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Journal Cover Current Oral Health Reports
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Online) 2196-3002
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2210 journals]
  • Oral Mucosal Injury in Oncology Patients
    • Abstract: Abstract The field of oral mucosal injury caused by cancer therapies has strategically matured in the scientific as well as clinical realms over the past decade. Prior to the late 1990s, the condition had been viewed by many healthcare providers as an inevitable consequence of high-dose chemotherapy and other intensive therapies in oncology practice. Fortunately, expanding insights into the pathobiology as well as design strategies for clinical trials in recent years have fostered development of high-quality clinical practice guidelines as well as health professional education relative to prevention and treatment. This report is directed to analysis of this contemporary modeling. Guideline-based management recommendations that have emerged over the past year and controversies in the field are highlighted.
      PubDate: 2014-08-03
       
  • Understanding the Pathobiology of Oral Lichen Planus
    • Abstract: Abstract Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a relatively common chronic inflammatory disease. A consistent body of evidence suggests that OLP is a predominantly T-cell mediated disease that shares clinical and histological features with chronic graft versus host disease. A putative genetic predisposition linked to cytokine polymorphisms has been revealed and some possible etiologic factors such as amalgam and hepatitis C virus have been studied in detail. In this review, an overview on the immunopathogenesis of OLP will be provided and a putative comprehensive hypothesis will be discussed in detail. Despite significant advances, many questions still remain concerning the etiology and pathogenesis of OLP.
      PubDate: 2014-07-20
       
  • Interprofessional Clinical Experiences in Dental Education
    • Abstract: Abstract Interest and activity in interprofessional education (IPE) has grown substantially in recent years across the health professions, driven by the belief that more effective interprofessional collaboration among providers will contribute to realization of the Triple Aim objectives articulated by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement—better individual care experiences, better population health, and reduced per capita cost of care. In dental education, new standards from the Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA) in 2013 require that dental schools demonstrate that graduates are competent to communicate and collaborate with other health professionals, requiring dental educators to develop IPE curricula and assessment at their institutions. One of the more challenging aspects of IPE curriculum development is to provide meaningful interprofessional clinical experiences for students. The purpose of this paper is to review selected examples of interprofessional clinical experiences involving dental students and to describe an interprofessional clinical experience implemented at the authors’ institution.
      PubDate: 2014-07-15
       
  • Understanding the Pathobiology of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma
    • Abstract: Abstract Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the leading cancers in the world, although wide geographical variations do exist. HNSCC can be subcategorized into conventional HNSCC and HPV-associated HNSCC, exhibiting distinct clinical and histopathologic features. Awareness of the risks of smoking has fortunately contributed to the decreasing incidence of conventional HNSCC in the USA. However, the prevalence of HPV-associated HNSCC in the USA has been significantly increasing. Much progress has been made in the research of development and progression of HNSCC. In this article, we review the current concepts of the pathobiological mechanisms of HNSCC.
      PubDate: 2014-07-11
       
  • Public Health Implications of Human Papillomavirus Oral Infection: A Brief
           Overview
    • Abstract: Abstract Human papilloma virus (HPV) types 16 and 18 are associated with cancers of the cervix and oropharyngeal region. Two kinds of HPV vaccines (bivalent and quadravalent) available in the market for cervical cancer prevention are safe and efficacious. Because the same types of HPV that cause cervical cancer are also associated with oropharyngeal cancers, it is thought that these vaccines may also be effective in prevention of these cancers. A call for extending the indication for these vaccines to include oropharyngeal cancer prevention has been made. Oral health professionals, who are in the forefront of visualizing the oral and oropharyngeal areas, are poised to detect abnormal findings in these regions and should consider discussing HPV vaccines with their patients. This brief review discusses the role of HPV in oral lesions and oropharyngeal cancers and the public health implications of this infection.
      PubDate: 2014-07-02
       
  • Pathobiology of Sjögren Syndrome: What do we Know?
    • Abstract: Abstract Sjögren syndrome is a chronic autoimmune disorder that involves exocrine glands and multiple organs. This disorder presumably affects 1.3 million patients in the USA. The pathobiology of Sjögren syndrome has been studied for at least three decades, and reported mechanisms involve the activation of the innate immune system and the development of autoimmunity. The precise mechanisms and sequence of events leading to salivary and ocular dysfunction are still unclear, and apparently multiple pathways and risk factors condition an individual to the disease. This manuscript provides an overview of the current knowledge of the pathobiology underlying Sjögren syndrome.
      PubDate: 2014-07-01
       
  • Dental Patients with Major Depressive Disorder
    • Abstract: Abstract Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects approximately 14.8 million adults in the United States, which is about 6.7 % of the US population. MDD impacts most activities of daily living, including oral hygiene practices and use of dental resources. This review article provides information related to underlying mechanisms of disease, diagnosis, and treatment so that dentists may best address patients’ dental concerns in the context of underlying depression. Laboratory and psychological screening tools are also discussed in relation to specific practice recommendations for managing patients with MDD as well as identifying patients with underlying symptoms who may be at risk for MDD.
      PubDate: 2014-06-15
       
  • Social Determinants and Oral Health: An Update
    • Abstract: Abstract This review presents the most recent studies and evidence on the social determinants of oral health. Oral disease is associated with an array of structural determinants (income, goods, and services). It is also associated with daily living conditions, and social gradients have been reported for dental caries, periodontal disease, oral cancer, and tooth loss. Current understanding of these interconnections have prompted the development of a new approach for oral health promotion, which recognizes that the behaviors accounting for the most important noncommunicable diseases contribute to oral diseases as well. Oral diseases and issues such as poor access to dental care and low oral health literacy levels are social, political, behavioral, and medical in nature. These conditions will only be controlled by the promotion of initiatives that prioritize the improvement in the social determinants of health as a backbone structure for the development of healthy enabling environments.
      PubDate: 2014-06-13
       
  • Bullous Pemphigoid, Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid and Pemphigus Vulgaris: An
           Update on Pathobiology
    • Abstract: Abstract Pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris (PV) are autoimmune diseases that cause potentially debilitating erosions and blistering of the skin and/or mucous membranes. In bullous pemphigoid (BP), autoantibodies target components of the basement membrane zone (BMZ), most importantly the hemidesmosomal proteins, BP180 and BP230. Research efforts have uncovered some of the complex mechanisms that cause this disease, including the interplay between the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, as well as the role of complement activation, inflammatory cell activation, and proteolytic enzymes. In mucous membrane pemphigoid, which preferentially targets mucous membranes, several antigenic targets along the BMZ have been identified. In PV, desmoglein autoantibodies play the most critical role in the disease, with various other target antigens acting adjunctively to exacerbate the disease by apoptotic signaling. The relationship between apoptosis and acanthosis has yet to be clearly defined, but they may promote each other to enhance disease activity. This article provides an update on the pathogenesis of these diseases.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
       
  • Cytokine Networks Regulating Inflammation and Immune Defense in the Oral
           Cavity
    • Abstract: Abstract The host/pathogen interaction in infectious oral diseases is characterized by complex and precisely orchestrated host response mechanisms aimed to protect the host against the microbial challenge with minimal collateral damage to host cells and tissues. Central to the host response in this battlefront is the expression of cytokines. The resulting cytokine networks, which ultimately regulate the host response at multiple levels, thereby determine the clinical outcome of the disease and explain most of its defining features from a mechanistic viewpoint. This review intends to present a structured view of the intricate cytokine networks that regulate inflammation and immune defense in the oral cavity, guiding the reader throughout the evolving paradigms that describe how the simultaneous action of multiple cytokines shapes the nature of the immune response to oral infection.
      PubDate: 2014-03-27
       
  • Neutrophil Dysfunction and Host Susceptibility to Periodontal
           Inflammation: Current State of Knowledge
    • Abstract: Abstract Normal polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) function is critical for the maintenance of host-biofilm equilibrium and periodontal tissue homeostasis. Mounting evidence suggests that PMNs play important roles in the control of commensal periodontal flora and initiation of resolution following inflammation caused by accumulating subgingival plaque. Quantitative and qualitative alterations of PMNs in bone marrow, blood, periodontal tissues, and gingival crevicular fluid contribute to host-microbial dysbiosis and onset of irreversible loss of clinical attachment around teeth. Recent findings of specific PMN phenotypes associated with different disease states bring us closer to understanding disease activity and addressing chronic, non-resolved, periodontal inflammation to better monitor and predict patient-specific treatment outcomes. The present review addresses the current state of knowledge in PMN biology in the pathogenesis of periodontal inflammation and the onset of periodontitis.
      PubDate: 2014-03-25
       
  • Immuno-Pathogenesis of Periodontal Disease: Current and Emerging Paradigms
    • Abstract: Abstract Periodontal disease (PD) is a highly complex disease involving many factors; however, two principal facets central to initiation and progression of the majority of PD are the composition of the microbes in the sub-gingival plaque, and the host immune response to these organisms. Numerous studies point to the complexity of PD, and to the fact that despite innate and adaptive immune activation, and resultant inflammation, our immune response fails to cure disease. Stunning new findings have begun to clarify several complexities of the host-pathogen interaction of PD pointing to key roles for microbial dysbiosis and immune imbalance in the pathogenesis of disease. Furthermore, these investigations have identified novel translational opportunities to intercede in PD treatment. In this review we will highlight a select few recent findings in innate and adaptive immunity, and host pathogen interactions of PD at a micro-environmental level that may have profound impact on PD progression.
      PubDate: 2014-03-22
       
  • Salivary Biomarkers for Detection of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Current
           State and Recent Advances
    • Abstract: Abstract Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm of the oral cavity. Detection of OSCC is currently based on a thorough clinical oral examination combined with a biopsy for histological analysis. Most cases of OSCC are not detected until the cancer has developed into advanced stages; thus, a reliable early-stage diagnostic marker is needed. This literature review presents an overview of the status of current advances in salivary diagnostics for OSCC. Though many protein and mRNA salivary biomarkers have been identified that can detect OSCC with high sensitivity and specificity, the most discernable findings occur with the use of multiple markers. Studies that incorporate proteomic, transcriptomic, and potentially additional “omics”, including methylomics, need to be initiated to bring technology to clinical applications and allow the best use of saliva in diagnosing OSCC.
      PubDate: 2014-03-21
       
  • The Role of Distinct T Cell Subsets in Periodontitis—Studies from
           Humans and Rodent Models
    • Abstract: Abstract Periodontal disease results from an interaction between the host’s defense mechanisms and the microorganisms that constitute the dental plaque biofilm, and penetrate gingival tissue. Therefore, the progression and severity of the disease are strongly modulated by the host immune response, particularly, T cell responses. Because T cells consist of a variety of subpopulations, numerous studies have attempted to associate an impaired balance between each T cell subset and periodontal tissue destruction in periodontitis patients. Here, we overview studies examining human specimens obtained from patients with periodontitis and experiments analyzing rodent models with age-related or pathogen-induced experimental periodontitis. Human research provides valuable insights but also inconsistent results, which may be attributed to the difference in experimental approaches and lack of evaluation of disease activity. Rodent models have shown that an optimal balance between functionally different T cells is essential in the protection against periodontal tissue destruction.
      PubDate: 2014-03-13
       
  • Whole Tooth Regenerative Therapy Using a Bioengineered Tooth Germ
    • Abstract: Abstract Dental disorders, including dental caries and periodontal disease, can cause fundamental problems for oral functions, such as enunciation, mastication and occlusion, as well as general health issues. Tooth regenerative therapies for tissue repair and whole tooth replacement are currently being developed as novel treatment approaches. As a form of bioengineered organ replacement, whole tooth replacement therapy is considered an important model system for next-generation regenerative therapy. We recently reported bioengineered tooth replacements after transplantation of a bioengineered tooth germ or mature tooth unit comprising the bioengineered tooth and periodontal tissues. Whole tooth regenerative therapy has the potential to fully restore tooth function, including masticatory potential in response to mechanical stress and perceptive potential for noxious stimulation. In this review, we describe recent findings and technologies underpinning tooth regenerative therapy.
      PubDate: 2014-03-01
       
  • Caries Prevention by Arginine Metabolism in Oral Biofilms: Translating
           Science into Clinical Success
    • Abstract: Abstract Knowledge acquired from microbiological studies of oral arginine metabolism over the past 40 years has recently found its way to clinical application in dentistry. Novel arginine formulations incorporated into dentifrices have proven to be effective as an approach to prevent dental caries. In oral biofilms, arginine metabolism via the arginine deiminase system (ADS) produces ammonia, which inhibits tooth demineralization by neutralizing glycolytic acids and by suppressing the emergence of a cariogenic microflora. Evidence from translational science studies suggests that arginine metabolism in oral biofilms decreases the risk for caries development. These studies have expanded the focus of caries research beyond cariogenic bacteria to health-related, ADS-positive bacteria. The focus of this article is on the contribution of arginine metabolism to pH homeostasis in oral biofilms and its impact on the etiology of dental caries.
      PubDate: 2014-03-01
       
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Periodontal Regeneration
    • Abstract: Abstract The use of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy offers the potential to develop a completely novel and improved method of periodontal regeneration compared to existing methods. Since the initial demonstration of the presence of MSCs in the periodontal ligament, many recent studies have now demonstrated the potential for the transplantation of MSCs from PDL and other sources to enhance periodontal regenerative outcomes in a variety of animal models. In addition, the recent demonstration of the possible utility of allogeneic MSCs and MSCs derived from inducible pluripotent stem cells may offer new methods of delivering such therapies. Determination of the specific roles that MSCs may play in enhancing regenerative outcomes requires further investigation. The principle of MSC-directed periodontal regenerative therapy is accepted in the field, but extensive investigation is necessary to establish viable, efficacious, and practically applicable human therapies.
      PubDate: 2014-03-01
       
  • iPSC for Dental Tissue Regeneration
    • Abstract: Abstract The realisation that adult somatic cells can be reprogrammed into pluripotent cells is revolutionising the way diseases are researched and is set to transform the way diseases are treated. In recent years the use of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC) in dentistry has begun to be investigated. Whilst this work is still in its infancy, iPSC are demonstrating great potential for use in the regeneration of dental tissues. In this review we will provide a brief introduction to the properties of iPSC and their potential application as therapeutic agents to enhance medical research. Furthermore, this review will summarise recent developments in the use of iPSC in dental tissue regeneration.
      PubDate: 2014-03-01
       
  • Beyond Mucosal Infection: a Role for        class="a-plus-plus">C.        class="a-plus-plus">albicans-Streptococcal
           Interactions in the Pathogenesis of Dental Caries
    • Abstract: Abstract The human body is home to countless microorganisms that can modulate the transition between health and disease. When conditions in the host favor the growth of pathogens, the populations can shift toward their dominance and/or cause disbyosis. In the mouth, commensal organisms are typically most abundant, but when oral hygiene is neglected and sugar is frequently consumed and/or there is a disruption in saliva production/flow, organisms associated with dental caries disease eg, Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) become more prevalent. These organisms interact with dietary sugars and host saliva to form complex 3-dimensional biofilms on pellicle-coated teeth. The production of exopolysaccharides (eg, via S. mutans-sucrose interactions) modulates the assembly of the biofilm matrix, while acid production (eg, by acidogenic flora) and low pH within the biofilm facilitate the demineralization of the adjacent tooth enamel. During the assembly of cariogenic biofilms, S. mutans likely interacts and competes with other oral microbial species in the mouth. Although it is widely recognized that bacterial-fungal interactions commonly occur on mucosal surfaces, their possible role in dental caries has received limited attention. This review provides evidence that interactions between S. mutans and Candida albicans (C. albicans) may be involved in the pathogenesis of early childhood caries.
      PubDate: 2014-03-01
       
  • Dental Stem Cells: Sources and Potential Applications
    • Abstract: Abstract In recent years, stem cell research in dentistry has grown rapidly with the potential application for oral and maxillofacial tissue regeneration. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from the oral and maxillofacial region are easy to access, have a high proliferation rate, multipotency, and potent immunomodulatory functions. They are excellent cell sources not only for stem cell-based therapy of dental and craniofacial diseases, but also with the potential for the treatment of other inflammatory diseases. In this review, we provide an overview of different types of MSCs that have been isolated and characterized from several origins such as dental pulp, exfoliated deciduous teeth, the periodontal ligament, the dental follicle, the dental papilla, oral mucosa, and gingiva, with the focus on the potential clinical applications for each type of dental stem cell.
      PubDate: 2014-03-01
       
 
 
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