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Journal Cover Psychology of Popular Media Culture
  [5 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 2160-4134 - ISSN (Online) 2160-4142
   Published by APA Homepage  [73 journals]
  • “How much evidence is p> .05' Stimulus pre-testing and null primary
           outcomes in violent video games research”: Correction to Hilgard et al.
           (2015).
    • Abstract: Reports an error in "How Much Evidence Is p> .05' Stimulus Pre-Testing and Null Primary Outcomes in Violent Video Games Research" by Joseph Hilgard, Christopher R. Engelhardt, Bruce D. Bartholow and Jeffrey N. Rouder (Psychology of Popular Media Culture, Advanced Online Publication, Dec 14, 2015, np). In the article, the infinity symbol was incorrectly replaced with a 1 in two locations in the fourth paragraph of the “Bayesian Inference” section. The corrected text follows: “Bayes factor values range from 0 to ∞ and describe how much more probable the data are under one position than another. . . . Infinite support for the null and alternative are obtained when B₀₁ = ∞ and B₀₁ = 0, respectively.” (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-55821-001.) Research on the effects of violent video games frequently relies on arguments for the null hypothesis. Proponents of the effects argue that there are no meaningful differences save violent content between the violent and nonviolent games played, while critics of the effects argue that their nonsignificant study results constitute evidence for the null hypothesis of no difference. However, neither argument can be supported through the use of traditional null-hypothesis significance testing, as such tests can only ever reject or retain the null, never rejecting the alternative hypothesis in favor of the null. Therefore, to evaluate these claims, we apply a more appropriate Bayesian analysis to measure evidence for or against the null hypothesis relative to reasonable alternative hypotheses. We conclude that current methodological standards cannot rule out substantial confounds between violent and nonviolent video games. Furthermore, we find that studies that claim to find an absence of violent video game effects vary substantially in the strength of evidence, with some strongly supporting the null, others weakly supporting the null, and some others finding evidence of differences between conditions. We recommend the use of Bayesian analyses, larger sample sizes, and the creation of custom-designed games for experimental research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 06 Jun 2016 04:00:00 GMT
       
  • Exploring the affirmative role of gay icons in coming out.
    • Abstract: Coming out is a process experienced by many sexual minorities that necessitates the individual disclosure of a personal attribute (i.e., sexual orientation) about him or herself that may otherwise go unnoticed. Compounded by myriad stressors of youth, the coming out process can yield a host of negative outcomes (suicide, depression, etc.) for questioning young people. This research utilized sense of community and collective identity frameworks (specifically, the attribute of symbols that is explicated in both literatures) to explore the affirmative role that gay icons can have in individual coming out processes. Retrospective, open-ended interviews were conducted with 10 “out and proud” gay men in the northeast region of the United States. Interviews were video-recorded, transcribed, and content-analyzed to identify themes. Three themes emerged from the data inductively. Sense of Self refers to the strongest link that participants perceived among all gay icons, Shared Identity refers to the connectedness that participants felt with the icons they mentioned, and Enabler of Coming Out refers to the belief among participants that they received validating messages about their emerging sexualities from the icons with whom they identified. Implications for policy, practice, and future research are also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Mar 2016 04:00:00 GMT
       
  • Connecting offline social competence to online peer interactions.
    • Abstract: Decades of research have documented the importance of social competence in children’s development and the risks of lacking these skills for physical, social, emotional, and academic outcomes. Social interactions today are increasingly technologically mediated, with a large number of children and adolescents interacting with others online. Nonetheless, little effort has been made to connect the construct of social competence to online interactions. This article reviews recent research (up to 2014) on social interactions online and tries to identify ways in which components of social competence from offline settings (e.g., adaptability, social skills, perspective-taking) might apply to online contexts. Challenges of applying the construct to online peer interactions are highlighted and the current gaps in research are identified, raising questions about whether social competence from offline settings can be applied to online ones. Lastly, this review argues for the need for more research directly assessing competence in social interactions online, especially in light of user characteristics such as age and gender. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Feb 2016 05:00:00 GMT
       
  • How much evidence is p> .05' Stimulus pre-testing and null primary
           outcomes in violent video games research.
    • Abstract: [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 6(4) of Psychology of Popular Media Culture (see record 2016-27707-001). In the article, the infinity symbol was incorrectly replaced with a 1 in two locations in the fourth paragraph of the “Bayesian Inference” section. The corrected text follows: “Bayes factor values range from 0 to ∞ and describe how much more probable the data are under one position than another. . . . Infinite support for the null and alternative are obtained when B₀₁ = ∞ and B₀₁ = 0, respectively.”] Research on the effects of violent video games frequently relies on arguments for the null hypothesis. Proponents of the effects argue that there are no meaningful differences save violent content between the violent and nonviolent games played, while critics of the effects argue that their nonsignificant study results constitute evidence for the null hypothesis of no difference. However, neither argument can be supported through the use of traditional null-hypothesis significance testing, as such tests can only ever reject or retain the null, never rejecting the alternative hypothesis in favor of the null. Therefore, to evaluate these claims, we apply a more appropriate Bayesian analysis to measure evidence for or against the null hypothesis relative to reasonable alternative hypotheses. We conclude that current methodological standards cannot rule out substantial confounds between violent and nonviolent video games. Furthermore, we find that studies that claim to find an absence of violent video game effects vary substantially in the strength of evidence, with some strongly supporting the null, others weakly supporting the null, and some others finding evidence of differences between conditions. We recommend the use of Bayesian analyses, larger sample sizes, and the creation of custom-designed games for experimental research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 14 Dec 2015 05:00:00 GMT
       
  • Of beard physics and worldness: The (non-)effect of enhanced
           anthropomorphism on player–avatar relations.
    • Abstract: Advances in realistic graphics and artificial intelligence are hallmarks of evolved video games, as environments and characters are made to seem more real. Little is known, however, about whether or not character model changes may impact players’ relationships with familiar avatars, especially since anthropomorphism—the perception of nonhuman objects as being human or humanlike—is understood as central to player–avatar interaction (PAX). This study leveraged a naturally occurring change to massively multiplayer online game avatars to conduct a field quasiexperiment to investigate whether enhanced avatar anthropomorphism influences PAX dimensions: emotional investment, anthropomorphic autonomy, suspension of disbelief, and sense of control. Longitudinal analysis showed that enhanced anthropomorphism had no significant impact on any PAX dimension immediately or over time, when controlling for demographic and gameplay variables. Player comments suggest the change was experienced not as a change in humanness, but as a shift in perceptual realism—believability, lifelikeness, depth—that impacted the experience of the avatar-mediated gameworld more broadly. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 26 Oct 2015 04:00:00 GMT
       
  • Exploring viewers’ responses to nine reality TV subgenres.
    • Abstract: Reality TV is a genre that places nonactors in dramatic situations with unpredictable outcomes. The influx of reality TV dominating network and cable programming has been highly reflective in its expansion of formats, evident from the variety of narrative themes embedded in reality-based shows. Findings from this exploratory study (N = 274) reveal significant differences in the way college students affectively, cognitively, and behaviorally engage with reality TV. Specifically, identification, interactivity, enjoyment, perceived realism, and perceived competition across 9 reality TV subgenres: dating/romance, makeover/lifestyle, hidden camera, talent, game show, docusoap, sitcom, law enforcement, and court significantly differed. Data provide strong support that programs commonly defined as reality-based offer qualitatively distinct affective, cognitive, and behavioral experiences and gratifications for viewers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 12 Oct 2015 04:00:00 GMT
       
  • The role of compulsive texting in adolescents’ academic functioning.
    • Abstract: Text messaging has increased dramatically among adolescents over the past 10 years. Many researchers have cited potential consequences associated with a high frequency of texting and problematic texting behaviors. This study examines the relations among frequency of texting, a specific type of problematic texting (i.e., compulsive texting), and adolescents’ academic achievement and attitudes about school. Adolescents in 8th (n = 211) and 11th (n = 192) grades participated in this study. Results indicated that, as hypothesized, teens’ compulsive texting was significantly positively related to their frequency of texting and negatively related to their grades, school bonding, and perceived scholastic competence. It is noteworthy that the negative relation between compulsive texting and academic functioning held true only for females and not for males. Actively preventing or reducing compulsive texting may ameliorate the potential effects of texting on academic adjustment in adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 05 Oct 2015 04:00:00 GMT
       
  • iZ HERO adventure: Evaluating the effectiveness of a peer-mentoring and
           transmedia cyberwellness program for children.
    • Abstract: There is a lack of rigorous evaluations of school-based Cyberwellness programs that seek to improve students’ attitudes and behaviors regarding the Internet. The purpose of this study was to implement and evaluate a new Cyberwellness program, the iZ HERO Adventure, which is a hands-on digital exhibition involving peer-mentoring and a transmedia adventure storytelling mode within a multisystemic approach. A total of 440 Grades 4, 5, and 6 students were recruited from 4 elementary schools in Singapore. Three hundred six participants were from Grade 4 (mentees) while 134 were from Grades 5 and 6 (mentors). A quasi-experimental design was used. Participants in the experimental condition received the interventions (iZ HERO exhibition visit and Story Quest gameplay) after the baseline data collection. Mentees’ perceptions regarding the iZ HERO exhibition were positive. The program was successful in improving students’ attitudes toward offline meetings, attitudes toward playing games instead of doing homework, and cyberbullying. Ratings of their mentoring experience were related to positive changes in attitudes. The program did not improve students’ attitude in the other online risky behaviors such as attitudes toward pornography. The results, reasons for its effectiveness, and limitations of the study are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)
      PubDate: Mon, 28 Sep 2015 04:00:00 GMT
       
 
 
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