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Journal Cover Schizophrenia Research : Cognition
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2215-0013
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3034 journals]
  • Self versus informant reports on the specific levels of functioning scale:
           Relationships to depression and cognition in schizophrenia and
           schizoaffective disorder

    • Authors: Julia Ermel; Cameron S. Carter; James M. Gold; Angus W. MacDonald; J. Daniel Ragland; Steven M. Silverstein; Milton E. Strauss; Deanna M. Barch
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 9
      Author(s): Julia Ermel, Cameron S. Carter, James M. Gold, Angus W. MacDonald, J. Daniel Ragland, Steven M. Silverstein, Milton E. Strauss, Deanna M. Barch
      The goal of the current study was to examine the relationships between insight and both cognitive function and depression in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder, and to determine if there were similar relationships across diagnostic categories. We examined discrepancies between self and informant reports of function on the Specific levels of function scale as a metric of insight for interpersonal, social acceptance, work and activities. We examined two samples of individuals with schizophrenia and/or schizoaffective disorder (Ns of 188 and 67 respectively). In Sample 1, cognition was measured using the Dot Probe Expectancy Task. In Sample 2, cognition was measured by averaging several subtests from the MATRICS consensus cognitive battery, as well as additional measures of working memory. In both samples, depression was measured using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale. In both samples, we found significant relationships between worse cognition and overestimations of work function, as well as between higher depression levels and underestimation of interpersonal function. These relationships were specific to interpersonal and work function, with significantly stronger correlations with interpersonal and work function compared to the other areas of function. Similar results were found across diagnostic categories. These results have important implications for treatment planning, as they suggest the need to take into account depression and cognitive function when evaluating the patient's self-report of function, and highlight the utility of informant reports in evaluating function and treatment planning. Further, they add to the literature on the similarity across schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder in a variety of pathological mechanisms.

      PubDate: 2017-05-09T22:57:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2017.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2017)
  • Omega-3 fatty acids related to cognitive impairment in patients with

    • Authors: Kazumi Satogami; Shun Takahashi; Shinichi Yamada; Satoshi Ukai; Kazuhiro Shinosaki
      Pages: 8 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 9
      Author(s): Kazumi Satogami, Shun Takahashi, Shinichi Yamada, Satoshi Ukai, Kazuhiro Shinosaki
      Cognitive impairment is strongly associated with functional outcome in patients with schizophrenia but its pathophysiology remains largely unclear. Involvement of omega-3 fatty acids in the cognitive function of healthy individuals and patients with neuropsychiatric disease has received increasing attention. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between omega-3 fatty acids with cognitive function, social function, and psychiatric symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. The subjects included 30 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Psychiatric symptoms, cognitive function, and social function were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS), and the Social Functioning Scale (SFS), respectively. Blood serum omega-3 fatty acids were assessed using gas chromatography. The BACS composite score was significantly correlated with blood eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels. In addition, a daily dose of antipsychotic medication was negatively and significantly correlated with the blood DHA level and with the BACS composite score. Step-wise multiple regression analyses demonstrated that the SFS score was significantly associated with the BACS composite score. Our results indicate that reduced blood omega-3 fatty acids are associated with cognitive impairment, which then impacts social functioning outcomes in schizophrenia.

      PubDate: 2017-05-19T20:46:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2017.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2017)
  • No association between symptom severity and MMN impairment in
           schizophrenia: A meta-analytic approach

    • Authors: Molly A. Erickson; Matthew Albrecht; Abigail Ruffle; Leah Fleming; Philip Corlett; James Gold
      Pages: 13 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 9
      Author(s): Molly A. Erickson, Matthew Albrecht, Abigail Ruffle, Leah Fleming, Philip Corlett, James Gold
      The mismatch negativity (MMN) is an event-related potential that is consistently attenuated in people with schizophrenia. Within the predictive coding model of psychosis, MMN impairment is thought to reflect the same prediction failures that are also thought to underlie the development and crystallization of delusions and hallucinations. However, the true relationship between symptom severity and MMN impairment across studies has not yet been established. The present meta-analysis used meta-regressions to examine the relationship between MMN impairment (quantified as Hedges' g) and PANSS positive and negative symptom totals across 62 and 68 samples, respectively. Furthermore, we examined the relationship between MMN impairment and group differences in educational achievement (n =47 samples), cognitive ability (n =36 samples), and age (n =86 samples). Overall, we found no significant associations between MMN impairment and symptom severity (p's>0.50); however, we did observe a trend-level association between MMN impairment and lower education (p =0.07) and a significant association with older age (p <0.01) in the schizophrenia patient group. Taken together, these results challenge a simple predictive coding model of psychosis, and suggest that MMN impairment may be more closely associated with premorbid functioning than with the expression of psychotic symptoms.

      PubDate: 2017-05-19T20:46:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2017.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2017)
  • NMDAR hypofunction and somatostatin-expressing GABAergic interneurons and
           receptors: A newly identified correlation and its effects in schizophrenia

    • Authors: Fatemah Alherz; Mohammad Alherz; Hashemiah Almusawi
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 8
      Author(s): Fatemah Alherz, Mohammad Alherz, Hashemiah Almusawi
      This review investigates the association between N-methyl-d-Aspartate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction and somatostatin-expressing GABAergic interneurons (SST+) and how it contributes to the cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia (SZ). This is based on evidence that NMDAR antagonists caused symptoms resembling SZ in healthy individuals. NMDAR hypofunction in GABAergic interneurons results in the modulation of the cortical network oscillation, particularly in the gamma range (30–80Hz). These gamma-band oscillation (GBO) abnormalities were found to lead to the cognitive deficits observed in the disorder. Postmortem mRNA studies have shown that SST decreased more significantly than any other biomarker in schizophrenic subjects. The functional role of Somatostatin (SST) in the aetiology of SZ can be studied through its receptors. Genetic knockout studies in animal models in Huntington's disease (HD) have shown that a specific SST receptor, SSTR2, is increased along with the increased NMDAR activity, with opposing patterns observed in SZ. A direct correlation between SSTR and NMDAR is hence inferred in this review with the hope of finding a potential new therapeutic target for the treatment of SZ and related neurological conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T07:26:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2017.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2017)
  • EPICOG-SCH: A brief battery to screen cognitive impact of schizophrenia in
           stable outpatients

    • Authors: Silvia Zaragoza Domingo; Julio Bobes; Maria-Paz García-Portilla; Claudia Morralla
      Pages: 7 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 8
      Author(s): Silvia Zaragoza Domingo, Julio Bobes, Maria-Paz García-Portilla, Claudia Morralla
      Brief batteries in schizophrenia, are needed to screen for the cognitive impact of schizophrenia. We aimed to validate and co-norm the Epidemiological Study of Cognitive Impairment in Schizophrenia (EPICOG-SCH) derived brief cognitive battery. A cross-sectional outpatient evaluation was conducted of six-hundred-seventy-two patients recruited from 234 centers. The brief battery included well-known subtests available worldwide that cover cognitive domains related to functional outcomes: WAIS-III-Letter-Number-Sequencing-LNS, Category Fluency Test-CFT, Logical-Memory Immediate Recall-LM, and Digit-Symbol-Coding-DSC. CGI-SCH Severity and WHO-DAS-S were used to assess clinical severity and functional impairment, respectively. Unit Composite Score (UCS) and functional regression-weighted Composite Scores (FWCS) were obtained; discriminant properties of FWCS to identify patients with different levels of functional disability were analyzed using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) technique. The battery showed good internal consistency, Cronbach's alpha=0.78. The differences between cognitive performance across CGI-SCH severity level subscales ranged from 0.5 to 1 SD. Discriminant capacity of the battery in identifying patients with up to moderate disability levels showed fair discriminant accuracy with areas under the curve (AUC)>0.70, p<0.0001. An FWCS mean cut-off score≥100 showed likelihood ratios (LR) up to 4.7, with an LR+ of 2.3 and a LR− of 0.5. An FWCS cut-off≥96 provided the best balance between sensitivity (0.74) and specificity (0.62). The EPICOG-SCH proved to be a useful brief tool to screen for the cognitive impact of schizophrenia, and its regression-weighted Composite Score was an efficient complement to clinical interviews for confirming patients' potential functional outcomes and can be useful for monitoring cognition during routine outpatient follow-up visits.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T08:48:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2017.03.001
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2017)
  • Is performance on probed serial recall tasks in schizophrenia related to
           duration of Attentional Blink'

    • Authors: David P. McAllindon; Philip G. Tibbo; Gail A. Eskes
      Pages: 8 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition, Volume 7
      Author(s): David P. McAllindon, Philip G. Tibbo, Gail A. Eskes
      Schizophrenia is associated with a deficit in working memory, with the degree of working memory impairment related to the level of social and occupational functioning. This study tests the hypothesis that the working memory deficits in individuals with schizophrenia can be explained by slow processing of visual stimuli, as measured by the attentional blink (AB) task. Individuals with schizophrenia (SC) and controls (HC) were recruited from an early intervention service for psychosis and the local community. Data from 16 SC (11M/5F, mean=26.4yo) and 20 age-matched HC (11M/9F, mean=25.8yo) were analyzed. Each subject performed an AB task to determine their AB duration, defined as the lag to reach their plateau performance (ltpp). As expected, mean AB duration in the SC group (575ms) was significantly slower than HC (460ms; p =0.007). Recall accuracy of the SC group on a working memory task, a 6-item probed serial recall task (PSR), was reduced compared to the HC group at a standard interstimulus interval (ISI) (p =0.002). When the individual's AB duration was then used to adjust the ISI on the PSR task to three relative ISI rates (Slow (2×ltpp), Medium (ltpp) and Fast (1/2×ltpp)), performance on the PSR task was affected by group, position and ISI and qualified by an ISI∗position (p =0.001) and a trend to a triple interaction (p =0.054). There was main effect of group at all ISIs, but group∗position interaction only at Slow ISI (p =0.01). Our interpretation of the results is that absolute ISI, rather than ISI relative to AB duration, affected performance.

      PubDate: 2017-01-24T15:39:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2016.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2017)
  • Associations between daily living skills, cognition, and real-world
           functioning across stages of schizophrenia; a study with the Schizophrenia
           Cognition Rating Scale Japanese version

    • Authors: Yuko Higuchi; Tomiki Sumiyoshi; Tomonori Seo; Motomu Suga; Tsutomu Takahashi; Shimako Nishiyama; Yuko Komori; Kiyoto Kasai; Michio Suzuki
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2017
      Source:Schizophrenia Research: Cognition
      Author(s): Yuko Higuchi, Tomiki Sumiyoshi, Tomonori Seo, Motomu Suga, Tsutomu Takahashi, Shimako Nishiyama, Yuko Komori, Kiyoto Kasai, Michio Suzuki
      Cognitive function is impaired in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, even in their prodromal stages. Specifically, the assessment of cognitive abilities related to daily-living functioning, or functional capacity, is important to predict long-term outcome. In this study, we sought to determine the validity of the Schizophrenia Cognition Rating Scale (SCoRS) Japanese version, an interview-based measure of cognition relevant to functional capacity (i.e. co-primary measure). For this purpose, we examined the relationship of SCoRS scores with performance on the Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia (BACS) Japanese version, a standard neuropsychological test battery, and the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS), an interview-based social function scale. Subjects for this study (n=294) included 38 patients with first episode schizophrenia (FES), 135 with chronic schizophrenia (CS), 102 with at-risk mental state (ARMS) and 19 with other psychiatric disorders with psychosis. SCoRS scores showed a significant relationship with SOFAS scores for the entire subjects. Also, performance on the BACS was significantly correlated with SCoRS scores. These associations were also noted within each diagnosis (FES, CS, ARMS). These results indicate the utility of SCoRS as a measure of functional capacity that is associated both with cognitive function and real-world functional outcome in subjects with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

      PubDate: 2017-02-25T16:28:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.scog.2017.01.001
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