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Journal Cover Engineer : Journal of the Institution of Engineers, Sri Lanka
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1800-1122
   Published by Sri Lanka Journals Online Homepage  [48 journals]
  • Irrigation Infrastructure Management Requirements to Ensure Water Security
           for Impoverished Rural Populations under Climate Change Scenario

    • Abstract: Climate change studies have come to maturity with the 4th report of the Intergovernmental panel on Climate Change in 2007. Conclusions about temperature increases, rainfall variations, climate change relationships with evaporation etc., have more or less reached consensus. However climatologists have to fine tune climate models to refine the predictions. It is now necessary to assess the sustainability of the water and its surrounding environment with the anticipated climate changes. As at present in Sri Lanka there is minimum research attempting to link climate change impacts to infrastructure development, and there is none in the area of irrigation. Therefore it is necessary for countries like Sri Lanka where majority of the population depends on irrigated agriculture utilizing a large number of small reservoirs, to ascertain the effect on its irrigation systems and identify the adaptation measures that should be implemented. A significant increase of water for irrigation sector would mean pressure on others which compete for water. If water is inadequate for irrigation then it would certainly lead to socio economic issues commencing from the farming community. In order to address these issues and to identify suitable adaptation options, the present research carried out spatially distributed irrigation water demand modeling to assess the administrative district wise requirements in the year 2025. Reservoir water balance modeling was carried out for four selected districts to study the adequacy of minor irrigation reservoirs. Present work describes the modeling efforts that incorporated system deterioration due to lack of maintenance superimposed on the climate changes. The study used irrigation department guidelines, published data and made rational assumptions to quantify the impacts on the irrigation systems. It was revealed that it is necessary for water and related infrastructure managers and engineers to incorporate suitable maintenance programs, and make significant efforts to improve the project efficiencies as climate change adaptation measures. Published on 2016-06-28 00:00:00
       
  • Adjudication in Construction Contracts

    • Abstract: Adjudication is a form of alternate dispute resolution method used widely in the construction industry. This process is carried out by an independent person selected by the parties in a contract. The Adjudicators has to carry out a fairly detailed study of the dispute to him and such work includes investigation, identification of the dispute, legal and contractual issues. The parties to the dispute are free to make their own presentations in the form of documentary and verbal evidence, photographs, reports etc. The duration of adjudication is limited to the number of days in the contract agreement they have entered into. The Adjudicator also might have to carry out site visits, meetings etc. to obtain further clarification with respect to the disputed matters. It is equally important that the principles of natural justice have to be followed by the Adjudicator. Generally, in adjudication, no legal representations are made by the parties and the decision is made by the Adjudicator mostly from the factual issues raised by the parties. The decision of the Adjudicator has to be implemented forthwith and the dissatisfied party is free to challenge the decision of the Adjudicator in another tribunal depending on the agreed terms. Published on 2016-06-28 00:00:00
       
  • Detention Reservoirs as a Flood Control Measure

    • Abstract: Employing detention reservoirs for mitigating floods is a widely applied strategy, all over the world. This is suitable for small urban drainage systems as well as for large fluvial flood protection schemes. This technique is mostly applicable for the urban areas where construction of flood bunds is restricted due to high value of properties to be removed. Detention reservoir can be located within the area to be protected or somewhere upstream with low population density and low economic value. This will not only protect the area to be protected from flooding but also provide facilities for water based recreational activities, an attractive feature of modern cities. Further, it is a sustainable and low cost approach, free of adverse effects such as land subsidence, depletion of ground water etc. This paper will discuss how this technique could be applied for the protection of cities located in flood plains of major rivers of our country. Published on 2016-06-28 00:00:00
       
  • Traffic Calming & Its Applicability in Sri Lanka

    • Abstract: This paper examines the concept of traffic calming, tools and methods available for traffic calming process, its effectiveness in countries which traffic calming strategies are adopted, and looks at it’s applicability in Sri Lanka especially in Colombo and its suburbs. Study observes the origin of traffic calming, how different traffic calming policies are practiced in some countries, tools and devices used for traffic calming, how it could be modified to suit different situations, and its adoptability in busy local towns mainly in Colombo. This paper is supported by a comprehensive literature survey which examine and summarise previous studies conducted on different aspects of effectiveness of speed controlling tools used in traffic calming operations and the impacts (both positive and negative) on all road users and nearby residents. Although traffic calming may be a novel experience to Sri Lankan road engineers, it has been practiced in some countries quite extensively over a considerable period of time. The expected outcome of this paper to make an awareness of traffic calming concept and process among traffic and highway engineers in the country and encourage them to practice traffic calming policies wherever applicable meaningfully in Colombo and its busy suburbs in Sri Lanka. Published on 2016-06-28 00:00:00
       
  • Assessment of Nearshore Wave Climate off the Southern Coast of Sri Lanka

    • Abstract: Numerical modeling of wave propagation was carried out to assess the variability of nearshore wave climate off the southern coast of coast of Sri Lanka. The modeling was based on the application of MIKE 21 SW (FM) model in a domain covering the entire southern coast and part of the south – eastern coast of Sri Lanka, with the offshore boundary located in the deep sea. Based on model result, a wave transformation matrix approach was used to transform the available wave data from three past wave recording locations, to desired locations. Swell and sea wave systems were considered separately with appropriate wind fields introduced to model sea wave propagation. The study resulted in the establishment of nearshore of nearshore wave statistics on a seasonal basis for coastal sectors along the model domain. These wave statistics are useful in obtaining necessary design parameters for any planned coastal and marine structures within these coastal sectors through the application of local area models. Published on 2016-06-28 00:00:00
       
  • From the Editor Vol. 44(2)

    • Abstract: No abstract available Published on 2016-06-28 00:00:00
       
  • Laboratory and Field Investigations of Generator Stator Insulation

    • Abstract: This Paper presents the condition assessment of synchronous generator stator insulation used in Sri Lankan power stations. The work has three parts i.e. theoretical, laboratory and field investigations. In the first part, theory behind dielectric insulations have been broadly discussed with the aid of different non – destructive test methods used to assess the conditions of the generator insulation. In the laboratory investigations, two naturally wetted asphalt mica, one dry polyester mica and one dry epoxy mica spare stator windings were tested under drying and wetting conditions. The used test methods were DC ramp, time variation resistance (IR), polarization and depolarization current (PDC), frequency dielectric spectroscopy (FDS) and partial discharge (PD) tests and the relationships have been est5ablished among them. In the field investigations, different generators belonging to Ceylon Electricity Board were tested by using DC ramp test. It was found that the DC ramp test, as an easy and simple field test, can be effectively used to investigate the moisture effect on generator insulation. Published on 2016-06-28 00:00:00
       
  • Development of an Economical High Early Strength Concrete Mix for Paving
           of Provincial Roads in Sri Lanka

    • Abstract: Rigid pavement construction has a long history. Ready mixed or site mixed or site mixed concrete is used for rigid pavement construction. However, conventional concrete mixtures require more than 7 days to gain adequate strength to allow for traffic. Development of high early strength concrete would be a solution to allow traffic within a reasonable time. However, use of high cement content in early strength concrete induces distress in the pavements and would not be an economical mix. A high performance concrete mix was developed for rigid pavement construction using a low cost admixture with available material in Sri Lanka. Study has shown that 3% of commercial grade CaCl2 can be used as an accelerator to obtain required compressive strength and the flexural strength of concrete in 12 hours. Strength gain was verified by the maturity test conducted for a slab placed under field condition. Slab temperature was also measured with time and found temperature rise due to hydration was insignificant. Using the mix proportion developed, concrete roads can be allowed for traffic in 12 hours and can also be used for repair works of the existing roads. Life cycle cost analysis was performed taking into account the construction cost, maintence cost and the user cost. The study has shown that there is 26% saving by using high early strength concrete developed in this study. Published on 2016-06-28 00:00:00
       
  • Use of Rice Husk Ash Blended Cement to Produce Cement Sand Blocks: Optimal
           Level of Cement Replacement for Compressive Strength

    • Abstract: This article primarily investigates the variation in compressive strength, in relation to different levels of replacement of cement with rice husk ash (RHA) when blended cement is used to produced cement sand blocks. The samples of RHA used in this study have been obtained directly from furnaces and were not further incinerated. This study considers two binders-sand ratios (1.3 and 1.6), there water-binder ratios (0.4 ,0.5 and 0.6) in its attempt to determine the optimum level of cement replacement. The study determines that at around five percent level of replacement the compressive strength exceeds that of unblended cement. The compressive strength developed when cement replacement level is 15 percent, is greater than that stipulated in SLS 855: Part 1:1989 (2.5MPa) for cement sand blocks. The study also concludes following: disregarding the level of replacement, the compressive strength steadily decreases when cement replacement levels exceed the limit of five percent; of the three water-binder ratios, 0.5 offers marginally higher compressive strengths than the other two ratios; compressive strength does not vary when cubes cast using RHA samples obtained from three districts are tested; the development in compressive strength when samples are matured beyond 28days till 60 days is only 19 percent. Finally, the study concludes that given all RHA generated in the country can be put in the use for cement replacement, the total saving to the country is approximately Rs. Billion 2.25. Published on 2016-06-28 00:00:00
       
  • From the Editor Vol. 43(4)

    • Abstract: No abstract available Published on 2016-07-16 00:00:00
       
 
 
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