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Journal Cover Current Oral Health Reports
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Online) 2196-3002
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2279 journals]
  • Diabetes and Periodontitis—A Dental Hygienist’s Perspective
    • Abstract: Abstract Several decades of research of the interrelationships between diabetes and periodontitis have evolved into a significant body of knowledge that should be incorporated into dental practice. However, there may be a delay in implementing this important information into everyday patient care. Oral healthcare providers (i.e., dentists and dental hygienists) should be progressively engaged in changing the trajectory of the epidemics of diabetes and periodontitis. This article synthesizes the cumulative evidence on the diabetes-periodontitis link, proposes ideas for risk stratification of dental patients with diabetes and periodontitis, and builds a case for the development of a risk-prediction model that provides for the earliest identification of dental patients who have dysglycemia.
      PubDate: 2016-01-25
  • What Are We Learning and What Can We Learn from the Human Oral Microbiome
    • Abstract: Abstract Extraordinary technological advances in DNA sequencing have greatly accelerated our ability to identify bacteria, at the species level, present in clinical samples taken from the human mouth. In addition, mass spectrometry has evolved such that oral samples can be analyzed for protein and metabolic products, providing insight into bacterial interaction with their human hosts in the maintenance of oral health or the onset of disease. The ability to cost-effectively determine the DNA sequence of individuals, accompanied by their unique microbiome, heralds the advent of personalized dental medicine.
      PubDate: 2016-01-23
  • Polymicrobial Biofilm Studies: from Basic Science to Biofilm Control
    • Abstract: Abstract Microbes rarely exist as single species planktonic forms as they have been commonly studied in the laboratory. Instead, the vast majority exists as part of complex polymicrobial biofilm communities attached to host and environmental surfaces. The oral cavity represents one of the most diverse and well-studied polymicrobial consortia. Despite a burgeoning field of mechanistic biofilm research within the past decades, our understanding of interactions that occur between microbial members within oral biofilms is still limited. Thus, the primary objective of this review is to focus on polymicrobial biofilm formation, microbial interactions and signaling events that mediate oral biofilm development, consequences of oral hygiene on both local and systemic disease, and potential therapeutic strategies to limit oral dysbiosis.
      PubDate: 2016-01-14
  • Effects of Periodontal Diseases on Diabetes-Related Medical Expenditure
    • Abstract: Abstract We conducted a review of English papers published between 2012 and April 2015 for associations between periodontal disease and diabetes-related medical expenditure. This resulted in only one paper being selected, which demonstrated that, to date, very little information exists on this topic. Although the evidence is limited, the current research findings support the hypothesis that periodontal disease is an important predictor for the growth of medical spending related to diabetes among the US population. Our ongoing project based on a Japanese elderly population also produced concordant results. It is necessary to conduct further research to accumulate more evidence and to be able to generalize these findings. Because periodontal disease is largely modifiable, controlled intervention studies are needed to elucidate whether health-care spending related to diabetes could be reduced thorough adequate preventive dental care, proper dental education, and oral health promotion.
      PubDate: 2016-01-13
  • Detection of Undiagnosed Diabetes in the Dental Setting
    • Abstract: Abstract Diabetes and periodontitis are multifactorial chronic inflammatory diseases affecting hundreds of millions individuals worldwide. There is a bidirectional relationship between the two diseases, as diabetes is associated with increased prevalence, severity, and progression of periodontitis, and untreated periodontitis is associated with poorer metabolic control in individuals with diabetes. Furthermore, treatment of periodontitis has been shown to improve the metabolic status in patients with diabetes. Therefore, successful prevention and treatment of patients with diabetes and periodontitis requires an interdisciplinary approach involving both dentists and physicians. It has recently been demonstrated that periodontal disease status can be used as a predictor for diabetes and prediabetes risk assessment, and several investigations have reported that chair-side measurement of glycated hemoglobin levels (HbA1C), performed in the dental setting, can help in identifying individuals with potentially undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes. Thus, since a significant part of the adult population attends the dental office more regularly than their physician, the dental office seems an intriguing venue for screening and prevention of diabetes. In the future chair-side measurements of HbA1C levels in combination with periodontal examination may therefore be performed as a routine in the dental setting. Such an approach might potentially facilitate early identification of individuals with prediabetes and undiagnosed, asymptomatic diabetes and accordingly referred to their general physician for further diagnosis, prevention, and treatment at early stages of disease, thereby reducing potential diabetic complications.
      PubDate: 2016-01-13
  • Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells for Periodontal Regeneration
    • Abstract: Abstract Periodontal tissue is susceptible to chronic periodontal disease, which results in irreversible tissue destruction. Adult stem cells can be obtained from the periodontal ligament of the periodontium. Stem cells from the periodontal ligament (PDLSCs) are promising for periodontal regeneration because they can undergo guided differentiation under specialized conditions. Currently, growth factors and scaffolds are used for differentiation and clinical application of PDLSCs. In this review, characteristics of PDLSCs and related factors are selectively analyzed.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Nanoleakage and Durability of Resin/Dentin Bonds
    • Abstract: Abstract Micromorphological analysis is a useful method for the evaluation of resin–dentin bonds. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can also be used to analyze the structure of resin–dentin bonds because of its high resolution. There are several reasons for the degradation of resin–dentin bonds such as the activation of endogenous dentin matrix metalloproteinases and the hydrolysis of methacrylate resins. Nanoleakage expression is an effective method for the identification of these degradation pathways and uses silver nitrate as a nanoleakage tracer. However, the resulting TEM images only provide two-dimensional information and the corresponding three-dimensional structure can only be realized based on the consideration of other experimental findings. The evaluation of nanoleakage structures in this way should provide a better understanding of the bond degradation pathways. This review provides an overview of recent developments towards the study of nanoleakage structures, with particular emphasis on their shape and bond degradation processes.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01
  • Oral Mucositis Induced By Anticancer Therapies
    • Abstract: Abstract Oral mucositis induced by conventional cytotoxic cancer therapies is a common and significant clinical problem in oncology. Mucositis symptoms, which include severe pain, may lead to dose reductions and unplanned interruptions of chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy, and often affect patients' quality of life. In addition, ulcerative mucositis represents a risk factor for local or systemic infectious complications that may be life-threatening in immunosuppressed patients. The development of biologically based targeted cancer therapies, which aim to block the growth, spread, and survival of tumors by interfering with specific molecular targets, may have reduced mucosal injury, but did not eliminate it. This article will review the epidemiology, pathobiology, and management of oral mucositis associated with conventional cytotoxic therapies for malignant diseases and will briefly summarize emerging information on oral mucosal injury associated with targeted therapies. Considerations for future research aimed at the development of more efficient and effective supportive care approaches will be presented, with emphasis on the contribution of dental researchers and clinicians in these efforts.
      PubDate: 2015-10-19
  • Systemic Biomarkers for Periodontitis
    • Abstract: Abstract Periodontitis affects a subset of the population and our current thinking is that progression of periodontal disease may be either continuous or episodic. These features make diagnostic tools for disease status and progression assessment desirable in the management of this disease. Although many potential markers exist, several difficulties hamper our ability to declare them diagnostic tests with proven utility. The “gold standard” for active periodontal disease is not available, and the best indicators currently available include clinical measurements with low sensitivity and specificity that are also time consuming in their assessment and recording. Although much is written about the need for markers of current or future disease which will prevent us from overtreating pockets, the time, effort, and cost involved in testing these sites have to be balanced against the relative ease and speed of routine non-surgical periodontal therapy. In addition, we are still some way from the development and validation of reliable host factor/microbial factor testing methods. There are, however, multiple local and systemic periodontal diagnostic biomarkers proposed within the literature, although none is presently widely available commercially. One could envisage chairside tests using saliva or blood from finger sticks being capable to determine an individual’s risk of developing disease or a patient’s risk of disease progression and thus the need for a timely prevention program. In addition, blood drawn for routine diagnostic check-ups could also be used for the diagnosis and monitoring of periodontitis, if systemic biomarkers are identified. Before applying any test, we should reconsider what treatment planning effects a positive or negative result will have, since any test that does not influence the treatment plan is redundant. Systemic periodontal diagnostic tests are still at an early stage of development and much work remains to be performed to fully validate their utility such that they become an important and cost-effective aspect of clinical diagnosis, treatment planning, or patient monitoring. This paper provides a comprehensive review of systemic biomarkers derived form blood or saliva that have the potential to be utilized as a diagnostic and monitoring test for periodontitis at the patient level.
      PubDate: 2015-10-12
  • Direct Restoration of Endodontically Treated Teeth: a Brief Summary of
           Materials and Techniques
    • Abstract: Abstract The restoration of endodontically treated teeth remains a challenge. The success of the final restoration depends mostly on the structure of the remaining tooth. Although the materials and procedures available today result in successful restoration of root-filled teeth via direct (in situ) techniques, one should first consider the amount of the coronal tooth structure remaining as well as the functional requirements. Restoration using direct composite resin is a good treatment option, but polymerization shrinkage is one of the major limitations of this material. The application of various base materials under the composite resin is an effective method. Covering the cusps with the restorative material is another option to save the remaining tooth structure; however, some materials may be unsuitable in stress-bearing areas. Materials applied to the orifice of a root canal also have a major effect on tooth biomechanics. This article reviews the direct restoration of endodontically treated teeth and discusses the current materials and techniques used for this purpose.
      PubDate: 2015-10-12
  • Is There a Role for Neural Crest Stem Cells in Periodontal
    • Abstract: Abstract The ultimate goal of periodontal treatment is not only the stabilization of periodontal disease but also regeneration of the periodontal tissues destroyed by severe periodontitis. The tissue engineering triad of stem cells, biological signals, and cell-seeded scaffold provides a biological template for tissue regeneration. Neural crest stem cells (NCSC) comprise a transient multipotent stem cell population that initially emerges from the junction of the epidermal and neural ectoderm through reciprocal interactions between these tissues and signals from the mesoderm during embryonic development of vertebrates. The cells then migrate to their destination in the embryo and differentiate into various dental mesenchymal stem cells which give rise to most components of the dental tissues, including periodontal ligament (PDL), alveolar bone, cementum, dental pulp, and dentin. The crucial role that NCSC play in embryonic development makes them a highly promising stem cell population for use in the regeneration of periodontal tissues. Here, we review the current understanding of the features and functions of NCSC-derived cells in dental tissues. We additionally discuss the possibility that NCSC contribute to the regeneration of periodontal tissues.
      PubDate: 2015-10-08
  • Long-Term Durability of Dental Adhesives
    • Abstract: Abstract The use of tooth-colored dental restorative materials, along with the adhesive techniques, has become routine in today’s dental practice. The longevity of adhesive restorations depends mainly on good bonding between restorative materials and tooth structure, which should be achieved in situ, within minutes. While bonding to enamel is reliable through micromechanical retention, bonding to dentin presents challenges due to its more complex collagenous structure. Progressive loss of resin-dentin bond integrity and reduction in bond strength have been extensively reported. This was attributed partly to the hydrophilic nature of the contemporary adhesives systems that causes unwanted water absorption, phase separation, and resin leaching and also to the endogenous collagenolytic enzymes that can slowly hydrolyze collagen. Current research in this field aims at increasing the durability of resin-dentin bonds by inhibition of the collagenolytic activity of dentin, as well as implementing bonding strategies which allow the use of more hydrophobic bonding agents.
      PubDate: 2015-10-05
  • Adhesion to Zirconium Dioxide Used for Dental Reconstructions: Surface
           Conditioning Concepts, Challenges, and Future Prospects
    • Abstract: Abstract Yttrium-stabilized zirconium dioxide, a commonly used material in conjunction with CAD/CAM technologies in dentistry, is an oxide ceramic that does not comprise the silicon dioxide (SiO2) phase in its microstructure. Since it is challenging to create durable adhesion between resin cements and this kind of non-etchable ceramic, efforts have been made to develop innovative surface conditioning methods over the years. While some chemical methods based on using adhesion promoters only did not perform stable adhesion, others utilizing physico-chemical conditioning methods provided better adhesion where the latter is also being questioned on impairing mechanical stability of zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) due to t → m phase transformation. This review will highlight current surface conditioning concepts to achieve best adhesion to zirconium dioxide and challenges related to conditioning methods or resin-based luting cements, and contemplate on future prospects.
      PubDate: 2015-09-30
  • Translational Research and Therapeutic Applications of Neural
           Crest-Derived Stem Cells in Regenerative Periodontology
    • Abstract: Abstract Regeneration of periodontal tissues aims to utilize tissue engineering techniques to restore lost periodontal tissues including the cementum, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. Regenerative dentistry and its special field regenerative periodontology represent relatively new and emerging branches of translational stem cell biology and regenerative medicine focusing on replacing and regenerating dental tissues to restore or re-establish their normal function lost during degenerative diseases or acute lesions. The regeneration itself can be achieved through transplantation of autologous or allogenic stem cells, or by improving the tissue self-repair mechanisms (e.g. by application of growth factors). In addition, a combination of stem cells or stem cell-containing tissue with bone implants can be used to improve tissue integration and the clinical outcome. As the oral cavity represents a complex system consisting of teeth, bone, soft tissues and sensory nerves, regenerative periodontology relies on the use of stem cells with relatively high developmental potential. Notably, the potential use of pluripotent stem cell types such as human embryonic stem cells or induced pluripotent stem cells is still aggravated by ethical and practical problems. Thus, other cellular sources such as those readily available in the postnatal craniofacial area and particularly in oral structures offer a much better and realistic alternative as cellular regenerative sources. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the oral neural crest-derived stem cell populations (oNCSCs) and discuss their potential in regenerative periodontology.
      PubDate: 2015-09-23
  • Declining Caries Trends: Are We Satisfied'
    • Abstract: Abstract WHO data suggest that all over the world the prevalence of caries has declined at the end of the previous and in the first decade of the present century. This decline started wherever the use of effective fluoride toothpaste became commonplace. Even though the decline is considerable with a 90 % reduction in DMFT for 12-year-olds in Western Europe and the USA, caries still affects 60–90 % of the children throughout the world. In the high- and middle-income countries, the nature of caries has changed from a rapid progressing disease of childhood to a slowly progressing disease throughout adulthood and even old age. However, throughout the world, the circumstances for caries differ, e.g., low-income countries experience more caries with higher sugar consumption, while between high-income countries this correlation is reversed. In high-income countries, fluoride is widely used and preventive programs in dental offices are in place. These programs, if effective, may not be a realistic option in low-income countries. In order to reduce caries in the world even further, the use of effective and affordable fluoride toothpaste should be encouraged and enabled.
      PubDate: 2015-09-23
  • Chipping of Veneering Ceramics in Zirconium Dioxide Fixed Dental
    • Abstract: Abstract Clinical studies to date reported high survival rates with fixed dental prosthesis (FDPs) made of yttria partially stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP). Yet, the veneering ceramic layer that is responsible for the final optical outcome and anatomy of the FDP, with lower mechanical properties than Y-TZP, continues to exhibit high chipping rate. This clinically undesirable situation, which is in fact the failure of the system, may interfere with appearance and function and be costly in cases of early failures. Since understanding the factors related to veneer ceramic chipping may diminish such clinical failures, this review presents information on the mechanical and microstructural characteristics of veneering ceramics, challenges posed onto this material in the oral environment, mechanisms of generation of thermal residual stress profiles during cooling in bilayered FDPs, and process-related issues to circumvent chipping.
      PubDate: 2015-09-18
  • Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Periodontal Regeneration
    • Abstract: Abstract Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease which leads to destruction of both the soft and hard tissues of the periodontium. Tissue engineering is a therapeutic approach in regenerative medicine that aims to induce new functional tissue regeneration via the synergistic combination of cells, biomaterials, and/or growth factors. Advances in our understanding of the biology of stem cells, including embryonic stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells, have provided opportunities for periodontal tissue engineering. However, there remain a number of limitations affecting their therapeutic efficiency. Due to the considerable proliferation and differentiation capacities, recently described induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide a new way for cell-based therapies for periodontal regeneration. This review outlines the latest status of periodontal tissue engineering and highlights the potential use of iPSCs in periodontal tissue regeneration.
      PubDate: 2015-09-16
  • Immunomodulatory Properties of PDLSC and Relevance to Periodontal
    • Abstract: Abstract Periodontitis, a major chronic inflammatory disease of dental tissue, causes periodontal tissue destruction and alveolar bone resorption. When large amounts of alveolar bone are lost, it is very difficult to regenerate the bone using conventional treatments. Periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) have attracted much attention as potential cell sources for alternative periodontitis regenerative treatment because of their capacity for self-renewal and multipotency. Recently, PDLSCs were found to possess immunomodulatory properties. PDLSCs lack the expression of immune co-stimulating factors and suppress immune cell proliferation following stimulation with mitogens or in mixed allogeneic lymphocyte reactions. Because of these characteristics, the anti-inflammatory effects of PDLSCs and the establishment of allogeneic PDLSC transplantation therapies have been well studied. The aim of this review is to provide an assessment of the latest findings on the immunomodulatory properties of PDLSCs and their potential clinical application for periodontal tissue regeneration.
      PubDate: 2015-09-10
  • Cell Sheets for Periodontal Tissue Engineering
    • Abstract: Abstract Cell Sheet Technology was first utilized in a clinical trial for corneal reconstruction in 2003; since then, several clinical trials have been performed not only in Japan but also in Europe. The key technology of Cell Sheet is a temperature-responsive polymer (poly N-isopropylacrylamide), which characteristics dramatically change from hydrophobic to hydrophilic by changing the temperature. This intelligent polymer is covalently grafted onto the surface of cell culture dishes, where cells can attach and proliferate at 37 °C. Reducing the temperature below 32 °C causes this surface to hydrate; therefore, confluent cells detach from the surface as a sheet. Cell sheets can be harvested without the use of typical proteolytic enzymes; thus, intact cell-cell interaction, cell surface proteins, and extracellular matrix proteins are preserved. Using this technology, we started a clinical trial in 2011 to test the safety and efficacy of autologous periodontal ligament cell sheets for periodontal regeneration.
      PubDate: 2015-09-10
  • Historical Perspective of Periodontal Progenitor Cells: Early Studies That
           Clarified Identity and Function
    • Abstract: Abstract Pioneering studies using cell kinetics, transplantation and wound healing models that were conducted in the 1960s–1980s provided critical insights into the proliferative and differentiation capacity of cell populations in the periodontium. These experiments showed that the periodontium, in general, and the periodontal ligament, in particular, comprise progenitor cell populations that can give rise to cells that synthesize bone, cementum and fibrous connective tissue. These insights ultimately led to the discovery of multipotent progenitors that are just now being studied to define their contributions to periodontal regeneration. Despite the limitations that were inherent in these earlier approaches, data from these experiments enabled major strides in exploiting the transformative potential of stem cell biology to provide improved outcomes in periodontal therapy.
      PubDate: 2015-09-09
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