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Journal Cover Current Oral Health Reports
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Online) 2196-3002
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • The Impact of Oral Health on General Health: Educating Professionals and
    • Authors: Casey Hein; Ray C. Williams
      Abstract: Purpose of Review This review provides a brief summary of what science has postulated about the oral cavity and its relationship to the rest of the body. This article then looks at the emerging body of evidence for a definitive statement on the impact of oral health and disease on overall health and disease. It concludes by examining ways to educate oral healthcare providers (OHCPs) (i.e., dentists and dental hygienists) and their role in educating patients and the public about the interrelationships of oral and overall health and challenges associated with this. Recent Findings Since 1989, there have been major advances in understanding the role of periodontal infection and inflammation in contributing to the risk for systemic diseases. As the evidence emerges for an oral-systemic link, new strategies for educating dentistry, medicine, other non-dental healthcare professions, and the public about this link are also emerging. Summary Hopefully, a new awareness and understanding of the significance of oral health in sustaining general health lead to a new emphasis for prevention and treatment of periodontal disease.
      PubDate: 2017-02-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0124-4
  • Functional Dental Restorative Materials That Hinder Oral Biofilm
    • Authors: Hércules Bezerra Dias; Victor Trassi Fernandes da Silva Souza; Rafael Amorim Martins; Ana Carolina Bosco Mendes; Monica Irma Aparecida Valdeci de Souza; Ângela Cristina Cilense Zuanon; Alessandra Nara de Souza Rastelli
      Abstract: Purpose of Review This review highlighted the state of the art regarding functional materials that have been used to hinder oral biofilm, focused on the materials used over the last 3 years to achieve an antimicrobial effect, considering the effects of its modification on the physical properties. Recent Findings Because dental restorations have failures and the main cause was found to be the presence of secondary caries, the recent studies in this field are focused on development of functional dental materials with the ability to hinder oral biofilm. Therefore, composite resins, glass ionomer cement, and dental adhesive systems have been modified with different functional materials to obtain the antibiofilm properties. For this purpose, several antimicrobial materials have been used, such as inorganic fillers nanoparticles, bioactive glass, functional monomers, and chlorhexidine. Summary The ability of materials to hinder biofilm-dependent diseases depends on the amount of the antimicrobial materials, size, physical and chemical properties. In the last years, studies have demonstrated great results in the use of materials aiming to decrease or control oral biofilm formation; however, some authors indicate that research of bacterial effects on these materials are still needed.
      PubDate: 2017-02-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0119-1
  • Functional Salivary Gland Regenerative Therapy for Oral Health
    • Authors: Miho Ogawa; Takashi Tsuji
      Abstract: Abstract Salivary glands maintain oral health and homeostasis via functional interactions with many organs, including the teeth and the tongue. Dysfunction of salivary glands causes many problems, such as dental caries, bacterial infection, and swallowing dysfunction. Current regenerative therapy for salivary gland tissue repair and whole salivary gland replacement is currently a novel therapeutic concept that may result in full recovery of salivary gland function. The salivary glands arise from reciprocal epithelial and mesenchymal interactions. We developed a novel three-dimensional cell manipulation method that can reproduce organogenesis via the epithelial-mesenchymal interaction. The bioengineered salivary glands develop correct structure and successfully secrete saliva into the oral cavity via reestablishment of the afferent-efferent neural network. The bioengineered salivary glands also improve dry mouth symptoms, such as bacterial infections and swallowing dysfunction. This review summarizes recent findings and technological advances in salivary gland regenerative therapy.
      PubDate: 2017-02-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0123-5
  • Beyond Cell Division: the Ecological Roles of Autolysins in Oral Biofilm
    • Authors: Nyssa Cullin; Justin Merritt; Jens Kreth
      Abstract: Purpose of Review The goal of this review is to address the complicated nature of autolysins found among oral bacteria and the roles they play within the oral biofilm. The various functions of autolysins are discussed, as well as the regulation of autolysins and overall contribution to biofilms and the oral environment. Recent Findings With their many functions, bacterial autolysins can be understood as contributing to both cell physiology and population dynamics within the oral environment. Cell division, peptidoglycan turnover/remodeling, fratricide, and programmed cell death are all influenced, if not controlled, by autolysins. The release of nutrients and DNA as functional byproducts of lysins can alter the biofilm by affecting the growth and overall genetic makeup of the diverse bacteria. Summary Autolysins and their various functions contribute to biofilm formation, horizontal gene transfer, and the overall health of the oral cavity.
      PubDate: 2017-02-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0118-2
  • Periodontitis and Systemic Disease: Association or Causality'
    • Authors: Lewis Winning; Gerard J. Linden
      Abstract: Purpose of Review The aim was to assess recent evidence that diabetes, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and obesity impact the progression of periodontitis. Recent Findings Electronic searches using Embase, Medline, and Web of Science were carried out for epidemiological studies on humans, published between 2014 and 2016. A small number of prospective studies and systematic reviews were identified that in general provide further support for the hypothesis that diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity can adversely affect the periodontal condition. Summary Confounding remains the most challenging issue in the interpretation of the associations found between diabetes, MetS, obesity and periodontal disease. Recent research applying a Mendelian randomisation approach concluded that the association between obesity and periodontitis is confounded and questioned a role for obesity in causation. Further studies are warranted to assess the issue of causality.
      PubDate: 2017-01-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0121-7
  • Current Status of Regenerative Periodontal Treatment
    • Authors: Andreas Stavropoulos; Anton Sculean
      Abstract: Purpose of Review Periodontal regenerative therapy aims to completely restore the tooth’s supporting tissues (e.g., periodontal ligament, root cementum, alveolar bone, and gingiva) which have been lost following periodontal disease or trauma. The histologic outcomes should translate in substantial clinical improvements evidenced by probing depth reduction, gain in clinical attachment level, and bone fill. The present review provides a brief overview of the current status of periodontal regenerative therapy. Recent Findings There is plenty of evidence to support the use of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) techniques and the application of enamel matrix proteins (EMD) onto the exposed root result in true periodontal regenerative. The use of various growth factors and autologous blood concentrates for periodontal regeneration also have produced positive results, but more studies are needed. In general, both GTR and EMD, alone or in combination with bone grafts or substitutes, result in larger clinical improvements compared to conventional periodontal treatment for deep intrabony and furcation Class II defects. Important factors that negatively impact on the clinical outcomes of periodontal regeneration procedures are smoking, large number of remaining sites with bleeding on probing, bad oral hygiene, and increased tooth mobility. Conclusions The magnitude of improvement arising from periodontal regenerative techniques and procedures depends largely on operator skills, not only in terms of dexterity but also on the ability to choose the best approach regarding the surgical technique and the regenerative technology depending on patient- and site-specific criteria. The clinical improvements after regenerative treatment can be preserved on a long-term basis on the majority of treated sites, provided that patients do not smoke, keep high oral hygiene standards, and attend regularly SPT.
      PubDate: 2017-01-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0122-6
  • Advances and Challenges in Oral Biofilm Control
    • Authors: Beatriz Helena Dias Panariello; Cecilia Atem Gonçalves de Araújo Costa; Ana Cláudia Pavarina; Sérgio Lima Santiago; Simone Duarte
      Abstract: Purpose of Review The paper aims to critically study the literature published over the past 3 years as relevant to oral biofilm control. The emphasis of this review is the interests and importance of new findings, seeking the following answers: (i) what is the major challenge in oral biofilm control', (ii) what are the new anti-biofilm approaches', and (iii) what are the further researches' Recent Findings In addition to mechanical plaque removal and the use of chemical agents against pathogenic biofilm, there is a need for development of new anti-biofilm approaches. The majority of the new studies aiming to control oral biofilm have been performed with the characterization of the extracellular matrix components. Exopolysaccharides (EPS), proteins, lipids, nucleic acids (eDNA), lipoteichoic acids (LTA), and lipopolysaccharides have been identified in the matrices of bacterial biofilms and are considered the current targets to oral biofilm control. Summary The extracellular matrix is essential for the existence of the biofilm and by its virulence both in bacterial and fungal pathogens. The better understanding of the biomechanical properties of the EPS matrix is the main advance and is leading to new chemical and/or biological approaches to remove or disorganize cariogenic biofilms. Recently, researches are focusing on the extracellular matrix for oral biofilm control with further clinical applicability.
      PubDate: 2017-01-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0120-8
  • Current Developments in Regenerative Endodontics
    • Authors: Sahng G. Kim; Bill Kahler; Louis M. Lin
      Pages: 293 - 301
      Abstract: Abstract This review outlines the biological basis and clinical protocols used currently in regenerative endodontic procedures and discusses future directions in pulp regeneration appraches. Since the discovery of dental stem cells capable of differentiating into odontoblast-like cells and revascularization/regenerative endodontic therapy with the potential of promoting thickening of the canal walls and continued root development of immature permanent teeth with necrotic pulps, the study of pulp tissue engineering or pulp tissue regeneration has taken a giant step forward in biological and clinical endodontics. The biological concept of regenerative endodontics involves the triad of stem cells, scaffold, and signaling molecules. In preclinical studies, researchers are looking for mesenchymal stem cells not only capable of differentiating into odontoblast-like cells but also highly angiogenic/vasculogenic and neurogenic for complete pulp regeneration. Tremendous efforts are also dedicated to search for three-dimensional biomimetic scaffolds to enhance stem cell migration, adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation as well as tissue structure support. In clinical trials, besides immature permanent teeth with necrotic pulp, regenerative endodontic therapy has been employed to treat mature permanent teeth with necrotic pulps, teeth with persistent apical periodontitis after primary root canal therapy, and traumatized teeth associated horizontal root fractures, root resorption, and avulsion.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-016-0109-8
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2016)
  • Improving the Oral Health of American Indians and Alaska Natives
    • Authors: Kathy R. Phipps
      Pages: 179 - 186
      Abstract: Abstract American Indian and Alaska Native people experience more oral disease and are more likely to have unmet oral health needs than the general US population. These disparities may be attributed to limited access to and use of the dental care delivery system plus a high prevalence of disease risk factors such as social inequities, diet and infant-feeding practices, smoking, and oral hygiene behaviors. This review provides information on the use of and effectiveness of strategies designed to increase access, prevent oral disease, and change systems. To address the oral health crisis in Indian Country, a multi-modal approach which engages the individual, family, community, tribal leadership, plus health and social service providers must be developed, implemented, and sustained. This multi-modal approach should combine primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention strategies layered with strategies to increase access and system changes to reduce the consequences of social inequities.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-016-0095-x
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2016)
  • SBIRT-Based Interventions to Improve Pediatric Oral Health Behaviors and
           Outcomes: Considerations for Future Behavioral SBIRT Interventions in
    • Authors: Josué Cuevas; Donald L. Chi
      Pages: 187 - 192
      Abstract: Abstract Dental caries is the most common chronic disease in children and is caused by poor oral health behaviors. These behaviors include high-sugar diet, inadequate exposure to topical fluorides, and irregular use of professional dental care services. A number of behavioral intervention approaches have been used to modify health behaviors. One example is based on the Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) model, which has been widely used to reduce substance abuse in both adults and children. SBIRT is a promising behavior change approach that could similarly be used to address problematic oral health behaviors. In this paper, we will review oral health studies that have adopted SBIRT components, assess if these interventions improved oral health behaviors and outcomes, and outline considerations for researchers interested in developing and testing future oral health-related interventions in dentistry using a SBIRT approach.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-016-0106-y
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2016)
  • Materials and Processes for CAD/CAM Complete Denture Fabrication
    • Authors: Nadim Z. Baba
      Pages: 203 - 208
      Abstract: Purpose of Review The motive of this article is to single out the materials and processes available for the fabrication of CAD/CAM complete dentures. Recent Findings CAD/CAM complete denture fabrication has become accessible for complete dentures with a variety of techniques available for the fabrication of the prostheses. The majority of the manufacturers use subtractive manufacturing for the fabrication of their dentures while only one manufacturer proposes an additive technique. Several digital systems are available for the fabrication of CAD/CAM dentures. Summary The integration of CAD/CAM technology into complete denture design and fabrication helps improve the quality of the dentures and simplify the laboratory work. Time-consuming laboratory procedures are reduced or eliminated allowing the dental technician to ensure reproducible, efficient, and accurate prostheses.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-016-0101-3
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2016)
  • Retraction Note to: Biological Mechanisms Relating Periodontitis and
    • Authors: Hatice Hasturk; Alpdogan Kantarci
      PubDate: 2016-10-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-016-0117-8
  • The Potential Impact of Essential Nutrients Vitamins C and D upon
           Periodontal Disease Pathogenesis and Therapeutic Outcomes
    • Authors: Gareth R Brock; Iain L C Chapple
      Abstract: Abstract Diet has powerful effects upon inflammatory status, arguably as strong or stronger than microbial plaque. Despite a relationship between diet and periodontal inflammatory markers being established over 30 years ago, it is only recently that the mechanisms underpinning these effects have begun to be examined in detail. Following an analysis of the evidence base in 2011, this review focuses upon the most contemporaneous evidence relating specifically to the micronutrient vitamins C and D and their potential impact upon periodontal disease pathogenesis and/or therapeutic outcomes. The authors bring together both epidemiological and laboratory data and aim to outline avenues for potential studies given the limited number of larger well-conducted clinical interventional trials completed to date.
      PubDate: 2016-10-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-016-0116-9
  • Current Developments in 3D Printing for Craniofacial Regeneration
    • Authors: Cedryck Vaquette; Peter Mark Bartold; Saso Ivanovski
      Abstract: Abstract Three dimensional printing, or additive manufacturing, allows the production of customized scaffolds that can enhance craniofacial reconstruction and regeneration. It can be achieved by several techniques, including selective laser sintering, electron beam melting, fused deposition melting, fused filament fabrication, as well as extrusion and laser-assisted bioprinting of cells. 3D-printed constructs can take the form of nonresorbable solid form prosthesis or porous degradable scaffolds that can be resorbed over time and replaced by native tissues. The later can be considered the more desirable outcome but it is also more challenging to achieve. 3D-printed constructs have been used in a variety of oro-dental and craniofacial applications, including vertical bone augmentation, mandibular, and skull defect reconstruction, periodontal regeneration, and temporomandibular joint replacement. Although considerable advancements have been made, challenges remain in translating this technology to the clinic, especially in producing customized, porous, and inter-connected scaffolds for the regeneration of complex multiphasic tissues of varying dimensions ranging from a few millimeters to several centimeters.
      PubDate: 2016-09-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-016-0114-y
  • How Far Have We Come in the Field of Nerve Regeneration After Trigeminal
           Nerve Injury'
    • Authors: Annika Rosén; Arezo Tardast; Tie-Jun Shi
      Abstract: Abstract Patients suffering from nerve injury with sensory disturbances or orofacial pain have greatly reduced quality of life, and it is a big cost for the society. Abnormal sensations caused by trigeminal nerve injury often become chronic, severely debilitating, and extremely difficult to treat. In general, non-invasive treatment such as drug treatment has been insufficient, and there are currently few available effective treatments. Surgical interventions such as end-to-end connection or nerve grafting have disadvantages such as donor site morbidity or formation of neuroma. There is need for optimizing the technique for nerve repair, especially for the trigeminal nerve system, which has so far not yet been well explored. Recently, tissue engineering using biodegradable synthetic material and cell-based therapies represents a promising approach to nerve repair and it has been reported that mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) has an anti-inflammatory effect and seems to play an important role in nerve healing and regeneration.
      PubDate: 2016-09-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-016-0115-x
  • Oral Cavity and Allergy: Meeting the Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenge
    • Authors: Eleni Papakonstantinou; Ulrike Raap
      Abstract: Abstract Allergic reactions of the oral mucosa are associated with diverse symptoms and can severely affect patients’ quality of life. Oral mucosa changes such as stomatitis or lichenoid reactions can be the first evidence of a contact allergy, with oral lichenoid reactions after contact with dental restorations, especially amalgam fillings, being among the most common clinical reactions. Additives in foods and oral hygiene products may also cause allergic mucosal reactions. Subjective symptoms, such as pain, burning feeling, or dryness of the oral mucosa, as well as cheilitis or lip and facial swelling, may not only have an allergic component but may also be associated with other diseases that have to be excluded. A complete and thorough clinical examination of the oral mucosa is the first step in the diagnosis of a contact allergy. A detailed history of the patient’s oral care products, drugs, and dental materials is both essential and helpful for the clinician. As a result of the presence of mucosal changes, a patch test can be used for the diagnosis of contact allergy of delayed type. Although the patch test is the standard diagnostic tool for such types of contact allergy, proper interpretation of patch-test results and their clinical relevance can be challenging. As the number of patients with allergies resulting from different materials increases over the years, and a larger number of different dental materials are found to induce an allergy, it is essential for dentists to be aware of the possible allergic reactions to dental materials. Thus, we aimed to develop a systematic approach for contact allergy of the oral cavity, focusing not only on clinical manifestations and diagnosis but also on management and prediction of the risk of oral allergic reactions. A multidisciplinary approach for patients with an oral allergy is essential, with participation of physicians of different specialties, including dentists, allergists and dermatologists.
      PubDate: 2016-09-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-016-0111-1
  • Feasibility of Periodontal Tissue Regeneration Therapy with
           Adipose-Derived Stem Cells
    • Authors: Morikuni Tobita
      Abstract: Abstract Adipose-derived stem cells within subcutaneous adipose tissue were first reported in 2001. Since then, the number of regenerative medicine studies investigating adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) has increased dramatically. This has included not only basic research in regenerative medicine using ASCs but also has progressed and clinical safety studies have now commenced in Japan. Translational research (including clinical research and clinical trials) using cell therapy aims to verify the possibility of achieving repair of tissue or its function and investigating the safety of these protocols. However, despite this simplicity, elucidating the mechanism of action of implanted processed cells is difficult. This indicates the necessity for the further discussion focusing on translational research for cell therapy, as well as continuing to develop novel therapeutic strategies. In this paper, we discuss the feasibility of practical application of using ASCs for periodontal tissue regeneration therapy and discuss the legal system for promoting the practical application of regenerative medicine recently enforced in Japan.
      PubDate: 2016-09-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-016-0113-z
  • Progress in Bioengineered Whole Tooth Research: from Bench to Dental
           Patient Chair
    • Authors: Elizabeth E. Smith; Pamela C. Yelick
      Abstract: Significance Tooth loss is a significant health issue that affects the physiological and social aspects of everyday life. Missing teeth impair simple tasks of chewing and speaking and can also contribute to reduced self-confidence. An emerging and exciting area of regenerative medicine-based dental research focuses on the formation of bioengineered whole tooth replacement therapies that can provide both the function and sensory responsiveness of natural teeth. This area of research aims to enhance the quality of dental and oral health for those suffering from tooth loss. Current approaches use a combination of dental progenitor cells, scaffolds and growth factors to create biologically based replacement teeth to serve as improved alternatives to currently used artificial dental prosthetics. Purpose This article is an overview of current progress, challenges, and future clinical applications of bioengineered whole teeth. Conclusion Recent accomplishments suggest that whole tooth bioengineering for human tooth replacement is indeed possible and, in fact, is the future of dentistry.
      PubDate: 2016-09-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-016-0110-2
  • Epidemiology of Sjögren’s Syndrome—from an Oral
    • Authors: Anne Isine Bolstad; Kathrine Skarstein
      Abstract: Abstract Oral symptoms are among the most distressing manifestations for patients with Sjögren’s syndrome (SS). The feeling of dry mouth is unpleasant, and hyposalivation may contribute to difficulty in speaking, chewing and swallowing and reduced quality of life. Reduced salivary flow increases the risk for dental caries and problems with prosthetic replacement. It seems that SS is not as frequently occurring as previously anticipated. Population-based prevalence studies on primary SS in Europe, conducted on large background populations and in accordance with the AECG criteria, reported of a prevalence of 1–9 cases per 10,000 people. This gives a combined prevalence of nearly 39/100,000 (~0.04 %). The cause of Sjögren’s syndrome is even now not fully understood, and the treatment of oral symptoms is still mostly palliative. Hopefully, useful information will appear from the new methods that are now available for genome wide association studies, epigenetics, DNA methylation studies, and proteomics. Similarly, this is anticipated for the immunological side of the story. The interferon signature, the interferon γ/interferon α mRNA ratio, and CXCL13 are among the proposed biomarkers of active disease. In this review, we provide an update on oral aspects of Sjögren’s syndrome with emphasis on the latest publications on these topics.
      PubDate: 2016-09-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-016-0112-0
  • Artificial Aging of Zirconium Dioxide: An Evaluation of Current Knowledge
           and Clinical Relevance
    • Authors: Mutlu Özcan; Cláudia Ângela Maziero Volpato; Márcio Celso Fredel
      Abstract: Abstract Due to its superior mechanical properties, yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal is considered as one of the most promising materials to manufacture prosthetic frameworks, monolithic crowns, and abutments for implants in dentistry. When stabilized in the tetragonal phase, the structure of zirconia can respond to external stress by increasing its toughness and resistance. Unfortunately, when subjected to a humid environment, zirconia may undergo considerable degradation characterized by increased surface roughness, grain growth, and propagation of microcracks that could be detrimental for its mechanical properties. This phenomenon, also known as low-temperature degradation (LTD), when not minimized, may represent a setback for the longevity of zirconia especially used for biomedical applications. LTD is studied in in vitro or in vivo settings employing different strategies. Present clinical studies, however, with their shortcomings, do not signify high incidence of failures of zirconia for dental applications. The LTD of zirconia is currently being criticized based on laboratory testing which may be suboptimal. This review will highlight the existing knowledge on the artificial aging methods studying LTD in zirconia and their relevance considering clinical performance of zirconia prostheses.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-016-0096-9
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