is involved in the development of the mammary gland and regulating the transcription of genes involved in milk protein synthesis and fat metabolism. STAT5 is related to milk composition, embryonic survival, conception rate, fertilization rate and calving interval of dairy animals. At present, seven bovine STAT genes have been identified and found that STAT1, STAT5A, and STAT5B were not exclusively regulated by individual effectors of differentiation, but their expression was tightly correlated with lipid accumulation. Studies on the expression of STAT in different tissues and at different developmental stages have shown that STAT1 and STAT3 are constitutively expressed at constant levels throughout pregnancy, lactation, and involution, whereas STAT4 and STAT5 are developmentally regulated. STAT5A is a candidate gene because it is a member of interferon and placental lactogen (PL) signal transduction pathways, which play important roles in reproduction and milk production traits. Some associated studies such as milk yield, fat content, protein yield, embryonic survival, conception rate and calving interval have been carried out in dairy animals. These associations will provide insight in to the underlying mechanism of STAT gene and polymorphisms that can be used for selection purposes in dairy animals. Keywords: Candidate gene, fertility, milk content, polymorphismCite this Article Manoj Kumar, Poonam Ratwan, Vikas Vohra. Genetic Variability and Significance of STAT Gene in Dairy Animals. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2016; 5(3): 1–6p. 
      PubDate: 2016-12-29
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Heterosis–Genetic Basis and Utilization for Improvement of Dairy
           Cattle: A Review
    • Authors: Manoj Kumar, Poonam Ratwan, Anil Kumar, Vikas Vohra
      Abstract: Heterosis is the phenomenon in which progeny of crosses between inbred lines or purebred populations are better than the expected average of the two populations or lines for a particular trait. Utilization of heterosis is the exclusive goal of crossbreeding. The amount of heterosis maintained in a herd depends on the type of crossbreeding system selected. Heterosis includes greater viability, faster growth rate and greater milk production in dairy cattle. The genetic basis of heterosis is nonadditive gene action (dominance, overdominance, pseudo-overdominance, and epistasis). The main requirements for heterosis are there must be genetic diversity between the breeds crossed and there must be some nonadditive gene effects present for the particular trait involved. No heterosis was observed for traits governed by additive gene action. However, it tends to be greatest for traits with low heritability and least for traits with high heritability. Traits of low heritability (reproductive traits) are generally most benefited from heterosis. They can be improved through the adequate use of crossbreeding systems. Keywords: Crossbreeding, heterosis, cattleCite this Article Kumar M, Ratwan P, Kumar A et al. Heterosis—Genetic Basis and Utilization for Improvement of Dairy Cattle: A Review. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2016; 5(2): 40–50p.
       
      PubDate: 2016-09-08
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Structured Lipids: A Unique Designer Lipid
    • Authors: Harini Venugopal, H.G. Ramachandra Rao, H. Arun Kumar
      Abstract: Structured lipids (SLs) generally refer to any fats that are modified or restructured from natural oils and fats or fatty acids primarily containing short or medium chain fatty acids and preferably essential fatty acids. The function and properties of structured lipids depend on the type of fatty acids moieties present and the position of their attachment to the backbone. Availability of SLs tightly relates to the new discoveries and collection of evidence in nutritional and functional studies. Production of SLs can be done by either chemical or enzymatic inter-esterification or synthesis depending on what products are needed. Randomized SLs can be produced by both methods. However, SLs with defined structures can only be produced by the enzymatic method with specific lipases. On the other hand, functions of SLs with respect to the consideration of medium chain fatty acids or PUFA have gained wide recognition. A number of products, largely with randomized structure, are available for different applications. SLs have potential applications in the delivery of energy and PUFA to persons suffering from malabsorption. Academic research has demonstrated a number of potential aspects from nutritional or biochemical points of view. With the potential perspectives in mind, technological development has already made the possibility of SL synthesis into production level with reasonably acceptable product standards. Keywords: Lipids, fatty acids, malabsorption, triacylglycerols Cite this Article Harini Venugopal, Ramachandra Rao HG, Arun Kumar H. Structured Lipids: A Unique Designer Lipid. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2016; 5(2): 30–39p. 
      PubDate: 2016-09-08
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Performance Evaluation of Barbari Goats in Semi-Arid Region of India: A
           Review
    • Authors: Ajoy Mandal, R. Behera, S. Rai, M. Karunakaran, T.K. Dutta
      Abstract: Barbari goat, a medium sized dual purpose goat breed in India, is known for its good lactation performance, high prolificacy, early maturity, low kidding interval, high kidding rate and better growth rate. The average weights of kids at birth, 3, 6, 9 and 12 month of age were 1.66±0.47, 5.88±0.41, 9.36±0.17, 12.85±0.25 and 16.08±0.35 kg, respectively. The average pre-weaning (0–3 months) daily weight gain was 59.9 g while post weaning (3–12 months) gain was 43.4 g. The feed conversion efficiency of this breed was 8.27±0.40% and is reported to vary from 6 to 10%. The average lactation milk yield at 90 and 140 days of lactation was 49.59±3.71 and 67.56±7.60 l, respectively with an average lactation length of 143.19 days. Regarding reproductive performance, the age of first mating and first kidding for this breed is reported as 12–14 and 17–19 months, respectively. The single, twin and triplet kidding varied from 50.6 to 59.0%, 32.3 to 39.8% and 5.59 to 10.67%, respectively. The average slaughter weight (kg), carcass weight (kg) and dressing (%) of adult animal of this breed was 25.57±1.73, 11.54±0.85 and 45.11±1.61 respectively. As the population of the breed in its home tract is declining over the years, so, there is a need for conservation of this breed. The central institute for research on goats (CIRG), Makhdoom, Uttar Pradesh, India has initiated to conserve this breed in its home tract.   Keywords: Barbari goat, growth performance, milk yield, carcass evaluation, IndiaCite this Article Ajoy Mandal, Behera R, Rai S et al. Performance Evaluation of Barbari Goats in Semi-Arid Region of India: A Review. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2016; 5(2): 25–29p.


      PubDate: 2016-09-08
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Housing Patterns for Dairy Cattle in Nilgiri District of Tamil Nadu, India
    • Authors: T. Sivakumar, P. T. Suraj, A. Yasotha, Jayashree Phukon
      Abstract: A field work was conducted to assess the effect of climatic variables on dairy cattle under different housing patterns in Nilgiri, the Hilly zone of Tamil Nadu, India.  Initially a survey was conducted in this agroclimatic zone of Tamil Nadu with a prestructured interview schedule for identifying the present dairy cattle housing patterns, production and management measures. The annual compounded growth rates of T. maximum, T. minimum and temperature humidity index (THI) were worked out on the basis of the representative areas selected for the study. The result showed that the highest values for T. Max (Mean±SD) were recorded in metal sheet roofed shelter (22.13±1.66 ºC); whereas T. Min was reported in open housing (11.94±1.09 ºC). However, during cold season there was no significant difference (p<0.05) between the housing systems in temperature and THI at 8:00 am. The overall result of analysis of housing pattern in hilly zone indicated that the prevailing environmental condition in hilly zone is conducive for commercial dairy farming in all seasons. Keywords: Dairy housing, hilly areas, temperature, THI, seasonCite this Article T. Sivakumar, P. T. Suraj, A. Yasotha et al. Housing Patterns for Dairy Cattle in Nilgiri District of Tamil Nadu, India. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2016; 5(2):  21–24p.
       
      PubDate: 2016-07-14
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Dairy Farming in a Selected Char Area of Northern Bangladesh: Prospect of
           Profitability and Contribution to Livelihood Improvement
    • Authors: J. U. Ahmed, S. K. Raha, M. H. Rahman
      Abstract: The study was conducted to assess the profitability of dairy farming in a char area of Northern Bangladesh and to evaluate the role of dairy farming to improve farmers’ livelihood. A total of 200 poorest households with dairying (100 treated and 100 controlled) and 200 with non-dairying were selected out of 520 households using simple random sampling technique. Majority of respondents in both the groups were males, aged between 36 and 50 years and had no primary education. Sixty five and 56 percent dairy households had 5 decimal homestead and 10 decimal cultivable land, respectively but 66 and 75 percent nondairy households had 10 decimal homestead and 20 decimal cultivable land, respectively. The status of homestead area and cultivable land of dairy farmers were better than the nondairy farmers. Significantly higher percentage of dairy household had access (P<0.05) to sanitation and drinking water facilities than the nondairy households. Average self-declared daily cash income of each dairy household was Taka 129±11.2. Profitability of dairy farming was measured in terms of gross return (GR), gross margin (GM), net return (NR), and benefit cost ratio (BCR) (undiscounted). Difference in differences (DID) approach was applied for analyzing the impact of dairy farming. Annual GRs from dairy farming was estimated at Tk. 18029 and Tk. 26003 before and after the project intervention, respectively. The estimated NR per cow per year stood at Tk. 537 and Tk. 6060 before and after intervention of the project, respectively. In the study area, BCR before the intervention of the project was 1.03 and 2.04 while it was 1.30 and 2.51 after the intervention on the basis of the full cost and cash cost, respectively. After the intervention of the project, there was a significant fall in the percentage of the farmers engaging with farming and day labourer whereas there was an increase in the percentage of the farmers engaging with only farming. On an average, family male members spent about 5 h a day on dairy cattle while the female members spent about 4 h a day over the study areas. Average total income had increased by 49% after the project intervention but it increased by only 17% in case of the controlled farmers. The highest (34%) treated group’s dairy income level was Tk. 10001.00–15000.00 followed by 33% and 18% of dairy income level of Tk. 15001.00–20000.00 and above Tk. 20000.00, respectively of respondent farmers. Income and expenditure of the treated group increased by 50% and 29%, respectively whereas it was increased by 18% and 8% in the case of control group. The length of time spent (working days) had increased by 100% in the study area. At last the sustainable livelihood framework including the asset pentagon was used to assess the impact of dairy farming on livelihood pattern. Keywords: Char, farming, livelihood, agricultural, dairyCite this Article Ahmed JU, Raha SK, Rahman MH. Dairy Farming in a Selected Char Area of Northern Bangladesh: Prospect of Profitability and Contribution to Livelihood Improvement. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2016; 5(2): 1–20p.
       
      PubDate: 2016-07-14
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Potentiality of Application of Microwave Heating in Dairy Industry
    • Authors: Sachin Lad, Pinto SV, Aparnathi KD
      Abstract: Microwave technology is an advanced technology that has been applied by the food industry in recent years. Microwave processes offer distinct advantages in conduction heating methods in food processing due to their potential for rapid and uniform product with reduced surface temperatures. Microwave radiation leads to lysis of microorganisms in foods resulting in increased shelf life of food products. When a food product is subjected to microwave heating, heat is generated inside the food rapidly when microwave penetrates through it therefore, a higher quality product is obtained in terms of taste, texture, and nutritional content. This review article discusses the mechanism of heating and destruction of microorganisms by microwave irradiation, its advantages and limitations, safety aspects and the application of microwave in dairy products and analysis of foods. Keywords: Microwave technology, milk, Vitamin, cholesterolCite this Article Sachin Lad, Pinto SV, Aparnathi K D. Potentiality of Application of Microwave Heating in Dairy Industry, Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2016; 5(1): 41–55p.
       
      PubDate: 2016-04-11
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Significance of Growth Rate, Acceptability of Fermented Milk and Release
           of Peptides by Lactic Cultures
    • Authors: M. R. Kathiriya, J. B. Prajapati, S. Hati, Y. V. Vekariya
      Abstract: Ten lactic cultures (S. thermophilus MD2, S. thermophilus MD8, Lc. lactis 009, L. fermentum AI2, L. fermentum AI3, L. fermentum 138, L. plantarum AD29, L. rhamnosus NS4, L. rhamnosus NS6 and E. feacalis ND3) isolated from vegetables and fermented foods were evaluated for their potential to ferment milk, produce good quality curd and ability to release peptides in fermented milk. It was found that S. thermophilus MD8, S. thermophilus MD2 and L. rhamnosus NS6 were found to exhibit maximum growth rate (1.15, 0.98 and 0.49 respectively) and acid production rate (4.65, 5.14 and 5.59 respectively) in skimmed milk compared to other LAB. The curd/fermented milk prepared with S. thermophilus MD2, S. thermophilus MD8 and L. rhamnosus NS6  showed that the maximum acceptability as reflected by highest scores for overall acceptability i.e., 7.19, 7.07 and 7.04 respectively. Therefore, these three isolates were further studied for ACE (angiotensin-1 converting enzyme) inhibitory activity by spectrophotometric method and peptides released in milk medium after fermentation by RP-HPLC (reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography). L. rhamnosus NS6 exhibited relatively higher ACE inhibitory activity as well as released maximum peptides during RP-HPLC analysis than other two isolates. This reflects better acceptability and their application in preparation of acceptable quality fermented milk products. Keywords: Fermentation, growth rate, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), milk, sensory scoreCite this Article M.R. Kathiriya, J.B. Prajapati, S. Hati  et al. Significance of growth rate, acceptability of fermented Milk and release of peptides by lactic cultures. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2016; 5(1): 31–40p.  
      PubDate: 2016-02-09
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Assessment of In Vitro Probiotic Potential of Lactic Acid Bacteria
    • Authors: Mital R. Kathiriya, S. Hati, J. B. Prajapati, Y. V. Vekariya
      Abstract: Probiotic potential of fermented milks isolates Lactobacillus rhamnosus NS6, Streptococcus thermophilus MD2 and Streptococcus thermophilus MD8 were carried out by performing various in vitro tests. MD2 and MD8 were able to survive at pH 2 and 3 in broth, while NS6 was found to be pH sensitive and could not survive at pH 2, but maintained its viability at
      3 pH. All the cultures were able to survive at 0.5 % (w/v) oxgall (bile) concentration in broth. NS6 was most resistant to bile than rest isolates. They were susceptible to ampicilin, azithromycin, tetracycline, gentamycin and erythromycin while these strains were resistant to nalidixic acid, oxacilin, colistin and kanamycin. Cell supernatant of NS6 showed a higher antimicrobial activity i.e., 24 mm zone against E. coli and S. aureus; 16 mm zone against
      B. cereus and S. typhi and neutralization of cell supernatant showed significant reduction in antimicrobial activity. All the three strains were hydrophobic to both, xylene and
      n-hexadecan. The mean percentage hydrophobicity was higher to xylene than n-hexadecanfor all the strains. Cell-auto-aggregation was found to be rising during 5 h of incubation for cultures. They were able to co-aggregate with B. cereus, S, typhi, E. coli and S. aureus (indicators). None of the culture could hydrolyze sodium taurocholate (bile) while they deconjugated sodium taurocholate to release free cholic acid. NS6 gave maximum bile deconjugation ability (364 µg/ml). Similarly, in case of cholesterol reduction and antioxidative activity (ABTS method), NS6 was more potent than others. Keywords: Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Streptococcus thermophilus, lactic acid bacteria, probiotics, bileCite this Article M.R. Kathiriya, S. Hati, J.B. Prajapati et al. Assessment of In Vitro Probiotic Potential of Lactic Acid Bacteria. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2016: 5(1):  17–30p.
       
      PubDate: 2016-02-09
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • “High Melatonin Milk”- Milk with Intrinsic Health Benefit
    • Authors: Richa Singh, Priyanka Singh Rao
      Abstract: Melatonin C13H16N2O2 (molecular weight: 232) or N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, is chemically an indoleamine and derived from the essential amino acid tryptophan. It is a hormone and due to secretion from pineal gland, it is also called as active pineal factor. Its IUPAC name is N-[2-(5-methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl] acetamide. The indole ring acts as the chromophore showing maximum absorbance at 223 nm, and the functional groups contribute to its fluorescence property. Lerner et al. 1959 reported that extract from beef pineal gland are able to lighten frog’s skin by reversing the darkening effect of melanocyte stimulating hormone and therefore, named this compound as “melatonin” since it caused aggregation of melanin granules. Melatonin hormone is more effective and active when compared to other hormones like adrenaline and nor-adrenaline (100 times), triiodothyronine (200 times), and serotonin (5000 times) in preventing darkening of frog skin by contracting melanophores. It is a white powder having melting point of 117°C. It is an amphiphilic molecule (having solubility in both water and lipid) which facilitates its movement across the cell membrane and various body fluids and makes melatonin a prominent molecule in almost all tissues of mammals. Keywords: Melatonin, tryptophan, hormone of darknessCite this Article Richa Singh, Priyanka Singh Rao. “High Melatonin Milk” - Milk with Intrinsic Health Benefit. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2016; 5(1): 13–16p.
       
      PubDate: 2016-02-07
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Emerging Pathogens in Dairy Industry
    • Authors: Mogha K.V., Chaudhari A. R., Subrota H.
      Abstract: The epidemiology of food borne disease is changing due to change in food habits of the consumers. New pathogens have emerged, and some have spread worldwide which includes Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Campylobacter, and Yersinia enterocolitica. These pathogens have reservoirs in healthy food animals, from which they spread to an increasing variety of milk and milk products. If raw milk is consumed as such or if there is problem in steps of milk processing than it results in severe case of outbreaks of food borne illness due to consumption of contaminated milk and milk products made with it. This review mainly focuses on the emerging pathogens in dairy industry and rapid methods to detect them and control measures necessary to prevent this pathogens entering the milk processing area and thereby in milk products. Keywords: Food borne disease, milk products, emerging pathogens, reservoirs, outbreaksCite this Article Mogha KV, Chaudhari AR, Subrota Hati. Emerging pathogens in dairy industry. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2016; 5(1): 5–12p.
       
      PubDate: 2016-02-03
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Use of Area Specific Mineral Mixture to Ameliorate Region Specific
           Reproductive Problems in Ruminants
    • Authors: M. K. Ghosh, M. Mondal, Rakesh Kumar Verma, Nirmala Muwel
      Abstract: Reproductive inefficiency in ruminant cows is one of the most important global problems affecting the profitability of the farm. Some trace minerals like Ca, P, Cu, Zn, Co and Mn have important roles to maximise reproductive performances. Even marginal deficiency of these minerals can impair reproduction showing clinical signs of deficiency. Effects of mineral deficiency and metabolic disorders in all categories of dairy animals have been observed due to lower mineral content and poor availability of essential macro and micro minerals from different feed stuffs. Deficiency associated problem have been observed in cattle of different regions and in most of the cases it differs from one region to another due to different soil composition, intensity of cropping, precipitation pattern and soil erosion pattern and so on. The assessment and preventives of mineral deficiency needs thorough understanding of the factors like age of animals, season, soil profile, plant materials and feeding practices. It is, therefore, important to understand the basics of mineral nutrition very clearly as also to meet the requirement of the animals to overcome the problem of deficiencies or excesses, so as to maintain productivity. The concept of area-specific mineral supplement is a new approach of low input and high output for the end users. In this review, the authors discussed the roles of some trace minerals on some productive and reproductive performance of ruminants with special emphasis on bovine species. Keywords: Trace minerals, ruminants, bovine, growth, reproduction, hormone, metabolitesCite this Article Ghosh M.K., Mondal M., Rakesh Kumar Verma et al. Use of area specific mineral mixture to ameliorate region specific reproductive problems in ruminants. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2016; 5(1): 1–4p.
       
      PubDate: 2016-01-18
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Scope of Edible Packaging for Micronutrient Fortification of Dairy
           Products
    • Authors: Jotarkar Parameshwar Sarangdhar, Narender Raju Panjagari
      Abstract: Edible films and coatings have long been used for food protection and shelf life improvement. Essential components for producing edible films and coatings are biopolymers, plasticizers and certain optional ingredients. Edible films and coatings have been used as vehicles for delivery of minerals such as calcium, zinc, iron and magnesium and also for delivery of vitamins such as niacin, riboflavin, vitamin A, vitamin E and vitamin C in food products such as vegetables, rice, etc. However, there are limited studies focused on dairy products. In the present review, the scope of such edible coatings for delivery of micronutrients is presented. Keywords: Edible films, plasticizers, Polysaccharides, Milk protein Cite this Article Jotarkar Parameshwar Sarangdhar, Narender Raju Panjagari. Scope of edible packaging for micronutrient fortification of dairy products. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2015; 4(3): 22–31p.  
      PubDate: 2015-12-21
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2015)
       
  • Mithun: A Promising Milch Animal of the Northeastern Hill Region of India
    • Authors: M Mondal, R K Singh, K K Baruah, A Kumar, V Singh
      Abstract: Mithun (Bos frontalis), a rare bovine of Southeast Asia, is the descendent of wild Indian gaur (Bos gaurus gaurus). This unique animal is found mainly in four different states of the North-Eastern Hills region of India viz., Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram, and also in some locations of Bhutan, Myanmar, Bangladesh and China. Though the mithun is mainly reared for meat, it has the potential for milk production. Mithun produces milk of high quality containing double the quantity of energy than cattle cow milk. In addition, mithun milk contains high quantity of lactoferrin; an antimicrobial element combats for pathogenic infection. Unfortunately, mithun has not yet been explored fully as a milch animal. Milk production potential of mithun can be enhanced significantly through using suitable scientific packages of practices and appropriate technological interventions. Keywords: Mithun, milk, lactation, milk yield, milk productsCite this Article Mondal M, Singh RK, Baruah KK et al. Mithun: a promising milch animal of the northeastern hill region of India. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2015; 4(3): 17–21p.
       
      PubDate: 2015-12-14
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2015)
       
  • Development of a New Kisspeptin Based Method of Ovulation Synchronization
           for Crossbred Dairy Heifers
    • Authors: M. Mondal, KK Baruah, M Karunakaran, MK Ghosh, TK Dutta
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to develop a new method of synchronization of estrus/ovulation for crossbred cows based on kisspeptin, a potent secretagogue of GnRH. For the purpose, a total of 108 estrous cycles were studied in cyclic heifers. The animals divided equally in to two groups were treated either with ovsynch protocol of estrus synchronization (group-I; GnRH: day 0; PGF2α: day 7 and GnRH: day 9) or with a new method of synchronization based on kisspeptin (group-II; kisspeptin: day 0; PGF2α: day 7 and kisspeptin: day 9). Heifers were monitored regularly with transrectal ultrasonography for follicular dynamics and occurrence of ovulation. It was found that the kisspeptin based protocol induced better growth of follicles than ovsynch one. Ovulation rate was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the animals of group-II than group-I. As revealed through ultrasonography as well as plasma progesterone profiles, the process of luteolysis starts early even before PGF2α injection in kisspeptin based protocol than ovsynch. In conclusion, we developed a new method of synchronization of estrus/ovulation based on kisspeptin in bovine species for the first time. The newly developed method is found to be better than the conventional ovsynch method in terms of percent ovulation in the treated animals. Keywords: Estrus, ovulation, synchronization, kisspeptin, metastin, bovineCite this Article Mondal M, Baruah KK, Karunakaran M et al. Development of a New Kisspeptin Based Method of Ovulation Synchronization for Crossbred Dairy Heifers. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2015; 4(3):12–16p.  
      PubDate: 2015-11-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2015)
       
  • Carbon Footprints of Dairy Animals: Causes and Its Mitigation
    • Authors: Poonam Ratwan, Ajoy Mandal, Manoj Kumar, M Karunakaran, TK Dutta
      Abstract: Greenhouse gases are building up in the atmosphere to a larger degree leading to “global warming”. The total quantity of gaseous emissions of greenhouse gases emitted by an individual in one year; directly or indirectly is measured in terms of 'carbon footprint'. Livestock play an important role for emission of greenhouse gases through various ways like rumen fermentation, manure and fodder production, milk, beef production etc. The demand for livestock products is increasing regularly and livestock products carry a high carbon footprint as compared to other products. Thus, in order to balance environmental concerns with the emergent global demand for dairy products along with economic feasibility to individual dairy producers there is need of emissions mitigation strategies. Proper management practices can lead to reduction in carbon footprints of livestock which in turn will help to minimize the negative effects of emissions on climate change. Keywords: Carbon footprints, greenhouse, livestock, milk  Cite this Article Poonam Ratwan, Ajoy Mandal, Manoj Kumar et al. Carbon Footprints of Dairy Animals: Causes and its Mitigation. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2015; 4(3):    6–11p. 
      PubDate: 2015-11-19
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2015)
       
 
 
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