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Journal Cover Current Oral Health Reports
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Online) 2196-3002
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2209 journals]
  • Bullous Pemphigoid, Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid and Pemphigus Vulgaris: An
           Update on Pathobiology
    • Abstract: Abstract Pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris (PV) are autoimmune diseases that cause potentially debilitating erosions and blistering of the skin and/or mucous membranes. In bullous pemphigoid (BP), autoantibodies target components of the basement membrane zone (BMZ), most importantly the hemidesmosomal proteins, BP180 and BP230. Research efforts have uncovered some of the complex mechanisms that cause this disease, including the interplay between the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, as well as the role of complement activation, inflammatory cell activation, and proteolytic enzymes. In mucous membrane pemphigoid, which preferentially targets mucous membranes, several antigenic targets along the BMZ have been identified. In PV, desmoglein autoantibodies play the most critical role in the disease, with various other target antigens acting adjunctively to exacerbate the disease by apoptotic signaling. The relationship between apoptosis and acanthosis has yet to be clearly defined, but they may promote each other to enhance disease activity. This article provides an update on the pathogenesis of these diseases.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Cytokine Networks Regulating Inflammation and Immune Defense in the Oral
    • Abstract: Abstract The host/pathogen interaction in infectious oral diseases is characterized by complex and precisely orchestrated host response mechanisms aimed to protect the host against the microbial challenge with minimal collateral damage to host cells and tissues. Central to the host response in this battlefront is the expression of cytokines. The resulting cytokine networks, which ultimately regulate the host response at multiple levels, thereby determine the clinical outcome of the disease and explain most of its defining features from a mechanistic viewpoint. This review intends to present a structured view of the intricate cytokine networks that regulate inflammation and immune defense in the oral cavity, guiding the reader throughout the evolving paradigms that describe how the simultaneous action of multiple cytokines shapes the nature of the immune response to oral infection.
      PubDate: 2014-03-27
  • Neutrophil Dysfunction and Host Susceptibility to Periodontal
           Inflammation: Current State of Knowledge
    • Abstract: Abstract Normal polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) function is critical for the maintenance of host-biofilm equilibrium and periodontal tissue homeostasis. Mounting evidence suggests that PMNs play important roles in the control of commensal periodontal flora and initiation of resolution following inflammation caused by accumulating subgingival plaque. Quantitative and qualitative alterations of PMNs in bone marrow, blood, periodontal tissues, and gingival crevicular fluid contribute to host-microbial dysbiosis and onset of irreversible loss of clinical attachment around teeth. Recent findings of specific PMN phenotypes associated with different disease states bring us closer to understanding disease activity and addressing chronic, non-resolved, periodontal inflammation to better monitor and predict patient-specific treatment outcomes. The present review addresses the current state of knowledge in PMN biology in the pathogenesis of periodontal inflammation and the onset of periodontitis.
      PubDate: 2014-03-25
  • Immuno-Pathogenesis of Periodontal Disease: Current and Emerging Paradigms
    • Abstract: Abstract Periodontal disease (PD) is a highly complex disease involving many factors; however, two principal facets central to initiation and progression of the majority of PD are the composition of the microbes in the sub-gingival plaque, and the host immune response to these organisms. Numerous studies point to the complexity of PD, and to the fact that despite innate and adaptive immune activation, and resultant inflammation, our immune response fails to cure disease. Stunning new findings have begun to clarify several complexities of the host-pathogen interaction of PD pointing to key roles for microbial dysbiosis and immune imbalance in the pathogenesis of disease. Furthermore, these investigations have identified novel translational opportunities to intercede in PD treatment. In this review we will highlight a select few recent findings in innate and adaptive immunity, and host pathogen interactions of PD at a micro-environmental level that may have profound impact on PD progression.
      PubDate: 2014-03-22
  • Salivary Biomarkers for Detection of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Current
           State and Recent Advances
    • Abstract: Abstract Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm of the oral cavity. Detection of OSCC is currently based on a thorough clinical oral examination combined with a biopsy for histological analysis. Most cases of OSCC are not detected until the cancer has developed into advanced stages; thus, a reliable early-stage diagnostic marker is needed. This literature review presents an overview of the status of current advances in salivary diagnostics for OSCC. Though many protein and mRNA salivary biomarkers have been identified that can detect OSCC with high sensitivity and specificity, the most discernable findings occur with the use of multiple markers. Studies that incorporate proteomic, transcriptomic, and potentially additional “omics”, including methylomics, need to be initiated to bring technology to clinical applications and allow the best use of saliva in diagnosing OSCC.
      PubDate: 2014-03-21
  • The Role of Distinct T Cell Subsets in Periodontitis—Studies from
           Humans and Rodent Models
    • Abstract: Abstract Periodontal disease results from an interaction between the host’s defense mechanisms and the microorganisms that constitute the dental plaque biofilm, and penetrate gingival tissue. Therefore, the progression and severity of the disease are strongly modulated by the host immune response, particularly, T cell responses. Because T cells consist of a variety of subpopulations, numerous studies have attempted to associate an impaired balance between each T cell subset and periodontal tissue destruction in periodontitis patients. Here, we overview studies examining human specimens obtained from patients with periodontitis and experiments analyzing rodent models with age-related or pathogen-induced experimental periodontitis. Human research provides valuable insights but also inconsistent results, which may be attributed to the difference in experimental approaches and lack of evaluation of disease activity. Rodent models have shown that an optimal balance between functionally different T cells is essential in the protection against periodontal tissue destruction.
      PubDate: 2014-03-13
  • Whole Tooth Regenerative Therapy Using a Bioengineered Tooth Germ
    • Abstract: Abstract Dental disorders, including dental caries and periodontal disease, can cause fundamental problems for oral functions, such as enunciation, mastication and occlusion, as well as general health issues. Tooth regenerative therapies for tissue repair and whole tooth replacement are currently being developed as novel treatment approaches. As a form of bioengineered organ replacement, whole tooth replacement therapy is considered an important model system for next-generation regenerative therapy. We recently reported bioengineered tooth replacements after transplantation of a bioengineered tooth germ or mature tooth unit comprising the bioengineered tooth and periodontal tissues. Whole tooth regenerative therapy has the potential to fully restore tooth function, including masticatory potential in response to mechanical stress and perceptive potential for noxious stimulation. In this review, we describe recent findings and technologies underpinning tooth regenerative therapy.
      PubDate: 2014-03-01
  • Caries Prevention by Arginine Metabolism in Oral Biofilms: Translating
           Science into Clinical Success
    • Abstract: Abstract Knowledge acquired from microbiological studies of oral arginine metabolism over the past 40 years has recently found its way to clinical application in dentistry. Novel arginine formulations incorporated into dentifrices have proven to be effective as an approach to prevent dental caries. In oral biofilms, arginine metabolism via the arginine deiminase system (ADS) produces ammonia, which inhibits tooth demineralization by neutralizing glycolytic acids and by suppressing the emergence of a cariogenic microflora. Evidence from translational science studies suggests that arginine metabolism in oral biofilms decreases the risk for caries development. These studies have expanded the focus of caries research beyond cariogenic bacteria to health-related, ADS-positive bacteria. The focus of this article is on the contribution of arginine metabolism to pH homeostasis in oral biofilms and its impact on the etiology of dental caries.
      PubDate: 2014-03-01
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Periodontal Regeneration
    • Abstract: Abstract The use of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy offers the potential to develop a completely novel and improved method of periodontal regeneration compared to existing methods. Since the initial demonstration of the presence of MSCs in the periodontal ligament, many recent studies have now demonstrated the potential for the transplantation of MSCs from PDL and other sources to enhance periodontal regenerative outcomes in a variety of animal models. In addition, the recent demonstration of the possible utility of allogeneic MSCs and MSCs derived from inducible pluripotent stem cells may offer new methods of delivering such therapies. Determination of the specific roles that MSCs may play in enhancing regenerative outcomes requires further investigation. The principle of MSC-directed periodontal regenerative therapy is accepted in the field, but extensive investigation is necessary to establish viable, efficacious, and practically applicable human therapies.
      PubDate: 2014-03-01
  • iPSC for Dental Tissue Regeneration
    • Abstract: Abstract The realisation that adult somatic cells can be reprogrammed into pluripotent cells is revolutionising the way diseases are researched and is set to transform the way diseases are treated. In recent years the use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) in dentistry has begun to be investigated. Whilst this work is still in its infancy, iPSC are demonstrating great potential for use in the regeneration of dental tissues. In this review we will provide a brief introduction to the properties of iPSC and their potential application as therapeutic agents to enhance medical research. Furthermore, this review will summarise recent developments in the use of iPSC in dental tissue regeneration.
      PubDate: 2014-03-01
  • Beyond Mucosal Infection: a Role for        class="a-plus-plus">C.        class="a-plus-plus">albicans-Streptococcal
           Interactions in the Pathogenesis of Dental Caries
    • Abstract: Abstract The human body is home to countless microorganisms that can modulate the transition between health and disease. When conditions in the host favor the growth of pathogens, the populations can shift toward their dominance and/or cause disbyosis. In the mouth, commensal organisms are typically most abundant, but when oral hygiene is neglected and sugar is frequently consumed and/or there is a disruption in saliva production/flow, organisms associated with dental caries disease eg, Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) become more prevalent. These organisms interact with dietary sugars and host saliva to form complex 3-dimensional biofilms on pellicle-coated teeth. The production of exopolysaccharides (eg, via S. mutans-sucrose interactions) modulates the assembly of the biofilm matrix, while acid production (eg, by acidogenic flora) and low pH within the biofilm facilitate the demineralization of the adjacent tooth enamel. During the assembly of cariogenic biofilms, S. mutans likely interacts and competes with other oral microbial species in the mouth. Although it is widely recognized that bacterial-fungal interactions commonly occur on mucosal surfaces, their possible role in dental caries has received limited attention. This review provides evidence that interactions between S. mutans and Candida albicans (C. albicans) may be involved in the pathogenesis of early childhood caries.
      PubDate: 2014-03-01
  • Dental Stem Cells: Sources and Potential Applications
    • Abstract: Abstract In recent years, stem cell research in dentistry has grown rapidly with the potential application for oral and maxillofacial tissue regeneration. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from the oral and maxillofacial region are easy to access, have a high proliferation rate, multipotency, and potent immunomodulatory functions. They are excellent cell sources not only for stem cell-based therapy of dental and craniofacial diseases, but also with the potential for the treatment of other inflammatory diseases. In this review, we provide an overview of different types of MSCs that have been isolated and characterized from several origins such as dental pulp, exfoliated deciduous teeth, the periodontal ligament, the dental follicle, the dental papilla, oral mucosa, and gingiva, with the focus on the potential clinical applications for each type of dental stem cell.
      PubDate: 2014-03-01
  • Stem Cells, Scaffolds and Gene Therapy for Periodontal Engineering
    • Abstract: Abstract The periodontium is continually exposed to a variety of challenges. Over the past decade, preclinical and clinical research has highlighted the complex modulatory role of the periodontal ligament (PDL) as a mediator of tissue repair and homeostasis. Experiments carried out in both human and animal models have highlighted the importance of the PDL as a protective structure. The unique properties of PDL cells endow this tissue with functional attributes that are not replicated by other biological systems. Furthermore, distinct PDL matricellular properties favor a synchronized molecular response to environmental challenges that supports normal dental and alveolar adaptation. Today, the mechanism by which periodontal integrity is restored and maintained is the focus of novel and innovative research. The ability to decipher the molecular mechanisms that support periodontal homeostasis, together with emerging science in biomaterials and stem cell biology, represents a unique opportunity to enhance the predictability of current regenerative surgical approaches and to develop novel treatment strategies for periodontal tissue engineering. This review will focus on the most recent available information concerning cells, gene delivery, and new scaffold technologies that are relevant in periodontal regeneration.
      PubDate: 2014-03-01
  • Posttranscriptional Regulation of Oral Bacterial Adaptive Responses
    • Abstract: Abstract Within the past 10 years, it has become increasingly evident that posttranscriptional regulation is among the most important mechanisms used by bacteria to modulate gene expression in response to environmental perturbations. Posttranscriptional mechanisms provide a much faster response and lower energy burden compared with most transcription regulatory pathways, and they have the unique advantage that they can override existing transcriptional responses once the environment changes. Because of this, virulence factor gene expression is particularly suited for posttranscriptional control, and not surprisingly, an abundance of recent evidence indicates that posttranscriptional regulators are the predominant virulence regulators of human pathogens. Typically, this involves global riboregulators that primarily serve as modulators of virulence gene translation initiation and/or mRNA stability. Surprisingly little has been reported about posttranscriptional regulatory pathways in oral bacteria, but recent results suggest that oral species are equally dependent upon posttranscriptional control of their adaptive genetic responses. In this report, we discuss the major themes in RNA-based regulation of gene expression and review the available literature related to the most commonly studied oral bacterial species.
      PubDate: 2014-03-01
  • Lessons Learned from Clinical Studies: Roles of Mutans Streptococci in the
           Pathogenesis of Dental Caries
    • Abstract: Abstract Dental caries is a major health problem worldwide. This disease results from improper interactions between oral microorganisms and host that stimulate the establishment of cariogenic biofilms on tooth surfaces, whose high and sustained acidogenicity promotes demineralization of tooth tissues. These interactions are modulated by environmental factors, among which diet has significant impact, especially regarding its carbohydrate content. Although microorganisms are recognized as having a central role in dental caries, current approaches for intervening in the establishment of cariogenic biofilms are limited. In this review, we focus on clinical studies supporting the role of mutans streptococci (MS) as promoters of cariogenic microbiota. Functions of MS in this process are analyzed under the current knowledge about the genetic and phenotypic diversity of Streptococcus mutans, the most well-known MS species. Effects of host immune responses on the establishment and pathogenesis of S. mutans are also discussed, further encouraging studies testing anti-MS therapies.
      PubDate: 2014-03-01
  • Periodontal Stem Cells: a Historical Background and Current Perspectives
    • Abstract: Abstract In this review we discuss the historical perspective of stem cell populations from oral tissues in light of our current understanding of stem cell biology. Stem cells and their niches have been identified in the periodontium starting from the late 1970s. Applying new criteria for the identification and characterization reveals that oral tissues comprise a multipotent primitive neural crest-like stem cell population capable of differentiating into neural crest derived cell lineages of the cranial-facial zone. This population supplies cells to a more restricted stem cell type with tissue specific epigenetic memory that differentiates into cell lineages characteristic of their tissue origin. We believe that the microenvironment plays an essential role in maintaining stem cell populations and directing their migration and differentiation, and that this factor needs to be considered for utilization of stem cell-based therapy for periodontal regeneration and regenerative dental medicine.
      PubDate: 2014-03-01
  • Recent Advances in Studies of Polymicrobial Interactions in Oral Biofilms
    • Abstract: Abstract The oral cavity supports a complex and finely balanced consortium of microbial species, many of which cooperate within structured biofilms. These communities develop through multitudinous synergistic and antagonistic interspecies relationships. Changes in the dynamics of oral microbial populations are associated with the transition from healthy teeth and gums to dental caries, gingivitis and periodontitis. Understanding the ecology of oral biofilm communities, and how different species communicate within a given host, will inform new strategies for treatment and prevention of oral diseases. Advances in sequencing technologies have fuelled an increasing trend towards global genomic and proteomic approaches to determine the key factors that initiate oral diseases. Whilst metabolic profiling seeks to identify phenotypic changes of whole microbial communities, transcriptomic studies are exploring their complex interactions with each other and the host. This review discusses the most recent in vitro and in vivo studies of interspecies interactions within polymicrobial oral biofilms.
      PubDate: 2014-03-01
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