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Journal Cover Current Oral Health Reports
  [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Online) 2196-3002
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • Periodontitis and Respiratory Diseases: What Does the Recent Evidence
           Point to'
    • Authors: Jananni Muthu; Sivaramakrishnan Muthanandam
      Pages: 63 - 69
      Abstract: Purpose of the Paper There is an increase in focus of research to find the relationship between periodontal diseases and systemic illnesses, in particular respiratory diseases. Though numerous literatures have been published to assess the link, the nature of relationship between the two diseases is still unclear. Periodontal diseases and respiratory diseases share a common pathogenesis and risk factors. Periodontal diseases and respiratory diseases including bronchial asthma have an inflammatory nature thus mandate a positive correlation between these. Understanding the relationship can help development of more focused preventive and treatment measures. Recent Findings and Summary The available link suggests that there could be independent association between periodontitis and respiratory diseases. However, more structured studies are needed to establish the causal relationship between the two entities. The link is stronger between nosocomial and ventilator-associated pneumonia and is stronger than for chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases.
      PubDate: 2018-03-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-018-0171-5
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2018)
  • Effects of Nicotine on Oral Microorganisms, Human Tissues, and the
           Interactions between Them
    • Authors: Dawn R. Wagenknecht; AbdulRahman AbuBaker BalHaddad; Richard L. Gregory
      Abstract: Purpose Recent findings on the effects of smoking and nicotine on oral microorganisms and on microbial interactions with human cells were reviewed. A PubMed search identified recent publications in English that addressed the effects of smoking and nicotine on oral microorganisms: growth, biofilm formation, plaque composition, enzyme regulation, and cross-species interactions. Interactions of tobacco-exposed microbes with human tissues are also discussed. Recent Findings Smoking alters the oral microbiome. Nicotine increases the pathogenicity of oral microorganisms, either by increasing expression of virulence factors or by increasing the amount of biofilm formed. Nicotine affects human cells via nicotine acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and the prokaryote homolog may explain how nicotine affects microbial cells. Interactions of nicotine exposed microbial and human tissues likely contribute to cardiovascular disease. Summary The evidence supports the destructive oral and systemic effects of smoking and nicotine exposure, leading to development or exacerbation of dental caries, periodontitis, stomatitis, and heart diseases.
      PubDate: 2018-02-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-018-0173-3
  • Periodontal Disease and Osteoporosis-Shared Risk Factors and Potentiation
           of Pathogenic Mechanisms
    • Authors: Maria Bernal; Martina Elenkova; Josh Evensky; Sidney H. Stein
      Abstract: Purpose of Review Periodontitis and osteoporosis are diseases which exhibit bone loss, quantifiable in the oral cavity and skeleton respectively. Accumulating evidence suggests that the two diseases interact with each other resulting in increased prevalence and more rapid disease progression. This review will explore if recent publications can elucidate the mechanisms by which this occurs. Recent Studies Animal studies suggested that osteoporosis will accelerate the progression and severity of periodontitis. Most human studies have supported this association, mainly based upon radiographic measurements and to a lesser extent on clinical findings. They share several risk factors including age, genetics, hormonal changes, smoking, and calcium and vitamin D deficiency. Intriguingly, therapy aimed at one disease may have a positive impact upon the other disease. Summary This review examined recent literature and found evidence of a bidirectional relationship which facilitates communication in subjects diagnosed with periodontitis and osteoporosis promoting disease severity.
      PubDate: 2018-02-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-018-0167-1
  • Smoking and Periodontal Health
    • Authors: S. Selva Süme Keşir; H. Ebru Olgun
      Abstract: Purpose of Review Smoking is a strong and modifiable risk factor for periodontitis. The adverse effects of smoking on oral health are at the center of long-term studies. The aim of this review is to assess these effects with new findings. Recent Findings Studies in different populations have demonstrated strong associations between smoking and severity of periodontitis. Additionally, researchers have observed similar effects in various types of smoking such as water pipe smoking and smokeless tobacco. Microbiological analyses recently have shown increased early colonization of periodontal pathogens in smokers. Lower levels of immunoglobulins and impaired fibroblast attachment to matrix proteins are new observations. Smoking markedly influences response to treatment, and smokers are resistant to conventional periodontal therapy. Implant failure and risk of peri-implantitis are higher among smokers. Summary Latest data supports that severity of periodontitis is higher in smokers. Smoking cessation is beneficial for improving periodontal status and periodontal therapy outcomes.
      PubDate: 2018-02-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-018-0170-6
  • Periodontal Diseases/Treatment and Bisphosphonates
    • Authors: Pınar Meriç; Önder Gürlek
      Abstract: Purpose of Review Host response against bacteria or their toxins eventually play a major role in alveolar bone destruction observed in periodontitis. Because of the role in bone resorption, bisphosphonates were applied as adjunct to non-surgical therapy. This review highlights the effects of bisphosphonates on clinical parameters as adjunct to periodontal treatment. Recent Findings Significant clinical and radiographic effects were observed in animal and human study models. In recent studies, local usage of the bisphosphonate gels was examined in periodontitis patients to prevent the systemic side effects. The mean pocket depth reduction, clinical attachment level gain, and the percentage of defect depth reduction were greater in bisphosphonate group. Summary Bisphosphonates appear to be effective in improving clinical outcomes of periodontal treatment. However, the clinical relevance still remains controversial because of the differences in methodology in the studies. New evidences from high-quality clinical trials are required to clear the clinical application of bisphosphonates as adjunct to non-surgical periodontal treatment in periodontitis.
      PubDate: 2018-01-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-018-0163-5
  • Periodontal Treatment in Cancer Patients: an Interdisciplinary Approach
    • Authors: A. M. Decker; L. S. Taichman; N. J. D’Silva; Russell S. Taichman
      Abstract: Purpose of Review Dental care is an essential component in the comprehensive treatment for a cancer patient. As such, a review of the literature was completed to determine the relationships between periodontal and dental care in the cancer patient and provide strategic suggestions. Recent Findings Periodontal treatment must be personalized depending on the patient’s current oral health status, systemic status, and progress in treatment. Oral mucositis, periodontal status, and osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) remain periodontal concerns in providing dental care to the cancer patient. Risk factors for development of ONJ include root amputation (OR = 6.64), extraction of a single tooth (OR = 3.7), severe tooth mobility (OR = 3.60), and unclosed wound (OR = 2.51). Summary Preventive maintenance, oral hygiene instruction, use of fluoride and chlorhexidine are all important therapeutic strategies. If extractions are required in patients who have received bone-modifying drug infusions, flap management and primary wound closure are needed to reduce the risk of complications.
      PubDate: 2018-01-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-018-0164-4
  • Challenges in the Eradication of Enterococcus faecalis and its
           Implications on Health
    • Authors: Eyal Rosen; Ilana Kolodkin-Gal; Igor Tsesis
      Abstract: ᅟ Enterococcus faecalis is frequently found in infected root canals of teeth with persistent apical periodontitis. Purpose To review the challenges involved in the eradication of persistent Enterococcus faecalis infections and their impact on human health. Recent Findings In the root canal system, Enterococcus faecalis resides in biofilm communities that are able to resist a wide range of harsh conditions and treatments and persist for years. Various virulence and resistance factors provide Enterococcus faecalis capabilities in adherence, colonization, and biofilm formation, which is much more resistant to antibacterial agents than planktonic bacteria. These capabilities explain its persistence in root canal infections. To date, the available therapeutic tools to efficiently eradicate Enterococcus faecalis infections remain limited. Recently, in a model mimicking Enterococcus faecalis root canal infection, novel biofilm inhibitors and dispersing agents, such as D-Leucine, presented superior capability over sodium hypochlorite, the frequently used root-canal antibacterial irrigation solution, in the eradication of Enterococcus faecalis. Summary These recent studies present promising treatment regimens for Enterococcus faecalis persistent infections.
      PubDate: 2018-01-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-018-0172-4
  • Cardiovascular Diseases and Periodontal Disease
    • Authors: Thomas T. Nguyen; Kevin Y. Wu; Maude Leclerc; Hieu M. Pham; Simon D. Tran
      Abstract: Purpose of Review Periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases are both inflammatory conditions. Recent epidemiological studies have associated the effects of periodontitis on cardiovascular disease (CVD) progression. This review aims to summarize the relationship between those two conditions. Recent Findings Although there is no evidence of a causal relationship, an association between the two conditions is apparent. The potential factors include bacterial pathway, inflammation, and genetics. Periodontal bacteria affect endothelial cells through interactions that aggravate the atherogenic process. Ulcerated periodontium produces cytokines which increase the production of acute-phase proteins that have been associated with cardiovascular events. Genetic studies have demonstrated the presence of risk alleles in the genes ANRIL and CAMTA1/VAMP3 that are shared between these two diseases. Summary This review discusses the current understanding of CVD pathogenesis, underlying mechanisms of periodontitis in CVD, and effects of periodontal therapy on CVD, and provides guidelines for treating patients with CVD risks in respect to periodontal disease.
      PubDate: 2018-01-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-018-0165-3
  • Periodontology for Geriatric Patients
    • Authors: Mia Rakic; Danilo Vojvodic; Anton Sculean
      Abstract: Purpose of Review Elderly population represents the fastest growing population segment and target group of many expert organizations developing strategies for successful aging. The substantial increase in man’s lifespan together with implementation of preventive dental programs resulted in decreased tooth loss and increased prevalence of periodontal disease. Hence, the present review focused on positioning periodontal health within aging process, characteristic of the senescent periodontium, periodontitis-aging interplay, clinical characteristics, and implications for periodontal care in geriatric patients. Recent Findings The senescent periodontium undergoes degenerative changes that are unrelated to progressive destruction in lack of inflammation. The pathological interplay periodontitis-systemic aging is evidenced. Geriatric patients demonstrate comparable treatment outcomes to those of patients ≤ 60 years regarding non-surgical and surgical periodontal treatment and implant therapy as well. Summary Adequate oral hygiene and appropriate control of risk factors represent the key pre-conditions for successful periodontal and systemic aging.
      PubDate: 2018-01-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-018-0169-z
  • Implications of Antimicrobial Usage to Prevent Bacteremia for Periodontal
    • Authors: Nurcan Buduneli
      Abstract: Purpose of Review This review examines the current literature on periodontal treatment, bacteremia and prophylactic antibiotic usage to prevent the systemic adverse outcomes. Recent Findings Currently, it is not clear whether prophylactic antibiotic administration prevents bacterial endocarditis in patients with high risk. Summary Recent publications have resulted in significant changes in the concept of antibiotic prophylaxis. Available evidence does not support the previously published guidelines recommending prophylactic antibiotic usage prior to dental treatment. Potential harms and costs of antibiotic administration should be weighed against expected benefits. Clinicians are advised to discuss the potential benefits and harms of antibiotic prophylaxis with their patients before prescription.
      PubDate: 2018-01-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-018-0166-2
  • Are Sex Steroid Hormones Influencing Periodontal Conditions' A
           Systematic Review
    • Authors: Aliye Akcalı; Zeynep Akcalı; Fareeha Batool; Catherine Petit; Olivier Huck
      Abstract: Purpose of Review The pulsatile fashion of the release of sex steroid hormones has an impact on periodontium. The aim of this systematic review was to determine whether sex steroid hormones influence periodontal diseases or not. Recent Findings MEDLINE via OVID, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database updated until July 2017 were searched and, particularly, the papers published over the past 5 years were reviewed. Summary The evidence is more supportive towards the effect of sex steroid hormone perturbations on an existing periodontal disease rather than the initiation of disease. Examination of potential diagnostics for preventive or therapeutic applications is needed in order to decrease the composite risks arising from the hormonal changes themselves. Also, further clinical trials comparing sex steroid hormone exposure on patients with similar baseline periodontal conditions are emerging in order to understand the causal mechanisms between the two, eventually, helping to make clearer clinical recommendations and guidelines for hormone-dominated periods in both men and women.
      PubDate: 2018-01-13
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-018-0168-0
  • Definitions and Epidemiology of Endodontic Infections
    • Authors: I. F. Persoon; A. R. Özok
      Abstract: Purpose of Review This review describes the recent findings from epidemiological studies on endodontic infections. The recent literature was screened for studies on the prevalence of primary apical periodontitis and posttreatment apical periodontitis in various populations. Recent Findings Twenty-nine articles reporting data on the prevalence of primary or posttreatment apical periodontitis from all over the world were included. The prevalence of apical periodontitis varied between 7 and 86%, while that of posttreatment apical periodontitis varied between 10 and 62%. The quality of the coronal restoration and the root filling appears to be the major predictors of apical periodontitis. Summary The recent findings from epidemiological studies on the prevalence of primary and posttreatment apical periodontitis in various populations are not substantially different from those from earlier years. It appears that the health of periapical tissues has not majorly improved in the general population.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0161-z
  • Current Concepts of Epigenetics and Its Role in Periodontitis
    • Authors: Lena Larsson
      Abstract: Purpose The focus of this review is to provide an overview of the recent findings on the role of epigenetic mechanisms in periodontal disease, including disease susceptibility, progression, and as potential treatment options. Recent Findings The findings on the influence of oral pathogens on epigenetic regulation of pathogen recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines suggest an important role for epigenetics in the regulation of the host immune response. Recent studies also show that the epigenetic pattern in periodontitis lesions differ from that of healthy and gingivitis tissue. In addition, these patterns differ between tissues in the same individual. Research is also indicating a role for both DNA methylation and histone acetylation on cells osteogenic differentiation and bone regeneration. Summary Knowledge of epigenetic pattern in periodontal diseases may add not only to the knowledge of susceptibility of the disease but may also be a diagnostic tool to identify patients at risk to develop the severe form of periodontitis. In addition, recent research within gene therapy and tissue engineering indicate a role for epigenetics also to improve regeneration of periodontal tissues.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0156-9
  • Revascularization of Immature Necrotic Teeth
    • Authors: Nikita B. Ruparel; Vanessa Chrepa; Jennifer L. Gibbs
      Abstract: Purpose of Review The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the past and present advancements in regenerative endodontics. Recent Findings Available literature clearly demonstrates high-clinical success of regenerative endodontic procedures (REP). Several recommendations made by the American Association of Endodontists (AAE) with regard to REP protocols are based on recent work demonstrating these as stem cell-based therapies. This review summarizes the role of stem cells and therefore the rationale for the currently recommended guidelines. Summary Clinical success of REP lies between 80 and 100% with root development observed in a significant number of treated cases. These procedures provide a unique advantage of continued root growth despite premature pulp necrosis in immature teeth. Research in the field of stem cell biology has greatly increased our understanding of tissue engineering in endodontics. Overall, REPs appear to be a viable treatment option for immature teeth with pulp necrosis.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0162-y
  • Use of Probiotics and Oral Health
    • Authors: Robert P. Allaker; Abish S. Stephen
      Abstract: Purpose of Review The purpose of this study is to critically assess recent studies concerning the use of probiotics to control periodontal diseases, dental caries and halitosis (oral malodour). Recent Findings Clinical studies have shown that probiotics when allied to conventional periodontal treatment can ameliorate microbial dysbiosis and produce significant improvement in clinical indicators of disease. However, this effect is often not maintained by the host after the end of probiotic use. Current probiotics also show limited effects in treating caries and halitosis. Novel approaches based up on replacement therapy and using highly abundant health-associated oral species, including nitrate-reducing bacteria, have been proposed to improve persistence of probiotic strains and maintain oral health benefits. Summary Probiotics have potential in the management of multifactorial diseases such as the periodontal diseases and caries, by more effectively addressing the host-microbial interface to restore homeostasis that may not be achieved with conventional treatments.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0159-6
  • Periodontitis: from Infection to Inflammation
    • Authors: Gustavo G. Nascimento; Fabio R. M. Leite; Flemming Scheutz; Rodrigo López
      Abstract: Purpose of the Review The purpose of this study is to discuss the current understanding of periodontitis causation. Recent Findings The understanding of periodontitis as a monocausal infection has hindered the investigation of other potential causes that influence periodontitis morbidity and does not reflect the complexity of periodontitis etiology. Still today, the periodontal literature frequently defines periodontitis as an infection, whereas other potential causes of periodontitis, like smoking, which seems to be causally related to periodontitis, are typically called modifying or susceptibility factors. Instead of addressing the complexity of periodontitis, the field has narrowed its focus trying to find the most important bacteria or gene. Distal causes of periodontitis and interaction between constellations of causes at multiple levels have been commonly neglected. Summary Understanding periodontitis as a group of signs and symptoms characterized by inflammatory destruction of the periodontium would provide a better frame for future etiological research.
      PubDate: 2017-10-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0158-7
  • Proteomics of Periodontal Pocket
    • Authors: Dimitra Sakellari
      Abstract: Purpose of Review This study aims to present and evaluate the findings of the literature referring to proteomic analysis of the periodontal pocket aimed to identify potential biomarkers for periodontal disease. Recent Findings A comprehensive examination of data from “shotgun” proteomic analysis has shown that a number of human proteins, previously not extensively investigated in the literature, have emerged as new candidates. Proteins relevant to various biological functions such as actin, profilin, hemoglobin, plastins, alpha-amylase, matrix metalloproteinases, keratins, histones, annexins, antimicrobial peptides including histatins, S-100A9, cathelicidin-related peptide-37 (LL-37), human neutrophil peptides (HNP)-1, -2, and -3, statherin, and cystatins are commonly identified in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) by proteomic analysis and are upregulated in periodontal disease and therefore could serve as biomarkers. Conclusions Proteomic analysis has provided a new insight into the search for biomarkers of periodontal disease presence, progression, prognosis, and endpoints of treatment. Data derived should be validated by larger scale studies, including significant subject samples. These second-stage studies should focus on evaluating the importance of these proposed new biomarkers using standardized procedures.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0160-0
  • Periodontal Abscess: a Review and the Role of Antimicrobial Therapy
    • Authors: Sachiyo Tomita; Atsushi Saito
      Abstract: Purpose of Review The aim was to summarize current knowledge about periodontal abscesses and describe recent research on antimicrobial treatment. Recent Findings For periodontal abscess treatment, antimicrobial therapy is implemented as an adjunct modality to subgingival debridement and/or abscess drainage. Among available systemic antimicrobial agents, amoxicillin (plus clavulanate), metronidazole, and azithromycin are often used with good clinical results. In our studies of patients with acute periodontal lesions, systemic administration of a new fluoroquinolone, sitafloxacin, yielded a significant improvement in clinical parameters, and was effective against subgingival bacteria, with no significant impact on the antimicrobial susceptibility of periodontal bacteria. Summary Plaque control during initial periodontal therapy or maintenance care is critical for the prevention and treatment of periodontal abscesses. In the case of acute periodontal abscesses, drainage is considered first. When drainage is not possible or insufficient, antimicrobial therapy should then be considered. Microbiological testing can contribute to the successful treatment.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0157-8
  • Erratum to: The Future of Periodontal-Systemic Associations: Raising the
    • Authors: P. Mark Bartold; Angelo Mariotti
      PubDate: 2017-08-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0155-x
  • Prevention in Dentistry: Practice and Potential
    • Authors: Robert J. Collins
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0154-y
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