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Journal Cover Current Oral Health Reports
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Online) 2196-3002
     Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2210 journals]
  • Definition and Prevalence of Peri-Implantitis
    • Abstract: Abstract This narrative review focuses on the current understanding of the definition and prevalence of peri-implantitis. A MEDLINE (PubMed) search over the past 3 years was performed using keywords related to the definition and prevalence of peri-implantitis. Additional literature retrieved from reference lists, review articles, and consensus reports were used. Definition of peri-implantitis is heterogeneous due to the various thresholds of bone loss and pocket depths used, creating a discrepancy in the prevalence figures. The prevalence of peri-implant mucositis varied between 19 and 65 %, whereas the prevalence of peri-implantitis ranged from 10 to 40 %. A consensus has been reached that the definition of peri-implantitis should be clinical signs of inflammation (bleeding on probing) and/or suppuration, in combination with progressive bone loss. In addition, we strongly recommend that measurement of the bone loss in relation to the implant length would further classify the case as mild, moderate, or severe peri-implantitis.
      PubDate: 2014-09-14
  • Microstructural Features of Current Resin Composite Materials
    • Abstract: Abstract Dental resin composites have become the primary choice of most practitioners for the direct restoration of teeth owing to their esthetics and properties, both of which are highly dependent upon the microstructure of the materials. The type, size, amount, and distribution of the reinforcing fillers are all critical determinants of the optical and physical properties of the composite. The chemistry of the resin monomers and the quality of the highly cross-linked network formed during the polymerization reaction significantly influences these properties. Finally, the transfer of stress from the weaker resin matrix to the stronger and stiffer reinforcing fillers is accomplished by ensuring a strong interfacial linkage between the two phases, typically via a silane coupling agent. Recent work characterizing and describing the influence of the microstructure of dental composites on their properties and performance are reviewed in this manuscript.
      PubDate: 2014-09-14
  • Strategies to Improve Biocompatibility of Dental Materials
    • Abstract: Abstract Adverse reactions to dental materials occur and public interest in this topic has increased during recent decades. Thus, improving the biocompatibility of dental materials is necessary and must be based on several strategies. First, a strategy for improving the administrative and technical conditions for material certification processes should be included, such as the development of in vitro tests with enhanced predictability of the generated data for use in the clinic. Second, research on material/tissue interactions must be enhanced and include mechanistic approaches, as this strategy leads to the development of new and more biocompatible materials. Research into patients and their individual exposure situation is a strategy directed at better defining risk groups. Finally, improvement of education will also lead to improved biocompatibility of dental materials.
      PubDate: 2014-09-11
  • Adhesion to Dental Ceramics
    • Abstract: Abstract All-ceramic restorations are attractive because of their long lasting esthetics and the ability to withstand the oral conditions. However, bonding to ceramics has challenged the dental community for the last few decades. The clinical success of a ceramic restoration is strongly dependent on the quality and durability of the bond between the resin cement and the restoration. This study presents the bonding mechanisms and the mechanical tests to evaluate the adhesive interfaces of resin-bonded ceramic restorations, mainly the zirconia-based restorations, which are the most popular. An adequate bond involves ceramic surface changes for mechanical retention, which can be achieved using primers, such as acids and airborne particle abrasion. Selective etching of high crystalline content ceramics mostly occurs within grain boundaries that offer little micromechanical retention and an insufficient bond to resin. The most popular surface treatment to improve adhesion to high crystalline content ceramics involves the treatment of surfaces with airborne particle abrasion and chemical bonding. Yet, there are reports on new methods to enhance the resin bond to zirconia that need further investigation. This study provides scientific evidences to guide the clinical procedures on bonding ceramic restorations.
      PubDate: 2014-09-10
  • Adhesive Materials with Bioprotective/Biopromoting Functions
    • Abstract: Abstract Esthetic restoration using resinous materials has achieved great success in the past decade.A large part of this success is attributed to the significant advances in adhesive materials. Although refinement of existing adhesive materials is still required to improve bonding reliability and reproducibility, the development of innovative adhesives with bioprotective/biopromoting functions has been recognized as an important direction for future research. Until now, significant achievements have been made in the development of adhesives that can protect the bonded interface from extrinsic bacteria- or intrinsic enzyme-induced destruction, as well as those that can promote the natural remineralization or regeneration process of the tooth tissue. In this review, the author will summarize the latest developments in these innovative bioactive adhesive materials.
      PubDate: 2014-09-06
  • Oral Mucosal Injury in Oncology Patients
    • Abstract: Abstract The field of oral mucosal injury caused by cancer therapies has strategically matured in the scientific as well as clinical realms over the past decade. Prior to the late 1990s, the condition had been viewed by many healthcare providers as an inevitable consequence of high-dose chemotherapy and other intensive therapies in oncology practice. Fortunately, expanding insights into the pathobiology as well as design strategies for clinical trials in recent years have fostered development of high-quality clinical practice guidelines as well as health professional education relative to prevention and treatment. This report is directed to analysis of this contemporary modeling. Guideline-based management recommendations that have emerged over the past year and controversies in the field are highlighted.
      PubDate: 2014-08-03
  • Understanding the Pathobiology of Oral Lichen Planus
    • Abstract: Abstract Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a relatively common chronic inflammatory disease. A consistent body of evidence suggests that OLP is a predominantly T-cell mediated disease that shares clinical and histological features with chronic graft versus host disease. A putative genetic predisposition linked to cytokine polymorphisms has been revealed and some possible etiologic factors such as amalgam and hepatitis C virus have been studied in detail. In this review, an overview on the immunopathogenesis of OLP will be provided and a putative comprehensive hypothesis will be discussed in detail. Despite significant advances, many questions still remain concerning the etiology and pathogenesis of OLP.
      PubDate: 2014-07-20
  • Interprofessional Clinical Experiences in Dental Education
    • Abstract: Abstract Interest and activity in interprofessional education (IPE) has grown substantially in recent years across the health professions, driven by the belief that more effective interprofessional collaboration among providers will contribute to realization of the Triple Aim objectives articulated by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement—better individual care experiences, better population health, and reduced per capita cost of care. In dental education, new standards from the Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA) in 2013 require that dental schools demonstrate that graduates are competent to communicate and collaborate with other health professionals, requiring dental educators to develop IPE curricula and assessment at their institutions. One of the more challenging aspects of IPE curriculum development is to provide meaningful interprofessional clinical experiences for students. The purpose of this paper is to review selected examples of interprofessional clinical experiences involving dental students and to describe an interprofessional clinical experience implemented at the authors’ institution.
      PubDate: 2014-07-15
  • Understanding the Pathobiology of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma
    • Abstract: Abstract Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the leading cancers in the world, although wide geographical variations do exist. HNSCC can be subcategorized into conventional HNSCC and HPV-associated HNSCC, exhibiting distinct clinical and histopathologic features. Awareness of the risks of smoking has fortunately contributed to the decreasing incidence of conventional HNSCC in the USA. However, the prevalence of HPV-associated HNSCC in the USA has been significantly increasing. Much progress has been made in the research of development and progression of HNSCC. In this article, we review the current concepts of the pathobiological mechanisms of HNSCC.
      PubDate: 2014-07-11
  • Public Health Implications of Human Papillomavirus Oral Infection: A Brief
    • Abstract: Abstract Human papilloma virus (HPV) types 16 and 18 are associated with cancers of the cervix and oropharyngeal region. Two kinds of HPV vaccines (bivalent and quadravalent) available in the market for cervical cancer prevention are safe and efficacious. Because the same types of HPV that cause cervical cancer are also associated with oropharyngeal cancers, it is thought that these vaccines may also be effective in prevention of these cancers. A call for extending the indication for these vaccines to include oropharyngeal cancer prevention has been made. Oral health professionals, who are in the forefront of visualizing the oral and oropharyngeal areas, are poised to detect abnormal findings in these regions and should consider discussing HPV vaccines with their patients. This brief review discusses the role of HPV in oral lesions and oropharyngeal cancers and the public health implications of this infection.
      PubDate: 2014-07-02
  • Pathobiology of Sjögren Syndrome: What do we Know?
    • Abstract: Abstract Sjögren syndrome is a chronic autoimmune disorder that involves exocrine glands and multiple organs. This disorder presumably affects 1.3 million patients in the USA. The pathobiology of Sjögren syndrome has been studied for at least three decades, and reported mechanisms involve the activation of the innate immune system and the development of autoimmunity. The precise mechanisms and sequence of events leading to salivary and ocular dysfunction are still unclear, and apparently multiple pathways and risk factors condition an individual to the disease. This manuscript provides an overview of the current knowledge of the pathobiology underlying Sjögren syndrome.
      PubDate: 2014-07-01
  • Dental Patients with Major Depressive Disorder
    • Abstract: Abstract Major depressive disorder (MDD) affects approximately 14.8 million adults in the United States, which is about 6.7 % of the US population. MDD impacts most activities of daily living, including oral hygiene practices and use of dental resources. This review article provides information related to underlying mechanisms of disease, diagnosis, and treatment so that dentists may best address patients’ dental concerns in the context of underlying depression. Laboratory and psychological screening tools are also discussed in relation to specific practice recommendations for managing patients with MDD as well as identifying patients with underlying symptoms who may be at risk for MDD.
      PubDate: 2014-06-15
  • Social Determinants and Oral Health: An Update
    • Abstract: Abstract This review presents the most recent studies and evidence on the social determinants of oral health. Oral disease is associated with an array of structural determinants (income, goods, and services). It is also associated with daily living conditions, and social gradients have been reported for dental caries, periodontal disease, oral cancer, and tooth loss. Current understanding of these interconnections have prompted the development of a new approach for oral health promotion, which recognizes that the behaviors accounting for the most important noncommunicable diseases contribute to oral diseases as well. Oral diseases and issues such as poor access to dental care and low oral health literacy levels are social, political, behavioral, and medical in nature. These conditions will only be controlled by the promotion of initiatives that prioritize the improvement in the social determinants of health as a backbone structure for the development of healthy enabling environments.
      PubDate: 2014-06-13
  • Bullous Pemphigoid, Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid and Pemphigus Vulgaris: An
           Update on Pathobiology
    • Abstract: Abstract Pemphigoid and pemphigus vulgaris (PV) are autoimmune diseases that cause potentially debilitating erosions and blistering of the skin and/or mucous membranes. In bullous pemphigoid (BP), autoantibodies target components of the basement membrane zone (BMZ), most importantly the hemidesmosomal proteins, BP180 and BP230. Research efforts have uncovered some of the complex mechanisms that cause this disease, including the interplay between the humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, as well as the role of complement activation, inflammatory cell activation, and proteolytic enzymes. In mucous membrane pemphigoid, which preferentially targets mucous membranes, several antigenic targets along the BMZ have been identified. In PV, desmoglein autoantibodies play the most critical role in the disease, with various other target antigens acting adjunctively to exacerbate the disease by apoptotic signaling. The relationship between apoptosis and acanthosis has yet to be clearly defined, but they may promote each other to enhance disease activity. This article provides an update on the pathogenesis of these diseases.
      PubDate: 2014-06-01
  • Cytokine Networks Regulating Inflammation and Immune Defense in the Oral
    • Abstract: Abstract The host/pathogen interaction in infectious oral diseases is characterized by complex and precisely orchestrated host response mechanisms aimed to protect the host against the microbial challenge with minimal collateral damage to host cells and tissues. Central to the host response in this battlefront is the expression of cytokines. The resulting cytokine networks, which ultimately regulate the host response at multiple levels, thereby determine the clinical outcome of the disease and explain most of its defining features from a mechanistic viewpoint. This review intends to present a structured view of the intricate cytokine networks that regulate inflammation and immune defense in the oral cavity, guiding the reader throughout the evolving paradigms that describe how the simultaneous action of multiple cytokines shapes the nature of the immune response to oral infection.
      PubDate: 2014-03-27
  • Neutrophil Dysfunction and Host Susceptibility to Periodontal
           Inflammation: Current State of Knowledge
    • Abstract: Abstract Normal polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) function is critical for the maintenance of host-biofilm equilibrium and periodontal tissue homeostasis. Mounting evidence suggests that PMNs play important roles in the control of commensal periodontal flora and initiation of resolution following inflammation caused by accumulating subgingival plaque. Quantitative and qualitative alterations of PMNs in bone marrow, blood, periodontal tissues, and gingival crevicular fluid contribute to host-microbial dysbiosis and onset of irreversible loss of clinical attachment around teeth. Recent findings of specific PMN phenotypes associated with different disease states bring us closer to understanding disease activity and addressing chronic, non-resolved, periodontal inflammation to better monitor and predict patient-specific treatment outcomes. The present review addresses the current state of knowledge in PMN biology in the pathogenesis of periodontal inflammation and the onset of periodontitis.
      PubDate: 2014-03-25
  • Immuno-Pathogenesis of Periodontal Disease: Current and Emerging Paradigms
    • Abstract: Abstract Periodontal disease (PD) is a highly complex disease involving many factors; however, two principal facets central to initiation and progression of the majority of PD are the composition of the microbes in the sub-gingival plaque, and the host immune response to these organisms. Numerous studies point to the complexity of PD, and to the fact that despite innate and adaptive immune activation, and resultant inflammation, our immune response fails to cure disease. Stunning new findings have begun to clarify several complexities of the host-pathogen interaction of PD pointing to key roles for microbial dysbiosis and immune imbalance in the pathogenesis of disease. Furthermore, these investigations have identified novel translational opportunities to intercede in PD treatment. In this review we will highlight a select few recent findings in innate and adaptive immunity, and host pathogen interactions of PD at a micro-environmental level that may have profound impact on PD progression.
      PubDate: 2014-03-22
  • Salivary Biomarkers for Detection of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Current
           State and Recent Advances
    • Abstract: Abstract Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm of the oral cavity. Detection of OSCC is currently based on a thorough clinical oral examination combined with a biopsy for histological analysis. Most cases of OSCC are not detected until the cancer has developed into advanced stages; thus, a reliable early-stage diagnostic marker is needed. This literature review presents an overview of the status of current advances in salivary diagnostics for OSCC. Though many protein and mRNA salivary biomarkers have been identified that can detect OSCC with high sensitivity and specificity, the most discernable findings occur with the use of multiple markers. Studies that incorporate proteomic, transcriptomic, and potentially additional “omics”, including methylomics, need to be initiated to bring technology to clinical applications and allow the best use of saliva in diagnosing OSCC.
      PubDate: 2014-03-21
  • The Role of Distinct T Cell Subsets in Periodontitis—Studies from
           Humans and Rodent Models
    • Abstract: Abstract Periodontal disease results from an interaction between the host’s defense mechanisms and the microorganisms that constitute the dental plaque biofilm, and penetrate gingival tissue. Therefore, the progression and severity of the disease are strongly modulated by the host immune response, particularly, T cell responses. Because T cells consist of a variety of subpopulations, numerous studies have attempted to associate an impaired balance between each T cell subset and periodontal tissue destruction in periodontitis patients. Here, we overview studies examining human specimens obtained from patients with periodontitis and experiments analyzing rodent models with age-related or pathogen-induced experimental periodontitis. Human research provides valuable insights but also inconsistent results, which may be attributed to the difference in experimental approaches and lack of evaluation of disease activity. Rodent models have shown that an optimal balance between functionally different T cells is essential in the protection against periodontal tissue destruction.
      PubDate: 2014-03-13
  • Whole Tooth Regenerative Therapy Using a Bioengineered Tooth Germ
    • Abstract: Abstract Dental disorders, including dental caries and periodontal disease, can cause fundamental problems for oral functions, such as enunciation, mastication and occlusion, as well as general health issues. Tooth regenerative therapies for tissue repair and whole tooth replacement are currently being developed as novel treatment approaches. As a form of bioengineered organ replacement, whole tooth replacement therapy is considered an important model system for next-generation regenerative therapy. We recently reported bioengineered tooth replacements after transplantation of a bioengineered tooth germ or mature tooth unit comprising the bioengineered tooth and periodontal tissues. Whole tooth regenerative therapy has the potential to fully restore tooth function, including masticatory potential in response to mechanical stress and perceptive potential for noxious stimulation. In this review, we describe recent findings and technologies underpinning tooth regenerative therapy.
      PubDate: 2014-03-01
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Heriot-Watt University
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