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Economia Agro-Alimentare
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1126-1668 - ISSN (Online) 1972-4802
Published by Edizioni Franco Angeli Homepage  [67 journals]
  • Editorial
    • Abstract:

      PubDate: Sat, 15 Feb 2019 8:00:00 GMT
       
  • Guest Editorial Future food availability is not only an agricultural
           topic, but also a society issue
    • Abstract: Catherine Macombe, Raymond Auerbach, Andrea Raggi, Roberta Salomone

      PubDate: Sat, 15 Feb 2019 8:00:00 GMT
       
  • Sustainable food systems for Africa
    • Abstract: Raymond Auerbach
      From 48 years of farming systems research and extension practice, the author distils two conceptual models of the progression of small scale farmers in sustainable agriculture and of the characteristics of production, equity, natural resource management and sustainability, and their implications are discussed. The models inform a comparative analysis of a conventional and an organic development programme. They are linked to long term comparative organic farming systems research trials, which have been running for four years in South Africa’s Southern Cape. These trials compare organic and conventional farming systems, crop rotation and mono-cropping, biological and chemical pest and disease control and water use efficiency in cabbage, sweet potato and cowpea crops. In Africa the high cost and limited availability of agricultural inputs make agro-ecological approaches attractive, as they are practically possible (with low levels of external inputs) and improve carbon sequestration, dietary diversity and food quality. The challenges for viable organic farming systems are thus seen to include: improving soil fertility (especially available soil phosphate), controlling pests and diseases and convincing consumers of the quality of organic products. Benefits include: reduced dependency on externally-purchased agricultural inputs, lower soil acidity, higher soil water retention, sequestration of soil carbon, improved soil microbiology, better agrobiodiversity and elimination of poisons from the food chain. Support for small scale farmers will require technical and training support, market linkages and quality management.
      PubDate: Sat, 15 Feb 2019 8:00:00 GMT
       
  • Ignorance is bliss, but toxic to agriculture
    • Abstract: Denis Loeillet
      The consumer, without any objective reason, is fearful of what is on their plate. Agriculture has been swept aside in favour of food. Much as we love the myth of the smallholder, we prefer to ignore the reality of what farming involves. The blissful consumer prefers from afar to submit to the artefacts of food propriety: labels such as organic, Fairtrade, Rain Forest Alliance, Zero pesticides, etc. Besides their own wellbeing, the consumer is often unable to say how this certification has positive impacts on cropping systems, the agricultural labourers or natural environments. They are buying a promise, a concept, an image which unfortunately sometimes is a mere illusion. Rightly or wrongly, that is what get things moving. Cropping systems are being constantly reinvented to meet increasingly strict constraints more and more closely: withdrawals of phytosanitary product approvals, bans on certain modes of treatment, lowering of maximum residue limits, etc. The case of the Guadeloupe and Martinique banana industry is symbolic of this permanent disruption. The results are there to see: a more than 50% reduction in pesticides use and implementation of numerous innovative solutions throughout the territory. While the concept of agroecology is now tried and tested, we should nonetheless not push the frameworks of constraints to the extreme, or these industries could disappear. Especially since a label such as organic can be easily harnessed among consumers, which is not the case with the concept of agro-ecology or ecological intensification. Indeed, the different pedo-climatic and social contexts mean that specific cropping systems have to be designed, which are hard to harness under a single label. However, it seems clear that the future of cropping systems will take the agro-ecology route. The intermediate operators of these industries, and primarily the distribution sector, must not now shrink from the task at hand: to make consumers smarter
      PubDate: Sat, 15 Feb 2019 8:00:00 GMT
       
  • Organic research and government support improve organic policy and
           progress in Danish, Swiss, American and African case studies
    • Abstract: Raymond Auerbach
      Evidence-based policy development is promoted by organic research, according to studies in ten countries (in Africa, America and Europe). A seven country study by the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (unctad, 2008) on how governments can assist organic sectors, gave guidelines about regulation, special support for small scale farmers and under-pinning the emergence of a market for organic produce without distorting this market. Eight years later, unctad published a further report on financing Organic Agriculture (OA) in Africa, which concluded that lack of finance hinders the development of OA in Africa. These reports emphasise the need for OA research; research into broccoli seed-breeding had a positive impact on the perceptions of commercial seed producers, and may help to improve regulatory frameworks. Three long-term research projects are then analysed. The Swiss research trials showed many benefits of organic farming, but also limitations; they cite many researchers around the world who show the benefits of OA, and argue for the establishment of a global platform for organic farming research, innovation and technology transfer. Longterm research has had a major impact on production, processing, marketing and consumption of organic produce world-wide, as shown by Danish research through four research programmes at Aarhus University (which contributed to Danish sales of organic produce increasing from €67 million in 1996 to €821 million in 2010), and this helped Danish farmers to expand production and understand the needs of the market. In the United States, the Rodale Institute carried out long-term research trials to show that OA can be economically competitive, while benefiting the environment and the health of consumers. All three studies had close links with agricultural policy, but the Danish and Swiss studies were more sympathetically received and resulted directly in positive changes to agricultural policies in those countries.
      PubDate: Sat, 15 Feb 2019 8:00:00 GMT
       
  • Diversity of food systems for securing future food availability
    • Abstract: Catherine Macombe
      We depict the different models of likely future value chains for agro food sector. The starting points of the reflection are the main coming geo-physical constraints acknowledged by most scientists (rising sea level; climate disaster higher frequency; scarcity of concentrated energy and other material resources). Thus the effects of the coming changes (and especially the effects of the global warming) on agriculture are a regular study topic, while the effects of the other constraints, and the likely evolution of the food systems as a whole, remain quite overlooked. When there is a general scarcity of resources (as it is the case for oil and minerals over the coming decades), the present value chains may no longer function. We draw from these evidences to design 6 models of food value chains (including farming, processing and delivery systems). We therefore describe the models: "Today" (any food, in-store selling everywhere, at any time); "Amazon" (any food, at home in metropoles, at any time); "Cart" (mainly local food, in streets of cities and villages, seasonal products); "Roman villa" (local food, at farm, seasonal products); "Survival" (energetic food, specific location, in response to disasters or to "hunger gap"); "Export foods" (spices, salt etc., at any time). Only the last four together will be frugal enough to be compliant with the future geo-physical constraints. We also explore some consequences in terms of the future way of life, around the topics of agricultural work and cities.
      PubDate: Sat, 15 Feb 2019 8:00:00 GMT
       
  • Quantifying Melbourne‚Äôs "Foodprint": A scenario modelling methodology to
           determine the environmental impact of feeding a city
    • Abstract: Seona Candy, Graham Mark Turner, Jennifer Sheridan, Rachel Carey
      As cities grow and climate change intensifies, challenges related to the sustainable supply of food to urban areas are increasing. This is a particular issue for Melbourne, Australia’s fastest growing city. Although food consumption accounts for a significant proportion of environmental impact, there is little or no data quantifying what it takes to feed a city to help city governments plan for the future. This paper presents the methodology and findings of an investigation into the environmental impact of feeding Greater Melbourne by quantifying its ‘foodprint’ - the land and water required, and food waste and greenhouse gas (ghg) emissions generated. It forms part of a larger project, Foodprint Melbourne, investigating the sustainability and resilience of Melbourne’s foodbowl. The foodprint was calculated for 2014 and 2050, using the Australian Stocks and Flows Framework (asff). It was found that it takes 758 gigalitres/yr of water and 16.3 million hectares/yr of land to feed Melbourne, with over 907,537 tonnes/yr of edible food waste and 4.1 million tonnes/yr of ghg emissions generated. With projected trends in consumption patterns, efficiencies of production methods, land degradation and climate change impacts, in 2050 1598 gigalitres/yr of water (111% increase) and 32.3 million hectares/yr (98% increase) will be required, with 7.4 million tonnes/yr of ghg emissions generated (80% increase).
      PubDate: Sat, 15 Feb 2019 8:00:00 GMT
       
  • The potential of urban agriculture towards a more sustainable urban food
           system in food-insecure neighbourhoods in Cape Town and Maputo
    • Abstract: Nicole Paganini, Stefanie Lemke, Inês Raimundod
      Sub-Saharan Africa is one of the most rapidly urbanising regions in the world. Achieving food and nutrition security is not only a rural challenge; the access to adequate (in terms of quantity and quality), healthy, nutritious and affordable food is also a growing concern for urban areas. The debate on the contribution of urban agriculture to food and nutrition security is however controversial. Based on a food systems approach, which includes the ‘farm-to-fork’ processes, pathways and dynamics between interlinked actors who are embedded in a spatial context, this research explores the potential of urban agriculture in two cities, Cape Town in South Africa and Maputo in Mozambique. First results of two baseline surveys amongst urban farmers in both cities, as well as qualitative indepth interviews, show that urban farmers and home gardeners add nutrients and diversity to their diets, and can partly contribute to their income. Farmers value social benefits like urban greening, community building and empowerment. In Cape Town, main challenges are access to local and external markets, fair pricing and sovereignty in production. In Maputo, adaptation to more agroecological production techniques, combined with a more diverse production, could reduce farmers’ main challenges, such as pest pressure, and increase income and diversify diets. Foremost, urban agriculture needs to be embedded in the wider urban food system and urban planning in order to contribute towards more sustainable food systems.
      PubDate: Sat, 15 Feb 2019 8:00:00 GMT
       
  • The motivation behind drinking craft beer in Italian brew pubs: a case
           study
    • Abstract: Sergio Rivaroli, Martin K. Hingley, Roberta Spadoni
      Despite Italians being "light drinkers" of beer, they are interested in specialty beers, with concern for craft-made beers, for taste, authenticity, uniqueness and sense of local identity. This study adopts a revised model of the Theory of Planned Behaviour incorporating self-identity and desire for unique consumer products, to understand the motivation to drink craft beers in a sample of two hundred and thirty four recipients, in ten different brew pubs of Emilia-Romagna region - Italy. Data was analysed using three-stage least squares (3sls) estimator. Results show the major role played by self-identity on the intention to drink craft beers, and the key role played by ‘tastiness’ and the presence of facilitating factors. Social pressure is of secondary importance, and the desire for ‘uniqueness’ is not a relevant aspect. Implications are discussed for further research developments within the context of the "experience economy" for crafted food products.
      PubDate: Sat, 15 Feb 2019 8:00:00 GMT
       
  • Have beer markets in European Union countries converged'
    • Abstract: Rosa Maria Fanelli
      The European Union (EU) beer market is currently one of the largest in the world in volume. In recent years, the EU has seen large changes both in the levels of beer consumption (per capita) and in the structure of the beer market. This paper addresses these issues by investigating the evolution of beer markets in EU countries over time. Using sixteen variables in 28 countries, it highlights similarities/dissimilarities and convergence in the structures relative to beer markets from 2010 to 2015. Similarities found were greater within clusters of countries that had higher per capita and off-trade consumption of beer. However, there were also dissimilarities in relation to the set-up of new microbreweries, ontrade consumption, taxation and total exports to non-European countries. A key prediction concerning the convergence of beer markets was confirmed by the data: there is a greater tendency for markets of countries with a consolidated structure (e.g. France, Germany, Italy, Spain and the United Kingdom) to move away from those who have recently entered the brewery market (e.g. Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania).
      PubDate: Sat, 15 Feb 2019 8:00:00 GMT
       
  • La montagna e le zone svantaggiate nei Programmi di Sviluppo Rurale: una
           valutazione delle indennit√† compensative attraverso la rica
    • Abstract: Roberto Cagliero, Rita Iacono, Francesco Licciardo, Tiziana Prandi, Novella Rossi
      The present study proposes some points of reflection on the issue of mountain farming and offers an assessment on the support of the European Union to the less favoured agricultural areas (lfa). Specifically, the case study, referring to Rural Development Program 2007-2013 of Lombardy Region, wants to contribute to the debate on the evaluation of the effects of the interventions financed by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development in the mountainous territories. For this purpose, we have used a methodological estimation approach called "fair compensation", which is based on Farm Accountancy Data Network data. In mountain areas, agricultural and rural activities are of considerable importance and, even if they have been observed in contraction for years, these activities remain the only ones able to ensure the agricultural stay and the control of the rural territory less favoured. From this point of view, the Union legislation, from the years 70 to the last century, has proposed compensatory interventions, depending on the higher costs and the lower revenues, due to the natural handicaps and constraints imposed by the environment, also in terms of choices of production techniques. On another end, by compensating the farmers for lower income they derive from farming, the lfa schemes are designed to maintain agriculture and population in rural areas. The study intends to analyse the application of compensatory allowances, in mountain areas, above all, as happened in the past, in terms of economic, and therefore social, repercussions on the beneficiary enterprises. By using the methodology of the so-called "fair indemnification", the regional case study therefore intends to answer a specific question: to what extent has the intervention been able to provide adequate income compensation for natural handicaps and to foster Continuation of agricultural activities'
      PubDate: Sat, 15 Feb 2019 8:00:00 GMT
       
  • A multi-stakeholder attempt to address food waste: The case of Wellfood
           Action EU project
    • Abstract: Lorenzo Compagnucci, Alessio Cavicchi, Francesca Spigarelli, Lorenza Natali
      The 28 member states of the European Union produce around 88 million tonnes of food losses every year, which amount to approximately 143 billion euros. The majority of the EU’s food waste arises from households, food services and retail sector (70%), while 30% of food waste is generated by the food industry. With respect to Italy, Waste Watcher estimated that in this country around 8 billion euros of food are thrown in the trash every year. On one side, an exaggerated abundance and variety of low-cost food has profoundly affected the way food is generally perceived. Indeed, there is an alarming shift towards a "culture of food waste". On the other side, non-profit organisations and food banks are rising as key players in facing food waste issues. The aim of this paper is to shed light on how cities, food banks, non-profit organisations, companies and universities can collaborate and share interdisciplinary initiatives on a local basis to prevent and reduce food waste. In this context, the European project Wellfood Action - Promoting Food Innovation for Wellness in the Adriatic - contributed to generating a debate about a new food culture and providing concrete initiatives through a cross-sectorial and collaborative approach in the Adriatic-Ionian Macroregion. The analysis focuses specifically on the Marche Region stakeholders directly and indirectly involved in Wellfood Action. The various actors brought complementary perspectives and practices to manage food waste at local level and positively impacted both the community and the environment. The case illustrated outlines that a bottom-up approach can be implemented by local authorities in designing suitable policies for food donors and beneficiaries.
      PubDate: Sat, 15 Feb 2019 8:00:00 GMT
       
  • Referee 2018
    • Abstract:

      PubDate: Sat, 15 Feb 2019 8:00:00 GMT
       
 
 
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