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Journal Cover Schizophrenia Research : Cognition
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2215-0013
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2969 journals]
  • Change in daytime sleepiness and cognitive function in a 6-month,
           double-blind study of lurasidone and quetiapine XR in patients with

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 5
      Author(s): Philip D. Harvey, Cynthia O. Siu, Antony D. Loebel
      Daytime sleepiness is a commonly reported adverse effect associated with psychotropic agents that may impair cognitive performance and functioning. The objective of this post-hoc analysis was to evaluate the long-term effects of lurasidone and quetiapine XR on daytime sleepiness and neurocognitive performance during a 6-month, double-blind continuation study, in subjects who completed an initial 6-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trial comparing these agents. Daytime sleepiness, cognitive performance, and health-related quality of life were assessed with the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), CogState computerized battery, and the Quality of Well-Being (QWB-SA) Scale, respectively. Treatment with flexible-dose lurasidone 40–160mg/d, administered once daily in the evening, was associated with significantly reduced daytime sleepiness compared with flexibly dosed quetiapine XR 200–800mg/d (p =0.03, effect size =0.36) at week 32 (month 6 of the continuation study endpoint). Incidence of markedly high sleepiness (ESS >10) was significantly higher in the quetiapine XR (200–800mg/d) group compared with the lurasidone 40–160mg/day both months 3 and 6 visits (p <0.05). Lurasidone (40–160mg/d) significantly improved neurocognitive performance compared to quetiapine XR (200–800mg/d) before (effect size =0.49) and after adjustment (effect size =0.45) for sleepiness effect (p =0.008 and 0.010, respectively). Increased daytime sleepiness was significantly associated with reduced neurocognitive performance (p =0.019) and quality of well-being (p =0.05). Our findings suggest that clinicians should actively monitor patients for the presence of daytime sleepiness due in part to its potential impact on neurocognitive performance and well-being.

      PubDate: 2016-06-07T00:15:47Z
  • Schizotypy and mindfulness: Magical thinking without suspiciousness
           characterizes mindfulness meditators

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 5
      Author(s): Elena Antonova, Kavitha Amaratunga, Bernice Wright, Ulrich Ettinger, Veena Kumari
      Despite growing evidence for demonstrated efficacy of mindfulness in various disorders, there is a continuous concern about the relationship between mindfulness practice and psychosis. As schizotypy is part of the psychosis spectrum, we examined the relationship between long-term mindfulness practice and schizotypy in two independent studies. Study 1 included 24 experienced mindfulness practitioners (19 males) from the Buddhist tradition (meditators) and 24 meditation-naïve individuals (all males). Study 2 consisted of 28 meditators and 28 meditation-naïve individuals (all males). All participants completed the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (Raine, 1991), a self-report scale containing 9 subscales (ideas of reference, excessive social anxiety, magical thinking, unusual perceptual experiences, odd/eccentric behavior, no close friends, odd speech, constricted affect, suspiciousness). Participants of study 2 also completed the Five-Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire which assesses observing (Observe), describing (Describe), acting with awareness (Awareness), non-judging of (Non-judgment) and non-reactivity to inner experience (Non-reactivity) facets of trait mindfulness. In both studies, meditators scored significantly lower on suspiciousness and higher on magical thinking compared to meditation-naïve individuals and showed a trend towards lower scores on excessive social anxiety. Excessive social anxiety correlated negatively with Awareness and Non-judgment; and suspiciousness with Awareness, Non-judgment and Non-reactivity facets across both groups. The two groups did not differ in their total schizotypy score. We conclude that mindfulness practice is not associated with an overall increase in schizotypal traits. Instead, the pattern suggests that mindfulness meditation, particularly with an emphasis on the Awareness, Non-judgment and Non-reactivity aspects, may help to reduce suspiciousness and excessive social anxiety.

      PubDate: 2016-06-07T00:15:47Z
  • Dissociation mediates the relationship between peer victimization and
           hallucinatory experiences among early adolescents

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 4
      Author(s): Syudo Yamasaki, Shuntaro Ando, Shinsuke Koike, Satoshi Usami, Kaori Endo, Paul French, Tsukasa Sasaki, Toshi A. Furukawa, Mariko Hasegawa-Hiraiwa, Kiyoto Kasai, Atsushi Nishida
      Peer victimization increases the risk of experiencing psychotic symptoms among clinical and general populations, but the mechanism underlying this association remains unclear. Dissociation, which is related to peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences, has been demonstrated as a significant mediator in the relation between childhood victimization and hallucinatory experience among adult patients with psychosis. However, no studies have examined the mediating effect of dissociation in a general early adolescent population. We examined whether dissociation mediates the relationship between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences among 10-year-old adolescents using a population-based cross-sectional survey of early adolescents and their main parent (Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey; N =4478). We examined the mediating effect of dissociation, as well as external locus of control and depressive symptoms, on the relationship between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences using path analysis. The model assuming mediation effects indicated good model fit (comparative fit index = .999; root mean square error of approximation = .015). The mediation effect between peer victimization and hallucination via dissociation (standardized indirect effect = .038, p <.001) was statistically significant, whereas the mediation effects of depressive symptoms (standardized indirect effect =−.0066, p =0.318) and external locus of control (standardized indirect effect = .0024, p =0.321) were not significant. These results suggest that dissociation is a mediator in the relation between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences in early adolescence. For appropriate intervention strategies, assessing dissociation and peer victimization as they affect hallucinatory experiences is necessary.

      PubDate: 2016-05-19T23:40:13Z
  • Are persistent delusions in schizophrenia associated with aberrant

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 4
      Author(s): Rafeef Abboud, Jonathan P. Roiser, Hind Khalifeh, Sheila Ali, Isobel Harrison, Helen T. Killaspy, Eileen M. Joyce
      Objective It has been suggested that positive psychotic symptoms reflect ‘aberrant salience’. Previously we provided support for this hypothesis in first-episode schizophrenia patients, demonstrating that delusional symptoms were associated with aberrant reward processing, indexed by the Salience Attribution Test (SAT). Here we tested whether salience processing is abnormal in schizophrenia patients with long-standing treatment-refractory persistent delusions (TRS). Method Eighteen medicated TRS patients and 31 healthy volunteers completed the SAT, on which participants made a speeded response to earn money in the presence of cues. Each cue comprised two visual dimensions, colour and form. Reinforcement probability varied over one of these dimensions (task-relevant), but not the other (task-irrelevant). Results Participants responded significantly faster on high-probability relative to low-probability trials, representing implicit adaptive salience; this effect was intact in TRS patients. By contrast, TRS patients were impaired on the explicit adaptive salience measure, rating high-probability stimuli less likely to be associated with reward than controls. There was little evidence for elevated aberrant salience in the TRS group. Conclusion These findings do not support the hypothesis that persistent delusions are related to aberrant motivational salience processing in TRS patients. However, they do support the view that patients with schizophrenia have impaired reward learning.

      PubDate: 2016-05-19T23:40:13Z
  • Effectiveness of fast mapping to promote learning in schizophrenia

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 4
      Author(s): Stephanie A. Korenic, Sarah J. Nisonger, Benjamin W. Krause, S. Andrea Wijtenburg, L. Elliot Hong, Laura M. Rowland
      Fast mapping (FM), a process that promotes the expeditious incidental learning of information, is thought to support rapid vocabulary acquisition in young children through extra-medial temporal lobe (MTL) regions. A recent study suggested that patients with MTL damage resulting in profound amnesia were able to learn novel word–image associations using an FM paradigm. The present study investigated whether FM would be an effective strategy to promote learning for individuals with schizophrenia, a severe mental illness associated with compromised MTL functionality. Twenty-five patients with schizophrenia and 27 healthy control subjects completed trials of incidental FM encoding (experimental condition) and explicit encoding (EE, control condition) over the course of three visits spaced one week (±2days) apart. All participants were evaluated for recognition 10min after each encoding condition was presented, and again one week (±2days) later. Results indicate that both groups performed better on the EE recognition trials when compared to FM (p's<0.05). For the FM recognition trials, both groups performed similarly. However, participants with schizophrenia performed significantly worse on the EE recognition trials than healthy control participants (p's<0.05). While participants with schizophrenia did not perform significantly worse when assessed for FM recognition, these results do not provide enough evidence to suggest that FM facilitates learning to a greater extent in schizophrenia when compared to EE. Whether FM may benefit a subgroup of patients with schizophrenia remains a focus of further investigation.

      PubDate: 2016-05-19T23:40:13Z
  • e-Motional Training®: Pilot study on a novel online training program
           on social cognition for patients with schizophrenia

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 4
      Author(s): Miriam Vázquez-Campo, Yolanda Maroño, Guillermo Lahera, Raimundo Mateos, Alejandro García-Caballero
      Background Patients with schizophrenia have deficits in social cognition (SC), a construct that includes emotion perception (EP), social perception (SP), theory of mind (ToM) and attributive style (AS). The aim of our study was to assess the applicability, identify potential problems and obtain preliminary data on the efficacy of a new online training program on SC called e-Motional Training (ET®), which can be remotely administered and remotely supervised by a clinician. Materials and methods A pre/post intervention pilot study was conducted with 21 patients with schizophrenia in the healthcare area of Ourense, Spain (12 patients were assigned to the intervention group and 9 in the control group). The control group received standard treatment (TAU) (occupational therapy and leisure group). The intervention group received TAU plus 12 sessions (1hour per week) with ET® (including training modules on emotional perception and a short animated cartoon for ToM and AS training, including automated metacognitive feedback). Endpoints: EP (Ekman 60 Faces Test), ToM (Hinting Task, Faux Pas, Happé), AS (Ambiguous Intentions Hostility Questionnaire). Results ET® was shown to be an understandable, viable and pleasant program for the participants. After the intervention, statistically significant data (p<0.05) were obtained for the EP, ToM and AS variables. Conclusion ET® enables self-training in SC and online follow-up by the therapist, thereby covering the lack of online intervention instruments validated for patients with SC deficits. Our preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of ET® and its possible efficacy in improving emotion recognition, ToM and AS.

      PubDate: 2016-03-15T02:43:16Z
  • Kynurenine pathway and cognitive impairments in schizophrenia:
           Pharmacogenetics of galantamine and memantine

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 4
      Author(s): Maju Mathew Koola
      The Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) project designed to facilitate the development of new drugs for the treatment of cognitive impairments in people with schizophrenia, identified three drug mechanisms of particular interest: dopaminergic, cholinergic, and glutamatergic. Galantamine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and a positive allosteric modulator of the α7 nicotinic receptors. Memantine is an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist. There is evidence to suggest that the combination of galantamine and memantine may be effective in the treatment of cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. There is a growing body of evidence that excess kynurenic acid (KYNA) is associated with cognitive impairments in schizophrenia. The α-7 nicotinic and the NMDA receptors may counteract the effects of kynurenic acid (KYNA) resulting in cognitive enhancement. Galantamine and memantine through its α-7 nicotinic and NMDA receptors respectively may counteract the effects of KYNA thereby improving cognitive impairments. The Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Cholinergic Receptor, Nicotinic, Alpha 7 gene (CHRNA7), Glutamate (NMDA) Receptor, Metabotropic 1 (GRM1) gene, Dystrobrevin Binding Protein 1 (DTNBP1) and kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) gene may predict treatment response to galantamine and memantine combination for cognitive impairments in schizophrenia in the kynurenine pathway.

      PubDate: 2016-03-15T02:43:16Z
  • Attribution bias and social anxiety in schizophrenia

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 4
      Author(s): Amelie M. Achim, Stephanie Sutliff, Crystal Samson, Tina C. Montreuil, Tania Lecomte
      Studies on attribution biases in schizophrenia have produced mixed results, whereas such biases have been more consistently reported in people with anxiety disorders. Anxiety comorbidities are frequent in schizophrenia, in particular social anxiety disorder, which could influence their patterns of attribution biases. The objective of the present study was thus to determine if individuals with schizophrenia and a comorbid social anxiety disorder (SZ+) show distinct attribution biases as compared with individuals with schizophrenia without social anxiety (SZ−) and healthy controls. Attribution biases were assessed with the Internal, Personal, and Situational Attributions Questionnaire in 41 individual with schizophrenia and 41 healthy controls. Results revealed the lack of the normal externalizing bias in SZ+, whereas SZ− did not significantly differ from healthy controls on this dimension. The personalizing bias was not influenced by social anxiety but was in contrast linked with delusions, with a greater personalizing bias in individuals with current delusions. Future studies on attribution biases in schizophrenia should carefully document symptom presentation, including social anxiety.

      PubDate: 2016-02-27T00:46:20Z
  • Neuropsychological correlates of remission in chronic schizophrenia
           subjects: The role of general and task-specific executive processes

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 3
      Author(s): Thais Rabanea-Souza, Henrique T. Akiba, Arthur A. Berberian, Rodrigo A. Bressan, Álvaro M. Dias, Acioly L.T. Lacerda
      Background Although cognitive deficits have consistently been characterized as core features of schizophrenia, they have not been incorporated into definitions of remission. Furthermore, just a few studies have examined the relationship between cognitive deficits and symptomatic remission. The main aim of the present study is to evaluate the executive functioning of nonremitted schizophrenia patients. Methods 72 remitted and 42 nonremitted schizophrenia patients, and 119 healthy controls were examined. Subjects were tested with a comprehensive battery of cognitive tests, including a measure to assess the general components of executive functioning and individual tasks to tap the three specific executive dimensions assessed in the present study, namely updating, shifting and inhibition. Results Schizophrenia subjects performed poorly on general executive functioning and shifting tasks in comparison to healthy controls. Remitted subjects performed better than nonremitted on inhibition and updating tasks. Whereas being a male and showing decreases in updating increase the chances of being in the nonremitted schizophrenia subjects group, increases in shifting and updating enhance the odds of being in the healthy control group. Conclusion The present findings suggest that executive function deficits are present in chronic schizophrenic patients. In addition, specific executive processes might be associated to symptom remission. Future studies examining prospectively first-episode, drug naive patients diagnosed with schizophrenia may be especially elucidative.

      PubDate: 2016-02-16T23:07:11Z
  • Paranoid individuals with schizophrenia show greater social cognitive bias
           and worse social functioning than non-paranoid individuals with

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 3
      Author(s): Amy E. Pinkham, Philip D. Harvey, David L. Penn
      Paranoia is a common symptom of schizophrenia that may be related to how individuals process and respond to social stimuli. Previous investigations support a link between increased paranoia and greater social cognitive impairments, but these studies have been limited to single domains of social cognition, and no studies have examined how paranoia may influence functional outcome. Data from 147 individuals with schizophrenia were used to examine whether actively paranoid and non-paranoid individuals with schizophrenia differ in social cognition and functional outcomes. On measures assessing social cognitive bias, paranoid individuals endorsed more hostile and blaming attributions and identified more faces as untrustworthy; however, paranoid and non-paranoid individuals did not differ on emotion recognition and theory of mind tasks assessing social cognitive ability. Likewise, paranoid individuals showed greater impairments in real-world interpersonal relationships and social acceptability as compared to non-paranoid patients, but these differences did not extend to performance based tasks assessing functional capacity and social competence. These findings isolate specific social cognitive disparities between paranoid and non-paranoid subgroups and suggest that paranoia may exacerbate the social dysfunction that is commonly experienced by individuals with schizophrenia.

      PubDate: 2016-01-14T21:08:57Z
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