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Journal Cover   Research & Reviews : Journal of Dairy Science and Technology
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   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 2349-3704 - ISSN (Online) 2319-3409
   Published by STM Journals Homepage  [61 journals]
  • Cow Milk and Human Health: A Review
    • Authors: Sanjiv Kumar, Kaushal Kumar, Sushma Suman, Pankaj Kumar
      Abstract: The milk of every species of mammal is unique and specifically tailored to the requirements of that animal. For example, cows' milk is three to four times richer in protein than human milk. It has five to seven times the mineral content. However, it is markedly deficient in essential fatty acids when compared to human mothers' milk. Mothers' milk has six to ten times as much of the essential fatty acids, especially linoleic acid (incidentally, skimmed cow's milk has no linoleic acid). It simply is not designed for humans. Except for domesticated animals to which we feed milk, humans are the only species that drinks the breast milk of another species, and the only species that continues to drink breast milk into adulthood. Today the top producers give ten times more milk. How was this accomplished? Drugs, antibiotics, hormones, forced feeding plans and specialized breeding; that's how.Keywords: Cow's milk, linoleic acid, lactose
      PubDate: 2014-12-27
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Dung Samples of Cattle during
           Monsoon Season in Vellore District, Tamil Nadu, India
    • Authors: A. Yasotha, T. Sivakumar, Thanga Tamil Vanan, K.N. Selvakumar, P.S.L. Sesh
      Abstract: A study was conducted to assess the sixteen dung samples from the dairy cattle reared around industrial areas of Vellore district during monsoon season. The collected samples were analysed for heavy metals using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICPMS). The result revealed concentration range of 2.580 to 20.030 ppm, 6.940 to 83.770, 1.310 to 19.270, 0.110 to 2.240 and below detectable level to 0.07 ppm for copper, zinc, chromium, lead and cadmium, respectively. A comparison of the mean distribution of the different metals studied shows that zinc had the highest mean distribution while cadmium had the least. The general trend of mean distribution of heavy metals showed Zn>Cr>Cu>Pb>Cd.Keywords: Cow, dung, heavy metals, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy
      PubDate: 2014-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Demographic Profile of Dairy Farmers in the Industrial Areas of Vellore
           District –Tamil Nadu, India
    • Authors: Yasotha Appavu, T. Sivakumar, Thanga Tamil Vanan, K.N. Selvakumar, P.S.L. Sesh
      Abstract: The field survey was conducted to highlight the condition of dairying in industrial areas of Vellore districts, Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 32 farmers were selected randomly in two industrial areas of Vellore district, which covered around 270 dairy animals. Majority (71.88%) of the farmers had dairying as the primary occupation only (3%) farmers had agriculture as the primary occupation. Based on the land holdings 56.25, 37.50 and 6.25 per cent farmers were marginal, landless agricultural labourer and large, respectively. The average wet land holding was 1.18 acres and no farmers had dry land holding. The average herd size was 6.79 cross bred cows and 1.67 buffaloes. The red loamy soil (75%) was predominant in Vellore district. Literate farmers were 56.25 and 75 per cent of the farmers were income generator.Keywords: Dairy, farmer, dairying, occupation, status
      PubDate: 2014-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Seminal Proteins as Markers for Bull Fertility
    • Authors: M. Karunakaran, T. G. Devanathan, Ajoy Mandal, Mohan Mondal, M. K. Ghosh, S. Garai, T.K. Dutta
      Abstract: Artificial insemination (AI) is the reproductive biotechnology that has made possible the safe use of semen from selected sires in a breeding female population. Application of AI as a tool for dissemination of semen from superior sires has contributed to the improvement of the genetic quality of breeding herds. This improvement has been exponential in dairy cattle, in which use of frozen semen is most common. Semen preservation and artificial insemination technique also used in conservation of wild and semi domesticated animals like mithun. A prerequisite for the best use of this genetic material is to obtain acceptable fertility after AI. For this reason, both screening of the semen for normality and fertility are essential. Accurate evaluation of the bull fertility is important because it influences the reproductive potential of the present and future herd. The aim of the breeding industry is to identify genetically superior bulls and maximize the number of offspring produced by these bulls. The fertility of the selected bull is important in achieving this aim.Keywords: Bull, semen, fertility, markers, proteins
      PubDate: 2014-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Risk Factors Associated with Galactophagia and Its Impacts on Some
           Productive and Reproductive Traits in Dairy Cows and Buffaloes
    • Authors: ibrahim ahmed mostafa ahmed, Helal M. A., Ramadan S. G, Mahboub H. D., Byomi A. M., Reddy P. G.
      Abstract: The incidence of galactophagia (self and intersuckling vices in dairy animals) may lead to great loss in milk production, injuries and shape defect in teats as well as serious mastitis which reflect on general health condition of animals. Our field survey was carried out to spot the light on the relationship between galactophagia (self or intersucking), breed, housing system and parity on some productive, reproductive traits and udder health condition in dairy cows and buffaloes. The results revealed that, the average milk losses due to these vices reached to (33.42±0.51, 36.35±0.60 and 24.70±0.78 % of the total milk yield) for Holstein-Friesian, Baladi cow and Buffalo, respectively. Not only the amount of milk production decreased, but also the lactation period decreased significantly (P<0.01) while, days open and calving interval (CI) increased significantly (P<0.01). The incidence of self and intersucking could be a main cause of mastitis, which occurred more frequently in forequarters than hind quarters in suckled animals. In conclusion, self and intersucking considered as great economic problems in dairy cattle and buffaloes not only due to milk loss, but also other productive and reproductive traits in the herd and can cause serious mastitis.
      Keywords: Galactophagia, Mastitis, Productive traits, Reproductive traits, Cows, Buffalos
      PubDate: 2014-09-03
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Probiotics (Functional Bio-Ingredient in Food): Novel Applications to
           Human Health
    • Authors: Subrota Hati, Surajit Mandal, J. B. Prajapati
      Abstract: Bacteria have a bad reputation for causing disease and food poisoning and food intoxication. However, Scientists working in this field suggests that probiotics can prevent and even treat some illnesses along with foods or as supplements. Probiotic microbes are considered safe and most of them are normal habitants of digestive system. Since the mid-1990s, clinical studies have established that probiotic therapy can help treat several gastrointestinal ills, delay the development of allergies in children, and treat and prevent vaginal and urinary infections in women and stimulating immunomodulatory cells. Taking probiotics regularly with foods can boost the immune system in a specific way which helps the body against different diseases such as influenza A, cancers, HIV, obesity.
      Keywords: Probiotics, human, health, obesity, immune, HIV
      PubDate: 2014-07-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Effect of Addition of Low and High Molecular Weight Water Soluble Chitosan
           on Whole Milk Powder Oxidation
    • Authors: Wesam Al- Jeddawi, Paul Dawson, Inyee Han
      Abstract: Autoxidation significantly decreases the shelf life of whole milk powder (WMP) due to primary and secondary oxidation products such as hydroperoxides, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols and hydrocarbons. Water soluble chitosan has been shown to reduce oxidation by chelating metals or combining with lipids resulting in a significant antioxidative effect. The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidative effects of different concentrations of low (L) and high (H) molecular weight water soluble chitosan (9 and 90 kDa, respectively) on WMP. Commercially dried WMP was obtained and rehydrated 50% (wt/wt) with various aqueous chitosan solutions (2%L2, 4%L4, 2%H2, 4%H4) (L2 = Freeze-dried WMP with 2% low molecular weight chitosan added; L4 = Freeze-dried WMP with 4% low molecular weight chitosan added; H2 = Freeze-dried WMP with 2% high molecular weight chitosan added; H4 = Freeze-dried WMP with 4% high molecular weight chitosan added) yielding approximately 50% solids concentration. A control was prepared with no addition of chitosan. Rehydrated WMP was freeze-dried and then all samples were stored at 45 °C for 48 days. Samples were evaluated for moisture content, water activity, color, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and peroxide value (PV) after an interval of every 8 day up to 48 days. Moisture and water activity was not affected by storage or by the addition of chitosan while chitosan did affect the lightness and color attributes of the WMP. All treatments of chitosan exhibited a significant increase in TBARS and PV during storage. However, 4% of the low molecular weight chitosan inhibited oxidation as measured by TBARS and PV when compared to all other treatments and the control.
      Keywords: Autoxidation, shelf life, whole milk powder, TBARS, chitosan
      PubDate: 2014-07-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Effect of Prepartum Body Condition Score on Dairy Cattle Performance
    • Authors: Dawod A, Helal M. A, Mahboub H. D
      Abstract: The present study was conducted to detect the effect of prepartum body condition score (BCS) on dairy cattle performance. Throughout the study, a total of 7956 dairy records were collected from six Holstein Friesian farms. According to the prepartum BCS, dairy cows were grouped into three main categories— low, medium, and over condition score cows for BCS values of 2–3, 3–4 and 4–5, respectively. Dairy cattles with BCS values under the level of 2 were culled as a part of culling policy in these farms. Productive parameters of milk yield (daily yield, 305-day yield and total yield), milk curve (days to peak, initial milk yield, peak milk yield and lactation persistency [LP]), milk somatic cell count (SCC) and somatic cell score (SCS), as well as some reproductive parameters (days to first estrus and days open) were determined to indicate the best dairy cattle prepartum BCS sustained high dairy performance. Prevalence of lameness and metabolic diseases (milk fever, abomasum displacement [DA] and ketosis) were also investigated in dairy cattle among different prepartum BCS. The best prepartum BCS was elucidated to reduce the prevalence of such diseases. Results of the present study revealed that the medium condition score cows produce more milk as compared to the over condition score cows. Medium condition score cows showed improved udder health and reproductive parameters. On the other hand, they showed decreased prevalence of lameness, milk fever, DA and ketosis. In contrast, it was obvious that over condition score cows suffered more from these metabolic disorders than low and medium BCS cows. The prevalence of lameness was more evident in low than in medium and over condition score cows.
      Keywords Prepartum body condition score, dairy cows, lameness, lactation persistency, holstein friesian
      PubDate: 2014-07-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Remodeling of High Yielding Dairy Holsteins Culling Strategies upon Their
           Prefresh Body Condition Score and Parity Number
    • Authors: Dawod A
      Abstract: The present study was conducted to detect the relationship between prefresh body condition score (BCS), lactation parity and their interactions to remodel the culling strategies and detect the best BCS for each lactation parity number which sustained high performance in high yielding dairy Holstein cows. A total of 1138 dairy records of private high producing Holstein Friesian farm (8000 kg milk/ season) were collected throughout the study. Dairy cows were grouped into three main categories according to their prefresh BCS, as low, medium, and over condition score cows for BCS values of 2–3, 3–4, and 4–5, respectively. Dairy cattle which were under the level of 2 point BCS were culled as a part of culling policy in these farms. Dairy cows were regrouped again according to their parity number into three groups 1st; 2nd, and 3rd for lactation parity of <3, 4–5, and >5, respectively. Both productive and some reproductive variables were used in this study such as milk yield (daily, 305 day yield, and total yield), milk curve (days to peak, initial milk yield, peak milk yield, and lactation persistency (LP)), and some reproductive variables (days to first estrus, and days open) were determined to indicate the best dairy cattle prefresh BCS per each lactation parity number sustained maximum dairy performance with little reproductive problems. The results of this study revealed that the medium condition score cows produced much milk as the same as over condition score cows. Moreover, young dairy cows of lactation parity <3 produced more milk than older ones. Old dairy cows with lactation parity >5 had high milk yield which is comparable with younger ones, if rigid culling programs was followed. Young dairy cows, which had lactation parity <3 needs no more than medium BCS value of 3–4 point to produce same milk as fatty ones. Old dairy cows need high BCS value of over 4 points during their prefresh phase to sustain high productive and reproductive performance. The culling programs in the high yielding Holstein dairy farms must be remodeled and directed to moderate (lactation parity 4–5) and old age (lactation parity >5) dairy cows which had poor body condition during their prefresh phase. Efficient body conditioning programs were followed, as these cows cannot produce or reproduce well. Old dairy cows must not be culled on the basis of their age alone, as these cows can produce as well as younger ones, if a firm culling policy was followed. Old dairy cows must not be culled from dairy herds if their economic values are still high, as the economic base must be put in front of all the bases.
      Keywords: Prefresh body condition score, dairy cows, lactation parity, lactation persistency, holstein friesian
      PubDate: 2014-07-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Effect of Different Ingredient Levels on Instrumental Colour
           Characteristic of Dietetic peda
    • Authors: Rathod Gunvantsinh Indrasinh, Kaushik Khamrui, Devaraja H C, Surajit Mandal
      Abstract: Investigation was undertaken to study the effect of ingredient levels viz., whey proteinconcentrate (WPC), maltrodextrin, sorbitol and sucralose on instrumental colourcharacteristics of dietetic peda using response surface methodology (RSM) in a five levelfour factor Central Composite Rotatable Design (CCRD). The whiteness index (L* value)was significantly negatively (p0.05) influenced by WPC and maltodextrin in linear andquadratic level, respectively. Redness-greenness index (a* value) was significantlypositively influenced (p0.05) by WPC, maltodextrin and sucralose in linear terms,whereas quadratic terms of sorbitol and sucralose significantly (p0.05) positively andnegatively affected this characteristic. Yellowness-blueness index (b* value) waspositively affected by maltodextrin in linear terms. Interaction term of maltodextrin andsucralose significantly (p0.05) affected all the colour parameters, whereas theinteraction term between maltodextrin and sorbitol negatively affected L* and b* values.The high coefficient of determination (R2) values (0.72-0.96) of the relevant quadraticregression models for the instrumental colour attributes revealed that all the parameterscould be accurately predicted by the selected ingredient levels.
      Keywords: Dietetic peda, l* value, a* value, b* value, RSM
      PubDate: 2014-05-10
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Breeding Strategies for Sustainable Goat Farming in India
    • Authors: Ajoy Mandal, M. Karunakaran, M. K. Ghosh, T. K. Dutta
      Abstract: Goat is one of the important animals serving the mankind in several ways by producing milk, meat, fibre and valuable by-products such as skin and offals. Goat is also considered to be poor man’s cow in India as it caters the milk requirement of the poor masses. They substantially contribute to the rural economy and provide livelihood to the poor masses and supplement their food with nutritious milk and meat. India is a rich repository of goat germplasm with 23 recognized breeds but most of them have low production potential since they were subject to artificial as well as natural selection in the past for adaptability to the climatic stress and enzootic diseases of the tropics, rather than improving the production potential. Breeding strategies contribute significantly to improving livestock production efficiency, by enhancing the productive and reproductive performance of livestock. Thus to improve the goat productivity in the country, a need- based location-specific strategy must be developed and implemented keeping in view the availability of resources and utility of breed in different agro-ecological zones of the country. Moreover, the proper breeding strategy needs to be adopted after anticipating and identifying those forces that drive goat production system for high productivity in India.
      Keywords: Breeding Strategy, Sustainable farming, Goat, India
      PubDate: 2014-04-28
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Lactose Hydrolysed Milk – A Speciality Health Beverage
    • Authors: Harini G, Ramachandra Rao H. G
      Abstract: India Ranks First Position in production of milk but lag backs in consumption. Milk is complete food with necessary nutrients which is necessary for all age groups. Lactose is milk sugar and an unique carbohydrate with multifunctions. But certain group of people are avoiding or ceasing consumption of milk since they can’t digest lactose present in milk due to the absence of enzyme lactase and they are referred as Lactose-intolerants. Therefore, to overcome or to address this issue an attempt was made to hydrolyze lactose in milk. The effect of incubation time-temperature and enzyme concentration on degree of lactose hydrolysis in milk was studied. Lactose hydrolysis levels of 25, 50, 75 and 100% levels were attained at a constant enzyme concentration of 1ml/l at a temperature of 40°C incubated for 30, 60, 180,and 300 min, respectively. Thus, lactose hydrolysed milk with different levels of hydrolysis was prepared to offer milk intolerant persons a dietary alternative and also a wide range of products can be produced utilizing lactose hydrolysed milk which contributes in expansion of  Dairy Industry. Keywords: Milk, Lactose, Lactose Hydrolysis, Lactase
      PubDate: 2014-04-28
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Storage Stability of Processed and Packaged Milk: A Review
    • Authors: Manav Manharbhai Patel, P. Narender Raju, Ashish Kumar Singh, C.T. Manoj Kumar
      Abstract: Milk is nearly a complete food as it provides both energy and nutrition. In general, the pasteurization and sterilization processes are used in the milk industry to enhance the shelf life of milk however the main focus in this article is on Ultra-high temperature (UHT) process which is widely used for different long-life milks on large scale basis. During the process of milk different type of chemical reactions and physical changes occur. The effect of these changes may continue during the storage of processed milk. Stability of the processed milk is the major criteria to determine its shelf life. An overview of the different physico-chemical and microbial changes that occur during storage of processed milk is presented in this article. Acceptable flavour is one of the major factors for acceptability of processed milk during storage period. Other factors include physical state, colour and microbial changes. All these factors have their own significance and would depend on the storage conditions and packaging materials.

      Keywords: Milk, Processing, Packaging, Storage, Stability
      PubDate: 2014-04-28
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Application of Genomic Selection in Livestock Improvement
    • Authors: Ajoy Mandal, S. K. Das, M. Karunakaran, C. Bhakat, T. K. Dutta
      Abstract: Livestock contributes significantly to the livelihood of rural poor in our country and has enormous potential to reduce poverty. There is a predicted increase in demand for animal food products in India by 2020 and a rapidly growing market is also coming up. Livestock revolution will provide a better opportunity for poor farmers for benefiting from the rapidly growing market and thereafter providing a better food security for our country’s growth. Better livestock production efficiency can be obtained through improving animals genetically, which ultimately leads to enhancement of productivity of the production system in a sustainable manner. Genetic improvement of livestock through traditional selection for increasing livestock productivity has some major limitations. To overcome these limitations, genomic selection (GS) played a crucial role in livestock industry. GS, a marker-assisted selection on a genome-wide scale, uses information on variation in DNA sequences between animals to predict the breeding value of animals more accurately. Moreover, this method provides an accurate assessment of breeding values of animals without measuring the traits at early stages of life. Furthermore, the information is available not just for a single gene or trait, but also for all the genes and all traits at the same time. This is a DNA technology in breeding with true breakthrough potential. Through genomic selection, genetic progress can be increased dramatically

      PubDate: 2014-01-10
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Isolation and Characterization of Lactobacillus spp. of Human Origin for
           Studying their Prevalence
    • Authors: Monica Puniya, KPS Sangu, Aarti Bhardwaj, Sanjay Kumar, Tejpal Dhewa
      Abstract: A total of 15 samples of healthy human feces were collected for the isolation of lactobacilli using lactobacillus selection MRS agar. Thirty-eight colonies were randomly picked based on colonial morphology. All the isolates were subjected to cell morphology, physiology and an array of biochemical characterization. The isolates showed different growth patterns at different temperatures (15 and 45 °C), oxygen and at different concentrations of NaCl (2.0, 4.0 and 6.5%). On the basis of physiological tests and sugar utilization pattern, all the thirty eight isolates were confirmed to the different species of lactobacillus (i.e., Lactobacillus plantarum (4), Lactobacillus casei (15), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (2), Lactobacillus fermentum (4), and Lactobacillus acidophilus (10), Lactobacillus helveticus (3). Among isolates Lactobacillus casei was found to be prevalent in the human gut. 
      PubDate: 2014-01-10
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Nutritive Value and Health Benefit of Fermented Milks
    • Authors: Tanmay Hazra, Kamal Gandhi, Anamika Das
      Abstract: Fermented milk plays a very vital role in human civilization from ancient time. Fermented milk product is not only nutritionally superior but it has plenty of health benefits, though all the health benefit mechanisms of fermented milk is not known but in future fermented milk would be one of the substitute of medicine.
      PubDate: 2014-01-10
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Modified Milk Fat and Its Applications in Food Products
    • Authors: Kamal Gandhi, Prabin Sarkar, Ashok Aghav, Anil Kumar, Darshan Lal
      Abstract: Natural fats have complex composition as they are composed of several fatty acids present primarily as triacylglycerols, which give fat highly diverse functional and nutritional properties. This complexity of fat provides opportunities for modifying themselves for different applications. The negative nutritional and physical image of the fat, especially certain saturated long chain fatty acids, trans-fats, cholesterol as well as poor spreadability and oxidative susceptibility has driven the development of technologies to produce modified fat with different physicochemical or nutritional properties. Modified fats have wide area of application. They can substitute the conventional costlier fats and can also be used in functional foods, as nutraceuticals. Moreover, one can use different fractions derived from single source of fat for different applications. Therefore, modification of fat can be considered as a tool which enhances the functionality and nutritional value of natural fats and broaden their area of application.
      PubDate: 2014-01-10
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Effect of Prebiotics on Growth of the Selected Lactobacilli Culture
           Isolated from Dairy Products
    • Authors: Aarti Bhardwaj, Monica Puniya, K. P. S. Sangu, Sanjay Kumar, Tejpal Dhewa
      Abstract: Prebiotics beneficially affects the host by selectively stimulating the growth or activity of one or limited number of bacteria such as bifidobacteria, lactobacilli in the colon that can improve the host health. Inulin and gum acacia are the most commonly available prebiotics. The ability of lactobacilli cultures (i.e. Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus casei) to utilize inulin, gum acacia, honey and fructo-oligosaccharide @ 2% for different time intervals (6, 12 and 24 h) were tested. The growth rate of Lactobacillus acidophilus was found be higher in 2% honey than other isolates as well as prebiotics taken. Potential probiotic Lactobacillus acidophilus isolated from curd were allowed to grow in selected prebiotics, i.e., honey at different concentrations (2.0, 3.0 and 4.0%) for a time period of 0–24 h. Lactobacillus acidophilus, could utilize all the concentrations of honey (2.0, 3.0, and 4.0%) with control (glucose, 1%) and exhibited maximum growth 4.5 x 107 at 6 h interval, 5.4 x 108 at 12 h time period and 6.3x109 after 24 h of incubation. At 2% honey concentration the growth rate is nearly similar to that of 3% honey. Whereas, at 4% honey the growth of probiotic bacteria decrease in comparison to that of 2 and 3%. When combining both lactobacilli cultures (potential probiotics) and a prebiotic in a single food product, the expected benefits are an improved survival during the passage of probiotic bacteria through the upper intestinal tract.  
      PubDate: 2013-09-13
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2013)
  • MALDI-TOF MS: Applications in Dairy and Related Sectors
    • Authors: Kamal Gandhi, Anil Kumar, Prabin Sarkar, Ashok Aghav, Darshan Lal
      Abstract: MALDI-TOF MS is a soft ionization technique suitable for analysis of peptides, proteins, glycoproteins, oligosaccharides and oligonucleotides etc. In dairy sector, it can be used to analyze milk proteins, to identify adulteration in milk, isolation of phospholipids, characterization of proteins and enzymes of the microorganisms used in manufacture of cheese and other fermented products. In food industry, it can be used for evaluation and determination of fructo-oligosaccharides, inulins, certain pigments and flavor compounds present in different foods. This technique has found applications in a variety of disciplines including proteomics, glycomics, dairy, food, chemistry, biochemistry, microbiology, and physics. The purpose of this review is to summarize the contribution of the studies already performed with MALDI-TOF MS concerning dairy and related sectors. 
      PubDate: 2013-09-13
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2013)
  • Maillard Browning: Pros and Cons in Dairy and Food Industries
    • Authors: Harish Kumar, Neha Choudhary, Varsha Garg, Naveen kumar Swami, Hitesh kumar, Raman Seth
      Abstract: The Maillard reaction, also known as non-enzymatic browning reaction between reducing sugars and amino groups. This reaction is responsible for the formation of several compounds, called MRP (Maillard Reaction Products) for food products. The Maillard reaction produces undesirable effects during the processing and storage of different liquid foods such as milk or fruit juices whereas for other solid foods the changes are favorable (in the case of bread, breakfast cereals, candies, coffee, chocolate, etc.). The Maillard reaction is a complex reaction, since it is influenced by many factors such as temperature, pH, time, water activity, type and concentration of reactant source and sugar involved. In heated food products, two carcinogenic compounds are produced during maillard reactions, acrylamide and imidazoquinoline. Furosine and HMF are two compounds that indicate the extent of the maillard reaction related to the type and intensity of the food processing conditions. 
      PubDate: 2013-09-13
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2013)
  • NALDI-TOF MS: Applications in Dairy and Related Sectors
    • Authors: Kamal Gandhi, Prabin Sarkar, Anil Kumar, Ashok Aghav, Darshan Lal
      Abstract: NALDI-TOF (Nanotechnology-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of flight mass spectrometry) is a matrix free soft laser base MS technology used for low molecular weight hydrophobic biomolecule and organic molecule. NALDI-TOF MS is the new generation of Mass Spectrophotometers after MALDI-TOF MS. Its analyzing capacity is far better than MALDI-TOF MS in terms of speed, sensitivity and accuracy. This technique has found applications in a variety of disciplines including dairy, food, chemistry, biochemistry, microbiology, agriculture and physics. The purpose of this review is to summarize the contribution of the studies already performed with NALDI-TOF MS concerning dairy and related sectors.  
      PubDate: 2013-09-13
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2013)
  • Effect of Vidarikand (Extracts) on Oxidative Stability of Ghee: A
           Comparative Study
    • Authors: Kamal Gandhi, Sumit Arora, Nilkanth Pawar, Anil Kumar
      Abstract: Antioxidant activities of vidarikand (Pueraria tuberosa) extracts were evaluated and compared with BHA, TBHQ, rosemary and green tea using a β-carotene bleaching assay, a 2, 2-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay and the Rancimat method. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity (β-carotene–linoleic acid model system and DPPH assay) of ethanolic extract of vidarikand was more compared to its aqueous extract. Ethanolic extract of the vidarikand was more effective in preventing the development of the peroxide value and conjugated diene value in ghee compared to its aqueous extract. Vidarikand ethanolic extract showed the higher induction period as compared to its aqueous extract in the Rancimat.
      PubDate: 2013-06-12
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2013)
  • X-Ray Crystallography and Its Applications in Dairy Science: A Review
    • Authors: Kamal Gandhi, Anil Kumar, Saurabh Gosewade, Ravinder Kaushik, Darshan Lal
      Abstract: X-ray crystallography (XRC) is the study of crystals using X-rays. XRC is the primary method in which detailed structure of molecules especially molecules that pertain to living systems have been visualized and discovered by exposing a well-ordered crystal of a substance to X-rays and finally generating the structural information from the spots produced on a film due to this impact. X-ray crystallography has been used for analysis of liquid milk, milk powders, milkstones, polymorphism of milk fat and most widely and importantly in discovering the structure of most of the milk proteins and thus helping in correlating their structure with possible functions.  
      PubDate: 2013-06-12
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2013)
  • High Pressure Processing and Its Impact on Milk Proteins: A Review
    • Authors: Ankit Goyal, Vivek Sharma, Neelam Upadhyay, Manvesh Sihag, Ravinder Kaushik
      Abstract: High pressure processing (HPP) is a non-thermal or cold pasteurization technique to preserve various food products. High pressure in range of 100–1000 MPa affects size, shape and conformation of various milk proteins. Casein micelles having primary conformation are not affected under low pressure, but disintegrate at high pressure (300 MPa). β-lactoglobulin (β-lg) is one of the most pressure-sensitive proteins and α-lactalbumin (α-la) is one of the most pressure resistant. Bovine serum albumin, lactoferrin and immunoglobulins are not much affected by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP). It has been observed that to achieve the shelf-life of thermally pasteurized milk of 10 days at 10 °C, a pressure treatment of at least 400 MPa for 15 min or 500 MPa for 3 min is required.
      PubDate: 2013-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2013)
  • Quality Assessment of Sweet Curds (Misti Dahi) from Two Selected Areas of
    • Authors: A. K. Obidul Huq, S. M Golam Moktadir, Most. Monira Akter, M. Nannur Rahman
      Abstract: An investigation was carried out to compare the organoleptic, chemical and microbiological quality parameters of sweet curd collected from Bogra and Tangail (famous for good-quality curd). Sweet curds were evaluated for organoleptic characters by five-point Hedonic scale technique. Although both types of sweet curd were acceptable on appearance as well as color, flavor, texture and other sensory evaluation, overall taste acceptance of Bogra and Tangail sweet curds were 4.46 ± 0.63 and 3.99 ± 0.88, respectively. All the selected samples were chemically tested based on the parameters, viz., moisture, total solid, ash, acidity, fat and protein. The percentages of mean moisture of Bogra and Tangail sweet curd were 71.43 ± 1.20 and 73.67 ± 0.55 respectively. Similarly, the percentages of mean total solid, ash, acidity, fat and protein content of Bogra and Tangail sweet curd were 28.57 ± 1.20, 0.53 ± 0.06, 0.58 ± 0.15, 5.10 ± 0.43, 4.43 ± 0.25 and 26.33 ± 0.55, 0.70 ± 0.10, 0.81 ± 0.04, 3.93 ± 0.15, 3.93 ± 0.15 respectively. Microbiological quality assessment was done by using nutrient agar, EMB agar and potato dextrose agar media. Total viable count of Bogra and Tangail sweet curd were 2.57 × 107 and 2.82 × 107 respectively. Total Coliform count was nil in both sweet curd samples. Total fungal counts were 2.84 × 104 in Bogra and 3.13 × 104 in Tangail sweet curd respectively. Microbial tests for both Bogra and Tangail sweet curds indicated that both sweet curds were safe for human consumption.  
      PubDate: 2012-09-26
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2012)
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