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Journal Cover Current Oral Health Reports
  [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Online) 2196-3002
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Proteomics of Periodontal Pocket
    • Authors: Dimitra Sakellari
      Abstract: Purpose of Review This study aims to present and evaluate the findings of the literature referring to proteomic analysis of the periodontal pocket aimed to identify potential biomarkers for periodontal disease. Recent Findings A comprehensive examination of data from “shotgun” proteomic analysis has shown that a number of human proteins, previously not extensively investigated in the literature, have emerged as new candidates. Proteins relevant to various biological functions such as actin, profilin, hemoglobin, plastins, alpha-amylase, matrix metalloproteinases, keratins, histones, annexins, antimicrobial peptides including histatins, S-100A9, cathelicidin-related peptide-37 (LL-37), human neutrophil peptides (HNP)-1, -2, and -3, statherin, and cystatins are commonly identified in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) by proteomic analysis and are upregulated in periodontal disease and therefore could serve as biomarkers. Conclusions Proteomic analysis has provided a new insight into the search for biomarkers of periodontal disease presence, progression, prognosis, and endpoints of treatment. Data derived should be validated by larger scale studies, including significant subject samples. These second-stage studies should focus on evaluating the importance of these proposed new biomarkers using standardized procedures.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0160-0
  • Periodontal Abscess: a Review and the Role of Antimicrobial Therapy
    • Authors: Sachiyo Tomita; Atsushi Saito
      Abstract: Purpose of Review The aim was to summarize current knowledge about periodontal abscesses and describe recent research on antimicrobial treatment. Recent Findings For periodontal abscess treatment, antimicrobial therapy is implemented as an adjunct modality to subgingival debridement and/or abscess drainage. Among available systemic antimicrobial agents, amoxicillin (plus clavulanate), metronidazole, and azithromycin are often used with good clinical results. In our studies of patients with acute periodontal lesions, systemic administration of a new fluoroquinolone, sitafloxacin, yielded a significant improvement in clinical parameters, and was effective against subgingival bacteria, with no significant impact on the antimicrobial susceptibility of periodontal bacteria. Summary Plaque control during initial periodontal therapy or maintenance care is critical for the prevention and treatment of periodontal abscesses. In the case of acute periodontal abscesses, drainage is considered first. When drainage is not possible or insufficient, antimicrobial therapy should then be considered. Microbiological testing can contribute to the successful treatment.
      PubDate: 2017-10-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0157-8
  • Erratum to: The Future of Periodontal-Systemic Associations: Raising the
    • Authors: P. Mark Bartold; Angelo Mariotti
      PubDate: 2017-08-30
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0155-x
  • Additive Manufacturing Technologies Used for 3D Metal Printing in
    • Authors: Marta Revilla-León; Mutlu Özcan
      Abstract: Purpose of Review Compared to conventional casting methods used for processing different alloys for dental applications, additive manufacturing technologies reduce manufacturing time and costs, minimize human errors and prevent possible defects in the cast objects. This review highlights working mechanisms, possible advantages and drawbacks of recent additive manufacturing technologies used for metal processing in dentistry. Recent Findings The literature reviewed indicated that powder-based fusion mainly based on selective laser sintering, selective laser melting and electro beam melting are the most commonly used technologies for 3D metal printing in dentistry for dental appliances made of CoCr and Ti6Al4V. Although mechanical properties of 3D printed alloys could be considered satisfactory, accuracy and reproducibility data do not present consistent results. Summary There appears room for improvement between 3D printed metals and ceramic interfaces and precision before such technologies could be favoured over conventional cast methods.
      PubDate: 2017-08-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0152-0
  • Monolithic Zirconia for Prosthetic Reconstructions: Advantages and
    • Authors: Lucas Hian da Silva; Erick de Lima; Miriam Hochman; Mutlu Özcan; Paulo Francisco Cesar
      Abstract: Purpose of Review Due to frequent clinical reports on chipping of the veneering ceramic applied on zirconia frameworks, non-veneered monolithic zirconia has been proposed in an attempt to improve the lifetime of metal-free fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). This review highlights the effects of microstructure and chemical composition on optical properties and mechanical properties of monolithic zirconia that may be detrimental on the longevity of FDPs and the antagonist dentition. Recent Findings The reviewed studies indicated that the lack of veneering ceramic in monolithic solutions yields to less favourable optical outcome and decreased mechanical stability. Efforts are being made to improve translucency of monolithic zirconia through modifying the grain size, increasing cubic phase, and decreasing alumina content, final density and level of impurities. Summary There appears room for improvement in the microstructure of monolithic zirconia ceramics to achieve better optical results and low antagonist wear, without jeopardizing its mechanical properties.
      PubDate: 2017-08-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0153-z
  • Prevention in Dentistry: Practice and Potential
    • Authors: Robert J. Collins
      PubDate: 2017-07-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0154-y
  • The Future of Periodontal-Systemic Associations: Raising the Standards
    • Authors: P. Mark Bartold; Angelo Mariotti
      Abstract: Purpose of Review Periodontal medicine recognizes a “bidirectional” interaction between periodontitis and systemic conditions. Unfortunately, the facile ability to publish a periodontal-systemic association, regardless of biologic plausibility or rigorous scientific scrutiny, continues without abate. Recent Findings The increasing number of periodontal-systemic associations corrupts the ability of dentists to distinguish which of the associations are spurious and which are valid. Summary The use of a Disease Association Checklist creates a register for rational assessment of current disease associations. However, to diminish the publication of spurious periodontal-systemic observational associations, editors must demand that authors follow Bradford-Hill criteria and the STROBE Statement to ensure a stringent pathway to publication.
      PubDate: 2017-07-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0150-2
  • Two Recent Advances in Local Anesthesia: Intranasal
           Tetracaine/Oxymetazoline and Liposomal Bupivacaine
    • Authors: Elliot V. Hersh; Mana Saraghi; Paul A. Moore
      Abstract: Purpose of Review This paper reviews the efficacy, safety, and clinical utility of two novel formulations of local anesthetics; intranasal 3% tetracaine plus 0.05% oxymetazoline and 1.3% liposomal bupivacaine. Recent Findings Intranasal 3% tetracaine/oxymetazoline when delivered into the ipsilateral nostril of the target tooth has a success rate of 84–90% in completing a single restorative procedure from the second premolar forward. The maximum recommended dose is 18 mg tetracaine/0.3 mg oxymetazoline (three 0.2-ml sprays). The most common adverse effects are nasal congestion and nasal runniness. Liposomal bupivacaine is administered by infiltration injection solely for postoperative pain control and appears to provide analgesic and opioid-sparing effects in knee arthroplasty, bunionectomy, hemorrhoidectomy, and laparotomy. The maximum recommended dose is 20 ml or 266 mg although for dental impaction surgery, a maximum of 10 ml or 133 mg is all that may be required. Summary Intranasal tetracaine/oxymetazoline is currently FDA approved only for single maxillary restorative procedures in patients weighing 88 lb or greater. Further clinical trials should include more invasive dental procedures and pediatric patients. The utility of liposomal bupivacaine following dental surgery needs to be further explored.
      PubDate: 2017-07-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0144-0
  • Effectiveness of Disease Prevention in Community Health Center Dental
    • Authors: Joan I. Gluch; Kari Hexem
      Abstract: Purpose of Review The goal of this paper is to describe and analyze oral health disease prevention at Community Health Center (CHC) dental programs in order to summarize the effectiveness of activities at the individual and community levels. Recent Findings Recent efforts to expand oral health prevention and care with children at community health centers have shown positive results. Although there is considerable literature regarding oral health disease prevention aimed at individuals and communities, there are few articles that specifically address preventive oral health programs at CHC. Summary CHC dental programs are well positioned to address the prevention of dental diseases as an integral part of care based on their organization and strong community-based orientation. Recent trends in the integration of medical and dental care at CHC support dental disease prevention activities to increase oral health and provide opportunities for further research in monitoring effectiveness of disease prevention in CHC.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0141-3
  • Association between Sugar Intake, Oral Health, and the Impact on Overall
           Health: Raising Public Awareness
    • Authors: David P. Cappelli; Connie C. Mobley
      Abstract: Purpose of Review The role of sugar consumption and oral health refocused largely due to associations between systemic diseases and conditions (type 2 diabetes, obesity) and oral health. This review examines the evidence supporting the impact of sugars on oral diseases and the role of sugars in oral-systemic complications. Recent Findings The increased consumption of dietary sugars, including sugar-sweetened beverages, and the increasing percentage of sugars as a component of the US diet affect oral health in the population. It is important for dental professionals to know public health implications and strategies to effectively communicate this risk to patients’ oral health. Summary Local and state governments experienced success with the regulation of sodas and sugar-sweetened beverages and studies demonstrated that these regulations are largely successful in decreasing consumption among adolescents. It is the role of the dental professional to support these activities to promote healthy dietary choices for patients.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0142-2
  • Recent Advances in Adhesive Bonding: The Role of Biomolecules,
           Nanocompounds, and Bonding Strategies in Enhancing Resin Bonding to Dental
    • Authors: Eliseu A. Münchow; Marco C. Bottino
      Abstract: Purpose of review To present an overview on the main agents (i.e. biomolecules and nanocompounds) and/or strategies currently available to amplify or stabilize resin-dentin bonding. Recent findings According to studies retrieved for full-text reading (2014–2017), there are currently six major strategies available to overcome resin-dentin bond degradation: (1) use of collagen crosslinking agents, which may form stable covalent bonds with collagen fibrils, thus strengthening the hybrid layer; (2) use of antioxidants, which may allow further polymerization reactions over time; (3) use of protease inhibitors, which may inhibit or inactivate metalloproteinases; (4) modification of the bonding procedure, which may be performed by using the ethanol-wet bonding (EWB) technique or by applying an additional adhesive (hydrophobic) coating, thereby strengthening the hybrid layer; (5) laser treatment of the substrate prior to bonding, which may cause specific topographic changes in the surface of dental substrates, increasing bonding efficacy; and (6) reinforcement of the resin matrix with inorganic fillers and/or remineralizing agents, which may positively enhance physicomechanical properties of the hybrid layer. Summary With the present review, we contributed to the better understanding of adhesion concepts and mechanisms of resin-dentin bond degradation, showing the current prospects available to solve that problematic. In addition, adhesively-bonded restorations may be benefited by the use of some biomolecules, nanocompounds or alternative bonding strategies in order to minimize bond strength degradation.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0146-y
  • Will Bioceramics be the Future Root Canal Filling Materials'
    • Authors: Josette Camilleri
      Abstract: Purpose of Review Filling the root canal is necessary when the dental pulp is lost as the dead space will be colonised by bacteria, leading to reinfection of the root canal and treatment failure. Treatment methodology depends on the extent of root formation and the choice of materials available. This review looks at the classical clinical methods and also queries if the newer materials change the treatment rationale. Recent Findings There is considerable confusion with nomenclature for some classes of dental materials. The newer materials have specific features that may not address the treatment needs. Nonetheless, the use of bioceramics and related materials definitely modifies and improves treatment outcome. Summary The classical treatment methods for filling the root canals of both immature and mature teeth are quite well-established in clinical practice. Open apices are treated with calcium hydroxide paste for an extended period of time to stimulate barrier formation at the apex, and the roots are then obturated in a similar way to adult teeth using a solid cone and root canal sealer. With the introduction of bioceramics and related materials, treatment of the immature apex has been shortened to one to two visits. Bioceramic root canal sealers have changed the concept of root canal obturation from the concept of hermetic seal and inert materials to biological bonding and activity. The introduction of these materials has certainly changed the clinical outcomes of filling the root canals. Treatment time has been reduced, which is beneficial for the treatment of paediatric patients. The chemical bond and antimicrobial properties of the sealers in conjunction with hydraulic properties are promising and can potentially improve the clinical success of treatment. Further research is necessary to be able to define clinical protocols for the use of these materials in order to optimise their properties.
      PubDate: 2017-07-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0147-x
  • Evolution of the Oral Microbiome and Dental Caries
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review Our paper reviews how dietary changes during human evolution have contributed to the increased incidence and prevalence of dental caries in modern populations by shifting the oral microbiome from a “healthy” to “carious” state. We addressed two questions: (1) what is the microbial difference between the states of health and caries, and (2) how has the development of an agricultural diet impacted the oral microbiome' Recent Findings The application of next-generation sequencing has revealed the complexity of the oral microbiome and lack of a simple compositional difference between health and caries. Genetic analysis of the oral microbiome from contemporary and ancient humans has shown that the introduction of agriculture was associated with increased frequency of caries-related bacteria and the evolution of the key carious pathogen, Streptococcus mutans. Summary The adoption of an agricultural diet has contributed to a modern rise in caries by changing the oral microbiome ecology. Identification of evolutionary factors that have influenced the oral microbiome in health and caries, and how the two states differ functionally, as opposed to compositionally, may help to reduce the current burden of caries.
      PubDate: 2017-07-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0151-1
  • How Stable is Dentin As a Substrate for Bonding'
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review This paper reviews the complexity of the composition of dentin, and the repercussions of this composition on the stability of dentin over time, particularly in relation to adhesive dental procedures. Recent Findings Dentin is a complex and dynamic structure that comprises the major part of the tooth. Most adhesive procedures in dentistry involve bonding to dentin. The hybrid layer (HL) created on the very variable and dynamic organic dentin phase may fail over time, leading to the failure of dental restorations. Literature showed that the collagen fibers in the HL are prone to hydrolysis and mechanical strain, as well as endogenous proteolytic activity (collagenolytic activity of matrix metalloproteinases and cysteine cathepsins). Hydrolysis of the resin phase of the HL also occurs over time. Summary Advancements in the area of dental adhesion have been huge. Silencing of collagenolytic enzymes (protease inhibitors and cross-linking agents) is one of the main strategies to decrease the degradation of the HL. In the following years, new techniques will also probably be available, and efficacy of some of the available techniques will perhaps be further clarified.
      PubDate: 2017-07-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0149-8
  • Update on Infection Control Compliance Issues for Dental Practitioners
    • Authors: Patricia Podolak
      Abstract: Purpose of Review This article outlines major findings and resources from the past three years that relate to dental patient safety, infection control noncompliance factors and antibiotic resistance, and it discusses options available to help improve dental practitioner infection control compliance. Recent Findings Recent findings have identified the need for further research in the field of patient safety in dentistry; dental infection control noncompliance factors illustrate a need to strategize for improved infection control compliance, best practices for antibiotic prescribing in dentistry have been issued; and updated dental infection control resources are available. Summary Through social media and mainstream news accounts, the public is increasingly aware of, and concerned about, dental-related infection control breaches. By understanding the compliance issues that lead to infection control breaches, practitioners can better maintain public trust and meet their patients’ expectation for safe oral healthcare. This article outlines major findings and resources from the past 3 years that relate to dental patient safety, infection control compliance factors, and antibiotic resistance, and includes an overview of updated dental infection control resources available from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Organization for Safety, Asepsis and Prevention (OSAP), and American Dental Association (ADA).
      PubDate: 2017-07-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0143-1
  • Engineering Dental Implants
    • Authors: Daniel Rittel; Keren Shemtov-Yona; Raoof Korabi
      Abstract: Purpose of Review Implant dentistry is traditionally viewed as a clinical subject. However, the integration of a foreign metallic structure into a living bone involves several engineering considerations. This paper aims at reviewing and discussing recent basic issues and developments pertaining to the engineering aspects of dental implant development. Recent Findings We consider the three components of the system, namely the implant itself, the bone, and their interaction. We start with the implant material and its geometrical and surface condition parameters. Next, we discuss the long-term mechanical survivability of the implant, namely its resistance to fatigue cracking, outlining the uncertainty on the applied loads, and surrounding atmosphere. Following a summary of the jawbone from a mechanical standpoint, we discuss the dental implant-bone interaction, as modeled analytically or numerically, with emphasis on the bone damage and evolution. The contribution of high resolution observations to enriched numerical simulations is discussed. Summary Progress in both experimental characterization techniques and numerical simulation methods brings engineering and dentistry closer, allowing for more focused clinical work that will ultimately lead to personalized implant dentistry.
      PubDate: 2017-07-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0148-9
  • Accuracy and Reliability of Intraoral Scanners: Are They the Better
    • Authors: Kamal Ebeid; Tarek Salah; Shereen Nossair
      Abstract: Purpose of Review The aim was to compare the accuracy of digital intraoral impressions with conventional impressions on the fabrication of different types of restorations. This study also compared the accuracy, reliability, and ease of use of different types of intraoral scanners available and correlated the results with the different scanning technologies. Recent Findings Digital impressions offer the same level of accuracy as conventional impressions regarding fabrication of crowns, fixed dental prostheses (FDPs), implant-supported crowns, and short-span FDPs with marginal gap values within the clinically acceptable range (<120 μm). However, for full-arch restorations, conventional impressions result in better accuracy. Summary Further enhancements needs to be undertaken regarding intraoral scanners to improve its accuracy regarding fabrication of full-arch restorations. Further in vivo studies evaluating the accuracy of intraoral digital impressions on the fabrication of a wider range of restorations such as inlays, veneers, and full-arch restoration need to be conducted.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0145-z
  • Esthetic Crown Lengthening: Contemporary Guidelines for Achieving Ideal
           Gingival Architecture and Stability
    • Authors: Ernesto A. Lee
      Abstract: Purpose of Review The achievement and maintenance of ideal gingival margin levels and architecture constitute essential requirements for esthetic crown lengthening procedures. The use of a scalpel blade and ancillary mechanical armamentarium to sculpt the gingival margins may not be the most efficient or accurate surgical method available, and this review will consider the use of contemporary alternatives. Additionally, the fact that gingival margin levels are often not stable following esthetic crown lengthening surgery is a phenomenon that has perplexed clinicians. The purpose of this article is to review the pertinent literature in search of predictable clinical protocols for esthetic crown lengthening. Recent Findings There has been increasing interest in the use of lasers for dental applications, and their potential benefits for gingival sculpting procedures must be considered. Diode lasers may offer an advantageous compromise between surgical efficacy and practicality. Additionally, coronal gingival re-growth is often an undesired sequela of traditional crown lengthening procedures. Recent literature helps to identify potential contributing factors. Summary The establishment of ideal gingival margin architecture requires precise sculpting of the soft tissues. This is often easier to achieve with lasers, particularly diode lasers. Coronal gingival proliferation following esthetic crown lengthening may be prevented by incorporating more current concepts regarding the need for sufficient bone removal and flap management that emphasizes the preservation of gingival complex dimensions.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0140-4
  • Restoration of the Worn Dentition: Basic Prosthodontic Principles and
           Current Rehabilitation Techniques
    • Authors: Georgios Maroulakos; William W. Nagy; Panagiota G. Stathopoulou; Nikos Mattheos; Vasilios Chronopoulos
      Abstract: Purpose of Review Dental wear is an existing and increasing problem. This review aims to describe the prosthodontic principles as well as the current trends in materials and techniques for the rehabilitation of patients with worn dentition. Recent Findings The current literature includes a lot of information in relation to clinical and laboratory procedures for the restoration of the worn dentition. Also, recent in vitro and in vivo studies address the clinical success, properties, and wear behavior of current materials. Summary A plethora of materials are currently used to restore dental wear including, direct/indirect composite resin, and all-ceramic restorations. Minimally invasive procedures are based on adhesive cementation of restorations, and in many situations, patients are restored with partial coverage restorations. Long-term success of the rehabilitation is dependent on careful material selection, based on current evidence, careful execution of well-established rehabilitation techniques, and a patient-based individualized maintenance program.
      PubDate: 2017-04-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0133-3
  • The Influence of Periodontal Burden on Metabolic Control of
           Diabetes—Myth or Reality'—from a Nutritional Perspective
    • Authors: Fusanori Nishimura; Tomomi Sano; Terukazu Sanui
      Abstract: Purpose of Review The effects of periodontal treatment on the metabolic control of diabetes have been extensively studied. This report summarizes current understanding on the underlying mechanisms. Recent Findings All recent studies supporting the beneficial effects of periodontal treatment have common features: (1) clinically, periodontal disease in diabetics is relatively severe, (2) the subjects exhibit elevated hs-CRP level, which declines following periodontal treatment, and (3) the subjects generally do not exhibit morbid obesity. Nevertheless, the subjects with higher hs-CRP appear to develop more mature adipose tissues than the subjects with lower hs-CRP. Summary Inflammatory immune cells have been reported to migrate into adipose tissue, interact with adipocytes, and thereby exacerbate adipose tissue inflammation. This may be a key mechanism explaining how local periodontal inflammation influences systemic inflammation. Therefore, appropriate life style intervention is an additional requirement in addition to reducing other obvious risk factors such as smoking in the overall management of periodontal disease in subjects with diabetes.
      PubDate: 2017-04-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s40496-017-0136-0
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