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Journal Cover Engineer : Journal of the Institution of Engineers, Sri Lanka
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1800-1122
   Published by Sri Lanka Journals Online Homepage  [48 journals]
  • Electronic Honey Quality Analyser

    • Abstract: The detection of adulterated honey is a considerable challenge in the Sri Lankan context. The usual practice is to independently check the different parameters in order to determine the quality of a given honey sample. However, measuring and employing a single parameter for the classification reduces the accuracy of the classification. Thus, in this paper a multi-parameter based honey quality classification is proposed to ensure a better accuracy. The design of a parameter detector and a classifier which can automatically complete the classification of a given sample is also presented. This classifier operating on support vector machines is first trained using an array of honey samples obtained in Sri Lanka. The resultant classifier shows a high level of accuracy of 97.5% for the randomly selected test sample set. The proposed system is a handy tool for accurate, quick, low cost and simple honey quality checking. Published on 2016-08-29 00:00:00
       
  • Co-firing of Biomass with Coal in Pulverized Coal Fired Boilers at
           Lakvijaya Power Plant: A Case Study

    • Abstract: The very first coal fired power plant complex set up in Sri Lanka, the Lakvijaya Power Station, uses pulverized coal power technology. Co-firing of biomass with coal has successfully been demonstrated around the world. There are several co-firing technologies and the pulverized coal fired plants can retrofit the technology very easily.In this study, Gliricidia (Gliricidia Sepium) has been considered as the candidate biomass option which will be mixed with coal to be fired within the same boiler. An extensive analysis was carried out as elaborated in this paper with regard to technical, economical and other concerns that arise when cofiring is introduced to an existing pulverized coal fired installation. Simulations were carried out to verify the outcome of design changes done in the boiler.When introducing the co-firing technology, there are many aspects to be considered. They are of technical, economical and social nature, and hence can have an impact on the national economy in various ways. As a nation whose future generation plan will be coal dominant, it is vital that Sri Lanka considers the biomass co-firing concept seriously. Published on 2016-08-29 00:00:00
       
  • Performance of a Sensitivity Analysis on the Multi-Function Network Survey
           Vehicle (MFNSV)

    • Abstract: Multi-Function Network Survey Vehicle (MFNSV) provides cutting-edge technology for obtaining highway pavement information such as; roughness, rutting, geometric data, road condition data as images and accurate distance measurements. The Hawkeye processing toolkit is used to process the data collected through a moving vehicle. The MFNSV manufacturer claims that the information is fairly accurate when the vehicle is driven within a speed range of 20 to 110 km/h.Road pavement information was collected manually through accurate field measurements along 4 sample stretches on the A004 road, and the same information was collected through the MFNSV. The results obtained from the two methods were compared by carrying-out a sensitivity analysis test. The results of the sensitivity analysis showed that the information collected from all 4 sample test sites did not possess significant statistical differences between the data collected by the two methods. Published on 2016-08-29 00:00:00
       
  • Determination of Capitalization Values for No Load Loss and Load Loss in
           Distribution Transformers

    • Abstract: A large number of distribution transformers are being currently used in the electricity distribution network in Sri Lanka. When purchasing them, it is not sufficient to evaluate only the initial price of the transformer. There are no load losses as well as load losses in the transformer during its life span, which is about 35 years. Therefore, a transformer purchaser has to evaluate the total lifetime cost of the transformer, which includes its purchase price, and the cost of losses that can occur during the life of the transformer. Traditionally, this evaluation has been done based on the Total Owning Cost (TOC). This paper discusses setting up of a methodology to calculate capitalization values for losses in distribution transformers used in Sri Lanka, using IEEE loss evaluation guide.Capitalization values for distribution transformers depend on capacity and energy costs, economic considerations and on their load profiles. In this research, capitalization values are calculated for three different load profiles of the transformers installed in rural, semi-urban and urban areas of Sri Lanka. In future, any utility can purchase distribution transformers by calculating capitalization values using the methodology presented in this study which is based on a set of economic and other parameters suitable for different applications, i.e. rural electrification, loss reduction in urban cities, augmentation of distribution transformers, etc. Published on 2016-08-29 00:00:00
       
  • Burnt Clay Bricks as an Alternative Filter Media for Pebble Matrix Filters
           (PMF)

    • Abstract: A novel method called PMF has proved to be suitable under tropical monsoon conditions for pre-treating high turbidity water before water is introduced to Slow Sand Filters (SSFs). The scarcity of sources of pebbles of the required quality, government regulations on pebble dredging and higher material cost were identified as key problems during the construction of the first ever full scale PMF plant in Sri Lanka at Kataragama. In order to investigate possibilities of utilizing alternative-filter media for PMF, laboratory tests were conducted using different configurations of chips and burnt clay bricks which are available readily in Sri Lanka. Two filter media configurations were tested using a laboratory scaled model at an influent turbidity of 60 NTU. The optimum configuration was selected based on the maximum turbidity removal efficiency obtained and was tested by changing influent turbidity. Broken clay bricks with sand in a 1:1 ratio are found to have greater potential as a pre-treatment media for turbidity removal. Moreover, bricks can be utilized as a feasible alternative to natural pebbles. Test results showed that in contrast to chips ,turbidity removal efficiency increased with the increment of influent turbidity when bricks were used as the filter media. Published on 2016-08-29 00:00:00
       
  • Current Transformer Performance during Transient Conditions and the
           Development of a Current Transformer Selection Criterion for Protection
           Applications

    • Abstract: One of the most crucial requirements for the correct functioning of power system protection equipment is the optimum selection of current transformers (CTs). Therefore, when selecting CTs, the protection engineer has to pay attention to steady state performance as well as transient performance of current transformers. The transient performance of current transformers varies with both system parameters and current transformer parameters. System parameters vary with the fault level and with the inductance to resistance ratio (L/R) at the fault location. In the power system of Sri Lanka, these parameters rapidly vary due to network developments. Thus, the type of the protection relay selected, the type of the protection function and the arrangement of the switchgear have a huge influence on current transformer selection. This paper discusses the development of a current transformer selection criterion for protection applications based on the transient performance of the transformers.In addition to analyzing the current transformer transient performance, PSCAD software has been used in this study to simulate current transformer performance during fault conditions with a case study done to validate the developed selection criterion. Published on 2016-08-29 00:00:00
       
  • From the Editor Vol.49 (3)

    • Abstract: I do not think that any Engineer will take offence to the statement that “Engineering is substantially innovation”. Through the annals of history, it is the innovativeness of the Homo-sapiens in harnessing the nature in both material and energy spheres for their survival and propagation, not to mention convenience and comfort, which made them the unique species to dominate this planet. Then wouldn‟t we call the innovations which brought the present day splendour to human kind, Engineering? To further qualify the first statement, let us consider the eighth and the last clause on our ethical conduct which states “Engineers shall be committed to the need for sustainable management of the planet‟s resources and seek to minimize adverse environmental impacts of their engineering works or applications of technology so as to protect both present and future generations”. So, conversely how Engineers could fulfil this commitment without innovativeness is also difficult to imagine. Having established the above fact that “Engineering is substantially innovation”, we Engineers need to be innovators to fulfil our basic call. Now more than ever, our innovativeness should transcend local need fulfilment to cater for global conservation and sustainability. To this end, we should engineer our products to use minimal possible materials and energy with minimal pollutants to the environment while effectively catering to the needs with safety. Though incineration could hardly be called an environment friendly process, at a place where it has become necessary, at least creating its infrastructure fulfilling most of the above virtues is significantly innovative, or rather, is real Engineering. Published on 2016-08-29 00:00:00
       
  • Manufacturing Strategy and Improvement Activities of Sri Lankan Furniture
           Manufacturers

    • Abstract: Furniture industry is a significant industry in the manufacturing sector in Sri Lanka based on the number of employees. This paper studies the manufacturing strategy of Sri Lankan furniture industry. A questionnaire survey was carried out among the key players of the industry to investigate the manufacturing strategy and improvement activities. Cluster analysis is used to identify the strategic manufacturing groups based on their competitive priorities and three strategic groups were formed. Top competitive priorities of the Sri Lankan furniture manufacturers were identified as low price, conformance quality and product performance. Performance improvement activities under three major categories namely advanced manufacturing technologies, integrated information systems and advanced management systems were investigated. Manufacturing strategy stages of the furniture manufacturers were studied based on the Hayes and Wheelwright model and it is found out that majority of the companies have the characteristics of stage II of the model. Published on 2016-08-04 00:00:00
       
  • From the Editor Vol.42(1)

    • Abstract: For us Engineers, the word 'design' or rather, 'Engineering design' invariably means a technically evaluated compromise between integrity and economy of an entity for creation. In other words, we try to balance the cost of creation with the stability, strength and durability of the entity being designed. However, at the level of the users, additional requirements which are more general, though subjective, comes in to play such as aesthetics, functionality in terms of user friendliness and positive feel. Though as Engineers we have been nurtured to be rational and objective, we should take the pains to cultivate subjective reasoning which would get us closer to the needs of the users of our designed products. Needless to say, that in recent times, Engineering designers have appraised this situation and have turned to be more receptive to aesthetic appreciation and user-friendliness. This trend is amply portrayed in automotive and electronic designs and to a lesser extent in Civil Engineering designs. However, in catering to more subjective aspects in design, we should not forget the two fundamental aspects of integrity and economy. Especially for infrastructure constructions the designs have turned out to be too emphasized on the 'safer-side' to make the cost prohibitively high. While the client perception of 'putting a little more than needed, is good for the structure and never wasted' has reinforced this over-designing trend, in national as well as global levels it is an unpardonable crime. As responsible Engineers to present as well as future generations, we should endeavour to create designs that culminate in products which most effectively utilize the scarce resources of our tiny planet. In other words, all our designs should be as 'green' as possible. Published on 2016-08-04 00:00:00
       
  • Evaluation of Tsunami Risk Posed to Sri Lanka by Potential Mega-Thrust
           Earthquakes in the Makran Subduction Zone

    • Abstract: This paper is concerned with a numerical study carried out to assess the threat posed to Sri Lanka by potential tsunamigenic earthquakes in the Makran subduction zone in the Arabian Sea off the south coasts of Pakistan and Iran. The fault plane model adopted in the present simulations corresponds to a worst-case scenario of simultaneous rupture of the entire eastern segment of the Makran Trench. A hydrodynamic model based on linear shallow-water equations was employed to simulate tsunami propagation from the source to the shoreline around Sri Lanka. The numerical simulations suggest that the maximum nearshore tsunami amplitudes along the coastal belts of the Western, North-Western and Southern Provinces are of the order of 1 m; the corresponding values for the Eastern and Northern provinces are even smaller, about 0.2 m and 0.1 m, respectively. The model results also indicate that the tsunami waves will first hit the coastal belt of the Western Province about 280 minutes after the earthquake, followed by Southern and North-Western Provinces. The results presented in this paper would be useful for authorities responsible for evacuation to make a better judgement as to the level of threat in different areas along the coastline, and to act accordingly, if a large earthquake were to occur in the Makran subduction zone. Published on 2016-08-04 00:00:00
       
 
 
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