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Journal Cover Current Oral Health Reports
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Online) 2196-3002
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2354 journals]
  • Definitions and Epidemiology of Endodontic Infections
    • Authors: I. F. Persoon; A. R. Özok
      Abstract: Purpose of Review This review describes the recent findings from epidemiological studies on endodontic infections. The recent literature was screened for studies on the prevalence of primary apical periodontitis and posttreatment apical periodontitis in various populations. Recent Findings Twenty-nine articles reporting data on the prevalence of primary or posttreatment apical periodontitis from all over the world were included. The prevalence of apical periodontitis varied between 7 and 86%, while that of posttreatment apical periodontitis varied between 10 and 62%. The quality of the coronal restoration and the root filling appears to be the major predictors of apical periodontitis. Summary The recent findings from epidemiological studies on the prevalence of primary and posttreatment apical periodontitis in various populations are not substantially different from those from earlier years. It appears that the health of periapical tissues has not majorly improved in the general population.
      PubDate: 2017-11-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0161-z
  • Current Concepts of Epigenetics and Its Role in Periodontitis
    • Authors: Lena Larsson
      Abstract: Purpose The focus of this review is to provide an overview of the recent findings on the role of epigenetic mechanisms in periodontal disease, including disease susceptibility, progression, and as potential treatment options. Recent Findings The findings on the influence of oral pathogens on epigenetic regulation of pathogen recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines suggest an important role for epigenetics in the regulation of the host immune response. Recent studies also show that the epigenetic pattern in periodontitis lesions differ from that of healthy and gingivitis tissue. In addition, these patterns differ between tissues in the same individual. Research is also indicating a role for both DNA methylation and histone acetylation on cells osteogenic differentiation and bone regeneration. Summary Knowledge of epigenetic pattern in periodontal diseases may add not only to the knowledge of susceptibility of the disease but may also be a diagnostic tool to identify patients at risk to develop the severe form of periodontitis. In addition, recent research within gene therapy and tissue engineering indicate a role for epigenetics also to improve regeneration of periodontal tissues.
      PubDate: 2017-11-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0156-9
  • Revascularization of Immature Necrotic Teeth
    • Authors: Nikita B. Ruparel; Vanessa Chrepa; Jennifer L. Gibbs
      Abstract: Purpose of Review The objective of this review is to provide an overview of the past and present advancements in regenerative endodontics. Recent Findings Available literature clearly demonstrates high-clinical success of regenerative endodontic procedures (REP). Several recommendations made by the American Association of Endodontists (AAE) with regard to REP protocols are based on recent work demonstrating these as stem cell-based therapies. This review summarizes the role of stem cells and therefore the rationale for the currently recommended guidelines. Summary Clinical success of REP lies between 80 and 100% with root development observed in a significant number of treated cases. These procedures provide a unique advantage of continued root growth despite premature pulp necrosis in immature teeth. Research in the field of stem cell biology has greatly increased our understanding of tissue engineering in endodontics. Overall, REPs appear to be a viable treatment option for immature teeth with pulp necrosis.
      PubDate: 2017-10-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0162-y
  • Use of Probiotics and Oral Health
    • Authors: Robert P. Allaker; Abish S. Stephen
      Abstract: Purpose of Review The purpose of this study is to critically assess recent studies concerning the use of probiotics to control periodontal diseases, dental caries and halitosis (oral malodour). Recent Findings Clinical studies have shown that probiotics when allied to conventional periodontal treatment can ameliorate microbial dysbiosis and produce significant improvement in clinical indicators of disease. However, this effect is often not maintained by the host after the end of probiotic use. Current probiotics also show limited effects in treating caries and halitosis. Novel approaches based up on replacement therapy and using highly abundant health-associated oral species, including nitrate-reducing bacteria, have been proposed to improve persistence of probiotic strains and maintain oral health benefits. Summary Probiotics have potential in the management of multifactorial diseases such as the periodontal diseases and caries, by more effectively addressing the host-microbial interface to restore homeostasis that may not be achieved with conventional treatments.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0159-6
  • Periodontitis: from Infection to Inflammation
    • Authors: Gustavo G. Nascimento; Fabio R. M. Leite; Flemming Scheutz; Rodrigo López
      Abstract: Purpose of the Review The purpose of this study is to discuss the current understanding of periodontitis causation. Recent Findings The understanding of periodontitis as a monocausal infection has hindered the investigation of other potential causes that influence periodontitis morbidity and does not reflect the complexity of periodontitis etiology. Still today, the periodontal literature frequently defines periodontitis as an infection, whereas other potential causes of periodontitis, like smoking, which seems to be causally related to periodontitis, are typically called modifying or susceptibility factors. Instead of addressing the complexity of periodontitis, the field has narrowed its focus trying to find the most important bacteria or gene. Distal causes of periodontitis and interaction between constellations of causes at multiple levels have been commonly neglected. Summary Understanding periodontitis as a group of signs and symptoms characterized by inflammatory destruction of the periodontium would provide a better frame for future etiological research.
      PubDate: 2017-10-14
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0158-7
  • Proteomics of Periodontal Pocket
    • Authors: Dimitra Sakellari
      Abstract: Purpose of Review This study aims to present and evaluate the findings of the literature referring to proteomic analysis of the periodontal pocket aimed to identify potential biomarkers for periodontal disease. Recent Findings A comprehensive examination of data from “shotgun” proteomic analysis has shown that a number of human proteins, previously not extensively investigated in the literature, have emerged as new candidates. Proteins relevant to various biological functions such as actin, profilin, hemoglobin, plastins, alpha-amylase, matrix metalloproteinases, keratins, histones, annexins, antimicrobial peptides including histatins, S-100A9, cathelicidin-related peptide-37 (LL-37), human neutrophil peptides (HNP)-1, -2, and -3, statherin, and cystatins are commonly identified in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) by proteomic analysis and are upregulated in periodontal disease and therefore could serve as biomarkers. Conclusions Proteomic analysis has provided a new insight into the search for biomarkers of periodontal disease presence, progression, prognosis, and endpoints of treatment. Data derived should be validated by larger scale studies, including significant subject samples. These second-stage studies should focus on evaluating the importance of these proposed new biomarkers using standardized procedures.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0160-0
  • Periodontal Abscess: a Review and the Role of Antimicrobial Therapy
    • Authors: Sachiyo Tomita; Atsushi Saito
      Abstract: Purpose of Review The aim was to summarize current knowledge about periodontal abscesses and describe recent research on antimicrobial treatment. Recent Findings For periodontal abscess treatment, antimicrobial therapy is implemented as an adjunct modality to subgingival debridement and/or abscess drainage. Among available systemic antimicrobial agents, amoxicillin (plus clavulanate), metronidazole, and azithromycin are often used with good clinical results. In our studies of patients with acute periodontal lesions, systemic administration of a new fluoroquinolone, sitafloxacin, yielded a significant improvement in clinical parameters, and was effective against subgingival bacteria, with no significant impact on the antimicrobial susceptibility of periodontal bacteria. Summary Plaque control during initial periodontal therapy or maintenance care is critical for the prevention and treatment of periodontal abscesses. In the case of acute periodontal abscesses, drainage is considered first. When drainage is not possible or insufficient, antimicrobial therapy should then be considered. Microbiological testing can contribute to the successful treatment.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0157-8
  • Erratum to: The Future of Periodontal-Systemic Associations: Raising the
    • Authors: P. Mark Bartold; Angelo Mariotti
      PubDate: 2017-08-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0155-x
  • Additive Manufacturing Technologies Used for 3D Metal Printing in
    • Authors: Marta Revilla-León; Mutlu Özcan
      Abstract: Purpose of Review Compared to conventional casting methods used for processing different alloys for dental applications, additive manufacturing technologies reduce manufacturing time and costs, minimize human errors and prevent possible defects in the cast objects. This review highlights working mechanisms, possible advantages and drawbacks of recent additive manufacturing technologies used for metal processing in dentistry. Recent Findings The literature reviewed indicated that powder-based fusion mainly based on selective laser sintering, selective laser melting and electro beam melting are the most commonly used technologies for 3D metal printing in dentistry for dental appliances made of CoCr and Ti6Al4V. Although mechanical properties of 3D printed alloys could be considered satisfactory, accuracy and reproducibility data do not present consistent results. Summary There appears room for improvement between 3D printed metals and ceramic interfaces and precision before such technologies could be favoured over conventional cast methods.
      PubDate: 2017-08-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0152-0
  • Monolithic Zirconia for Prosthetic Reconstructions: Advantages and
    • Authors: Lucas Hian da Silva; Erick de Lima; Miriam Hochman; Mutlu Özcan; Paulo Francisco Cesar
      Abstract: Purpose of Review Due to frequent clinical reports on chipping of the veneering ceramic applied on zirconia frameworks, non-veneered monolithic zirconia has been proposed in an attempt to improve the lifetime of metal-free fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). This review highlights the effects of microstructure and chemical composition on optical properties and mechanical properties of monolithic zirconia that may be detrimental on the longevity of FDPs and the antagonist dentition. Recent Findings The reviewed studies indicated that the lack of veneering ceramic in monolithic solutions yields to less favourable optical outcome and decreased mechanical stability. Efforts are being made to improve translucency of monolithic zirconia through modifying the grain size, increasing cubic phase, and decreasing alumina content, final density and level of impurities. Summary There appears room for improvement in the microstructure of monolithic zirconia ceramics to achieve better optical results and low antagonist wear, without jeopardizing its mechanical properties.
      PubDate: 2017-08-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0153-z
  • Prevention in Dentistry: Practice and Potential
    • Authors: Robert J. Collins
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0154-y
  • The Future of Periodontal-Systemic Associations: Raising the Standards
    • Authors: P. Mark Bartold; Angelo Mariotti
      Abstract: Purpose of Review Periodontal medicine recognizes a “bidirectional” interaction between periodontitis and systemic conditions. Unfortunately, the facile ability to publish a periodontal-systemic association, regardless of biologic plausibility or rigorous scientific scrutiny, continues without abate. Recent Findings The increasing number of periodontal-systemic associations corrupts the ability of dentists to distinguish which of the associations are spurious and which are valid. Summary The use of a Disease Association Checklist creates a register for rational assessment of current disease associations. However, to diminish the publication of spurious periodontal-systemic observational associations, editors must demand that authors follow Bradford-Hill criteria and the STROBE Statement to ensure a stringent pathway to publication.
      PubDate: 2017-07-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0150-2
  • Two Recent Advances in Local Anesthesia: Intranasal
           Tetracaine/Oxymetazoline and Liposomal Bupivacaine
    • Authors: Elliot V. Hersh; Mana Saraghi; Paul A. Moore
      Abstract: Purpose of Review This paper reviews the efficacy, safety, and clinical utility of two novel formulations of local anesthetics; intranasal 3% tetracaine plus 0.05% oxymetazoline and 1.3% liposomal bupivacaine. Recent Findings Intranasal 3% tetracaine/oxymetazoline when delivered into the ipsilateral nostril of the target tooth has a success rate of 84–90% in completing a single restorative procedure from the second premolar forward. The maximum recommended dose is 18 mg tetracaine/0.3 mg oxymetazoline (three 0.2-ml sprays). The most common adverse effects are nasal congestion and nasal runniness. Liposomal bupivacaine is administered by infiltration injection solely for postoperative pain control and appears to provide analgesic and opioid-sparing effects in knee arthroplasty, bunionectomy, hemorrhoidectomy, and laparotomy. The maximum recommended dose is 20 ml or 266 mg although for dental impaction surgery, a maximum of 10 ml or 133 mg is all that may be required. Summary Intranasal tetracaine/oxymetazoline is currently FDA approved only for single maxillary restorative procedures in patients weighing 88 lb or greater. Further clinical trials should include more invasive dental procedures and pediatric patients. The utility of liposomal bupivacaine following dental surgery needs to be further explored.
      PubDate: 2017-07-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0144-0
  • Effectiveness of Disease Prevention in Community Health Center Dental
    • Authors: Joan I. Gluch; Kari Hexem
      Abstract: Purpose of Review The goal of this paper is to describe and analyze oral health disease prevention at Community Health Center (CHC) dental programs in order to summarize the effectiveness of activities at the individual and community levels. Recent Findings Recent efforts to expand oral health prevention and care with children at community health centers have shown positive results. Although there is considerable literature regarding oral health disease prevention aimed at individuals and communities, there are few articles that specifically address preventive oral health programs at CHC. Summary CHC dental programs are well positioned to address the prevention of dental diseases as an integral part of care based on their organization and strong community-based orientation. Recent trends in the integration of medical and dental care at CHC support dental disease prevention activities to increase oral health and provide opportunities for further research in monitoring effectiveness of disease prevention in CHC.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0141-3
  • Association between Sugar Intake, Oral Health, and the Impact on Overall
           Health: Raising Public Awareness
    • Authors: David P. Cappelli; Connie C. Mobley
      Abstract: Purpose of Review The role of sugar consumption and oral health refocused largely due to associations between systemic diseases and conditions (type 2 diabetes, obesity) and oral health. This review examines the evidence supporting the impact of sugars on oral diseases and the role of sugars in oral-systemic complications. Recent Findings The increased consumption of dietary sugars, including sugar-sweetened beverages, and the increasing percentage of sugars as a component of the US diet affect oral health in the population. It is important for dental professionals to know public health implications and strategies to effectively communicate this risk to patients’ oral health. Summary Local and state governments experienced success with the regulation of sodas and sugar-sweetened beverages and studies demonstrated that these regulations are largely successful in decreasing consumption among adolescents. It is the role of the dental professional to support these activities to promote healthy dietary choices for patients.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0142-2
  • Recent Advances in Adhesive Bonding: The Role of Biomolecules,
           Nanocompounds, and Bonding Strategies in Enhancing Resin Bonding to Dental
    • Authors: Eliseu A. Münchow; Marco C. Bottino
      Abstract: Purpose of review To present an overview on the main agents (i.e. biomolecules and nanocompounds) and/or strategies currently available to amplify or stabilize resin-dentin bonding. Recent findings According to studies retrieved for full-text reading (2014–2017), there are currently six major strategies available to overcome resin-dentin bond degradation: (1) use of collagen crosslinking agents, which may form stable covalent bonds with collagen fibrils, thus strengthening the hybrid layer; (2) use of antioxidants, which may allow further polymerization reactions over time; (3) use of protease inhibitors, which may inhibit or inactivate metalloproteinases; (4) modification of the bonding procedure, which may be performed by using the ethanol-wet bonding (EWB) technique or by applying an additional adhesive (hydrophobic) coating, thereby strengthening the hybrid layer; (5) laser treatment of the substrate prior to bonding, which may cause specific topographic changes in the surface of dental substrates, increasing bonding efficacy; and (6) reinforcement of the resin matrix with inorganic fillers and/or remineralizing agents, which may positively enhance physicomechanical properties of the hybrid layer. Summary With the present review, we contributed to the better understanding of adhesion concepts and mechanisms of resin-dentin bond degradation, showing the current prospects available to solve that problematic. In addition, adhesively-bonded restorations may be benefited by the use of some biomolecules, nanocompounds or alternative bonding strategies in order to minimize bond strength degradation.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0146-y
  • Evolution of the Oral Microbiome and Dental Caries
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Our paper reviews how dietary changes during human evolution have contributed to the increased incidence and prevalence of dental caries in modern populations by shifting the oral microbiome from a “healthy” to “carious” state. We addressed two questions: (1) what is the microbial difference between the states of health and caries, and (2) how has the development of an agricultural diet impacted the oral microbiome' Recent Findings The application of next-generation sequencing has revealed the complexity of the oral microbiome and lack of a simple compositional difference between health and caries. Genetic analysis of the oral microbiome from contemporary and ancient humans has shown that the introduction of agriculture was associated with increased frequency of caries-related bacteria and the evolution of the key carious pathogen, Streptococcus mutans. Summary The adoption of an agricultural diet has contributed to a modern rise in caries by changing the oral microbiome ecology. Identification of evolutionary factors that have influenced the oral microbiome in health and caries, and how the two states differ functionally, as opposed to compositionally, may help to reduce the current burden of caries.
      PubDate: 2017-07-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0151-1
  • How Stable is Dentin As a Substrate for Bonding'
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review This paper reviews the complexity of the composition of dentin, and the repercussions of this composition on the stability of dentin over time, particularly in relation to adhesive dental procedures. Recent Findings Dentin is a complex and dynamic structure that comprises the major part of the tooth. Most adhesive procedures in dentistry involve bonding to dentin. The hybrid layer (HL) created on the very variable and dynamic organic dentin phase may fail over time, leading to the failure of dental restorations. Literature showed that the collagen fibers in the HL are prone to hydrolysis and mechanical strain, as well as endogenous proteolytic activity (collagenolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases and cysteine cathepsins). Hydrolysis of the resin phase of the HL also occurs over time. Summary Advancements in the area of dental adhesion have been huge. Silencing of collagenolytic enzymes (protease inhibitors and cross-linking agents) is one of the main strategies to decrease the degradation of the HL. In the following years, new techniques will also probably be available, and efficacy of some of the available techniques will perhaps be further clarified.
      PubDate: 2017-07-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0149-8
  • Update on Infection Control Compliance Issues for Dental Practitioners
    • Authors: Patricia Podolak
      Abstract: Purpose of Review This article outlines major findings and resources from the past three years that relate to dental patient safety, infection control noncompliance factors and antibiotic resistance, and it discusses options available to help improve dental practitioner infection control compliance. Recent Findings Recent findings have identified the need for further research in the field of patient safety in dentistry; dental infection control noncompliance factors illustrate a need to strategize for improved infection control compliance, best practices for antibiotic prescribing in dentistry have been issued; and updated dental infection control resources are available. Summary Through social media and mainstream news accounts, the public is increasingly aware of, and concerned about, dental-related infection control breaches. By understanding the compliance issues that lead to infection control breaches, practitioners can better maintain public trust and meet their patients’ expectation for safe oral healthcare. This article outlines major findings and resources from the past 3 years that relate to dental patient safety, infection control compliance factors, and antibiotic resistance, and includes an overview of updated dental infection control resources available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Organization for Safety, Asepsis and Prevention (OSAP), and American Dental Association (ADA).
      PubDate: 2017-07-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0143-1
  • Accuracy and Reliability of Intraoral Scanners: Are They the Better
    • Authors: Kamal Ebeid; Tarek Salah; Shereen Nossair
      Abstract: Purpose of Review The aim was to compare the accuracy of digital intraoral impressions with conventional impressions on the fabrication of different types of restorations. This study also compared the accuracy, reliability, and ease of use of different types of intraoral scanners available and correlated the results with the different scanning technologies. Recent Findings Digital impressions offer the same level of accuracy as conventional impressions regarding fabrication of crowns, fixed dental prostheses (FDPs), implant-supported crowns, and short-span FDPs with marginal gap values within the clinically acceptable range (<120 μm). However, for full-arch restorations, conventional impressions result in better accuracy. Summary Further enhancements needs to be undertaken regarding intraoral scanners to improve its accuracy regarding fabrication of full-arch restorations. Further in vivo studies evaluating the accuracy of intraoral digital impressions on the fabrication of a wider range of restorations such as inlays, veneers, and full-arch restoration need to be conducted.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0145-z
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