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Journal Cover Engineer : Journal of the Institution of Engineers, Sri Lanka
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1800-1122
   Published by Sri Lanka Journals Online Homepage  [48 journals]
  • River Basin Modelling for Optimum Water Usage: Uma Oya Downstream
           Development Area

    • Abstract: Water is a basic need of all living beings and the management of water in an optimum manner has therefore now received worldwide attention. This optimum management of water is achieved through the construction of reservoir systems and their optimal operation. This paper presents a simulation study carried out using Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP) software at the proposed Uma Oya Downstream Development Project in the Kirindi Oya basin in Sri Lanka. To investigate the impact of the proposed system, one model was developed for the existing system and another for the proposed system. Crop water requirements and irrigation schedules for three climatic conditions were determined using CROPWAT software. Climatic conditions were those of the years which received rainfalls with 20%, 50% and 80% probability of exceedance representing wet, normal and dry years respectively. Daily rainfall, runoff and other meteorological data were the information collected for the study. Availability of water for the irrigation of existing and newly proposed areas was ascertained from the model. Optimal operation patterns were developed for the newly built Alikota Ara and Kuda Oya reservoirs and the enlarged Handapanagala reservoir for different climatic conditions. Results indicated that even when the system is operating in accordance with optimum operating rules, there can be supply deficits. A study was made on the system performance with reduced irrigable areas and different crop types which were observed to bring in reduced deficits. Published on 2017-04-30 00:00:00
       
  • Adaptation of Real Industrial Applications into the Proposed Environmental
           Emission Standard for Stationary Combustion Systems

    • Abstract: In this study, the authors have attempted to analyze and emphasize on the impact of the “Proposed Environmental Emission Standard for Stationary Combustion Systems on real industrial applications by collecting data from industry experts who have been directly involved in the implementation of those emission standard with respect to the regulations and limitations that have been defined, industrial impacts, instrumentations, pre-facility requirement and external interferences. This study, however, does not discuss policy implementation practices of different organizations when monitoring the emission levels of stationary combustion systems. The strong recommendations given in this study are based on performance analysis and comparisons of 225 industrial stationary combustion systems that included categories such as thermal power plants, industrial boilers, thermic fluid heaters, incinerators, cupolas/ blast furnaces/coke ovens/basic oxygen furnaces/electric (induction & arc) furnaces and standby generators mentioned in the proposed environmental emission standard. In addition to plant performance, feedback received from different sectors and data related to emission standards implemented and practiced in 13 Asian countries were also considered. The recommendations given in this study emphasize on the special areas that need to be reconsidered before implementing this proposed stationary source emission standard. The areas highlighted are bio mass combustion systems, standby diesel generators, incinerators and various categories of furnaces, kilns, ovens etc. The outcomes of this study will therefore be important and useful when implementing the proposed emission standard in terms of plant categorization, capacity ranges, reference oxygen levels, normalizing conditions, emission limits, system behaviors, standard test methods, requirement of precise and accurate instrumentation etc. Finally, this study expects to provide a reliable, convenient and effective stationary sources emission standard for the benefit of regulatory bodies, industries, instruments & equipment suppliers, monitoring organizations etc. Published on 2017-09-10 00:00:00
       
  • Prediction of Temperature Development in Concrete using Semi-adiabatic
           Temperature Measurements

    • Abstract: Temperature development in concrete is caused by the heat of hydration which can be measured using calorimetric methods. In this study, a semi adiabatic calorimeter test was used first to measure the temperature development in six distinct C35A concrete mixes, and then using a heat loss compensation method, adiabatic temperature rise profiles were predicted. Cement and fly ash quantities in the mixes were varied to study the variations of the temperature development. The study then developed a two dimensional temperature prediction model applicable to rectangular concrete elements, based on heat transfer equations associated with the Fourier equation. A Finite-difference discretization was used in the modelling. The model took into account the heat generation due to cement hydration, heat transfer within the concrete element, and heat interactions between the concrete element and its environment under various boundary conditions. The prediction model has the potential for making two-dimensional temperature predictions in mass concrete at varying times and locations. Finally, the temperature prediction model was used as a case study to study the temperature development in a concrete wall. The results highlight the possible influences of concrete thickness on the internal temperature development of concrete and how the temperature could be controlled by using appropriate concrete mixes. Published on 2017-09-10 00:00:00
       
  • Engineering and Economic Viability of Using Crushed Construction Waste in
           the Production of Concrete and Mortar

    • Abstract: The main aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of using demolished construction waste (crushed concrete, ceramic tiles and cement blocks) as raw materials in the production of concrete and mortar. Initially, the physical properties of the aggregates made of demolished and crushed concrete, cement blocks and ceramic tiles were tested and the results obtained were compared with the properties of natural aggregates. Secondly, their optimum mix proportions were obtained by conducting a series of tests on the concrete and mortar samples that were produced by partially replacing the natural aggregates in them with demolished aggregates in the proportions of 30%, 60% and 100% and the results obtained were compared with the results of similar tests carried out on control samples made using only natural aggregates. The results revealed that the physical properties of processed demolished construction materials are almost similar to those of natural aggregates and that the results correlated well with the previous research findings. The results related to the engineering properties indicated that demolished concrete aggregates and crushed coarse tile aggregates can replace natural aggregates up to 30% and 60% respectively in the production of Grade 25 concrete. Furthermore, the study revealed that demolished concrete and demolished blocks in the form of fine aggregates can replace sand up to 30 % in proportion in the production of mortar. The direct cost analysis revealed that the use of demolished construction waste material to replace natural aggregates in the production of both concrete and mortar will be profitable only marginally. Published on 2017-09-10 00:00:00
       
  • From the Editor Vol.50 (3)

    • Abstract: No abstract available Published on 2017-09-10 00:00:00
       
  • Optimum use of a 4-element Yagi-Uda Antenna for the Reception of Several
           UHF TV Channels

    • Abstract: Outdoor Yagi-Uda antennas are frequently used in Sri Lanka for the reception of UHF and VHF TV channels. An antenna designed for a particular channel can show poor reception characteristics to other TV channels due to their operating frequencies and physical locations. The first few TV stations, which were set up in nineteen eighties, had VHF transmissions. Those TV channels still operate on VHF, while some of them supplement with UHF transmissions. A large number of TV channels in Sri Lanka use UHF channels for the transmission of their TV programs. The paper studies the dependence of the maximum gain of the antenna, the input power to the dipole of the antenna , and the radiation pattern of the antenna on the operating frequency which are the key indicators of its receiving characteristics. Considering the physical distribution of TV stations in the lowlands of Sri Lanka, this paper searches ways of optimizing reception characteristics of a 4-element Yagi-Uda UHF antenna. Published on 2017-09-10 00:00:00
       
  • Metals used in old Bridges in Sri Lanka and the Effects of their Material
           Properties on Capacity Estimations

    • Abstract: Most of the metal bridges that were built over 100 years ago are still in use in Sri Lanka. To ensure the safety of these bridges as well as their users, condition assessment of these old structures becomes essential. The details of these bridges such as their mechanical and fatigue properties and the types of materials used in these bridges are very important for assessing their condition. Therefore, this study on metals used in old bridges was carried out using a literature survey and our own experiments. Recommendations were given thereafter for the selection of the mechanical and fatigue properties that are appropriate for assessing the old metal bridges in the country. The recommended values for the ultimate tensile strength of wrought iron and mild steel are in the ranges 284 – 390 N/mm2 and 370 – 450 N/mm2 respectively; values of yield strength of wrought iron and mild steel are in the ranges 191 – 241 N/mm2 and 220 – 280 N/mm2 respectively and, mean fatigue strength at 10 million cycles for both wrought iron and mild steel is 190 N/mm2. Finally, the importance of selecting appropriate mechanical properties for estimating the current carrying capacity of metal bridges is presented using examples. It is observed that the error in the estimation of the carrying capacity of a bridge resulting from the use of inappropriate mechanical properties could be as high as 33%. Published on 2017-09-10 00:00:00
       
  • A Least Cost Long -Term Energy Supply Strategy for Sri Lanka using
           Petroleum, Coal and Natural Gas

    • Abstract: Long term energy sector planning is essential for a country to achieve sustainable development in all its social, economic and environmental dimensions. Furthermore, it will ensure the energy supply security of the country. The energy supply side needs to deal with technical, economic and environmental assessments of all energy supply options such as natural resources, energy imports, energy exports etc. The energy supply side should follow policy directives of the government and should take into account all other related constraints. Similarly, the demand side too has to deal with the assessment of future energy needs of various consumption sectors, policy directives etc. In this study the software MESSAGE was used to model the energy chains associated with petroleum, coal and Natural Gas (NG) in relation to Sri Lanka. The national energy chain was modelled considering the modernizations of the existing refinery through the introduction of NG to the energy sector and the introduction of electric vehicles. In addition, the viability of constructing a urea plant was also explored. Published on 2017-09-10 00:00:00
       
  • From the Editor Vol.50 (2)

    • Abstract: No abstract available Published on 2017-04-30 00:00:00
       
  • A New Approach to the Study of Voltage Distribution along a Suspension
           Insulator String

    • Abstract: The cap and pin insulator string, though a simple element in a power system, has the responsibility of carrying the live conductor while insulating it properly from the tower arm. In properly designing the insulator string, it will be necessary to assess the voltage distribution along it to ensure that no unit will get unduly stressed beyond its capacity. There are standard methods available to determine the voltage distribution along an insulator string. However, all these methods have limitations. This paper describes a novel method for accurately computing the voltage distribution along a string insulator which can be used for either short or long strings with no restrictions whatsoever. The computation allows to accommodate the capacitance between the metal work of the string and the tower and the capacitance between the metal cap of the string and the guard ring. The paper also describes two new simple equations that can be used to determine the voltage distribution along an insulator string irrespective of whether it is short or long. Published on 2017-04-30 00:00:00
       
 
 
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