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Journal Cover Research & Reviews : Journal of Veterinary Science and Technology
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     ISSN (Print) 2349-3690
     Published by STM Journals Homepage  [54 journals]
  • Mortality Due to Pasteurellosis in Calves
    • Authors: Sanjiv Kumar, S. Samantaray, D. Kumar, S. Kumari, R. Kapur
      Abstract: Mortality was recorded in fifteen Jersey calves in the cattle farm of Bihar Veterinary College, Patna. All these calves before death were showing symptoms of high fever, severe dyspnoea, mouth breathing, profuse salivation and oedema in throat region. Dead animals subjected to necropsy showed gross and histopathological lesions of Haemmorhagic Septicemia. Stained heart blood smear and culture showed the presence of bipolar coccobacilli Pasteurella organisms. All the other ten ailing animals responded well to the treatment and survived.Keywords: Calves, Fibrinous exudates, Bipolar organisms, Haemorrhagic Septicemia
      PubDate: 2014-09-08
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Torsion of Uterus as a Cause of Dystocia in a Nellore Brown Ewe
    • Authors: K. Jyothi, M. Mutha Rao, Y. V. Pridhvidhar Reddy, A. Ganesan
      Abstract: A Nellore brown ewe in its first parity was presented to the clinic with a complaint of dystocia. Pervaginal examination revealed right side post cervical uterine torsion. Detortion of uterus was achieved by rolling the dam by modified schaffer’s method. Torsion relieved but cervix was not dilated fully necessitating caesarean section but the owner preferred to dispose of the animal.
      Keywords: Nellore brown ewe, Dystocia, Uterine torsion, Modified Schaffer’s method
      PubDate: 2014-09-08
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Antioxidant Enzyme Status in Broiler Chickens: Role of Dietary
           
    • Authors: V. Leela, L. S. S Varaprasad Reddy, G. Suganya, K. Loganathasamy, C. Devaraj
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted in broiler chicken to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation of Ocimum sanctum, Ocimum basilicum and selenium on antioxidative enzyme levels. Total of forty two broiler chickens of day old divided into 6 groups of 7 each were used for this study. O. sanctum leaf powder (0.5%), O. basilicum leaf powder (0.5%) and organic selenium (0.3 ppm) and their combinations were added to the basal diet. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px) and catalase levels in plasma were measured at the end of 3rd and 6th week of age. Dietary supplementation of selenium itself significantly (p<0.01) increased GSH-px activity and supplementation of both Ocimum species significantly increased SOD and catalase levels. However, O. basilicum and O. sanctum in combination with selenium effectively enhanced the levels of SOD, GSH-px and catalase. Between O. basilicum and O.sanctum with combination of selenium, no significant variations in antioxidant levels were seen. Both the plant sources showed similar potency in scavenging free radicals. It is concluded that dietary supplementation of O.sanctum or O. basilicum at 0.5% level and its combination with selenium (0.3 ppm) can combat oxidative stress in broilers, by enhancing antioxidative enzyme levels.
      Keywords: Antioxidants, Ocimum sanctum, Ocimum basilicum, Selenium, SOD, GSH-px, Catalase, Broiler chickens
      PubDate: 2014-08-07
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Biochemical Assessment of Allantoic Fluid during Different Stages of
           Pregnancy in Madras Red Sheep
    • Authors: C. Devaraj, V. Leela
      Abstract: To determine the biochemical constituents of sheep allantoic fluid during the different stages of pregnancy, sixty sheep uteri at various stages of pregnancy were collected from the local slaughterhouse. The allantoic fluid samples were collected from each gravid uterus. Foetal age was calculated according to crown anus length of the embryo/foetus by using the age estimation formula. At four stages of pregnancy viz., – I (30–60 days), stage - II (61–90 days), stage - III (91–120 days) and stage - IV (121 to term), the biochemical variables measured, respectively, were: glucose concentration were 8.13, 6.80, 4.30 and 3.21 mg/dl; total protein, 0.58, 0.62,0.79 and 1.03 g/dl; urea, 29.23, 36.03,51.68 and 67.06 mg/dl; creatinine, 5.98, 9.70,17.66 and 24.92 mg/dl, cholesterol, 3.08,3.32, 3.54 and 2.88 mg/dl; sodium, 94.20, 100.9, 89.00 and 97.86 mmol/L; potassium, 4.40, 5.72, 4.26 and 5.50 mmol/L; calcium, 8.73, 8.67, 5.9 and 4.20 mg/dl and magnesium, 0.32, 0.81, 0.22 and 0.01 mg/dl. Significant correlations (P<0.05) were found between gestational age and levels of glucose, total protein, urea, creatinine and calcium. These findings might be helpful to understanding the foetal metabolism and diagnose pathophysiological conditions during pregnancy.
      Keywords: Allantoic, Biochemical assessment, Foetal metabolism, Pregnancy, Sheep
      PubDate: 2014-08-07
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Biochemical Profile of Kilakarsal Ewes during Pregnancy, Post-partum,
           Lactation and Dry Period
    • Authors: Devaraj C, V. S. Gomathy, C. Devaraj
      Abstract: The present study was conducted to investigate the changes in biochemical parameters during different physiological states of reproduction. The Kilakarsal sheep reared at the Instructional Livestock Farm Complex, Tirunelveli, Tamilnadu, housed under standard management conditions in sheds with an open paddock was chosen for this study. Twenty-four ewes were categorized into four groups of six each at different physiological phases of late gestation, post-partum, lactation and dry period. The average live body weight of ewes in this study was 35 ± 1.62 kg. The study showed no significant difference in certain biochemical parameters like magnesium (mg/dL), urea (mg/dL), creatinine (mg/dL) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) during late gestation, postpartum, lactation and dry period. However, significant (p < 0.05) differences were noted in certain biochemical parameters like total protein (g/dL), calcium (mg/dL) and phosphorus (mg/dL) amongst the four groups of different stages.
      Keywords: Biochemical parameters, Blood, Physiological status, Ewes
      PubDate: 2014-08-07
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Treatment of Mange in Rabbits: A Case Report
    • Authors: Aditi A Dixit, M. L. V. Rao, G. Das, Kabita Roy, Virendra K. Thawait
      Abstract: A pair of rabbit was presented with the complaint of severe pruritis, alopecia, inappetance and dullness. Skin scrapings revealed psoroptic mange infestation. Treatment with ivermectin @ 200 μg/kg body weight along with antibiotics and liver extract preparation revealed clinical improvement in 14 days and complete recovery in 28 days.
      Keywords: Mange, Ivermectin, Skin scrapings, Parasitic infestations
      PubDate: 2014-08-07
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Role of Pheromones and Biostimulation in Animal Reproduction-An Overview
    • Authors: R. P. Tiwari, Abrar Ahmed, Dr Girish Kumar Mishra
      Abstract: In recent years, considerable progress has been achieved in the comprehension of profound effects of pheromones on reproductive physiology and behaviour. Pheromones have been classified as molecules released by the individuals & responsible for elicitation of specific behavioral expression in members of the same species. These signaling molecules, often chemically unrelated, are contained in body fluids of urine, sweat, specialized exocrine glands and mucous secretion of genital. In mammals, signaling and priming pheromones are thought to act either singly or in combination through olfaction, auditory, visual or tactile stimuli. Biostimulation or male effect is the stimulus provoked by the presence of males, which induces estrus and ovulation through genital stimulation, pheromones or other external cues. The biostimulation technique offers a potentially useful and practical way to improve reproductive efficiency in livestock species. The aim of this manuscript is to examine the role of pheromone and biostimulation in animal reproduction that would provide information of interest for animal husbandry, where economic circumstances do not allow the use of expensive and invasive techniques for enhancing reproductive performances.
      Keywords: Biostimulation, Neuroendocrine, Pheromones, Reproduction
      PubDate: 2014-08-07
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Changes in Biochemical Profile in Hemorrhagic Gastroenteritis in Dogs
    • Authors: Raju Sharma, Ashok Kumar, Rajendra Yadav
      Abstract: The present study was conducted on 40 dogs having hemorrhagic gastroenteritis. Blood biochemistry revealed decrease in sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and glucose, with slight decrease in total serum protein, albumin and globulin, while there was increase in alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and blood urea nitrogen values. Following treatment there was increase in sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and glucose values with a decrease in alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and blood urea nitrogen values.

      Keywords: Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, Diarrhea, Biochemical profile, Dogs
      PubDate: 2014-05-01
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Bacteriophages as Biocontrol Agents of Foodborne Bacterial Pathogens
    • Authors: Srinivasa Rao T, Lakshmi Kavitha K
      Abstract: Foodborne bacterial pathogens continue to be a serious food safety problem worldwide. At present, the leading causes of death due to foodborne bacterial pathogens are Listeria, Salmonella, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter jejuni. The process of making food safe is never-ending, and as a result, food safety experts, microbiologists, and industry insiders are constantly searching for new ways to improve the food safety system. Within the last few years, food growers and producers have begun to use a novel means of improving food safety through the use of bacteriophages. These phages, also known as lytic viruses, take up residence inside certain strains of foodborne bacteria, begin multiplying, and eventually destroy the bacterial cell. With today’s awareness on the use of fresh foods without chemical preservatives, there is a need for novel preservation strategies. Treatment with specific phages in the food industry can prevent the decay of products and the spread of bacterial diseases and ultimately promote safe environments in animal food production, processing, and handling. This review discusses the current status of use of bacteriophages as biopreservatives to prevent the spoilage of foods and to kill the foodborne pathogens.

      Keywords: Foodborne pathogens, Listeria, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter jejuni, Food safety, Bacteriophages
      PubDate: 2014-05-01
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Influence of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) and Selenium Supplementation on Growth
           Performance in Broilers
    • Authors: Reddy L.S.S. Vara Prasad, Leela V, Thangavel A, Raju K.V.S.N
      Abstract: The present work was carried out to study the effect of dietary supplementation of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum) and selenium on performance in broiler chicken. A total of forty-two broiler day-old chicks divided into six groups of seven each were used for this study. O. sanctum leaf powder (0.25 and 0.5%), organic selenium (0.3 ppm) and their combinations were added to the basal diet. Body weight and feed consumption were recorded at weekly intervals. The mean body weight, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and cumulative feed consumption did not vary significantly (P > 0.05) among the groups during the trial period. It is concluded that dietary supplementation of O. sanctum at 0.25 and 0.5% levels and its combination with selenium (0.3 ppm) cannot significantly change the growth performance in broilers.

      Keywords: Ocimum sanctum, Selenium, Body weight, Feed conversion ratio, Broiler chicken
      PubDate: 2014-05-01
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Molecular Detection of Leptospira Using Polymerase Chain Reaction Based on
           LipL32 and rpoB Gene
    • Authors: Chandan S, Umesha S
      Abstract: Leptospirosis is an emerging disease for which culture and identification are partly unresolved. In fact, 16S rRNA-based sequencing is the most widely used PCR methodology that can detect such uncultivable pathogens. However, this assay has some limitations linked to potential problems of contamination, which hampers diagnosis. To overcome this, the authors have a simple PCR strategy involving targeting of the gene encoding the LipL32 and RNA polymerase β subunit (rpoB), a highly conserved enzyme. We report here a case study of Leptospira-infected samples; Leptospira has been isolated from biological samples. Leptospirosis is a septicemia bacterial disease affecting animals and human being, the infection may be symptomatic, mild or severe and acute or chronic. PCR assay targeting partial rpoB and LipL32 gene of Leptospira using primers, with a product size of 600 and 532 base pair long which are Leptospira specific, where rpoB detects both pathogenic and non-pathogenic and efficacy of LipL32 primer capable of amplifying conserved outer membrane protein (OMP) gene. LipL32 is the major leptospiral outer membrane lipoprotein expressed during infection. The sequence of the Leptospira rpoB gene was determined and compared with the published sequence. The findings have significant implications for the development of a new tool for identification of spirochetes, especially if clinical samples are contaminated.

      Keywords: Leptospirosis, Polymerase chain reaction, Phylogenetic analysis, Lipl32, Rpob
      PubDate: 2014-05-01
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Status of Some Essential Heavy Metals in Different Water Sources of
           Haryana State
    • Authors: Kaushalendra Kumar, Neelam Kewalramani
      Abstract: In order to assess the status of copper, zinc and iron in drinking water sources of animals of different districts of Haryana state, a survey work was carried out. All the districts were divided into two zones on the basis of different agro-climatic conditions. The present study was carried out with the objective to know the status of these trace minerals in feeds and fodders of all the districts of Haryana. At the same time, to know the status of these minerals in the animal body, samples of milk, hair and tissues were also collected. Water also gets contaminated with these minerals, due to corrosion of pipes, fertilizers, industrial waste, etc. So water samples from different sources, i.e., hand pump and tube well were also collected to see the content of Cu, Zn and Fe. Total 148 samples of water were collected from all the districts of Haryana. To check the contamination of water by trace minerals, the copper, zinc and iron content of water was estimated. The copper content of water from both hand pump and tube well was 0.037 ppm which was within a normal range. The zinc content of water from tube well and hand pump was 0.031 and 0.043 ppm respectively. These values were lower than the maximum permissible level of 5 ppm. With respect to iron, the value obtained was 0.29 ppm which is close to the maximum permissible level.

      Keywords: Iron, Copper, Zinc, Water, Livestock, Haryana
      PubDate: 2014-05-01
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Concepts and Physiological Understanding of Endocrine and Ovarian Events
           in Relation to an Ovarian Cycle in Cattle
    • Authors: Farooz Ahmad Lone
      Abstract: The ovarian cycle in animal kingdom represents the most captivating aspect of reproductive biology. The cycle is regulated by the complex interplay of different hormones secreted from various endocrine structures within the body. Hormones that play a key role include hypothalamic gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), pituitary gonadotropins (FSH&LH), ovarian steroids (E2 and P4), ovarian peptides and proteins (oxytocin and inhibin), uterine and ovarian prostaglandin (PGF2α). The GnRH is a decapeptide which is secreted in pulses from the hypothalamus into the pituitary portal vasculature, reaches the pituitary gonadotrophes where it binds to its G-protein coupled receptor present on their membranes. This binding causes the calcium to be released which activates mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways triggering FSH and LH release. During the entire period of an ovarian cycle, there is a dynamic follicular activity, i.e., continual follicular development and regression. Ultrasonography reveals that the follicular growth in cow occurs in a wave-like fashion with the two-wave pattern most common. The dominant follicle ovulates and the follicular remnant gives rise to an incredible dynamic endocrine structure, the corpus luteum. Its luteolysis towards the end of cycle except during pregnancy is an obligatory phenomenon for the initiation of a new cycle in order to have another chance for conception to happen. The PGF2α is a main luteolytic factor in cow; however, vasoactive molecules like nitric oxide (NO), endothelin 1 (END 1) and angiotensin II (ANG II) do play a commendable role in the process of bovine luteolysis.

      PubDate: 2014-01-13
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Detection of Helicobacter Species from Dog Stomachs
    • Authors: Rupa Mulchandani, Hans-Olof Nilsson, Torkel Wadström
      Abstract:  Helicobacter pylori was found in humans from the gastrum for the first time in 1983 by gastroenterologists: Barry and Marshal. After this, studies have shown that many Helicobacter spp. have been found in animals and also other spp. in human beings also. Helicobacter species have been found in animals like dogs, cats, mice, laboratory mice, rats and guinea pigs also. Helicobacter species have been found in dog stomach. The authors analyzed dog stomach samples by PCR for Helicobacter species-specific primers and found 12 out of 18 samples positive for Helicobacter spp. This shows that Helicobacter is spreading in animals also although it has been found in human beings already. It can be that Helicobacter is spreading from animals to humans also as people keep pets, thus, causing zoonoses. 
      PubDate: 2014-01-13
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Management of Lice Infestation in Dairy Calves
    • Authors: B Sudhakara Reddy, S. Sivajothi
      Abstract: During the winter months, 36 cross breed cattle calves were found to be infected with lice in a dairy in Tirupati. All the calves exhibited alopecia, pruritus and crust formation. Distribution of lesions was noticed over the shoulders, neck and back. Examination of skin scrapings revealed the presence of different stages of lice. All the calves were treated with deltamethrin @ of 2 mL/L of water with the help of sprayer all over the body along with supportive therapy. After 24 h of therapy all the calves were free from lice infestation. After first treatment, second treatment was also carried out to control the re-infestation of the calves which were free from the nymphal stages. After completion of 14 days of therapy, all the calves started regrowth of hair and attained their normal feeding habits.
      PubDate: 2014-01-13
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Prostate Hypertrophy in an Aged Dog
    • Authors: B. Sudhakara Reddy, K. Prabhakar Rao, K. G. Solmon Raju, Sivajothi S., L. Siva Sudharsan, M. Naveen Swaroop, N. Syaama Sundhar
      Abstract: An aged intact dog was presented to the clinic with history of dribbling of urine, dysuria, tenesmus, kyphosis, lethargy, strained gait, dyschezia, intermittent constipation with passing of flat ribbon-like stools. Hematology revealed leukocytosis and increased serum BUN and creatinine levels. Radiographic examination revealed no urethral calculi. Cytological examination of urine sediment did not reveal any abnormalities except hematuria. Rectal digital palpation revealed presence of enlarged, symmetric painless solid prostate gland. Based on history, signs, laboratory and radiographic findings, the condition was diagnosed as prostatic hypertrophy. Treatment was initiated with antibiotic and supportive therapy, followed by castration.  
      PubDate: 2014-01-13
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • A Study on Body Weight and Biometry of Nellore Sheep in Different Agro
           Climatic Zones of Telangana Region in Andhra Pradesh
    • Authors: N. Rajanna, M. Mahender, T. Raghunandan, K. Venkata Ramana
      Abstract: Data on the body weight, heart girth, body length, height at withers and hip width of 733 Nellore ewes were collected at random from three different agroclimatic zones of Telangana region in Andhra Pradesh. Least-squares analysis was conducted to study the influence of zone on body weights and biometrical measurements and the data adjusted for the zone effect were utilized for the estimation of phenotypic correlations. The zone had significant (P < 0.05) effect on body weight at 2-teeth, 4-teeth and 6-teeth and on biometry (P < 0.01). The phenotypic correlations between the body weights and biometrical measurements at various ages revealed that majority of the estimates were positive, high and statistically significant. Nellore ewes of sheep surveyed in northern Telangana zone were heaviest, tallest and had higher chest girth, body length and hip width compared to other zones.  
      PubDate: 2013-09-03
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2013)
       
  • Fibropapilloma of Prepuce in a Bullock
    • Authors: G. Veeraiah, E. Saritha, V. Rama Devi
      Abstract: A seven-year old, non-descriptive bullock was presented to local veterinary hospital with clinical signs of stranguria and with a growth originating from the prepucial mucosa near the prepucial orifice. Tissue specimen from the growth was presented for histological evaluation. Microscopically, the tissue sections from the growth revealed proliferation of fibrous tissue with thickened epidermis forming pegs down the fibromatous tissue. Based on gross and histologic findings, the tumor was diagnosed as a rare case of fibropapilloma of prepuce in a bullock. 
      PubDate: 2013-09-03
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2013)
       
  • Morphological Characteristics of Chevaadu Sheep of Tamil Nadu, India
    • Authors: T. Ravimurugan, S. Panneerselvam
      Abstract:
      The Chevaadu breed of sheep is a meat breed able to withstand extremely hot and humid climatic conditions. Their home tract is restricted to a few taluks in Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu. The distinguishing morphological features of the breed are brown coat color and attractive horn pattern in rams. The attractive brown coat color gives a better value to the Chevaadu which is preferred by the Hindus for their religious purpose. This fetches more price and profit to the flock owners. 
      PubDate: 2013-09-03
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2013)
       
  • Lactation Performance and Milk Constituents of Ongole Cattle in Its
           Breeding Tract
    • Authors: Sudhakar Krovvidi, S. Panneerselvam, A. K. Thiruvenkadan, J. Johnson Rajeswar, K. Sivakumar, R. Vinoo
      Abstract: A total 62 milk samples from Ongole herd were collected with the objective of assessing milk compositions of Ongole cattle and to investigate the effect of parity and stage of lactation on test-day milk yield and milk constituent traits. Milk compositions were determined by Lactoscan apparatus. The test-day milk yield was 2.78 ± 0.21 kg. Overall least-squares mean for fat, SNF, protein and lactose were 3.31 ± 0.18, 9.34 ± 0.12, 3.51 ± 0.08 and 5.12 ± 0.07 respectively. The analysis revealed that the parity and stage of lactation did not influence the fat, protein, SNF and lactose content and yields.  
      PubDate: 2013-09-03
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2013)
       
  • Omega 3 and 6 Fatty Acids Supplementation in Clinical Management of
           Demodicosis
    • Authors: S. Venkateswarlu, N. Syaama Sunder, K. Jayakanth, K. Naveen Chandra
      Abstract: Demodicosis is one of the frequently encountered infections in dogs, prevalent among all age groups and breeds, in both sexes. Treatment of demodicosis is often unyielding in many cases as the skin is damaged to a great extent, repair of which takes prolonged time. Hence, an attempt was made to treat clinical cases of demodicosis with nutritional supplementation to the conventional treatment protocol. Results indicated that supplementation of omega 3 and 6 fatty acids and Vit. A, E and D3 had favorable effect.  
      PubDate: 2013-09-03
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2013)
       
  • Incidence of Spontaneous Liver Lesions in Pigs
    • Authors: S. Estheru, V. Rama Devi, P. Annapurna, P. Anand Kumar
      Abstract: The incidence of spontaneous liver lesions in pigs was studied and a total of 240 pigs of either sex and different age groups from various slaughter houses, field mortalities and private piggery farms located in and around Gannavaram, Samalkot and Tirupati towns, were subjected to detailed postmortem examination and the liver samples were collected. Out of 240 pig livers, gross lesions were observed in 33.33% (80) and microscopic lesions in 80.83% (194) of livers. Various microscopic lesions observed in the livers in the present study were circulatory disturbances (14.17%), degenerative changes (21.25%), inflammatory changes (14.58%), parasitic conditions (28.33%) and miscellaneous conditions (2.5%). Of these, the most prominent microscopic lesions were of parasitic conditions followed by degenerative changes affecting the pig livers. 
      PubDate: 2013-04-24
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2013)
       
  • Immunohistochemical Staining for Cytokeratin in Pneumonic Lung Tissues of
           Slaughter Pigs
    • Authors: K. Lavanya, V. Rama Devi, Ch. Srilatha, P. Anand Kumar
      Abstract: A total of 350 pigs of either sex and of different age groups were subjected to detailed examination at slaughter. Five lung samples from bronchopneumonia cases were selected for immunohistochemical studies. Grossly irregular-shaped firm nodules were found in the lungs in one animal. Microscopically, areas of coagulative necrosis causing considerable destruction of pulmonary architecture were noticed. These areas showed accumulation of polymorphs with karyorrhexis of the nuclei of the cells at the periphery of the lesion. Ectatic and ectatic-like bronchioles were noticed that were filled with necrotic material in two cases. Along the periphery of ectatic bronchioles, a continuous layer or fragments of bronchiolar epithelium was present that was confirmed by an intense specific staining with anti-cytokeratin antibodies. Mixed cultures of bacteria were isolated from pneumonic lungs along with isolation of coagulase-positive Staphylococci from two cases that revealed ectatic bronchioles. From the results, it was evident that immunostaining for cytokeratin is useful to further demonstrate the histological changes in the lungs of pneumonic pigs.
      PubDate: 2013-04-24
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2013)
       
  • Synchronization of Estrus in Ewes: Vaginal Sponges
    • Authors: K. Murali Mohan, K. Sadasiva Rao, K. Ramchandra Reddy
      Abstract: The present study was aimed at studying the efficacy of vaginal sponges for synchronization of estrus in ewes. The ewes were synchronized with vaginal sponges containing 30 mg of flurogestone acetate. A total of 120 postpartum, parous, healthy ewes aged about 2 to 5 years were selected. Ewes were divided into five groups, each group consisting of 24 animals. Each group was further subdivided into two groups consisting of 12 animals which were studied during breeding and nonbreeding seasons. Group I ewes were considered as untreated control. Ewes in group II were treated with intravaginal sponges that were left in place for 12 days followed by intramuscular injection of 400 IU of PMSG at the time of sponge removal. Ewes in group III were treated with vaginal sponge and 600 IU of PMSG given intramuscularly at the time of removal of sponge. Ewes in group IV were treated like group II with an additional injection of 200 IU of hCG at the time of mating while the ewes in group V were treated like those of group III with additional injection of 200 IU of hCG at the time of mating. The percentage of ewes that responded to synchronization of estrus was 50.00, 83.33, 100.00, 91.67 and 100.00 in breeding season, while during nonbreeding season, the same was 25.00, 83.33, 100.00 83.33 and 100.00 in Groups I to V, respectively. The time taken for induction of estrus in vaginal sponges group was 46.58 ± 2.28, 41.24 ± 1.56, 46.95 ± 2.66 and 40.62 ± 2.73 h during breeding season and 48.01 ± 2.81, 46.66 ± 3.77, 48.55 ± 3.03, and 46.69 ± 3.89 h during nonbreeding season in group II, III, IV and V, respectively. The duration of estrus was 29.86 ± 3.33 h in group I while it ranged from 36.39 ± 2.90 to 38.40 ± 4.53 h in group II to V during breeding season. During nonbreeding season, the duration of estrus was 26.12 ± 2.49 h in group I and it ranged from 32.52 ± 2.91 to 35.15 ± 3.76 h in group II to V. The pregnancy rate was 50.00, 80.00, 91.67, 81.82 and 100.00% in ewes treated during breeding season and 66.67, 70.00, 83.33, 80.00 and 91.67% during nonbreeding season group I, II, III, IV and V, respectively. The lambing rate was 50.00, 90.00, 133.33, 100.00 and 158.33% in ewes treated during breeding season and 33.33, 80.00, 108.33, 100.00 and 133.33% during nonbreeding season in group I, II, III, IV and V, respectively. The litter size ranged from 1.16 ± 0.09 to 1.50 ± 0.11 with twinning rate that ranged from 0.00 to 34.29%.

      PubDate: 2013-04-24
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2013)
       
  • Postpartum Ovarian Follicular Dynamics and Estrus Activity in Lactating
           Ongole Cows
    • Authors: K. Venkata Ramana, K. Sadasiva Rao, K. Supriya, N. Rajanna
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to characterize early postpartum follicular dynamics in lactating Ongole cows in relation to their ovarian activity and subsequent reproductive performance using 70 multiparous lactating Ongole cows. Follicles measuring above 6 mm diameter and corpus luteum measuring 8-10 mm were detected by day 20-25 postpartum period by ultrasonography. The first and second wave of the dominant follicle emerged on 1.80 + 0.8and 12.46 + 0.20 days respectively.  The mean growth rate and size was significant (P<0.05) between first, second and third wave of the same estrous cycle. The corpus luteum grew to a mean value of maximum diameter of 15.93 + 0.37 and 17.8 + 0.37 mm on the day of 13.1+1.50, 14.6+0.56 and remained up to 14.6+ 1.50 and 15.9+0.45 days of the estrous cycle in two and three wave cycles, respectively. About 22.85 per cent (16/70) of the postpartum lactating Ongole cows have shown estrus by day 60 out of seventy postpartum cows.   The postpartum onset of behavioral estrus was highly variable and varied with a mean value of 109.50 + 4.66. Only 18.75 per cent of cows exhibited intense and 18.75 per cent cows exhibited   weak estrus and the remaining (62.50 per cent) cows showed normal estrus. In the present study 56.25 per cent cows conceived for one insemination and 57.14 per cent cows required two or more inseminations per conception. The conception rate recorded was 46.15 + 0.12 and the service period was 163.60+10.72. 
      PubDate: 2013-01-09
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2013)
       
 
 
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