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Journal Cover Engineer : Journal of the Institution of Engineers, Sri Lanka
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1800-1122
   Published by Sri Lanka Journals Online Homepage  [48 journals]
  • Evaluation Model for Selection of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies

    • Abstract: Implementation of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies (AMT) has become a popular strategy among many industries to face the growing competition. Selection of AMT purely based on economic benefits has been challenged due to other factors such as strategic benefits. This paper presents decision making framework for selection of AMT. Factors influenced on Advanced Manufacturing Technology selection were identified under three categories, economic indicators, strategic benefits and risk. Sub-criteria of each category were further identified. Selection of the best AMT led to a multi-criteria decision making problem as alternative technologies should be evaluated based on many criteria. An Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) model was developed for ranking the alternative AMTs. An example of a case is presented to show the actual implementation of the AHP model. Published on 2016-08-03 00:00:00
       
  • Importance of Accurate Modeling Input and Assumptions in 3D Finite Element
           Analysis of Tall Buildings

    • Abstract: With ever increasing land prices, design and construction of high-rise buildings are becoming very common. There is a trend among design Engineers to resort to 3D Finite Element Analysis (FEA) during the design of such high rise buildings. This is due to the fact that challenging architectural concepts, when combined with inherent complexities and scale of such projects, require the need of complex structural systems and components such as outriggers, transfer plates, etc. However incorrect modeling input and assumptions could lead to a situation where predictions made using such models may differ greatly from the actual behaviour. In this paper, the importance of accuracy in modeling FEA of high rise buildings is demonstrated through the use of a case study of a 34 storey hotel building with outriggers. The impact of modeling accuracy and assumptions on the predicted performance of the outrigger is also evaluated. Published on 2016-08-03 00:00:00
       
  • From the editor Vol.42 (2)

    • Abstract: For a professional to become a true professional, he should actively contribute towards training the future generations of his creed. In this context, sharing technical knowledge and gaining experience in ones general and specific areas of expertise, with upcoming players in the field, becomes an obligation rather than an altruistic act on the part of senior Engineers. In the good old days our Engineers took this very seriously indeed and applied themselves earnestly to 'uplift' the juniors. However, in this modern, and fastmoving world, this age old ethic has taken a back seat, displaced by personal glory and gain. Though the economics of the times and the trends might not allow us to get involved in this training process in all earnest, at least we could devote a minute fraction of our time to share our diverse experiences with the Engineering fraternity. This type of commitment is quite evident in the 'modus operandi' of Engineering communities of some countries, we still look up to, such as Britain. Their publications contain detailed technical accounts on significant Engineering projects being carried out in the native country as well as around the world. Reading such accounts not only educate, but also motivate the budding Engineers to venture into unconventional areas which may lead to Engineering master pieces. Many Engineering construction works are under way or have been completed recently in Sri Lanka. It is a pity that we Engineers do not know much about these. It is the solemn duty of the Engineers involved, to enlighten other fellow Engineers, at least on the technical aspects of these works. Published on 2016-08-03 00:00:00
       
  • Demarcation of High Hazard Areas Based on Human Stability Considerations
           in Tsunami Overland Flow

    • Abstract: On December 26, 2004, the coastal belts of Sri Lanka and several other countries bordering the Indian Ocean suffered massive loss of life and damage to property due to the tsunami unleashed by the third largest earthquake ever recorded. One way of mitigating potential loss of lives from a similar event in the future is through advance warning of an approaching tsunami and quick evacuation of vulnerable coastal communities to safer areas. The detailed planning necessary for such evacuation exercises requires information about the level of hazard in each locality, which is usually based on inundation maps showing the depth flooding. However, the ability of a person to survive a flood flow depends not only on the depth of inundation but also on the flow velocity. Accordingly, the present paper employs a numerical model to compute the temporal variation of both the flow depth and the flow velocity across the entire computational domain in three cities on the south coast of Sri Lanka as well as the results from an experimental study on the human stability in tsunami overland flow to develop a procedure to demarcate the areas that should be evacuated in case of a tsunami warning. Published on 2016-08-04 00:00:00
       
  • Manufacturing Strategy and Improvement Activities of Sri Lankan Furniture
           Manufacturers

    • Abstract: Furniture industry is a significant industry in the manufacturing sector in Sri Lanka based on the number of employees. This paper studies the manufacturing strategy of Sri Lankan furniture industry. A questionnaire survey was carried out among the key players of the industry to investigate the manufacturing strategy and improvement activities. Cluster analysis is used to identify the strategic manufacturing groups based on their competitive priorities and three strategic groups were formed. Top competitive priorities of the Sri Lankan furniture manufacturers were identified as low price, conformance quality and product performance. Performance improvement activities under three major categories namely advanced manufacturing technologies, integrated information systems and advanced management systems were investigated. Manufacturing strategy stages of the furniture manufacturers were studied based on the Hayes and Wheelwright model and it is found out that majority of the companies have the characteristics of stage II of the model. Published on 2016-08-04 00:00:00
       
  • From the Editor Vol.42(1)

    • Abstract: For us Engineers, the word 'design' or rather, 'Engineering design' invariably means a technically evaluated compromise between integrity and economy of an entity for creation. In other words, we try to balance the cost of creation with the stability, strength and durability of the entity being designed. However, at the level of the users, additional requirements which are more general, though subjective, comes in to play such as aesthetics, functionality in terms of user friendliness and positive feel. Though as Engineers we have been nurtured to be rational and objective, we should take the pains to cultivate subjective reasoning which would get us closer to the needs of the users of our designed products. Needless to say, that in recent times, Engineering designers have appraised this situation and have turned to be more receptive to aesthetic appreciation and user-friendliness. This trend is amply portrayed in automotive and electronic designs and to a lesser extent in Civil Engineering designs. However, in catering to more subjective aspects in design, we should not forget the two fundamental aspects of integrity and economy. Especially for infrastructure constructions the designs have turned out to be too emphasized on the 'safer-side' to make the cost prohibitively high. While the client perception of 'putting a little more than needed, is good for the structure and never wasted' has reinforced this over-designing trend, in national as well as global levels it is an unpardonable crime. As responsible Engineers to present as well as future generations, we should endeavour to create designs that culminate in products which most effectively utilize the scarce resources of our tiny planet. In other words, all our designs should be as 'green' as possible. Published on 2016-08-04 00:00:00
       
  • Economic Analysis of Consumptive Applications of Water

    • Abstract:    Published on 2016-08-04 00:00:00
       
  • Evaluation of Tsunami Risk Posed to Sri Lanka by Potential Mega-Thrust
           Earthquakes in the Makran Subduction Zone

    • Abstract: This paper is concerned with a numerical study carried out to assess the threat posed to Sri Lanka by potential tsunamigenic earthquakes in the Makran subduction zone in the Arabian Sea off the south coasts of Pakistan and Iran. The fault plane model adopted in the present simulations corresponds to a worst-case scenario of simultaneous rupture of the entire eastern segment of the Makran Trench. A hydrodynamic model based on linear shallow-water equations was employed to simulate tsunami propagation from the source to the shoreline around Sri Lanka. The numerical simulations suggest that the maximum nearshore tsunami amplitudes along the coastal belts of the Western, North-Western and Southern Provinces are of the order of 1 m; the corresponding values for the Eastern and Northern provinces are even smaller, about 0.2 m and 0.1 m, respectively. The model results also indicate that the tsunami waves will first hit the coastal belt of the Western Province about 280 minutes after the earthquake, followed by Southern and North-Western Provinces. The results presented in this paper would be useful for authorities responsible for evacuation to make a better judgement as to the level of threat in different areas along the coastline, and to act accordingly, if a large earthquake were to occur in the Makran subduction zone. Published on 2016-08-04 00:00:00
       
  • Estimation of Rainfall Induced Soil Erosion An Experimental Study

    • Abstract: Soil erosion is a serious global problem with significant financial and environmental consequences and more studies are needed to understand the physical mechanism of erosion and also to quantify erosion rates. Rainfall induced soil erosion is a two-phase process consisting of the detachment of individual soil grains from soil mass and their transport by running water. Although several methods are available for estimating rainfall induced soil erosion, the applicability of most of these methods are very limited. This paper presents a detailed study carried out using a laboratory set-up consisting of an artificial rainfall simulator to quantify rainfall induced soil erosion. Based on a series of laboratory experiments carried out with different soils and rainfall intensities, two functional relationships were developed to quantify erosion rates on sandy soils and clayey soils separately. These equations were able to predict erosion rates to a reasonable accuracy and also easy to use in actual situations. However, further tests are recommended with more soil samples and widening the range of other test parameters to verify the equations and to make it applicable over a wide range of actual situations. Published on 2016-08-04 00:00:00
       
  • Development of A Water Supply Scheme with Reference to the Ampara Project

    • Abstract: Every living creature needs clean and safe drinking water. How much do you need' It depends - your size, activity level and the weather, all make a difference. The water you drink is a combination of surface water and groundwater. Surface water includes rivers, lakes and reservoirs. Groundwater comes from underground. Presently it is hard to find clean supplies and water quality can vary from place to place. It depends on the condition of the source water and the treatment it receives. Treatment may include screening, filtering, chemical dosing, adding fluoride and chlorine to kill germs. There is no such thing as naturally pure water. Naturally, all water contains some impurities. As water flows in streams, sits in lakes, and filters through layers of soil and rock in the ground, it dissolves or absorbs the substances it touches. Some of these substances are harmless. In fact, some people prefer mineral water precisely because minerals give it an appealing taste. However, at certain levels, minerals, just like man-made chemicals, are considered contaminants that can make water unpalatable or even unsafe. Some contaminants come from erosion of natural rock formations. Other contaminants are substances discharged from factories, applied to farmlands or used by consumers in their homes and yards. Sources of contaminants might be in your neighborhood or might be many miles away. Therefore, in spite of its availability in abundance, water has to be treated for human consumption and this could be costly. Drinking water treatment plants, sewer lines, drinking water distribution lines, and storage facilities ensure protection of public health and the environment. As a nation, we have built an extensive network of infrastructure to provide the public with access to water and sanitation. Therefore it is a challenge for the engineer to design and construct feasible schemes keeping the cost to a minimum. In this project the designers have taken the challenge of designing most of the structures in nontraditional manner to expedite construction and to optimize the construction cost. Published on 2016-08-04 00:00:00
       
 
 
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