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Journal Cover Schizophrenia Research : Cognition
  [SJR: 0.598]   [H-I: 4]   [2 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2215-0013
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3049 journals]
  • Self versus informant reports on the specific levels of functioning scale:
           Relationships to depression and cognition in schizophrenia and
           schizoaffective disorder

    • Authors: Julia Ermel; Cameron S. Carter; James M. Gold; Angus W. MacDonald; J. Daniel Ragland; Steven M. Silverstein; Milton E. Strauss; Deanna M. Barch
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 9
      Author(s): Julia Ermel, Cameron S. Carter, James M. Gold, Angus W. MacDonald, J. Daniel Ragland, Steven M. Silverstein, Milton E. Strauss, Deanna M. Barch
      The goal of the current study was to examine the relationships between insight and both cognitive function and depression in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, and to determine if there were similar relationships across diagnostic categories. We examined discrepancies between self and informant reports of function on the Specific levels of function scale as a metric of insight for interpersonal, social acceptance, work and activities. We examined two samples of individuals with schizophrenia and/or schizoaffective disorder (Ns of 188 and 67 respectively). In Sample 1, cognition was measured using the Dot Probe Expectancy Task. In Sample 2, cognition was measured by averaging several subtests from the MATRICS consensus cognitive battery, as well as additional measures of working memory. In both samples, depression was measured using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. In both samples, we found significant relationships between worse cognition and overestimations of work function, as well as between higher depression levels and underestimation of interpersonal function. These relationships were specific to interpersonal and work function, with significantly stronger correlations with interpersonal and work function compared to the other areas of function. Similar results were found across diagnostic categories. These results have important implications for treatment planning, as they suggest the need to take into account depression and cognitive function when evaluating the patient's self-report of function, and highlight the utility of informant reports in evaluating function and treatment planning. Further, they add to the literature on the similarity across schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder in a variety of pathological mechanisms.

      PubDate: 2017-05-09T22:57:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2017.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2017)
  • Omega-3 fatty acids related to cognitive impairment in patients with

    • Authors: Kazumi Satogami; Shun Takahashi; Shinichi Yamada; Satoshi Ukai; Kazuhiro Shinosaki
      Pages: 8 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 9
      Author(s): Kazumi Satogami, Shun Takahashi, Shinichi Yamada, Satoshi Ukai, Kazuhiro Shinosaki
      Cognitive impairment is strongly associated with functional outcome in patients with schizophrenia but its pathophysiology remains largely unclear. Involvement of omega-3 fatty acids in the cognitive function of healthy individuals and patients with neuropsychiatric disease has received increasing attention. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between omega-3 fatty acids with cognitive function, social function, and psychiatric symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. The subjects included 30 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Psychiatric symptoms, cognitive function, and social function were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS), and the Social Functioning Scale (SFS), respectively. Blood serum omega-3 fatty acids were assessed using gas chromatography. The BACS composite score was significantly correlated with blood eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels. In addition, a daily dose of antipsychotic medication was negatively and significantly correlated with the blood DHA level and with the BACS composite score. Step-wise multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the SFS score was significantly associated with the BACS composite score. Our results indicate that reduced blood omega-3 fatty acids are associated with cognitive impairment, which then impacts social functioning outcomes in schizophrenia.

      PubDate: 2017-05-19T20:46:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2017.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2017)
  • No association between symptom severity and MMN impairment in
           schizophrenia: A meta-analytic approach

    • Authors: Molly A. Erickson; Matthew Albrecht; Abigail Ruffle; Leah Fleming; Philip Corlett; James Gold
      Pages: 13 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 9
      Author(s): Molly A. Erickson, Matthew Albrecht, Abigail Ruffle, Leah Fleming, Philip Corlett, James Gold
      The mismatch negativity (MMN) is an event-related potential that is consistently attenuated in people with schizophrenia. Within the predictive coding model of psychosis, MMN impairment is thought to reflect the same prediction failures that are also thought to underlie the development and crystallization of delusions and hallucinations. However, the true relationship between symptom severity and MMN impairment across studies has not yet been established. The present meta-analysis used meta-regressions to examine the relationship between MMN impairment (quantified as Hedges' g) and PANSS positive and negative symptom totals across 62 and 68 samples, respectively. Furthermore, we examined the relationship between MMN impairment and group differences in educational achievement (n =47 samples), cognitive ability (n =36 samples), and age (n =86 samples). Overall, we found no significant associations between MMN impairment and symptom severity (p's>0.50); however, we did observe a trend-level association between MMN impairment and lower education (p =0.07) and a significant association with older age (p <0.01) in the schizophrenia patient group. Taken together, these results challenge a simple predictive coding model of psychosis, and suggest that MMN impairment may be more closely associated with premorbid functioning than with the expression of psychotic symptoms.

      PubDate: 2017-05-19T20:46:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2017.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2017)
  • Is the association between offspring intelligence and parents' educational
           attainment influenced by schizophrenia or mood disorder in parents'

    • Authors: Aja Neergaard Greve; Ole Mors; Erik Lykke Mortensen; Sandra Melanie Meier; John J. McGrath; Liselotte Petersen
      Pages: 18 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 9
      Author(s): Aja Neergaard Greve, Ole Mors, Erik Lykke Mortensen, Sandra Melanie Meier, John J. McGrath, Liselotte Petersen
      Results from twin, family, and adoption studies all suggest that general intelligence is highly heritable. Several studies have shown lower premorbid intelligence in individuals before the onset of both mood disorders and psychosis, as well as in children and adolescents at genetic high risk for developing schizophrenia. Based on these findings, we aim to investigate if the association between educational achievement in parents and intelligence in their offspring is influenced by schizophrenia or mood disorder in parents. In a large population-based sample of young adult male conscripts (n=156,531) the presence of a mental disorder in the parents were associated with significantly lower offspring scores on a test of general intelligence, the Børge Priens Prøve (BPP), and higher educational attainment in parents was significantly associated with higher BPP test scores in offspring. A significant interaction suggested that the positive association between maternal education and offspring intelligence was stronger in offspring of mothers with schizophrenia compared to the control group (p= 0.03). The associations between parental education and offspring intelligence are also observed when restricting the sample to conscripts whose parents are diagnosed after 30years of age. In conclusion, findings from this study show a more positive effect of education on offspring intelligence in mothers with schizophrenia compared to mothers from the control group. This effect could have both environmental and genetic explanations.

      PubDate: 2017-07-31T12:12:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2017.07.001
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2017)
  • NMDAR hypofunction and somatostatin-expressing GABAergic interneurons and
           receptors: A newly identified correlation and its effects in schizophrenia

    • Authors: Fatemah Alherz; Mohammad Alherz; Hashemiah Almusawi
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 8
      Author(s): Fatemah Alherz, Mohammad Alherz, Hashemiah Almusawi
      This review investigates the association between N-methyl-d-Aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction and somatostatin-expressing GABAergic interneurons (SST+) and how it contributes to the cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia (SZ). This is based on evidence that NMDAR antagonists caused symptoms resembling SZ in healthy individuals. NMDAR hypofunction in GABAergic interneurons results in the modulation of the cortical network oscillation, particularly in the gamma range (30–80Hz). These gamma-band oscillation (GBO) abnormalities were found to lead to the cognitive deficits observed in the disorder. Postmortem mRNA studies have shown that SST decreased more significantly than any other biomarker in schizophrenic subjects. The functional role of Somatostatin (SST) in the aetiology of SZ can be studied through its receptors. Genetic knockout studies in animal models in Huntington's disease (HD) have shown that a specific SST receptor, SSTR2, is increased along with the increased NMDAR activity, with opposing patterns observed in SZ. A direct correlation between SSTR and NMDAR is hence inferred in this review with the hope of finding a potential new therapeutic target for the treatment of SZ and related neurological conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T07:26:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2017.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2017)
  • EPICOG-SCH: A brief battery to screen cognitive impact of schizophrenia in
           stable outpatients

    • Authors: Silvia Zaragoza Domingo; Julio Bobes; Maria-Paz García-Portilla; Claudia Morralla
      Pages: 7 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 8
      Author(s): Silvia Zaragoza Domingo, Julio Bobes, Maria-Paz García-Portilla, Claudia Morralla
      Brief batteries in schizophrenia, are needed to screen for the cognitive impact of schizophrenia. We aimed to validate and co-norm the Epidemiological Study of Cognitive Impairment in Schizophrenia (EPICOG-SCH) derived brief cognitive battery. A cross-sectional outpatient evaluation was conducted of six-hundred-seventy-two patients recruited from 234 centers. The brief battery included well-known subtests available worldwide that cover cognitive domains related to functional outcomes: WAIS-III-Letter-Number-Sequencing-LNS, Category Fluency Test-CFT, Logical-Memory Immediate Recall-LM, and Digit-Symbol-Coding-DSC. CGI-SCH Severity and WHO-DAS-S were used to assess clinical severity and functional impairment, respectively. Unit Composite Score (UCS) and functional regression-weighted Composite Scores (FWCS) were obtained; discriminant properties of FWCS to identify patients with different levels of functional disability were analyzed using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) technique. The battery showed good internal consistency, Cronbach's alpha=0.78. The differences between cognitive performance across CGI-SCH severity level subscales ranged from 0.5 to 1 SD. Discriminant capacity of the battery in identifying patients with up to moderate disability levels showed fair discriminant accuracy with areas under the curve (AUC)>0.70, p<0.0001. An FWCS mean cut-off score≥100 showed likelihood ratios (LR) up to 4.7, with an LR+ of 2.3 and a LR− of 0.5. An FWCS cut-off≥96 provided the best balance between sensitivity (0.74) and specificity (0.62). The EPICOG-SCH proved to be a useful brief tool to screen for the cognitive impact of schizophrenia, and its regression-weighted Composite Score was an efficient complement to clinical interviews for confirming patients' potential functional outcomes and can be useful for monitoring cognition during routine outpatient follow-up visits.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T08:48:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2017.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2017)
  • Is performance on probed serial recall tasks in schizophrenia related to
           duration of Attentional Blink'

    • Authors: David P. McAllindon; Philip G. Tibbo; Gail A. Eskes
      Pages: 8 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 7
      Author(s): David P. McAllindon, Philip G. Tibbo, Gail A. Eskes
      Schizophrenia is associated with a deficit in working memory, with the degree of working memory impairment related to the level of social and occupational functioning. This study tests the hypothesis that the working memory deficits in individuals with schizophrenia can be explained by slow processing of visual stimuli, as measured by the attentional blink (AB) task. Individuals with schizophrenia (SC) and controls (HC) were recruited from an early intervention service for psychosis and the local community. Data from 16 SC (11M/5F, mean=26.4yo) and 20 age-matched HC (11M/9F, mean=25.8yo) were analyzed. Each subject performed an AB task to determine their AB duration, defined as the lag to reach their plateau performance (ltpp). As expected, mean AB duration in the SC group (575ms) was significantly slower than HC (460ms; p =0.007). Recall accuracy of the SC group on a working memory task, a 6-item probed serial recall task (PSR), was reduced compared to the HC group at a standard interstimulus interval (ISI) (p =0.002). When the individual's AB duration was then used to adjust the ISI on the PSR task to three relative ISI rates (Slow (2×ltpp), Medium (ltpp) and Fast (1/2×ltpp)), performance on the PSR task was affected by group, position and ISI and qualified by an ISI∗position (p =0.001) and a trend to a triple interaction (p =0.054). There was main effect of group at all ISIs, but group∗position interaction only at Slow ISI (p =0.01). Our interpretation of the results is that absolute ISI, rather than ISI relative to AB duration, affected performance.

      PubDate: 2017-01-24T15:39:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2016.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2017)
  • Model selection and prediction of outcomes in recent onset schizophrenia
           patients who undergo cognitive training

    • Authors: Ian S. Ramsay; Sisi Ma; Melissa Fisher; Rachel L. Loewy; J. Daniel Ragland; Tara Niendam; Cameron S. Carter; Sophia Vinogradov
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 11
      Author(s): Ian S. Ramsay, Sisi Ma, Melissa Fisher, Rachel L. Loewy, J. Daniel Ragland, Tara Niendam, Cameron S. Carter, Sophia Vinogradov
      Predicting treatment outcomes in psychiatric populations remains a challenge, but is increasingly important in the pursuit of personalized medicine. Patients with schizophrenia have deficits in cognition, and targeted cognitive training (TCT) of auditory processing and working memory has been shown to improve some of these impairments; but little is known about the baseline patient characteristics predictive of cognitive improvement. Here we use a model selection and regression approach called least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) to examine predictors of cognitive improvement in response to TCT for patients with recent onset schizophrenia. Forty-three individuals with recent onset schizophrenia randomized to undergo TCT were assessed at baseline on measures of cognition, symptoms, functioning, illness duration, and demographic variables. We carried out 10-fold cross-validation of LASSO for model selection and regression. We followed up on these results using linear models for statistical inference. No individual variable was found to correlate with improvement in global cognition using a Pearson correlation approach, and a linear model including all variables was also found not to be significant. However, the LASSO model identified baseline global cognition, education, and gender in a model predictive of improvement on global cognition following TCT. These findings offer guidelines for personalized approaches to cognitive training for patients with schizophrenia.

      PubDate: 2017-11-14T15:48:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2017.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2017)
  • The influence of schizotypal traits on attention under high perceptual

    • Authors: Hanne Stotesbury; Sebastian B. Gaigg; Saim Kirhan; Corinna Haenschel
      Pages: 6 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 11
      Author(s): Hanne Stotesbury, Sebastian B. Gaigg, Saim Kirhan, Corinna Haenschel
      Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders (SSD) are known to be characterised by abnormalities in attentional processes, but there are inconsistencies in the literature that remain unresolved. This article considers whether perceptual resource limitations play a role in moderating attentional abnormalities in SSD. According to perceptual load theory, perceptual resource limitations can lead to attenuated or superior performance on dual-task paradigms depending on whether participants are required to process, or attempt to ignore, secondary stimuli. If SSD is associated with perceptual resource limitations, and if it represents the extreme end of an otherwise normally distributed neuropsychological phenotype, schizotypal traits in the general population should lead to disproportionate performance costs on dual-task paradigms as a function of the perceptual task demands. To test this prediction, schizotypal traits were quantified via the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) in 74 healthy volunteers, who also completed a dual-task signal detection paradigm that required participants to detect central and peripheral stimuli across conditions that varied in the overall number of stimuli presented. The results confirmed decreasing performance as the perceptual load of the task increased. More importantly, significant correlations between SPQ scores and task performance confirmed that increased schizotypal traits, particularly in the cognitive-perceptual domain, are associated with greater performance decrements under increasing perceptual load. These results confirm that attentional difficulties associated with SSD extend sub-clinically into the general population and suggest that cognitive-perceptual schizotypal traits may represent a risk factor for difficulties in the regulation of attention under increasing perceptual load.

      PubDate: 2017-11-14T15:48:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2017.10.002
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2017)
  • Speed and capacity of working memory and executive function in
           schizophrenia compared to unipolar depression

    • Authors: Wolfgang Trapp; Simone Dotterweich; Lena Hintner; Hannah Wollny; Stefan Lautenbacher; Göran Hajak
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 10
      Author(s): Wolfgang Trapp, Simone Dotterweich, Lena Hintner, Hannah Wollny, Stefan Lautenbacher, Göran Hajak
      Schizophrenia is associated with deficits in working memory (WM) and executive functioning (EF) that are present from prodrome to chronic stages of the disease and are related to social and occupational functioning. Recent empirical findings suggest that schizophrenia patients might suffer from a specific speed deficit regarding WM operations that also affects EF. To test this hypothesis, executive functioning (EF) and working memory (WM) performance of 20 schizophrenia (SC) patients, 20 patients suffering from Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and 40 healthy control (HC) subjects were compared. While schizophrenia patients performed worse in the measure of EF, no difference between the SC and the MDD patients was found regarding WM capacity. However, the SC group was shown to have an impaired speed in encoding, retrieval and manipulation of WM contents compared to the HC group whereas the MDD group showed no such deficit. Furthermore, while in the MDD group only WM capacity was linked to EF performance, in the SC group EF was determined by both WM capacity and WM speed. Hence, increasing the speed of WM operations might be a fruitful target for future therapeutic interventions, and assessing not only the capacity but also the speed of WM might be helpful in identifying candidates for endophenotypic cognitive markers of SC.

      PubDate: 2017-07-31T12:12:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2017.07.002
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2017)
  • Feasibility and preliminary efficacy of remotely delivering cognitive
           training to people with schizophrenia using tablets

    • Authors: Bruno Biagianti; Melissa Fisher; Lisa Howard; Abby Rowlands; Sophia Vinogradov; Joshua Woolley
      Pages: 7 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 10
      Author(s): Bruno Biagianti, Melissa Fisher, Lisa Howard, Abby Rowlands, Sophia Vinogradov, Joshua Woolley
      Background Limited access to Cognitive Training (CT) for people with schizophrenia (SZ) prevents widespread adoption of this intervention. Delivering CT remotely via tablets may increase accessibility, improve scheduling flexibility, and diminish patient burden. Methods In this reanalysis of data from a larger trial of CT, we compared two samples of individuals with SZ who chose to complete 40h of CT either on desktop computers in the laboratory (N =33) or remotely via iPads (N =41). We examined attrition rates and adherence to training, and investigated whether remote iPad-based CT and in-person desktop-based CT induced significantly different improvements in cognitive and real-world functioning. Results The attrition rate was 36.6%. On average, participants completed 3.06h of CT per week. There were no significant between-group differences in attrition and adherence to CT requirements. Participants who completed iPad-based CT were significantly younger and had lower symptoms at baseline compared to participants who completed CT on the lab desktops. Controlling for age and symptom severity, rANCOVA showed that iPad-based and desktop-based CT similarly and significantly improved verbal learning and problem solving. Main effects of time, at trend level significance, were evident in global cognition, verbal memory, quality of life, and social functioning. All group by time interactions were non-significant except for verbal memory, where iPad users showed greater gains. Within-group effect sizes for changes in outcomes were in the small range. Conclusion Although underpowered and not randomized, this study demonstrates that delivering CT remotely to people with SZ using tablets is feasible and results in retention rates, adherence, and cognitive and functional outcome improvements that are comparable to those observed when CT is delivered in the laboratory. This has important implications in terms of scalability and dissemination of CT. These results require confirmation in larger samples.

      PubDate: 2017-08-10T02:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2017.07.003
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2017)
  • Using virtual reality to assess theory of mind subprocesses and error
           types in early and chronic schizophrenia

    • Authors: Allana L. Canty; David L. Neumann; David H.K. Shum
      Pages: 15 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 10
      Author(s): Allana L. Canty, David L. Neumann, David H.K. Shum
      Individuals with schizophrenia often demonstrate theory of mind (ToM) impairment relative to healthy adults. However, the exact nature of this impairment (first- vs. second-order ToM and cognitive vs. affective ToM) and the extent to which ToM abilities deteriorate with illness chronicity is unclear. Furthermore, little is known about the relationships between clinical symptoms and ToM error types (overmentalising, reduced mentalising and no ToM) in early and chronic schizophrenia. This study examined the nature and types of ToM impairment in individuals with early (n =26) and chronic schizophrenia (n =32) using a novel virtual reality task. Clinical participants and demographically-matched controls were administered the Virtual Assessment of Mentalising Ability, which provides indices of first- and second-order cognitive and affective ToM, and quantifies three different types of mentalising errors (viz., overmentalising, reduced mentalising, and no ToM). Individuals with early schizophrenia performed significantly poorer than healthy controls on first-order affective and second-order cognitive and affective ToM, but significantly higher than individuals with chronic schizophrenia on all ToM subscales. Whereas a lack of mental state concept was associated with negative symptoms, overmentalising was associated with positive symptoms. These findings suggest that ToM abilities selectively deteriorate with illness chronicity and error types are related to these individuals' presenting symptomology. An implication of the findings is that social-cognitive interventions for schizophrenia need to consider the nature, time course and symptomatology of the presenting patient.

      PubDate: 2017-10-02T04:17:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2017.09.001
      Issue No: Vol. 10 (2017)
  • Associations between daily living skills, cognition, and real-world
           functioning across stages of schizophrenia; a study with the Schizophrenia
           Cognition Rating Scale Japanese version

    • Authors: Yuko Higuchi; Tomiki Sumiyoshi; Tomonori Seo; Motomu Suga; Tsutomu Takahashi; Shimako Nishiyama; Yuko Komori; Kiyoto Kasai; Michio Suzuki
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2017
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition
      Author(s): Yuko Higuchi, Tomiki Sumiyoshi, Tomonori Seo, Motomu Suga, Tsutomu Takahashi, Shimako Nishiyama, Yuko Komori, Kiyoto Kasai, Michio Suzuki
      Cognitive function is impaired in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, even in their prodromal stages. Specifically, the assessment of cognitive abilities related to daily-living functioning, or functional capacity, is important to predict long-term outcome. In this study, we sought to determine the validity of the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS) Japanese version, an interview-based measure of cognition relevant to functional capacity (i.e. co-primary measure). For this purpose, we examined the relationship of SCoRS scores with performance on the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) Japanese version, a standard neuropsychological test battery, and the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS), an interview-based social function scale. Subjects for this study (n=294) included 38 patients with first episode schizophrenia (FES), 135 with chronic schizophrenia (CS), 102 with at-risk mental state (ARMS) and 19 with other psychiatric disorders with psychosis. SCoRS scores showed a significant relationship with SOFAS scores for the entire subjects. Also, performance on the BACS was significantly correlated with SCoRS scores. These associations were also noted within each diagnosis (FES, CS, ARMS). These results indicate the utility of SCoRS as a measure of functional capacity that is associated both with cognitive function and real-world functional outcome in subjects with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

      PubDate: 2017-02-25T16:28:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2017.01.001
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