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Journal Cover Schizophrenia Research : Cognition
  [SJR: 0.598]   [H-I: 4]   [1 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2215-0013
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3051 journals]
  • NMDAR hypofunction and somatostatin-expressing GABAergic interneurons and
           receptors: A newly identified correlation and its effects in schizophrenia

    • Authors: Fatemah Alherz; Mohammad Alherz; Hashemiah Almusawi
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 8
      Author(s): Fatemah Alherz, Mohammad Alherz, Hashemiah Almusawi
      This review investigates the association between N-methyl-d-Aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction and somatostatin-expressing GABAergic interneurons (SST+) and how it contributes to the cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia (SZ). This is based on evidence that NMDAR antagonists caused symptoms resembling SZ in healthy individuals. NMDAR hypofunction in GABAergic interneurons results in the modulation of the cortical network oscillation, particularly in the gamma range (30–80Hz). These gamma-band oscillation (GBO) abnormalities were found to lead to the cognitive deficits observed in the disorder. Postmortem mRNA studies have shown that SST decreased more significantly than any other biomarker in schizophrenic subjects. The functional role of Somatostatin (SST) in the aetiology of SZ can be studied through its receptors. Genetic knockout studies in animal models in Huntington's disease (HD) have shown that a specific SST receptor, SSTR2, is increased along with the increased NMDAR activity, with opposing patterns observed in SZ. A direct correlation between SSTR and NMDAR is hence inferred in this review with the hope of finding a potential new therapeutic target for the treatment of SZ and related neurological conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T07:26:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2017.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2017)
  • EPICOG-SCH: A brief battery to screen cognitive impact of schizophrenia in
           stable outpatients

    • Authors: Silvia Zaragoza Domingo; Julio Bobes; Maria-Paz García-Portilla; Claudia Morralla
      Pages: 7 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 8
      Author(s): Silvia Zaragoza Domingo, Julio Bobes, Maria-Paz García-Portilla, Claudia Morralla
      Brief batteries in schizophrenia, are needed to screen for the cognitive impact of schizophrenia. We aimed to validate and co-norm the Epidemiological Study of Cognitive Impairment in Schizophrenia (EPICOG-SCH) derived brief cognitive battery. A cross-sectional outpatient evaluation was conducted of six-hundred-seventy-two patients recruited from 234 centers. The brief battery included well-known subtests available worldwide that cover cognitive domains related to functional outcomes: WAIS-III-Letter-Number-Sequencing-LNS, Category Fluency Test-CFT, Logical-Memory Immediate Recall-LM, and Digit-Symbol-Coding-DSC. CGI-SCH Severity and WHO-DAS-S were used to assess clinical severity and functional impairment, respectively. Unit Composite Score (UCS) and functional regression-weighted Composite Scores (FWCS) were obtained; discriminant properties of FWCS to identify patients with different levels of functional disability were analyzed using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) technique. The battery showed good internal consistency, Cronbach's alpha=0.78. The differences between cognitive performance across CGI-SCH severity level subscales ranged from 0.5 to 1 SD. Discriminant capacity of the battery in identifying patients with up to moderate disability levels showed fair discriminant accuracy with areas under the curve (AUC)>0.70, p<0.0001. An FWCS mean cut-off score≥100 showed likelihood ratios (LR) up to 4.7, with an LR+ of 2.3 and a LR− of 0.5. An FWCS cut-off≥96 provided the best balance between sensitivity (0.74) and specificity (0.62). The EPICOG-SCH proved to be a useful brief tool to screen for the cognitive impact of schizophrenia, and its regression-weighted Composite Score was an efficient complement to clinical interviews for confirming patients' potential functional outcomes and can be useful for monitoring cognition during routine outpatient follow-up visits.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T08:48:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2017.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2017)
  • Is performance on probed serial recall tasks in schizophrenia related to
           duration of Attentional Blink'

    • Authors: David P. McAllindon; Philip G. Tibbo; Gail A. Eskes
      Pages: 8 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 7
      Author(s): David P. McAllindon, Philip G. Tibbo, Gail A. Eskes
      Schizophrenia is associated with a deficit in working memory, with the degree of working memory impairment related to the level of social and occupational functioning. This study tests the hypothesis that the working memory deficits in individuals with schizophrenia can be explained by slow processing of visual stimuli, as measured by the attentional blink (AB) task. Individuals with schizophrenia (SC) and controls (HC) were recruited from an early intervention service for psychosis and the local community. Data from 16 SC (11M/5F, mean=26.4yo) and 20 age-matched HC (11M/9F, mean=25.8yo) were analyzed. Each subject performed an AB task to determine their AB duration, defined as the lag to reach their plateau performance (ltpp). As expected, mean AB duration in the SC group (575ms) was significantly slower than HC (460ms; p =0.007). Recall accuracy of the SC group on a working memory task, a 6-item probed serial recall task (PSR), was reduced compared to the HC group at a standard interstimulus interval (ISI) (p =0.002). When the individual's AB duration was then used to adjust the ISI on the PSR task to three relative ISI rates (Slow (2×ltpp), Medium (ltpp) and Fast (1/2×ltpp)), performance on the PSR task was affected by group, position and ISI and qualified by an ISI∗position (p =0.001) and a trend to a triple interaction (p =0.054). There was main effect of group at all ISIs, but group∗position interaction only at Slow ISI (p =0.01). Our interpretation of the results is that absolute ISI, rather than ISI relative to AB duration, affected performance.

      PubDate: 2017-01-24T15:39:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2016.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2017)
  • Associations between daily living skills, cognition, and real-world
           functioning across stages of schizophrenia; a study with the Schizophrenia
           Cognition Rating Scale Japanese version

    • Authors: Yuko Higuchi; Tomiki Sumiyoshi; Tomonori Seo; Motomu Suga; Tsutomu Takahashi; Shimako Nishiyama; Yuko Komori; Kiyoto Kasai; Michio Suzuki
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2017
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition
      Author(s): Yuko Higuchi, Tomiki Sumiyoshi, Tomonori Seo, Motomu Suga, Tsutomu Takahashi, Shimako Nishiyama, Yuko Komori, Kiyoto Kasai, Michio Suzuki
      Cognitive function is impaired in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, even in their prodromal stages. Specifically, the assessment of cognitive abilities related to daily-living functioning, or functional capacity, is important to predict long-term outcome. In this study, we sought to determine the validity of the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS) Japanese version, an interview-based measure of cognition relevant to functional capacity (i.e. co-primary measure). For this purpose, we examined the relationship of SCoRS scores with performance on the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) Japanese version, a standard neuropsychological test battery, and the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS), an interview-based social function scale. Subjects for this study (n=294) included 38 patients with first episode schizophrenia (FES), 135 with chronic schizophrenia (CS), 102 with at-risk mental state (ARMS) and 19 with other psychiatric disorders with psychosis. SCoRS scores showed a significant relationship with SOFAS scores for the entire subjects. Also, performance on the BACS was significantly correlated with SCoRS scores. These associations were also noted within each diagnosis (FES, CS, ARMS). These results indicate the utility of SCoRS as a measure of functional capacity that is associated both with cognitive function and real-world functional outcome in subjects with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

      PubDate: 2017-02-25T16:28:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2017.01.001
  • Neurological soft signs: Effects of trait schizotypy, psychological
           distress and auditory hallucination predisposition

    • Authors: Saskia de Leede-Smith; Steven Roodenrys; Lauren Horsley; Shannen Matrini; Erin Mison; Emma Barkus
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 7
      Author(s): Saskia de Leede-Smith, Steven Roodenrys, Lauren Horsley, Shannen Matrini, Erin Mison, Emma Barkus
      Schizotypy is regarded as a trait vulnerability for psychotic disorders, yet alone is insufficient for development of a diagnosable disorder. Additional symptoms and psychological distress are necessary for help seeking and transition from an at risk mental state to a clinical diagnosis. The present study investigated the interaction between trait schizotypy, state auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) predisposition, distress and handedness for the expression of neurological soft signs (NSS), a neurodevelopmental vulnerability factor for psychosis. Cluster analysis formed schizotypy groups statistically across the dimensions captured by the SPQ. It was hypothesized that schizotypy and AVH predisposition would interact, resulting in significantly greater NSS. Psychological distress and handedness were hypothesized to be significant covariates, accounting for some variance in the expression of NSS between the groups. A sample of University students (n =327) completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire, Launay-Slade Hallucination Scale, General Health Questionnaire and the Neurological Evaluation Scale (NES). Cluster Analysis revealed four schizotypy groups. Distress was not a significant covariate in any analysis. As expected, those with high overall schizotypy and high AVH predisposition expressed significantly greater Motor-Coordination NSS compared to those with high schizotypy and low AVH predisposition. Within the Mixed Interpersonal and Cognitive-Perceptual Schizotypy cluster, those with low AVH predisposition expressed significantly more Motor-Coordination NSS than those with high AVH predisposition. These findings suggest motor coordination NSS are detectable in schizotypy, and AVH predisposition appears to interact with these traits. This study highlights the importance of considering both trait and subclinical state risk factors when investigating risk for psychosis.

      PubDate: 2016-12-29T13:04:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2016.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2016)
  • Disrupted latent inhibition in individuals at ultra high-risk for
           developing psychosis

    • Authors: Michael Kraus; Attilio Rapisarda; Max Lam; Jamie Y.J. Thong; Jimmy Lee; Mythily Subramaniam; Simon L. Collinson; Siow Ann Chong; Richard S.E. Keefe
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 6
      Author(s): Michael Kraus, Attilio Rapisarda, Max Lam, Jamie Y.J. Thong, Jimmy Lee, Mythily Subramaniam, Simon L. Collinson, Siow Ann Chong, Richard S.E. Keefe
      The addition of off-the-shelf cognitive measures to established prodromal criteria has resulted in limited improvement in the prediction of conversion to psychosis. Tests that assess cognitive processes central to schizophrenia might better identify those at highest risk. The latent inhibition paradigm assesses a subject's tendency to ignore irrelevant stimuli, a process integral to healthy perceptual and cognitive function that has been hypothesized to be a key deficit underlying the development of schizophrenia. In this study, 142 young people at ultra high-risk for developing psychosis and 105 controls were tested on a within-subject latent inhibition paradigm. Additionally, we later inquired about the strategy that each subject employed to complete the test, and further investigated the relationship between reported strategy and the extent of latent inhibition exhibited. Unlike controls, ultra high-risk subjects did not demonstrate a significant latent inhibition effect. This difference between groups became greater when controlling for strategy. The lack of latent inhibition effect in our ultra high-risk sample suggests that individuals at ultra high-risk for psychosis are impaired in their allocation of attentional resources based on past predictive value of repeated stimuli. This fundamental deficit in the allocation of attention may contribute to the broader array of cognitive impairments and clinical symptoms displayed by individuals at ultra high-risk for psychosis.

      PubDate: 2016-08-17T11:30:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2016.07.003
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2016)
  • Cognitive insight and functional outcome in schizophrenia; a multi-center
           collaborative study with the specific level of functioning
           scale–Japanese version

    • Authors: Tomiki Sumiyoshi; Keiichiro Nishida; Hidehito Niimura; Atsuhito Toyomaki; Tsubasa Morimoto; Masayuki Tani; Ken Inada; Taiga Ninomiya; Hikaru Hori; Jun Manabe; Asuka Katsuki; Takamitsu Kubo; Yosuke Koshikawa; Masanao Shirahama; Kentaro Kohno; Toshihiko Kinoshita; Ichiro Kusumi; Akira Iwanami; Takefumi Ueno; Toshi Kishimoto; Takeshi Terao; Kazuyuki Nakagome
      Pages: 9 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 6
      Author(s): Tomiki Sumiyoshi, Keiichiro Nishida, Hidehito Niimura, Atsuhito Toyomaki, Tsubasa Morimoto, Masayuki Tani, Ken Inada, Taiga Ninomiya, Hikaru Hori, Jun Manabe, Asuka Katsuki, Takamitsu Kubo, Yosuke Koshikawa, Masanao Shirahama, Kentaro Kohno, Toshihiko Kinoshita, Ichiro Kusumi, Akira Iwanami, Takefumi Ueno, Toshi Kishimoto, Takeshi Terao, Kazuyuki Nakagome
      The Specific Levels of Functioning Scale (SLOF) has been reported to provide a measure of social function in patients with schizophrenia. The aim of this multi-center study was to determine convergent validity of the Japanese version of SLOF, and if cognitive insight would be associated with social function. Fifty-eight patients with schizophrenia participated in the study. Social function, neurocognition, and daily activity skills were evaluated by the Social Functioning Scale (SFS), Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) and UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment-Brief (UPSA-B), respectively. We also assessed cognitive insight with the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale (BCIS). Significant relationships were noted between scores on the SLOF vs. those of the SFS, BACS, UPSA-B, and BCIS. Specifically, the correlation between performance on the UPSA-B and SLOF scores was significantly more robust compared to the correlation between performance on the UPSA-B and scores on the SFS. Similarly, the correlation between scores on the BACS and SLOF tended to be more robust than that between the BACS and SFS. Importantly, while the correlation between scores on the BCIS and SLOF reached significance, it was not so between scores on the BCIS and SFS. The SLOF Japanese version was found to provide a measure of social consequences in patients with schizophrenia. Importantly, this study is the first to indicate the relationship between cognitive insight and social function evaluated by the SLOF. This finding is consistent with the observation that SLOF scores were considerably associated with performances on objective functional measures.

      PubDate: 2016-10-04T17:59:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2016.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2016)
  • Compared to high and low cannabis use, moderate use is associated with
           fewer cognitive deficits in psychosis

    • Authors: Ashley M. Schnakenberg Martin; Kelsey A. Bonfils; Beshaun J. Davis; Elizabeth A. Smith; Kelly Schuder; Paul H. Lysaker
      Pages: 15 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 6
      Author(s): Ashley M. Schnakenberg Martin, Kelsey A. Bonfils, Beshaun J. Davis, Elizabeth A. Smith, Kelly Schuder, Paul H. Lysaker
      Literature on the relationship of cannabis use and cognition in schizophrenia provides the paradoxical view that cannabis use is sometimes linked with less severe impairment in neurocognition. This paper explored the possibility that this is a reflection of a dose related response between lifetime cannabis use and two forms of cognition, neurocognition and metacognition, in schizophrenia. It was hypothesized that three groups of patients could be differentiated, those with (1) little to no cannabis use with poor levels of cognition, (2) moderate cannabis use and relatively better levels of cognition and (3) high cannabis use with relatively poorer levels of cognition. Sixty-six adults with schizophrenia completed assessments of neurocognition, metacognition and months of lifetime cannabis use. Ak-means cluster analysis yielded three distinct groups based on these assessments. The clusters included: (1) low cannabis/poor cognition (n =34); (2) heavy cannabis/moderately impaired cognition (n =10); and (3) moderate cannabis/higher cognition (n =22). Consistent with our hypothesis, participants with high and moderate lifetime cannabis use had lesser impairment of neurocognition and metacognition compared to low lifetime cannabis use. Participants with moderate lifetime cannabis use also had lesser impairment of metacognition compared to low and heavy use. These findings suggest that a dose related relationship exists between cannabis use and cognition. Results could be due to an influence of pre-existing cognitive level on likelihood of lifetime cannabis use, or to an interaction between use and cognitive function.

      PubDate: 2016-10-11T18:35:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2016.09.001
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2016)
  • Validating the construct of aberrant salience in schizophrenia —
           Behavioral evidence for an automatic process

    • Authors: Teresa Katthagen; Felix Dammering; Norbert Kathmann; Jakob Kaminski; Henrik Walter; Andreas Heinz; Florian Schlagenhauf
      Pages: 22 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 6
      Author(s): Teresa Katthagen, Felix Dammering, Norbert Kathmann, Jakob Kaminski, Henrik Walter, Andreas Heinz, Florian Schlagenhauf
      Suspecting significance behind ordinary events is a common feature in psychosis and it is assumed to occur due to aberrant salience attribution. The Salience Attribution Test (SAT; Roiser et al., 2009) measures aberrant salience as a bias towards one out of two equally reinforced cue features as opposed to adaptive salience towards features indicating high reinforcement. This is the first study to validate the latent constructs involved in salience attribution in patients. Forty-nine schizophrenia patients and forty-four healthy individuals completed the SAT, a novel implicit salience paradigm (ISP), a reversal learning task and a neuropsychological test battery. First, groups were compared on raw measures. Second and within patients, these were correlated and then used for a principal component analysis (PCA). Third, sum scores matching the correlation and component pattern were correlated with psychopathology. Compared to healthy individuals, patients exhibited more implicit aberrant salience in the SAT and ISP and less implicit and explicit adaptive salience attribution in the SAT. Implicit aberrant salience from the SAT and ISP positively correlated with each other and negatively with reversal learning. Whereas explicit aberrant salience was associated with cognition, implicit and explicit adaptive salience were positively correlated. A similar pattern emerged in the PCA and implicit aberrant salience was associated with negative symptoms. Taken together, implicit aberrant salience from the SAT and ISP seems to reflect an automatic process that is independent from deficient salience ascription to relevant events. Its positive correlation with negative symptoms might reflect motivational deficits present in chronic schizophrenia patients.

      PubDate: 2016-11-08T22:57:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2016.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2016)
  • Schizotypy and mindfulness: Magical thinking without suspiciousness
           characterizes mindfulness meditators

    • Authors: Elena Antonova; Kavitha Amaratunga; Bernice Wright; Ulrich Ettinger; Veena Kumari
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 5
      Author(s): Elena Antonova, Kavitha Amaratunga, Bernice Wright, Ulrich Ettinger, Veena Kumari
      Despite growing evidence for demonstrated efficacy of mindfulness in various disorders, there is a continuous concern about the relationship between mindfulness practice and psychosis. As schizotypy is part of the psychosis spectrum, we examined the relationship between long-term mindfulness practice and schizotypy in two independent studies. Study 1 included 24 experienced mindfulness practitioners (19 males) from the Buddhist tradition (meditators) and 24 meditation-naïve individuals (all males). Study 2 consisted of 28 meditators and 28 meditation-naïve individuals (all males). All participants completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (Raine, 1991), a self-report scale containing 9 subscales (ideas of reference, excessive social anxiety, magical thinking, unusual perceptual experiences, odd/eccentric behavior, no close friends, odd speech, constricted affect, suspiciousness). Participants of study 2 also completed the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire which assesses observing (Observe), describing (Describe), acting with awareness (Awareness), non-judging of (Non-judgment) and non-reactivity to inner experience (Non-reactivity) facets of trait mindfulness. In both studies, meditators scored significantly lower on suspiciousness and higher on magical thinking compared to meditation-naïve individuals and showed a trend towards lower scores on excessive social anxiety. Excessive social anxiety correlated negatively with Awareness and Non-judgment; and suspiciousness with Awareness, Non-judgment and Non-reactivity facets across both groups. The two groups did not differ in their total schizotypy score. We conclude that mindfulness practice is not associated with an overall increase in schizotypal traits. Instead, the pattern suggests that mindfulness meditation, particularly with an emphasis on the Awareness, Non-judgment and Non-reactivity aspects, may help to reduce suspiciousness and excessive social anxiety.

      PubDate: 2016-06-07T00:15:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2016.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Change in daytime sleepiness and cognitive function in a 6-month,
           double-blind study of lurasidone and quetiapine XR in patients with

    • Authors: Philip D. Harvey; Cynthia O. Siu; Antony D. Loebel
      Pages: 7 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 5
      Author(s): Philip D. Harvey, Cynthia O. Siu, Antony D. Loebel
      Daytime sleepiness is a commonly reported adverse effect associated with psychotropic agents that may impair cognitive performance and functioning. The objective of this post-hoc analysis was to evaluate the long-term effects of lurasidone and quetiapine XR on daytime sleepiness and neurocognitive performance during a 6-month, double-blind continuation study, in subjects who completed an initial 6-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial comparing these agents. Daytime sleepiness, cognitive performance, and health-related quality of life were assessed with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), CogState computerized battery, and the Quality of Well-Being (QWB-SA) Scale, respectively. Treatment with flexible-dose lurasidone 40–160mg/d, administered once daily in the evening, was associated with significantly reduced daytime sleepiness compared with flexibly dosed quetiapine XR 200–800mg/d (p =0.03, effect size =0.36) at week 32 (month 6 of the continuation study endpoint). Incidence of markedly high sleepiness (ESS >10) was significantly higher in the quetiapine XR (200–800mg/d) group compared with the lurasidone 40–160mg/day both months 3 and 6 visits (p <0.05). Lurasidone (40–160mg/d) significantly improved neurocognitive performance compared to quetiapine XR (200–800mg/d) before (effect size =0.49) and after adjustment (effect size =0.45) for sleepiness effect (p =0.008 and 0.010, respectively). Increased daytime sleepiness was significantly associated with reduced neurocognitive performance (p =0.019) and quality of well-being (p =0.05). Our findings suggest that clinicians should actively monitor patients for the presence of daytime sleepiness due in part to its potential impact on neurocognitive performance and well-being.

      PubDate: 2016-06-07T00:15:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2016.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Decoding emotion of the other differs among schizophrenia patients and
           schizoaffective patients: A pilot study

    • Authors: Hagar Tadmor; Maya Levin; Tzameret Dadon; Meital E. Meiman; Alaa Ajameeh; Hosam Mazzawi; Amihai Rigbi; Ilana Kremer; Idit Golani; Alon Shamir
      Pages: 13 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 5
      Author(s): Hagar Tadmor, Maya Levin, Tzameret Dadon, Meital E. Meiman, Alaa Ajameeh, Hosam Mazzawi, Amihai Rigbi, Ilana Kremer, Idit Golani, Alon Shamir
      The deficit in ability to attribute mental states such as thoughts, beliefs, and intentions of another person is a key component in the functional impairment of social cognition in schizophrenia. In the current study, we compared the ability of persons with first episode schizophrenia (FE-SZ) and individuals with schizophrenia displaying symptomatic remission (SZ-CR) to decode the mental state of others with healthy individuals and schizoaffective patients. In addition, we analyzed the effect of dopamine-related genes polymorphism on the ability to decode the mental state of another, and searched for different genetic signatures. Our results show that overall, individuals with schizophrenia performed worse in the “Reading the Mind in the Eyes” (eyes) test, a simple well-defined task to infer the mental state of others than healthy individuals. Within the schizophrenia group, schizoaffective scored significantly higher than FE-SZ, SZ-CR, and healthy individuals. No difference was observed in performance between FE-SZ and SZ-CR subjects. Interestingly, FE-SZ and SZ-CR, but not schizoaffective individuals, performed worse in decoding negative and neutral emotional valance than the healthy control group. At the genetic level, we observed a significant effect of the DAT genotype, but not D4R genotype, on the eyes test performance. Our data suggest that understanding the mental state of another person is a trait marker of the illness, and might serve as an intermediate phenotype in the diagnostic process of schizophrenia disorders, and raise the possibility that DA-related DAT gene might have a role in decoding the mental state of another person.

      PubDate: 2016-08-17T11:30:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2016.06.001
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Social cognition in patients at ultra-high risk for psychosis: What is the
           relation to social skills and functioning'

    • Authors: Louise B. Glenthøj; Birgitte Fagerlund; Carsten Hjorthøj; Jens R.M. Jepsen; Nikolaj Bak; Tina D. Kristensen; Christina Wenneberg; Kristine Krakauer; David L. Roberts; Merete Nordentoft
      Pages: 21 - 27
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 5
      Author(s): Louise B. Glenthøj, Birgitte Fagerlund, Carsten Hjorthøj, Jens R.M. Jepsen, Nikolaj Bak, Tina D. Kristensen, Christina Wenneberg, Kristine Krakauer, David L. Roberts, Merete Nordentoft
      Objective Patients at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis show significant impairments in functioning. It is essential to determine which factors influence functioning, as it may have implications for intervention strategies. This study examined whether social cognitive abilities and clinical symptoms are associated with functioning and social skills. Methods The study included 65 UHR patients and 30 healthy controls. Social cognitive function, social skills, and a broad range of functioning measures were assessed. Results The UHR patients demonstrated significant decrements on The Awareness of Social Inferences Task total score (p=.046, d =.51), and on the CANTAB emotion recognition task total percent correct (p=.023, d =.54) displaying particular difficulties in negative affect recognition. The patients exhibited significant impairments in social skills measured with the High Risk Social Challenge (p˂.001, d =1.05). Aspects of emotion recognition were associated with role functioning and social skill performance. The level of attributional bias was associated with overall functioning, and theory of mind ability was associated with self-reported functioning. Negative symptoms were associated with all measures of functioning (p≤.05). Conclusion Significant impairments in social cognition and social skills were found in UHR patients. The patients' social cognitive function was associated with overall functioning and social skills. Negative symptoms appear to play an important role for functioning. Research is needed to investigate how the relations between social cognition, social skills and functioning develop from the UHR state to the stage of manifest illness. Research into how deficits in social cognition and social skills can be ameliorated in UHR patients is warranted.

      PubDate: 2016-08-17T11:30:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2016.06.004
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Validation of the cognitively normal range and below normal range subtypes
           in chronically hospitalized patients with schizophrenia

    • Authors: Shih-Kuang Chiang; Ching-Huan Ni; Chih-Pu Tsai; Keng-Chang Lin
      Pages: 28 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 5
      Author(s): Shih-Kuang Chiang, Ching-Huan Ni, Chih-Pu Tsai, Keng-Chang Lin
      Background Many studies have found a substantial minority of patients whose performance puts them within the normal range of neuropsychological functioning. Recently, a study has seen the delineation of two neurocognitive subtypes of schizophrenia –‘cognitively normal range’ (CNR) and ‘below normal range’ (BNR) – based on neurocognitive performance across multiple domains. Methods The participants were from two studies that collected neurocognitive, psychopathology and social function data between 2008 and 2015. In total the complete data from one hundred and thirty one patients of Han Chinese ethnicity with schizophrenia were collected on 21 neurocognitive indexes (assessing the domains of processing speed, attention, working memory, verbal memory, visual memory, reasoning and problem solving and IQ). Fifty-five patients of the one hundred and thirty one participants received additional ratings on their psychopathology and social functions. An exploratory graphic analysis was conducted on the neurocognitive measures for the entire sample. Difference analyses were also performed according to the aims of the study using the Independent t test, Chi-square test, and Cohen's d effect size. Results Analyses revealed the existence of two patients subtypes. The post hoc tests showed that there were significant differences on all of their neurocognitive measures and on most of the psychopathology and social functions between the two subtypes. These two subtypes could be referred to as the CNR subtype and the BNR subtype respectively. Conclusions There are neurocognitive subtypes of schizophrenia with differential illness characteristics comparable with the CNR and the BNR in patients of Han Chinese ethnicity with schizophrenia.

      PubDate: 2016-08-17T11:30:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2016.06.002
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Positive schizotypy and negative schizotypy are associated with
           differential patterns of episodic memory impairment

    • Authors: Lili Sahakyan; Thomas R. Kwapil
      Pages: 35 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 5
      Author(s): Lili Sahakyan, Thomas R. Kwapil
      Cognitive impairment is a hallmark of schizophrenia; however, studies have not comprehensively examined such impairments in non-clinically ascertained schizotypic young adults. The present study employed a series of measures to assess episodic memory in high positive schizotypy, high negative schizotypy, and comparison groups (each group n =25). Consistent with diminished cognitive functioning seen in negative symptom schizophrenia, the negative schizotypy group exhibited deficits on free recall, recognition, and source memory tasks. The positive schizotypy group did not demonstrate deficits on the above mentioned tasks. However, in contrast to the other groups, the positive schizotypy group showed an unexpected set-size effect on the cued-recall task. Set-size effect, which refers to the finding that words that have smaller networks of associates tend to have a memory advantage, is usually found in associative-cuing, but not cued-recall, tasks. The finding for the positive schizotypy group is consistent with heightened spreading activation and reduced executive control suggested to underlie psychotic symptoms. The findings support a multidimensional model of schizotypy and schizophrenia, and suggest that positive and negative schizotypy involve differential patterns of cognitive impairment.

      PubDate: 2016-08-17T11:30:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2016.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Probability and magnitude evaluation in schizophrenia

    • Authors: Matthew A. Albrecht; James A. Waltz; Michael J. Frank; James M. Gold
      Pages: 41 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 5
      Author(s): Matthew A. Albrecht, James A. Waltz, Michael J. Frank, James M. Gold
      Alterations in reinforcement learning and decision making in schizophrenia have been linked with orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) dysfunction, a region critical for weighing reward magnitude in the calculation of expected value (EV). However, much of this work has used complex tasks that require combined learning and EV calculation. Here we used a simple “Roulette” task that examined the calculation of EV directly through a combination of text and/or pictorial representation of reward probability and magnitude. Forty-four people with schizophrenia and 30 controls were recruited. Patients were less sensitive to adjustments in a parameter combining probability and magnitude into one EV construct. Breaking down the construct into independent contributions of probability and magnitude, we found that negative symptoms were associated with magnitude sensitivity. This is consistent with the hypothesized role of OFC in actively representing magnitude and the notion that negative symptoms may involve a failure to appropriately estimate and use future reward magnitude to guide decision making.

      PubDate: 2016-08-17T11:30:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2016.06.003
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Impaired retrieval processes evident during visual working memory in

    • Authors: Peter A. Lynn; Seung Suk Kang; Scott R. Sponheim
      Pages: 47 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 5
      Author(s): Peter A. Lynn, Seung Suk Kang, Scott R. Sponheim
      Prominent working memory (WM) deficits have been observed in people with schizophrenia (PSZ) across multiple sensory modalities, including the visuospatial realm. Electrophysiological abnormalities noted during early visual processing as well as later cognitive functions in PSZ may underlie deficiencies in WM ability, though the mechanisms linking behavior to neural responses are not well understood. WM dysfunction has also been observed in biological relatives of PSZ (REL) and therefore may be a manifestation of genetic liability for the disorder. We administered a delayed response visuospatial WM task to 23 PSZ, 30 of their REL, and 37 healthy controls (CTRL) to better understand the contributions of neural abnormalities to WM performance deficits associated with schizophrenia. PSZ performed more poorly on the WM task and failed to effectively process distractor stimuli as well as CTRL and REL. N1 electrophysiological responses to probes during retrieval differentiated the type and locations of stimuli presented during encoding in CTRL. Retrieval N1 responses in PSZ, however, failed to do so, while retrieval responses in REL showed more pronounced differentiation of stimulus features during encoding. Furthermore, neural responses during retrieval predicted behavioral performance in PSZ and REL, but not CTRL. These results suggest that retrieval processes are particularly important to efficient visuospatial WM function in PSZ and REL, and support further investigation of WM retrieval as a potential target for improving overall WM function through clinical intervention.

      PubDate: 2016-08-17T11:30:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2016.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
  • Attribution bias and social anxiety in schizophrenia

    • Authors: Amelie M. Achim; Stephanie Sutliff; Crystal Samson; Tina C. Montreuil; Tania Lecomte
      Pages: 1 - 3
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 4
      Author(s): Amelie M. Achim, Stephanie Sutliff, Crystal Samson, Tina C. Montreuil, Tania Lecomte
      Studies on attribution biases in schizophrenia have produced mixed results, whereas such biases have been more consistently reported in people with anxiety disorders. Anxiety comorbidities are frequent in schizophrenia, in particular social anxiety disorder, which could influence their patterns of attribution biases. The objective of the present study was thus to determine if individuals with schizophrenia and a comorbid social anxiety disorder (SZ+) show distinct attribution biases as compared with individuals with schizophrenia without social anxiety (SZ−) and healthy controls. Attribution biases were assessed with the Internal, Personal, and Situational Attributions Questionnaire in 41 individual with schizophrenia and 41 healthy controls. Results revealed the lack of the normal externalizing bias in SZ+, whereas SZ− did not significantly differ from healthy controls on this dimension. The personalizing bias was not influenced by social anxiety but was in contrast linked with delusions, with a greater personalizing bias in individuals with current delusions. Future studies on attribution biases in schizophrenia should carefully document symptom presentation, including social anxiety.

      PubDate: 2016-02-27T00:46:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2016.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2016)
  • Kynurenine pathway and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia:
           Pharmacogenetics of galantamine and memantine

    • Authors: Maju Mathew Koola
      Pages: 4 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 4
      Author(s): Maju Mathew Koola
      The Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) project designed to facilitate the development of new drugs for the treatment of cognitive impairments in people with schizophrenia, identified three drug mechanisms of particular interest: dopaminergic, cholinergic, and glutamatergic. Galantamine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and a positive allosteric modulator of the α7 nicotinic receptors. Memantine is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. There is evidence to suggest that the combination of galantamine and memantine may be effective in the treatment of cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. There is a growing body of evidence that excess kynurenic acid (KYNA) is associated with cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. The α-7 nicotinic and the NMDA receptors may counteract the effects of kynurenic acid (KYNA) resulting in cognitive enhancement. Galantamine and memantine through its α-7 nicotinic and NMDA receptors respectively may counteract the effects of KYNA thereby improving cognitive impairments. The Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Cholinergic Receptor, Nicotinic, Alpha 7 gene (CHRNA7), Glutamate (NMDA) Receptor, Metabotropic 1 (GRM1) gene, Dystrobrevin Binding Protein 1 (DTNBP1) and kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) gene may predict treatment response to galantamine and memantine combination for cognitive impairments in schizophrenia in the kynurenine pathway.

      PubDate: 2016-03-15T02:43:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2016.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2016)
  • e-Motional Training®: Pilot study on a novel online training program on
           social cognition for patients with schizophrenia

    • Authors: Miriam Vázquez-Campo; Yolanda Maroño; Guillermo Lahera; Raimundo Mateos; Alejandro García-Caballero
      Pages: 10 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 4
      Author(s): Miriam Vázquez-Campo, Yolanda Maroño, Guillermo Lahera, Raimundo Mateos, Alejandro García-Caballero
      Background Patients with schizophrenia have deficits in social cognition (SC), a construct that includes emotion perception (EP), social perception (SP), theory of mind (ToM) and attributive style (AS). The aim of our study was to assess the applicability, identify potential problems and obtain preliminary data on the efficacy of a new online training program on SC called e-Motional Training (ET®), which can be remotely administered and remotely supervised by a clinician. Materials and methods A pre/post intervention pilot study was conducted with 21 patients with schizophrenia in the healthcare area of Ourense, Spain (12 patients were assigned to the intervention group and 9 in the control group). The control group received standard treatment (TAU) (occupational therapy and leisure group). The intervention group received TAU plus 12 sessions (1hour per week) with ET® (including training modules on emotional perception and a short animated cartoon for ToM and AS training, including automated metacognitive feedback). Endpoints: EP (Ekman 60 Faces Test), ToM (Hinting Task, Faux Pas, Happé), AS (Ambiguous Intentions Hostility Questionnaire). Results ET® was shown to be an understandable, viable and pleasant program for the participants. After the intervention, statistically significant data (p<0.05) were obtained for the EP, ToM and AS variables. Conclusion ET® enables self-training in SC and online follow-up by the therapist, thereby covering the lack of online intervention instruments validated for patients with SC deficits. Our preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of ET® and its possible efficacy in improving emotion recognition, ToM and AS.

      PubDate: 2016-03-15T02:43:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2015.11.007
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2016)
  • Dissociation mediates the relationship between peer victimization and
           hallucinatory experiences among early adolescents

    • Authors: Syudo Yamasaki; Shuntaro Ando; Shinsuke Koike; Satoshi Usami; Kaori Endo; Paul French; Tsukasa Sasaki; Toshi A. Furukawa; Mariko Hasegawa-Hiraiwa; Kiyoto Kasai; Atsushi Nishida
      Pages: 18 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 4
      Author(s): Syudo Yamasaki, Shuntaro Ando, Shinsuke Koike, Satoshi Usami, Kaori Endo, Paul French, Tsukasa Sasaki, Toshi A. Furukawa, Mariko Hasegawa-Hiraiwa, Kiyoto Kasai, Atsushi Nishida
      Peer victimization increases the risk of experiencing psychotic symptoms among clinical and general populations, but the mechanism underlying this association remains unclear. Dissociation, which is related to peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences, has been demonstrated as a significant mediator in the relation between childhood victimization and hallucinatory experience among adult patients with psychosis. However, no studies have examined the mediating effect of dissociation in a general early adolescent population. We examined whether dissociation mediates the relationship between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences among 10-year-old adolescents using a population-based cross-sectional survey of early adolescents and their main parent (Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey; N =4478). We examined the mediating effect of dissociation, as well as external locus of control and depressive symptoms, on the relationship between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences using path analysis. The model assuming mediation effects indicated good model fit (comparative fit index = .999; root mean square error of approximation = .015). The mediation effect between peer victimization and hallucination via dissociation (standardized indirect effect = .038, p <.001) was statistically significant, whereas the mediation effects of depressive symptoms (standardized indirect effect =−.0066, p =0.318) and external locus of control (standardized indirect effect = .0024, p =0.321) were not significant. These results suggest that dissociation is a mediator in the relation between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences in early adolescence. For appropriate intervention strategies, assessing dissociation and peer victimization as they affect hallucinatory experiences is necessary.

      PubDate: 2016-05-19T23:40:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2016.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2016)
  • Effectiveness of fast mapping to promote learning in schizophrenia

    • Authors: Stephanie A. Korenic; Sarah J. Nisonger; Benjamin W. Krause; S. Andrea Wijtenburg; L. Elliot Hong; Laura M. Rowland
      Pages: 24 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 4
      Author(s): Stephanie A. Korenic, Sarah J. Nisonger, Benjamin W. Krause, S. Andrea Wijtenburg, L. Elliot Hong, Laura M. Rowland
      Fast mapping (FM), a process that promotes the expeditious incidental learning of information, is thought to support rapid vocabulary acquisition in young children through extra-medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions. A recent study suggested that patients with MTL damage resulting in profound amnesia were able to learn novel word–image associations using an FM paradigm. The present study investigated whether FM would be an effective strategy to promote learning for individuals with schizophrenia, a severe mental illness associated with compromised MTL functionality. Twenty-five patients with schizophrenia and 27 healthy control subjects completed trials of incidental FM encoding (experimental condition) and explicit encoding (EE, control condition) over the course of three visits spaced one week (±2days) apart. All participants were evaluated for recognition 10min after each encoding condition was presented, and again one week (±2days) later. Results indicate that both groups performed better on the EE recognition trials when compared to FM (p's<0.05). For the FM recognition trials, both groups performed similarly. However, participants with schizophrenia performed significantly worse on the EE recognition trials than healthy control participants (p's<0.05). While participants with schizophrenia did not perform significantly worse when assessed for FM recognition, these results do not provide enough evidence to suggest that FM facilitates learning to a greater extent in schizophrenia when compared to EE. Whether FM may benefit a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia remains a focus of further investigation.

      PubDate: 2016-05-19T23:40:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2016.04.003
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2016)
  • Are persistent delusions in schizophrenia associated with aberrant

    • Authors: Rafeef Abboud; Jonathan P. Roiser; Hind Khalifeh; Sheila Ali; Isobel Harrison; Helen T. Killaspy; Eileen M. Joyce
      Pages: 32 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 4
      Author(s): Rafeef Abboud, Jonathan P. Roiser, Hind Khalifeh, Sheila Ali, Isobel Harrison, Helen T. Killaspy, Eileen M. Joyce
      Objective It has been suggested that positive psychotic symptoms reflect ‘aberrant salience’. Previously we provided support for this hypothesis in first-episode schizophrenia patients, demonstrating that delusional symptoms were associated with aberrant reward processing, indexed by the Salience Attribution Test (SAT). Here we tested whether salience processing is abnormal in schizophrenia patients with long-standing treatment-refractory persistent delusions (TRS). Method Eighteen medicated TRS patients and 31 healthy volunteers completed the SAT, on which participants made a speeded response to earn money in the presence of cues. Each cue comprised two visual dimensions, colour and form. Reinforcement probability varied over one of these dimensions (task-relevant), but not the other (task-irrelevant). Results Participants responded significantly faster on high-probability relative to low-probability trials, representing implicit adaptive salience; this effect was intact in TRS patients. By contrast, TRS patients were impaired on the explicit adaptive salience measure, rating high-probability stimuli less likely to be associated with reward than controls. There was little evidence for elevated aberrant salience in the TRS group. Conclusion These findings do not support the hypothesis that persistent delusions are related to aberrant motivational salience processing in TRS patients. However, they do support the view that patients with schizophrenia have impaired reward learning.

      PubDate: 2016-05-19T23:40:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2016.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2016)
  • Paranoid individuals with schizophrenia show greater social cognitive bias
           and worse social functioning than non-paranoid individuals with

    • Authors: Amy E. Pinkham; Philip D. Harvey; David L. Penn
      Pages: 33 - 38
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 3
      Author(s): Amy E. Pinkham, Philip D. Harvey, David L. Penn
      Paranoia is a common symptom of schizophrenia that may be related to how individuals process and respond to social stimuli. Previous investigations support a link between increased paranoia and greater social cognitive impairments, but these studies have been limited to single domains of social cognition, and no studies have examined how paranoia may influence functional outcome. Data from 147 individuals with schizophrenia were used to examine whether actively paranoid and non-paranoid individuals with schizophrenia differ in social cognition and functional outcomes. On measures assessing social cognitive bias, paranoid individuals endorsed more hostile and blaming attributions and identified more faces as untrustworthy; however, paranoid and non-paranoid individuals did not differ on emotion recognition and theory of mind tasks assessing social cognitive ability. Likewise, paranoid individuals showed greater impairments in real-world interpersonal relationships and social acceptability as compared to non-paranoid patients, but these differences did not extend to performance based tasks assessing functional capacity and social competence. These findings isolate specific social cognitive disparities between paranoid and non-paranoid subgroups and suggest that paranoia may exacerbate the social dysfunction that is commonly experienced by individuals with schizophrenia.

      PubDate: 2016-01-14T21:08:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2015.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2016)
  • Neuropsychological correlates of remission in chronic schizophrenia
           subjects: The role of general and task-specific executive processes

    • Authors: Thais Rabanea-Souza; Henrique T. Akiba; Arthur A. Berberian; Rodrigo A. Bressan; Álvaro M. Dias; Acioly L.T. Lacerda
      Pages: 39 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 3
      Author(s): Thais Rabanea-Souza, Henrique T. Akiba, Arthur A. Berberian, Rodrigo A. Bressan, Álvaro M. Dias, Acioly L.T. Lacerda
      Background Although cognitive deficits have consistently been characterized as core features of schizophrenia, they have not been incorporated into definitions of remission. Furthermore, just a few studies have examined the relationship between cognitive deficits and symptomatic remission. The main aim of the present study is to evaluate the executive functioning of nonremitted schizophrenia patients. Methods 72 remitted and 42 nonremitted schizophrenia patients, and 119 healthy controls were examined. Subjects were tested with a comprehensive battery of cognitive tests, including a measure to assess the general components of executive functioning and individual tasks to tap the three specific executive dimensions assessed in the present study, namely updating, shifting and inhibition. Results Schizophrenia subjects performed poorly on general executive functioning and shifting tasks in comparison to healthy controls. Remitted subjects performed better than nonremitted on inhibition and updating tasks. Whereas being a male and showing decreases in updating increase the chances of being in the nonremitted schizophrenia subjects group, increases in shifting and updating enhance the odds of being in the healthy control group. Conclusion The present findings suggest that executive function deficits are present in chronic schizophrenic patients. In addition, specific executive processes might be associated to symptom remission. Future studies examining prospectively first-episode, drug naive patients diagnosed with schizophrenia may be especially elucidative.

      PubDate: 2016-02-16T23:07:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2015.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2016)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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