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Journal Cover Current Oral Health Reports
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Online) 2196-3002
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2281 journals]
  • The Dental Drug Delivery System for Prevention of Dental Caries
    • Abstract: Abstract A new therapy for the management of early caries lesions and caries prevention was established for clinical use. This therapy was named the Dental Drug Delivery System (3DS), and its effectiveness was confirmed by clinical evaluations. The 3DS method involves the application of either antimicrobial drugs or fluoride gels, with individual trays at the chair-side and also for home care program. By using the individual trays, only the cariogenic bacteria “Streptococcus mutans” that adheres to the tooth surface is controlled without changing the core composition of oral microflora. Therefore, we recommend the use of this method in dental clinics for caries management. The 3DS method should be used especially by pregnant women and mothers raising small children because children most often receive the S. mutans from their mothers via saliva. Patients with dental implants also should be treated by 3DS in order to prevent peri-implantitis. Perioperative patients and bed-ridden people who find it physically challenging to take care of their teeth would also benefit from the 3DS. Patients with severe halitosis are also candidates for 3DS treatment. The scientific rationale of 3DS and the clinical procedure involved are introduced in this article.
      PubDate: 2016-04-04
  • Molecular Markers of Fibro-Osseous Lesions and Osteosarcomas of the
           Craniofacial Complex—Current Situation and Recent Advances
    • Abstract: Abstract Fibro-osseous lesions share clinical, radiological, and pathological features, particularly in the craniofacial complex, a location where diagnosing these lesions is challenging. Some molecular markers involved in the pathogenesis of these lesions offer significant diagnostic support. Guanine nucleotide-binding protein/alpha subunit (GNAS) mutations are specific to fibrous dysplasias and are not encountered in ossifying fibromas (including juvenile variants), or in low-grade and high-grade osteosarcomas of the jaw. Low-grade and dedifferentiated osteosarcomas show murine double-minute 2 (MDM2) amplification, with overexpression of MDM2, abnormalities not encountered in fibrous dysplasia, or in ossifying fibroma. No recurrent cytogenetic or molecular abnormality has been reported to date in conventional ossifying fibromas. The juvenile variants of ossifying fibroma exhibit MDM2/RAS protein activator like-1 (RASAL1) co-amplification, without MDM2 overexpression, abnormalities also observed in certain aggressive osteosarcomas of the jaw, which may derive from juvenile ossifying fibroma. MDM2/RASAL1 co-amplification may constitute an early molecular marker of aggressive juvenile ossifying fibroma and may indicate a need for closer follow-up and more radical treatment.
      PubDate: 2016-04-02
  • Molecular Signaling in Benign Odontogenic Neoplasia Pathogenesis
    • Abstract: Abstract Several molecular pathways have been shown to play critical roles in the pathogenesis of odontogenic tumors. These neoplasms arise from the epithelial or mesenchymal cells of the dental apparatus in the jaw or oral mucosa. Next-generation genomic sequencing has identified gene mutations or single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with many of these tumors. In this review, we focus on two of the most common odontogenic tumor subtypes: ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumors. We highlight gene expression and protein immunohistological findings and known genetic alterations in the hedgehog, BRAF/Ras/MAPK, epidermal growth factor receptor, Wnt, and Akt signaling pathways relevant to these tumors. These various pathways are explored to potentially target odontogenic tumor cells and prevent growth and recurrence of disease. Through an understanding of these signaling pathways and their crosstalk, molecular diagnostics may emerge as well as the ability to exploit identified molecular differences to develop novel molecular therapeutics for the treatment of odontogenic tumors.
      PubDate: 2016-03-31
  • Benign Odontogenic Tumors: Origins, Immunophenotypic Features, and Genetic
    • Abstract: Abstract Odontogenic tumors are lesions derived from the epithelial and/or mesenchymal elements of the tooth-forming apparatus and are therefore found within the jaw bone or soft tissue overlying teeth. These tooth development-associated tumors are generally benign, but several odontogenic tumors are capable of aggressive growth and locally invasive behavior with a high rate of recurrence. Benign odontogenic tumors can pose diagnostic challenges because of overlapping histology, a lack of distinct phenotypic and molecular features, and an unclear pathogenesis of the tumors. In this article, we will review the possible origins, immunophenotypic features, and genetic alterations of the common benign odontogenic tumors.
      PubDate: 2016-03-31
  • Root Caries Management: Evidence and Consensus Based Report
    • Abstract: Abstract Root caries are becoming an increasingly common clinical problem, especially as aged-society. This report is based on the clinical practice guideline which offers a practical expert review of managing root caries with the best scientific evidence and the general consensus of expert clinicians. Root caries should be managed differently from coronal caries, and a shift of its strategy from “early-detection and early-treatment” to “early-detection and long-term management” is called for. Once the restorative treatment is chosen, it is often more advantageous to use glass-ionomer than resin composite. In addition, as we face a super-aged society now, in today’s dentistry setting, silver diammine fluoride (SDF) with high demineralization inhibitory effect is being re-evaluated as the “rescue material” (material for emergency cases) for root caries.
      PubDate: 2016-03-30
  • The Utility of Chewing Gum in Treating White Spot Lesions
    • Abstract: Abstract White spot lesions (WSL) are early non-cavitated carious lesions where the subsurface mineral loss has produced changes in the optical properties of the enamel. These lesions are visibly detectable as the loss of translucency results in a white appearance of the enamel surface. WSL can be arrested or reversed if the cariogenic challenge is sufficiently controlled or therapeutic agents are applied to promote enamel remineralization. Sugar-free chewing gum has been shown to promote the remineralization of enamel subsurface lesions in situ. Recently, manufacturers have been adding bioavailable calcium and fluoride in various forms to enhance anticariogenic and remineralization potential. This review describes the use of chewing gum which includes bioavailable agents for remineralization of WSL. Chewing gum is a noninvasive clinical approach for WSL remineralization, but further clinical studies are needed. Providing evidence on the effectiveness of these new noninvasive treatment approaches using technologies such as optical coherence tomography remains a priority in dental research.
      PubDate: 2016-03-15
  • Immunotherapy for Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma
    • Abstract: Abstract Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma has been found to be an immunosuppressive malignancy, with many defects in the host immune system contributing to the progression of disease. A greater understanding of these defects has lead to the identification and investigation of new therapeutic strategies, targeting immune system dysfunction in an effort to improve the outcomes of this disease. This article provides a brief review of the knowledge regarding the immune defects present in head and neck cancer, as well as a review of the current therapeutic strategies being investigated for use.
      PubDate: 2016-03-12
  • Oral Cancer and Cancer Stem Cells: Relevance to Oral Cancer Risk Factors,
           Premalignant Lesions, and Treatment
    • Abstract: Abstract Cancer stem cells are recognized as the most critical cancer cells. They are responsible for cancer progression, the development of metastasis, and treatment failures. There are a number of well-studied surface proteins and enzymatic processes that can be used to isolate cancer stem cells from the bulk of the other cancer cells. The role of cancer stems cells in premalignant lesions of the oral cancer is poorly understood but slowly evolving. Novel therapies are being developed to more effectively eradicate cancer stem cells and improve patient outcomes. Efforts to improve our understanding of this important subpopulation of cancer cells is vital in directing further studies to advance our ability to prevent patients from developing oral cancer and to providing more effective treatment for those that do.
      PubDate: 2016-03-11
  • Oral Microbiome: Contributions to Local and Systemic Infections
    • Abstract: Abstract The recent revolution of diagnostic methods emphasizing non-culture techniques has redefined the oral microbiota, its “Dual Citizenship”, recognizing oral flora inhabitants of eight dispersed locations are colonized by over 700 species, equal in bacteria (16S) and fungi (18S). Either prefers the attached biofilm phenotype, biotic or abiotic surfaces, its extra polymeric substance (EPS) protected environment promoting horizontal gene transfer (HGT), and gene amplified resistance. The biofilm growth pattern mimics that of solid tumors and a four-stage lifestyle (I–IV) catalyzing the term biotumor, emphasizing dispersal via metastasis. The molecular methods are now multitiered system platforms employing: PCR, mass spectrometry, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), highlighted by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF), and IBIS or microarray gene sequencing providing inexpensive rapid results complementing the Human Genome Project unmasking a rich, diverse oral microbiota and mycobiota. The emerging head-neck oral diseases now emphasize medical devices [endotracheal tube (ETT) and voice boxes], dentures, and links with cognition [Alzheimer’s disease (AD)] and NOMA, while systemic manifestations highlight extra oral communications via inflammation, microbial presence (metastasis), or both, recently consolidated by the new Yin Yang hypothesis. These migrating oral microbiota-associated diseases include rheumatoid arthritis (RA), perio-arthritis, child-mother birth issues [adverse pregnancy outcomes (APO)], gestational diabetes (GDM), and liver consequences [non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)], all inter-related using a four-quadrant microbial clock. New interventions employ the disarm/replace hypothesis, avoiding “kill” focusing on therapeutic bacteria (probiotics), recognizing untoured consequences of antibiotics, and a need for a balanced oral microbiota. Most importantly is the recognition that the disconnect between dentistry and medicine is no longer tenable, and oral health and systemic health are integrated by the human oral microbiota, which is part of the host Dual Citizenship.
      PubDate: 2016-02-09
  • Diet, Obesity, Diabetes, and Periodontitis: a Syndemic Approach to
    • Abstract: Abstract A healthy diet is important to the maintenance of good general health. An imbalanced diet can increase risk for the development of obesity and insulin resistance which can eventually lead to the onset of diabetes. Nutrition, obesity, and diabetes are all known risk factors for periodontal diseases. Periodontitis in turn is a risk factor for the development of diabetes and can complicate the management of those who suffer from obesity and/or diabetes. The interplay of these three common chronic inflammatory diseases suggests that a syndemic approach to prevention and management would best address the shared risk for all of these diseases and help to break the cycle of pro-inflammatory events leading to chronic inflammation as assessed by elevations in C-reactive protein, driven by elevations in cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α as well as oxidative stress. These interactions may synergistically increase risk for cardiovascular disease, the number one cause of death worldwide. Oral health care providers can play a major role, as members of an interdisciplinary team of healthcare providers, in addressing this syndemic.
      PubDate: 2016-02-02
  • Diabetes and Periodontitis—A Dental Hygienist’s Perspective
    • Abstract: Abstract Several decades of research of the interrelationships between diabetes and periodontitis have evolved into a significant body of knowledge that should be incorporated into dental practice. However, there may be a delay in implementing this important information into everyday patient care. Oral healthcare providers (i.e., dentists and dental hygienists) should be progressively engaged in changing the trajectory of the epidemics of diabetes and periodontitis. This article synthesizes the cumulative evidence on the diabetes-periodontitis link, proposes ideas for risk stratification of dental patients with diabetes and periodontitis, and builds a case for the development of a risk-prediction model that provides for the earliest identification of dental patients who have dysglycemia.
      PubDate: 2016-01-25
  • What Are We Learning and What Can We Learn from the Human Oral Microbiome
    • Abstract: Abstract Extraordinary technological advances in DNA sequencing have greatly accelerated our ability to identify bacteria, at the species level, present in clinical samples taken from the human mouth. In addition, mass spectrometry has evolved such that oral samples can be analyzed for protein and metabolic products, providing insight into bacterial interaction with their human hosts in the maintenance of oral health or the onset of disease. The ability to cost-effectively determine the DNA sequence of individuals, accompanied by their unique microbiome, heralds the advent of personalized dental medicine.
      PubDate: 2016-01-23
  • Polymicrobial Biofilm Studies: from Basic Science to Biofilm Control
    • Abstract: Abstract Microbes rarely exist as single species planktonic forms as they have been commonly studied in the laboratory. Instead, the vast majority exists as part of complex polymicrobial biofilm communities attached to host and environmental surfaces. The oral cavity represents one of the most diverse and well-studied polymicrobial consortia. Despite a burgeoning field of mechanistic biofilm research within the past decades, our understanding of interactions that occur between microbial members within oral biofilms is still limited. Thus, the primary objective of this review is to focus on polymicrobial biofilm formation, microbial interactions and signaling events that mediate oral biofilm development, consequences of oral hygiene on both local and systemic disease, and potential therapeutic strategies to limit oral dysbiosis.
      PubDate: 2016-01-14
  • Effects of Periodontal Diseases on Diabetes-Related Medical Expenditure
    • Abstract: Abstract We conducted a review of English papers published between 2012 and April 2015 for associations between periodontal disease and diabetes-related medical expenditure. This resulted in only one paper being selected, which demonstrated that, to date, very little information exists on this topic. Although the evidence is limited, the current research findings support the hypothesis that periodontal disease is an important predictor for the growth of medical spending related to diabetes among the US population. Our ongoing project based on a Japanese elderly population also produced concordant results. It is necessary to conduct further research to accumulate more evidence and to be able to generalize these findings. Because periodontal disease is largely modifiable, controlled intervention studies are needed to elucidate whether health-care spending related to diabetes could be reduced thorough adequate preventive dental care, proper dental education, and oral health promotion.
      PubDate: 2016-01-13
  • Detection of Undiagnosed Diabetes in the Dental Setting
    • Abstract: Abstract Diabetes and periodontitis are multifactorial chronic inflammatory diseases affecting hundreds of millions individuals worldwide. There is a bidirectional relationship between the two diseases, as diabetes is associated with increased prevalence, severity, and progression of periodontitis, and untreated periodontitis is associated with poorer metabolic control in individuals with diabetes. Furthermore, treatment of periodontitis has been shown to improve the metabolic status in patients with diabetes. Therefore, successful prevention and treatment of patients with diabetes and periodontitis requires an interdisciplinary approach involving both dentists and physicians. It has recently been demonstrated that periodontal disease status can be used as a predictor for diabetes and prediabetes risk assessment, and several investigations have reported that chair-side measurement of glycated hemoglobin levels (HbA1C), performed in the dental setting, can help in identifying individuals with potentially undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes. Thus, since a significant part of the adult population attends the dental office more regularly than their physician, the dental office seems an intriguing venue for screening and prevention of diabetes. In the future chair-side measurements of HbA1C levels in combination with periodontal examination may therefore be performed as a routine in the dental setting. Such an approach might potentially facilitate early identification of individuals with prediabetes and undiagnosed, asymptomatic diabetes and accordingly referred to their general physician for further diagnosis, prevention, and treatment at early stages of disease, thereby reducing potential diabetic complications.
      PubDate: 2016-01-13
  • Direct Restoration of Endodontically Treated Teeth: a Brief Summary of
           Materials and Techniques
    • Abstract: Abstract The restoration of endodontically treated teeth remains a challenge. The success of the final restoration depends mostly on the structure of the remaining tooth. Although the materials and procedures available today result in successful restoration of root-filled teeth via direct (in situ) techniques, one should first consider the amount of the coronal tooth structure remaining as well as the functional requirements. Restoration using direct composite resin is a good treatment option, but polymerization shrinkage is one of the major limitations of this material. The application of various base materials under the composite resin is an effective method. Covering the cusps with the restorative material is another option to save the remaining tooth structure; however, some materials may be unsuitable in stress-bearing areas. Materials applied to the orifice of a root canal also have a major effect on tooth biomechanics. This article reviews the direct restoration of endodontically treated teeth and discusses the current materials and techniques used for this purpose.
      PubDate: 2015-10-12
  • Is There a Role for Neural Crest Stem Cells in Periodontal
    • Abstract: Abstract The ultimate goal of periodontal treatment is not only the stabilization of periodontal disease but also regeneration of the periodontal tissues destroyed by severe periodontitis. The tissue engineering triad of stem cells, biological signals, and cell-seeded scaffold provides a biological template for tissue regeneration. Neural crest stem cells (NCSC) comprise a transient multipotent stem cell population that initially emerges from the junction of the epidermal and neural ectoderm through reciprocal interactions between these tissues and signals from the mesoderm during embryonic development of vertebrates. The cells then migrate to their destination in the embryo and differentiate into various dental mesenchymal stem cells which give rise to most components of the dental tissues, including periodontal ligament (PDL), alveolar bone, cementum, dental pulp, and dentin. The crucial role that NCSC play in embryonic development makes them a highly promising stem cell population for use in the regeneration of periodontal tissues. Here, we review the current understanding of the features and functions of NCSC-derived cells in dental tissues. We additionally discuss the possibility that NCSC contribute to the regeneration of periodontal tissues.
      PubDate: 2015-10-08
  • Adhesion to Zirconium Dioxide Used for Dental Reconstructions: Surface
           Conditioning Concepts, Challenges, and Future Prospects
    • Abstract: Abstract Yttrium-stabilized zirconium dioxide, a commonly used material in conjunction with CAD/CAM technologies in dentistry, is an oxide ceramic that does not comprise the silicon dioxide (SiO2) phase in its microstructure. Since it is challenging to create durable adhesion between resin cements and this kind of non-etchable ceramic, efforts have been made to develop innovative surface conditioning methods over the years. While some chemical methods based on using adhesion promoters only did not perform stable adhesion, others utilizing physico-chemical conditioning methods provided better adhesion where the latter is also being questioned on impairing mechanical stability of zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) due to t → m phase transformation. This review will highlight current surface conditioning concepts to achieve best adhesion to zirconium dioxide and challenges related to conditioning methods or resin-based luting cements, and contemplate on future prospects.
      PubDate: 2015-09-30
  • Declining Caries Trends: Are We Satisfied'
    • Abstract: Abstract WHO data suggest that all over the world the prevalence of caries has declined at the end of the previous and in the first decade of the present century. This decline started wherever the use of effective fluoride toothpaste became commonplace. Even though the decline is considerable with a 90 % reduction in DMFT for 12-year-olds in Western Europe and the USA, caries still affects 60–90 % of the children throughout the world. In the high- and middle-income countries, the nature of caries has changed from a rapid progressing disease of childhood to a slowly progressing disease throughout adulthood and even old age. However, throughout the world, the circumstances for caries differ, e.g., low-income countries experience more caries with higher sugar consumption, while between high-income countries this correlation is reversed. In high-income countries, fluoride is widely used and preventive programs in dental offices are in place. These programs, if effective, may not be a realistic option in low-income countries. In order to reduce caries in the world even further, the use of effective and affordable fluoride toothpaste should be encouraged and enabled.
      PubDate: 2015-09-23
  • Cell Sheets for Periodontal Tissue Engineering
    • Abstract: Abstract Cell Sheet Technology was first utilized in a clinical trial for corneal reconstruction in 2003; since then, several clinical trials have been performed not only in Japan but also in Europe. The key technology of Cell Sheet is a temperature-responsive polymer (poly N-isopropylacrylamide), which characteristics dramatically change from hydrophobic to hydrophilic by changing the temperature. This intelligent polymer is covalently grafted onto the surface of cell culture dishes, where cells can attach and proliferate at 37 °C. Reducing the temperature below 32 °C causes this surface to hydrate; therefore, confluent cells detach from the surface as a sheet. Cell sheets can be harvested without the use of typical proteolytic enzymes; thus, intact cell-cell interaction, cell surface proteins, and extracellular matrix proteins are preserved. Using this technology, we started a clinical trial in 2011 to test the safety and efficacy of autologous periodontal ligament cell sheets for periodontal regeneration.
      PubDate: 2015-09-10
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