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Journal Cover Research & Reviews : Journal of Dairy Science and Technology
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   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 2349-3704 - ISSN (Online) 2319-3409
   Published by STM Journals Homepage  [67 journals]
  • “High Melatonin Milk”- Milk with Intrinsic Health Benefit
    • Authors: Richa Singh, Priyanka Singh Rao
      Abstract: Melatonin C13H16N2O2 (molecular weight: 232) or N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine, is chemically an indoleamine and derived from the essential amino acid tryptophan. It is a hormone and due to secretion from pineal gland, it is also called as active pineal factor. Its IUPAC name is N-[2-(5-methoxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl] acetamide. The indole ring acts as the chromophore showing maximum absorbance at 223 nm, and the functional groups contribute to its fluorescence property. Lerner et al. 1959 reported that extract from beef pineal gland are able to lighten frog’s skin by reversing the darkening effect of melanocyte stimulating hormone and therefore, named this compound as “melatonin” since it caused aggregation of melanin granules. Melatonin hormone is more effective and active when compared to other hormones like adrenaline and nor-adrenaline (100 times), triiodothyronine (200 times), and serotonin (5000 times) in preventing darkening of frog skin by contracting melanophores. It is a white powder having melting point of 117°C. It is an amphiphilic molecule (having solubility in both water and lipid) which facilitates its movement across the cell membrane and various body fluids and makes melatonin a prominent molecule in almost all tissues of mammals. Keywords: Melatonin, tryptophan, hormone of darknessCite this Article Richa Singh, Priyanka Singh Rao. “High Melatonin Milk” - Milk with Intrinsic Health Benefit. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2016; 5(1): 13–16p.
      PubDate: 2016-02-07
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Emerging Pathogens in Dairy Industry
    • Authors: Mogha K.V., Chaudhari A. R., Subrota H.
      Abstract: The epidemiology of food borne disease is changing due to change in food habits of the consumers. New pathogens have emerged, and some have spread worldwide which includes Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Campylobacter, and Yersinia enterocolitica. These pathogens have reservoirs in healthy food animals, from which they spread to an increasing variety of milk and milk products. If raw milk is consumed as such or if there is problem in steps of milk processing than it results in severe case of outbreaks of food borne illness due to consumption of contaminated milk and milk products made with it. This review mainly focuses on the emerging pathogens in dairy industry and rapid methods to detect them and control measures necessary to prevent this pathogens entering the milk processing area and thereby in milk products. Keywords: Food borne disease, milk products, emerging pathogens, reservoirs, outbreaksCite this Article Mogha KV, Chaudhari AR, Subrota Hati. Emerging pathogens in dairy industry. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2016; 5(1): 5–12p.
      PubDate: 2016-02-03
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Use of Area Specific Mineral Mixture to Ameliorate Region Specific
           Reproductive Problems in Ruminants
    • Authors: M. K. Ghosh, M. Mondal, Rakesh Kumar Verma, Nirmala Muwel
      Abstract: Reproductive inefficiency in ruminant cows is one of the most important global problems affecting the profitability of the farm. Some trace minerals like Ca, P, Cu, Zn, Co and Mn have important roles to maximise reproductive performances. Even marginal deficiency of these minerals can impair reproduction showing clinical signs of deficiency. Effects of mineral deficiency and metabolic disorders in all categories of dairy animals have been observed due to lower mineral content and poor availability of essential macro and micro minerals from different feed stuffs. Deficiency associated problem have been observed in cattle of different regions and in most of the cases it differs from one region to another due to different soil composition, intensity of cropping, precipitation pattern and soil erosion pattern and so on. The assessment and preventives of mineral deficiency needs thorough understanding of the factors like age of animals, season, soil profile, plant materials and feeding practices. It is, therefore, important to understand the basics of mineral nutrition very clearly as also to meet the requirement of the animals to overcome the problem of deficiencies or excesses, so as to maintain productivity. The concept of area-specific mineral supplement is a new approach of low input and high output for the end users. In this review, the authors discussed the roles of some trace minerals on some productive and reproductive performance of ruminants with special emphasis on bovine species. Keywords: Trace minerals, ruminants, bovine, growth, reproduction, hormone, metabolitesCite this Article Ghosh M.K., Mondal M., Rakesh Kumar Verma et al. Use of area specific mineral mixture to ameliorate region specific reproductive problems in ruminants. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2016; 5(1): 1–4p.
      PubDate: 2016-01-18
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Scope of Edible Packaging for Micronutrient Fortification of Dairy
    • Authors: Jotarkar Parameshwar Sarangdhar, Narender Raju Panjagari
      Abstract: Edible films and coatings have long been used for food protection and shelf life improvement. Essential components for producing edible films and coatings are biopolymers, plasticizers and certain optional ingredients. Edible films and coatings have been used as vehicles for delivery of minerals such as calcium, zinc, iron and magnesium and also for delivery of vitamins such as niacin, riboflavin, vitamin A, vitamin E and vitamin C in food products such as vegetables, rice, etc. However, there are limited studies focused on dairy products. In the present review, the scope of such edible coatings for delivery of micronutrients is presented. Keywords: Edible films, plasticizers, Polysaccharides, Milk protein Cite this Article Jotarkar Parameshwar Sarangdhar, Narender Raju Panjagari. Scope of edible packaging for micronutrient fortification of dairy products. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2015; 4(3): 22–31p.  
      PubDate: 2015-12-21
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • Mithun: A Promising Milch Animal of the Northeastern Hill Region of India
    • Authors: M Mondal, R K Singh, K K Baruah, A Kumar, V Singh
      Abstract: Mithun (Bos frontalis), a rare bovine of Southeast Asia, is the descendent of wild Indian gaur (Bos gaurus gaurus). This unique animal is found mainly in four different states of the North-Eastern Hills region of India viz., Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur and Mizoram, and also in some locations of Bhutan, Myanmar, Bangladesh and China. Though the mithun is mainly reared for meat, it has the potential for milk production. Mithun produces milk of high quality containing double the quantity of energy than cattle cow milk. In addition, mithun milk contains high quantity of lactoferrin; an antimicrobial element combats for pathogenic infection. Unfortunately, mithun has not yet been explored fully as a milch animal. Milk production potential of mithun can be enhanced significantly through using suitable scientific packages of practices and appropriate technological interventions. Keywords: Mithun, milk, lactation, milk yield, milk productsCite this Article Mondal M, Singh RK, Baruah KK et al. Mithun: a promising milch animal of the northeastern hill region of India. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2015; 4(3): 17–21p.
      PubDate: 2015-12-14
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • Development of a New Kisspeptin Based Method of Ovulation Synchronization
           for Crossbred Dairy Heifers
    • Authors: M. Mondal, KK Baruah, M Karunakaran, MK Ghosh, TK Dutta
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to develop a new method of synchronization of estrus/ovulation for crossbred cows based on kisspeptin, a potent secretagogue of GnRH. For the purpose, a total of 108 estrous cycles were studied in cyclic heifers. The animals divided equally in to two groups were treated either with ovsynch protocol of estrus synchronization (group-I; GnRH: day 0; PGF2α: day 7 and GnRH: day 9) or with a new method of synchronization based on kisspeptin (group-II; kisspeptin: day 0; PGF2α: day 7 and kisspeptin: day 9). Heifers were monitored regularly with transrectal ultrasonography for follicular dynamics and occurrence of ovulation. It was found that the kisspeptin based protocol induced better growth of follicles than ovsynch one. Ovulation rate was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the animals of group-II than group-I. As revealed through ultrasonography as well as plasma progesterone profiles, the process of luteolysis starts early even before PGF2α injection in kisspeptin based protocol than ovsynch. In conclusion, we developed a new method of synchronization of estrus/ovulation based on kisspeptin in bovine species for the first time. The newly developed method is found to be better than the conventional ovsynch method in terms of percent ovulation in the treated animals. Keywords: Estrus, ovulation, synchronization, kisspeptin, metastin, bovineCite this Article Mondal M, Baruah KK, Karunakaran M et al. Development of a New Kisspeptin Based Method of Ovulation Synchronization for Crossbred Dairy Heifers. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2015; 4(3):12–16p.  
      PubDate: 2015-11-24
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • Carbon Footprints of Dairy Animals: Causes and Its Mitigation
    • Authors: Poonam Ratwan, Ajoy Mandal, Manoj Kumar, M Karunakaran, TK Dutta
      Abstract: Greenhouse gases are building up in the atmosphere to a larger degree leading to “global warming”. The total quantity of gaseous emissions of greenhouse gases emitted by an individual in one year; directly or indirectly is measured in terms of 'carbon footprint'. Livestock play an important role for emission of greenhouse gases through various ways like rumen fermentation, manure and fodder production, milk, beef production etc. The demand for livestock products is increasing regularly and livestock products carry a high carbon footprint as compared to other products. Thus, in order to balance environmental concerns with the emergent global demand for dairy products along with economic feasibility to individual dairy producers there is need of emissions mitigation strategies. Proper management practices can lead to reduction in carbon footprints of livestock which in turn will help to minimize the negative effects of emissions on climate change. Keywords: Carbon footprints, greenhouse, livestock, milk  Cite this Article Poonam Ratwan, Ajoy Mandal, Manoj Kumar et al. Carbon Footprints of Dairy Animals: Causes and its Mitigation. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2015; 4(3):    6–11p. 
      PubDate: 2015-11-19
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • A Detailed Study on Impact of Milk Marketing: Modern Constrictions and
           Prospects of Milk Productions Status in India
    • Authors: Vinola R, Swaminathan R, Jeevithan E
      Abstract: India is the second highest milk producer in the world. Generally, milk is sold loose or in bottles or in polythene sachets. The present study was aimed to understand the relationship between consequences of milk packaging and consumer predilections. In brief, the present study deals with the recent trends in sale of milk, satisfaction of respondents toward quality, price, after-sales service and study about the customer satisfaction with regard to price fixing factor of local vendor. To achieve the above goal, different types of surveys were undertaken from different kinds of people. These surveys were compiled from random samples of 150 consumers in the summer 2015. A total of 100 questionnaires were analyzed from 50 household sectors. Fluid milk consumption is also related to consumer attitudes. They were very much cognizant about price and health effects of different kinds of milk and its products. In order to achieve the goal of this present study, the data were collected and further analyzed using different types of statistical tools like chi-square test, f-test, t-test, etc. The present study revealed the preference and esteem of consumer physiognomies toward the approaches of consumption of milk. Keywords: Milk, consumer predilection, marketing function, trends in sale of milk, future aspects Cite this Article Vinola R, Swaminathan R, Jeevithan E. A detailed study on impact of milk marketing: Modern constrictions and prospects of milk productions status in India. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2015; 4(3): 1–5p. 
      PubDate: 2015-11-03
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • Wheat and Its Application in Dairy Products: A Review
    • Authors: Aparna S., Komal Patel, Sunil Patel, Suneeta Pinto
      Abstract: Wheat is one of the most important crop among the cereals by area planted; followed in importance by corn, barley and sorghum. It is the best of the cereal foods and provides more nourishment for humans than any other food source. Wheat is a major diet component which supplies about more than 60% of the total daily requirements of protein and calories for the world's population. It contains minerals, vitamins, fats (lipids) and is a good source of fibers making it a highly nutritious product. Cereals and milk are blended to compensate for deficiency of lysine. The proteins from wheat in combination with milk can make up the deficiency of protein quality. Incorporation of wheat as an ingredient in dairy products would help in alleviating its nutritional value. A number of products obtained from wheat with good nutritional value such as wheat germ, aleurone flour and wheat bran are available. Fortification of dairy product with these ingredients would help in the manufacture of neutraceuticals with improved nutritional and functional properties. Keywords: wheat, milk, dairy products, wheat germ, aleurone flourCite this Article Aparna S, Patel K, Patel S, et al. Wheat and its application in dairy products – A review. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2015; 4(2): 19–34p.

      PubDate: 2015-08-25
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • Current Status and Comparative Study on the Influences of Cattle Packed
           and Unpacked Milk in Tamil Nadu: A Detailed Survey
    • Authors: Vinola R., Swaminathan R., Jeevithan E.
      Abstract: As milk is a very important component of the people’s diet, this study explores consumer preferences for milk in Perambalur, Tamil Nadu, India, and also tries to determine consumer types based on their references and socio-demographic factors. To reach these objectives, this study was designed a conjoint choice experiment survey and collected primary data in the most populated city of Perambalur. Then the data were analyzed using chi-square test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and F-test to determine milk classes based on the product attributes. Thus, present study was aimed to get detailed knowledge about the packed and unpacked milk in Perambalur district, Tamil Nadu, India. In brief, the study deals with the customer satisfaction regarding both packed milk and unpacked milk; get detailed survey on maximum usages of packed and unpacked milk among people. Further, this study extended to know about the contents which are added into milk during processing and transportation. The primary data were collected through a questionnaire to the individual persons and the secondary data were collected from various books, magazines, journals, and Internet. From the obtained data, we can get more details in terms of tendency of milk, criteria of milk standard quality and sensory properties. Accordingly, this study provides useful information to different stakeholders including cattle farmer and local vendors. In addition, the milk industry and its marketers may benefit from this information by using it to strategically market their milk to different groups. Keywords: Milk, packed, brand, nutritional composition, consumer preference Cite this Article Vinola R, Swaminathan R, Jeevithan E. Current Status and Comparative Study on the Influences of Cattle Packed and Unpacked Milk in Tamil Nadu: A Detailed Survey. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2015; 4(2): 6–11p. 
      PubDate: 2015-08-19
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • Influences of Prefresh and Early Fresh Body Condition Score Changes on
           Some Holstein Dairy Performance Traits
    • Authors: Dawod A., Abdel-Hamid T. M., Ramadan S.
      Abstract: This study was performed to investigate the effect of body condition change from the prefresh to early fresh periods on the subsequent milk production performance in Holstein dairy cows. For this purpose, 89 Holstein cows in a private high yielding dairy enterprise (average milk yield 8000 kg/season) were included in this study. Body condition score (BCS) was evaluated at the prefresh period (260–270 day) post last insemination, as well as one month postpartum. Evaluations of BCS were performed via, two evaluators on a scale of 1–5 points and the average BCS value for each cow was detected. BCS loss was estimated via, subtract of postpartum BCS value from the prefresh one. Data of the daily, initial, 305-day, and actual milk yield were collected and recorded. The results of this study revealed that, fatty cows during their prefresh phase (BCS 4.5–5.0 points) had high dairy performance, as these cows depicted the highest values of daily milk yield (37.58 kg), initial milk yield (43.38 kg), 305–day milk yield (11461.00 kg) and actual milk yield (12229.38 kg). Moreover, the cows with a postpartum BCS of 3.5–4.0 points recorded the highest significant daily milk yield (37.93 kg), 305-day milk yield (11566.67 kg), initial milk yield (49.00 kg) and actual milk yield (14945.00 kg). The cow losing from (–0.5)–(–1.0) point BCS has the highest significant daily and 305-day milk yield. In conclusion, BCS significantly influenced the milk performance traits of Holstein cows both at prefresh and postpartum period. For higher performance, the cows should be with somewhat heavy BCS at prefresh and with medium BCS postpartum. The dairy Holstein cows could loss about 0.5–0.75 BCS unit during their early fresh phase with efficient milk production. Further research is needed to prove this presumption. Keywords: body condition score, Holstein, prefresh, postpartum, milk yieldCite this Article Dawod A, Abdel-Hamid TM, Ramadan S. Influences of Prefresh and Early Fresh Body Condition Score Changes on Some Holstein Dairy Performance Traits. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2015; 4(2): 12–18p.
      PubDate: 2015-08-19
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • Potential of Herbal Nutraceuticals in Ghee: A Review
    • Authors: Kamal Gandhi, Darshan Lal
      Abstract: Food industries have rather high demand for the products that meet the consumer’s demand for a healthy life style. In this context functional food fortified with the plant ingredients plays an important role. Ghee is widely used as carrier for herbs for efficient absorption of their functional components in ayurvedic medicines. Herbs like Vidarikand, Shatavari, Ashwagandha, Arjuna etc had been incorporated in ghee and were observed to have enhanced absorption of the active components present in them in the body increasing their therapeutic and functional benefits. Ayurvedic medicines being natural are devoid of any side effects and therefore capturing the attention of the researchers all over the world. The purpose of this review is to summarize the studies conducted so far on the ghee incorporated with herbs as the source of functional, therapeutic and antioxidant benefits.   Keywords: Ghee (Butter oil), Vidarikand (Pueraria tuberosa), Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus, Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera),Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum L.), Arjuna(Terminalia arjuna), antioxidant activityCite this Article Kamal Gandhi, Darshan Lal. Potential of Herbal Nutraceuticals in Ghee: A Review. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2015; 4(2): 1–5p.
      PubDate: 2015-07-12
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • Food Borne Pathogens: A Threat to Dairy Industry
    • Authors: Vaghela Nileshkumar R., Subrota Hati, Kunal Gawai, Sreeja V.
      Abstract: Food borne diseases is the major concern along with malnutrition in developing countries and developed countries as well. Milk is rich source of nutrition with large number of pathogenic bacteria which are more susceptible to cause illness or death. Millions of people stuck with food borne outbreaks throughout the globe because of presence of pathogenic bacteria – disease causing microbiota like E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, Shigella, Listeria, Campylobacter, S.aureus and Clostrida and their heat stable and heat labile toxins. The presence of food borne pathogens in milk and milk products is due to direct contact with contaminated sources in dairy farm environment and to excretion from infected udder of animal suffering from disease. Generally very few percentage (app. 1–2%) people of the globe consume raw milk and milk products while others use pasteurized one. But sometimes inadequate or faulty heat treatment and post processing contamination through infected supply chain may lead to major consequences related to outbreaks.Keywords: Food borne disease, milk and milk products, pathogens, contaminationCite this Article: Vaghela Nileshkumar R, Subrota Hati, Gawai K et al. Food Borne Pathogens: A Threat To Dairy Industry; Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2015; 4(1): 28–36p. 
      PubDate: 2015-04-19
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • Development and Acceptability Evaluation of Soy Milk Obtained from Soy
    • Authors: Bharti Jain
      Abstract: Whole soybean is processed to make a rich, creamy milk-like liquid called soy milk. It has a unique delicious flavor. Soy milk makes a great substitute for milk, especially for individuals who cannot tolerate lactose (milk sugar). Soy milk is a good source of high-quality proteins, B-vitamins and iron. Soy milk is also a base for the preparation of many dairy analogs such as soy curd, soy tofu, etc. In the present study, soy milk was prepared from soy genotype JS 93-05 because of its high protein content. The main objective of the study was to find out the acceptability of soy milk and to compare the nutrient and cost of soy milk with cow’s milk. The processing of soybean is required to inactivate the anti-nutritional factors, to minimize the unacceptable beany flavor and improve the digestibility of the protein. About 8 L of soy milk can be obtained from 1 kg of dry soybean. To find out the acceptability of soy milk thirty young adult females of 35 to 40 years of age were selected. Acceptability of cow’s milk was 84.17%. Cow’s milk was compared with the acceptability of plain soy milk and flavored soy milk and the results reveled that acceptability of plain soy milk was 69.17% whereas acceptability of flavored soy milk was 83.33%. From these results it can be concluded that acceptability of flavored milk was equivalent to the cow’s milk. Plain soy milk was less acceptable due to its poor taste (33.33%). Results of nutrient content of soy milk revealed that there was not much difference in the protein and carbohydrate content of soy milk and milk. Major difference was observed in fat content of soy milk and this is due to the fact that higher yield of milk is obtained from 1 kg of soybean. Cost of soy milk (Rs. 8/kg) was less as compared to milk obtained from animal source (Rs. 20/kg).Keywords: Cow’s milk, soy milk, flavored soy milk, anti-nutritional factors, acceptability evaluation, soy genotypeCite this Article: Jain Bharti. Development and acceptability evaluation of soy-milk obtained from soy genotype JS 93-05. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2015. 4(1): 10–14p.
      PubDate: 2015-04-10
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • Composition, Functional Properties and Application of Bottle Gourd in Food
    • Authors: Amit Barot, Suneeta Pinto, Smitha Balakrishnan, J.P. Prajapati
      Abstract: Bottle gourd has widespread use as a vegetable in India. It is very valuable for vegetarians since it contains several important constituents which are required for good health and wellbeing. Recently in India, interest in bottle gourd has been growing amongst consumers because consumption of bottle gourd has been associated with a number of benefits and may be regarded as a natural guard against diseases. In Ayurveda, bottle gourd is advocated for treatment of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, flatulence, cooling properties, liver diseases, weight loss and other associated benefits. The nutritive value of bottle gourd makes it a popular diet ingredient in making sweet curries, soups, jams, juices, beverages, cakes, ice creams and tea for value-addition. In this article, the literature available on functional properties, health benefits and applications of bottle gourd in various food products have been reviewed.Keywords: Bottle gourd, composition, properties, medicinal uses, application, dairy productsCite this Article: Amit Barot, Suneeta Pinto, Smitha Balakrishnan, et al. Composition, Functional Properties and Application of Bottle Gourd in Food Products. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2015; 4(1): 15–27p.
      PubDate: 2015-04-10
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • Milk-Cereal-based Composite Complementary Foods and their Storage
           Stability: A Mini Review
    • Authors: P. Narender Raju, Manoj Kumar C.T., Manoj Kumar C.T., Ashish Kumar Singh, Ashish Kumar Singh, Sangita Ganguly, Sangita Ganguly, Manav Manharbhai Patel, Manav Manharbhai Patel
      Abstract: In developing countries, depending upon the socio-economic situation, the nutritional status of the people is enhanced by encouraging increased use of inexpensive and available protein sources in child feeding. Traditional infant-feeding practiced in countries like India, is usually cereal based. Cereals in combination with milk solids are generally used for the preparation of weaning foods to improve the overall quality. Milk-cereal based complementary food is defined as food obtained from milk and milk solids, variety of cereals, pulses, soybean, millets, nuts and edible oil seeds and may contain other food additives and nutritionally significant minerals and vitamins. The quality of these food products during storage is affected by various factors such as inherent composition and exogenous factors such as packaging materials, head space air quality, storage temperature, humidity and handling. The published information about the milk-cereal based complementary foods along with the changes in the quality during storage has been briefly reviewed.Keywords: Milk-cereal based complementary food, protein sources, child feedingCite this Article:Narender Raju P, Manoj Kumar CT, Ashish Kumar Singh, et al. Milk-Cereal-based Composite Complementary Foods and their Storage Stability–A Mini Review. Research & Reviews: Journal of Dairy Science and Technology. 2015; 4(1): 1–9p.
      PubDate: 2015-03-26
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • Cow Milk and Human Health: A Review
    • Authors: Sanjiv Kumar, Kaushal Kumar, Sushma Suman, Pankaj Kumar
      Abstract: The milk of every species of mammal is unique and specifically tailored to the requirements of that animal. For example, cows' milk is three to four times richer in protein than human milk. It has five to seven times the mineral content. However, it is markedly deficient in essential fatty acids when compared to human mothers' milk. Mothers' milk has six to ten times as much of the essential fatty acids, especially linoleic acid (incidentally, skimmed cow's milk has no linoleic acid). It simply is not designed for humans. Except for domesticated animals to which we feed milk, humans are the only species that drinks the breast milk of another species, and the only species that continues to drink breast milk into adulthood. Today the top producers give ten times more milk. How was this accomplished? Drugs, antibiotics, hormones, forced feeding plans and specialized breeding; that's how.Keywords: Cow's milk, linoleic acid, lactose
      PubDate: 2014-12-27
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination in Dung Samples of Cattle during
           Monsoon Season in Vellore District, Tamil Nadu, India
    • Authors: A. Yasotha, T. Sivakumar, Thanga Tamil Vanan, K.N. Selvakumar, P.S.L. Sesh
      Abstract: A study was conducted to assess the sixteen dung samples from the dairy cattle reared around industrial areas of Vellore district during monsoon season. The collected samples were analysed for heavy metals using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICPMS). The result revealed concentration range of 2.580 to 20.030 ppm, 6.940 to 83.770, 1.310 to 19.270, 0.110 to 2.240 and below detectable level to 0.07 ppm for copper, zinc, chromium, lead and cadmium, respectively. A comparison of the mean distribution of the different metals studied shows that zinc had the highest mean distribution while cadmium had the least. The general trend of mean distribution of heavy metals showed Zn>Cr>Cu>Pb>Cd.Keywords: Cow, dung, heavy metals, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy
      PubDate: 2014-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Demographic Profile of Dairy Farmers in the Industrial Areas of Vellore
           District –Tamil Nadu, India
    • Authors: Yasotha Appavu, T. Sivakumar, Thanga Tamil Vanan, K.N. Selvakumar, P.S.L. Sesh
      Abstract: The field survey was conducted to highlight the condition of dairying in industrial areas of Vellore districts, Tamil Nadu, India. A total of 32 farmers were selected randomly in two industrial areas of Vellore district, which covered around 270 dairy animals. Majority (71.88%) of the farmers had dairying as the primary occupation only (3%) farmers had agriculture as the primary occupation. Based on the land holdings 56.25, 37.50 and 6.25 per cent farmers were marginal, landless agricultural labourer and large, respectively. The average wet land holding was 1.18 acres and no farmers had dry land holding. The average herd size was 6.79 cross bred cows and 1.67 buffaloes. The red loamy soil (75%) was predominant in Vellore district. Literate farmers were 56.25 and 75 per cent of the farmers were income generator.Keywords: Dairy, farmer, dairying, occupation, status
      PubDate: 2014-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Seminal Proteins as Markers for Bull Fertility
    • Authors: M. Karunakaran, T. G. Devanathan, Ajoy Mandal, Mohan Mondal, M. K. Ghosh, S. Garai, T.K. Dutta
      Abstract: Artificial insemination (AI) is the reproductive biotechnology that has made possible the safe use of semen from selected sires in a breeding female population. Application of AI as a tool for dissemination of semen from superior sires has contributed to the improvement of the genetic quality of breeding herds. This improvement has been exponential in dairy cattle, in which use of frozen semen is most common. Semen preservation and artificial insemination technique also used in conservation of wild and semi domesticated animals like mithun. A prerequisite for the best use of this genetic material is to obtain acceptable fertility after AI. For this reason, both screening of the semen for normality and fertility are essential. Accurate evaluation of the bull fertility is important because it influences the reproductive potential of the present and future herd. The aim of the breeding industry is to identify genetically superior bulls and maximize the number of offspring produced by these bulls. The fertility of the selected bull is important in achieving this aim.Keywords: Bull, semen, fertility, markers, proteins
      PubDate: 2014-11-10
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Risk Factors Associated with Galactophagia and Its Impacts on Some
           Productive and Reproductive Traits in Dairy Cows and Buffaloes
    • Authors: ibrahim ahmed mostafa ahmed, Helal M. A., Ramadan S. G, Mahboub H. D., Byomi A. M., Reddy P. G.
      Abstract: The incidence of galactophagia (self and intersuckling vices in dairy animals) may lead to great loss in milk production, injuries and shape defect in teats as well as serious mastitis which reflect on general health condition of animals. Our field survey was carried out to spot the light on the relationship between galactophagia (self or intersucking), breed, housing system and parity on some productive, reproductive traits and udder health condition in dairy cows and buffaloes. The results revealed that, the average milk losses due to these vices reached to (33.42±0.51, 36.35±0.60 and 24.70±0.78 % of the total milk yield) for Holstein-Friesian, Baladi cow and Buffalo, respectively. Not only the amount of milk production decreased, but also the lactation period decreased significantly (P<0.01) while, days open and calving interval (CI) increased significantly (P<0.01). The incidence of self and intersucking could be a main cause of mastitis, which occurred more frequently in forequarters than hind quarters in suckled animals. In conclusion, self and intersucking considered as great economic problems in dairy cattle and buffaloes not only due to milk loss, but also other productive and reproductive traits in the herd and can cause serious mastitis.
      Keywords: Galactophagia, Mastitis, Productive traits, Reproductive traits, Cows, Buffalos
      PubDate: 2014-09-03
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Probiotics (Functional Bio-Ingredient in Food): Novel Applications to
           Human Health
    • Authors: Subrota Hati, Surajit Mandal, J. B. Prajapati
      Abstract: Bacteria have a bad reputation for causing disease and food poisoning and food intoxication. However, Scientists working in this field suggests that probiotics can prevent and even treat some illnesses along with foods or as supplements. Probiotic microbes are considered safe and most of them are normal habitants of digestive system. Since the mid-1990s, clinical studies have established that probiotic therapy can help treat several gastrointestinal ills, delay the development of allergies in children, and treat and prevent vaginal and urinary infections in women and stimulating immunomodulatory cells. Taking probiotics regularly with foods can boost the immune system in a specific way which helps the body against different diseases such as influenza A, cancers, HIV, obesity.
      Keywords: Probiotics, human, health, obesity, immune, HIV
      PubDate: 2014-07-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Effect of Addition of Low and High Molecular Weight Water Soluble Chitosan
           on Whole Milk Powder Oxidation
    • Authors: Wesam Al- Jeddawi, Paul Dawson, Inyee Han
      Abstract: Autoxidation significantly decreases the shelf life of whole milk powder (WMP) due to primary and secondary oxidation products such as hydroperoxides, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols and hydrocarbons. Water soluble chitosan has been shown to reduce oxidation by chelating metals or combining with lipids resulting in a significant antioxidative effect. The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidative effects of different concentrations of low (L) and high (H) molecular weight water soluble chitosan (9 and 90 kDa, respectively) on WMP. Commercially dried WMP was obtained and rehydrated 50% (wt/wt) with various aqueous chitosan solutions (2%L2, 4%L4, 2%H2, 4%H4) (L2 = Freeze-dried WMP with 2% low molecular weight chitosan added; L4 = Freeze-dried WMP with 4% low molecular weight chitosan added; H2 = Freeze-dried WMP with 2% high molecular weight chitosan added; H4 = Freeze-dried WMP with 4% high molecular weight chitosan added) yielding approximately 50% solids concentration. A control was prepared with no addition of chitosan. Rehydrated WMP was freeze-dried and then all samples were stored at 45 °C for 48 days. Samples were evaluated for moisture content, water activity, color, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and peroxide value (PV) after an interval of every 8 day up to 48 days. Moisture and water activity was not affected by storage or by the addition of chitosan while chitosan did affect the lightness and color attributes of the WMP. All treatments of chitosan exhibited a significant increase in TBARS and PV during storage. However, 4% of the low molecular weight chitosan inhibited oxidation as measured by TBARS and PV when compared to all other treatments and the control.
      Keywords: Autoxidation, shelf life, whole milk powder, TBARS, chitosan
      PubDate: 2014-07-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Effect of Prepartum Body Condition Score on Dairy Cattle Performance
    • Authors: Dawod A, Helal M. A, Mahboub H. D
      Abstract: The present study was conducted to detect the effect of prepartum body condition score (BCS) on dairy cattle performance. Throughout the study, a total of 7956 dairy records were collected from six Holstein Friesian farms. According to the prepartum BCS, dairy cows were grouped into three main categories— low, medium, and over condition score cows for BCS values of 2–3, 3–4 and 4–5, respectively. Dairy cattles with BCS values under the level of 2 were culled as a part of culling policy in these farms. Productive parameters of milk yield (daily yield, 305-day yield and total yield), milk curve (days to peak, initial milk yield, peak milk yield and lactation persistency [LP]), milk somatic cell count (SCC) and somatic cell score (SCS), as well as some reproductive parameters (days to first estrus and days open) were determined to indicate the best dairy cattle prepartum BCS sustained high dairy performance. Prevalence of lameness and metabolic diseases (milk fever, abomasum displacement [DA] and ketosis) were also investigated in dairy cattle among different prepartum BCS. The best prepartum BCS was elucidated to reduce the prevalence of such diseases. Results of the present study revealed that the medium condition score cows produce more milk as compared to the over condition score cows. Medium condition score cows showed improved udder health and reproductive parameters. On the other hand, they showed decreased prevalence of lameness, milk fever, DA and ketosis. In contrast, it was obvious that over condition score cows suffered more from these metabolic disorders than low and medium BCS cows. The prevalence of lameness was more evident in low than in medium and over condition score cows.
      Keywords Prepartum body condition score, dairy cows, lameness, lactation persistency, holstein friesian
      PubDate: 2014-07-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Remodeling of High Yielding Dairy Holsteins Culling Strategies upon Their
           Prefresh Body Condition Score and Parity Number
    • Authors: Dawod A
      Abstract: The present study was conducted to detect the relationship between prefresh body condition score (BCS), lactation parity and their interactions to remodel the culling strategies and detect the best BCS for each lactation parity number which sustained high performance in high yielding dairy Holstein cows. A total of 1138 dairy records of private high producing Holstein Friesian farm (8000 kg milk/ season) were collected throughout the study. Dairy cows were grouped into three main categories according to their prefresh BCS, as low, medium, and over condition score cows for BCS values of 2–3, 3–4, and 4–5, respectively. Dairy cattle which were under the level of 2 point BCS were culled as a part of culling policy in these farms. Dairy cows were regrouped again according to their parity number into three groups 1st; 2nd, and 3rd for lactation parity of <3, 4–5, and >5, respectively. Both productive and some reproductive variables were used in this study such as milk yield (daily, 305 day yield, and total yield), milk curve (days to peak, initial milk yield, peak milk yield, and lactation persistency (LP)), and some reproductive variables (days to first estrus, and days open) were determined to indicate the best dairy cattle prefresh BCS per each lactation parity number sustained maximum dairy performance with little reproductive problems. The results of this study revealed that the medium condition score cows produced much milk as the same as over condition score cows. Moreover, young dairy cows of lactation parity <3 produced more milk than older ones. Old dairy cows with lactation parity >5 had high milk yield which is comparable with younger ones, if rigid culling programs was followed. Young dairy cows, which had lactation parity <3 needs no more than medium BCS value of 3–4 point to produce same milk as fatty ones. Old dairy cows need high BCS value of over 4 points during their prefresh phase to sustain high productive and reproductive performance. The culling programs in the high yielding Holstein dairy farms must be remodeled and directed to moderate (lactation parity 4–5) and old age (lactation parity >5) dairy cows which had poor body condition during their prefresh phase. Efficient body conditioning programs were followed, as these cows cannot produce or reproduce well. Old dairy cows must not be culled on the basis of their age alone, as these cows can produce as well as younger ones, if a firm culling policy was followed. Old dairy cows must not be culled from dairy herds if their economic values are still high, as the economic base must be put in front of all the bases.
      Keywords: Prefresh body condition score, dairy cows, lactation parity, lactation persistency, holstein friesian
      PubDate: 2014-07-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
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