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Journal Cover Current Oral Health Reports
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Online) 2196-3002
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2335 journals]
  • “Non-modifiable” Risk Factors for Periodontitis and Diabetes
    • Abstract: This review describes the current evidence published from January 2013 through March 2016 for “non-modifiable” risk factors for periodontitis and diabetes mellitus. Risk factors for a disease are factors that increase the chance of developing the disease, that is, new onset or incidence. Periodontitis and diabetes are both chronic, inflammation-related diseases and often occur in the same individuals, which agrees with the two diseases having largely the same risk factors and also mutually and adversely affecting each other. “Non-modifiable” risk factors for both diseases include higher age, male sex, minority race or ethnicity, low socioeconomic status, genetic predisposition (mostly for impaired immune/inflammatory responses), a history of radiation therapy, pancreatic diseases, polycystic ovary syndrome, Alzheimer’s disease and other types of dementia, and a history of cigarette smoking. Additionally, a history of poorly controlled diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, as well as possibly osteoporosis, increases the risk for periodontitis, whereas a personal history of antibiotics use and a family history of diabetes additionally increase the risk for diabetes. Given the similarities between the risk factors, the prevention, management, and treatment aimed to ameliorate the strength of the effects of these risk factors, the risks for both periodontitis and diabetes should be attenuated simultaneously. Interventions would probably be facilitated by being conducted in a patient-centered professional collaboration among dental and medical healthcare providers caring for their mutual patient and addressing risk factors for both periodontitis and diabetes for the best possible quality of life of their mutual patient.
      PubDate: 2016-06-23
  • Bonding of Dental Ceramics to Titanium: Processing and Conditioning
    • Abstract: Difficulties related to titanium processing (casting) and the problematic titanium-ceramic bond have been limiting the latter’s application in prosthetic dentistry for many years. Recent advances in subtractive and additive CAD/CAM technologies have provided alternative routes for titanium processing. The effect of a processing route on titanium surface characteristics and on the strength of its bond to porcelain need to be assessed, since most paths for enhancing porcelain bonding involve preparation of the titanium surface. Several approaches to bond enhancement have been proposed, some of which are widely accepted (abrasion by airborne-particle and application of a bonding agent), while others have not resulted in a clinical breakthrough. Despite efforts to improve titanium bonding to porcelain and to develop titanium compatible, low-fusing porcelains, many in vitro studies report bond strengths to titanium that are inferior to those for base metals and noble dental alloys. Only a few clinical studies have been reported, revealing that titanium-ceramic restorations are susceptible to mechanical complications (porcelain fractures in 33 % of cases). Current knowledge on titanium-ceramic bonding is here reviewed, focusing on the recent attempts to overcome the limitations of the system and on recent advances in titanium processing. Optimization of the currently available processing and surface conditioning methods seems to be necessary. Although most of the proposed surface preparation methods (surface coating and roughening) appear to show a certain degree of porcelain bond improvement, many of them require application of additional complex procedures. Simplification and improved efficiency therefore appear to be the essentials for implementation of these methods in clinical practice.
      PubDate: 2016-06-23
  • Biological Mechanisms Relating Periodontitis and Diabetes
    • Abstract: Diabetes mellitus is associated with a number of complications resulting from hyperglycemia. Periodontitis is among the major complications associated with diabetes and reciprocally affects the severity and control of diabetes. Increase inflammation induced by type 2 diabetes directly contributes to the increased prevalence and severity of periodontitis in these patients. Regardless of the amount of dental plaque accumulation, gingivitis is more prevalent in diabetic patients than in healthy controls suggesting an impact of diabetes on periodontal inflammatory response to the bacterial biofilm. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines in the periodontal tissue or gingival crevicular fluid are elevated in patients with poorly controlled diabetes in the absence of periodontal disease when compared to well-controlled and non-diabetic patients. This review focuses on the possible pathological mechanisms underlying the association between periodontal disease and type 2 diabetes, explores new avenues in understanding the inflammatory pathways, and discusses novel therapeutic approaches with a paradigm shift in the prevention and treatment of diabetes and periodontitis.
      PubDate: 2016-06-20
  • Geriatric Oral Health Care Delivery in the United States of America
    • Abstract: The growing elderly population (≥65 years) imposes great challenges to oral health delivery systems. In the USA, the elderly continue to exhibit a high prevalence of chronic oral disorders. Further, poor dental access has long remained a concern and a barrier toward oral health improvement. Lack of dental insurance is a prominent contributor to the access problem. The main reason for the lack of dental insurance is the loss of employer benefits after retirement and the current transition to a national insurance program (Medicare) with insignificant dental benefits. Dental care needs to be established earlier in life through an appropriate model of care that considers the level of dependency of the elderly. The goals of dental treatment for the elderly are different from those for any other age group, and there is an increased need for the provision of dental care in regions with large elderly populations. This paper provides an overview of the challenges imposed on the health care delivery system in the USA with regard to the provision of oral health care to older adults and discusses consideration for future improvement.
      PubDate: 2016-06-18
  • SBIRT-Based Interventions to Improve Pediatric Oral Health Behaviors and
           Outcomes: Considerations for Future Behavioral SBIRT Interventions in
    • Abstract: Dental caries is the most common chronic disease in children and is caused by poor oral health behaviors. These behaviors include high-sugar diet, inadequate exposure to topical fluorides, and irregular use of professional dental care services. A number of behavioral intervention approaches have been used to modify health behaviors. One example is based on the Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) model, which has been widely used to reduce substance abuse in both adults and children. SBIRT is a promising behavior change approach that could similarly be used to address problematic oral health behaviors. In this paper, we will review oral health studies that have adopted SBIRT components, assess if these interventions improved oral health behaviors and outcomes, and outline considerations for researchers interested in developing and testing future oral health-related interventions in dentistry using a SBIRT approach.
      PubDate: 2016-06-18
  • Clinical Perspective of Electrospun Nanofibers as a Drug Delivery Strategy
           for Regenerative Endodontics
    • Abstract: Recent progress in endodontics, particularly encouraging regenerative outcomes achieved by evoked bleeding therapy in the treatment of necrotic immature permanent teeth, clearly suggests that establishment of a regenerative-based clinical strategy is closer than ever before. In this context, an efficient disinfection of the root canal system, mainly through the eradication of microbial biofilms, is a crucial step. Accordingly, numerous bacterial biofilm models have been used in vitro as an attempt to simulate the clinical conditions. To offer a comprehensive update on progress in the field, this review provides an overview of biofilm role in endodontic disease and in vitro biofilm models, the importance of disinfection, a brief review on antibiotic-containing polymer nanofibers and their antimicrobial properties, and future perspective of this novel intracanal drug delivery strategy in regenerative endodontics. Limitations in reproducing in vivo conditions will always exist; however, creating a laboratory-based biofilm model that very closely simulates clinical situations makes in vitro research reliable and the first step towards translation of new therapies.
      PubDate: 2016-06-17
  • Dental Public Health: the Future of Oral Health Care Delivery
    • PubDate: 2016-06-16
  • Ceramic-Reinforced Polymers: CAD/CAM Hybrid Restorative Materials
    • Abstract: Newly developed ceramic-reinforced polymers CAD/CAM restorative materials (CRP) represent a viable esthetic material for dental restorations. They can be classified into polymer-infiltrated ceramic (PIC) and resin nano-ceramic (RNC). This review article analyzes the latest scientific findings on wear, fatigue resistance, bonding mechanisms, fracture resistance, and esthetic properties. The literature shows that fatigue resistance of ceramic-reinforced polymers appears to be adequate to survive the masticatory forces. PIC and RNC CAD/CAM blocks have similar fracture toughness, but lower than that of ceramic-based CAD/CAM blocks. The roughness of polished different ceramic-reinforced polymers is comparable; however, aging increases the surface roughness significantly. Different CRPs require a dedicated surface treatment; nonetheless, PIC and RNC are able to attain high bond strengths. The esthetic properties of CRPs are clinically acceptable. Ceramic-reinforced polymers appear to be an ideal material for minimally invasive restorations.
      PubDate: 2016-06-16
  • A Critical Evaluation of Fatigue Studies for Restorative Materials in
    • Abstract: Fatigue tests are state of the art in dental materials testing for estimating the lifetime performance of materials or restorations. A number of different loading situations are tested with varying parameters, which are based on statistical methods or clinical experience. Partly, inadequate information is provided for a sufficient description and evaluation of the applied methods and resulting data. Several in vitro studies with limited clinical relevance have been published. This review gives a critical overview of fatigue methods published in dental literature. A clear differentiation should be made between fatigue tests for fundamental materials research and component testing of dental restorations. For structural testing, a correlation between in vitro data and in vitro performance is required. Correlation should be based on detailed evaluation of the clinical situation.
      PubDate: 2016-06-16
  • Biodegradation of Resin-Dentin Bonds: a Clinical Problem'
    • Abstract: Biodegradation of the resin-dentin interfaces has been a focus of research over the last decade. Most studies show that degradation of both the collagen and the adhesive take place within short periods of time after bonding, and claim that such loss of structure at the interface opens opportunity for secondary caries initiation and progression thus leading to failure of the restoration. Open margins are further compromised by thermo-mechanical loading and enzymes produced by local bacteria. While marginal gaps appear to be unavoidable, it is remarkable that resin composite restorations can deliver successful clinical service for many years provided preventive and conservative measures to reduce the caries-risk of the patient are applied along with the restorative treatment. This review will look into the evidence from laboratory studies that investigated degradation of bonds and the consequences leading to clinical failure and balance that against the results of clinical trials that evidence the factors associated with the durability and clinical success of resin composite restorations.
      PubDate: 2016-06-15
  • Materials and Processes for CAD/CAM Complete Denture Fabrication
    • Abstract: Purpose of Review The motive of this article is to single out the materials and processes available for the fabrication of CAD/CAM complete dentures. Recent Findings CAD/CAM complete denture fabrication has become accessible for complete dentures with a variety of techniques available for the fabrication of the prostheses. The majority of the manufacturers use subtractive manufacturing for the fabrication of their dentures while only one manufacturer proposes an additive technique. Several digital systems are available for the fabrication of CAD/CAM dentures. Summary The integration of CAD/CAM technology into complete denture design and fabrication helps improve the quality of the dentures and simplify the laboratory work. Time-consuming laboratory procedures are reduced or eliminated allowing the dental technician to ensure reproducible, efficient, and accurate prostheses.
      PubDate: 2016-06-15
  • Improving the Oral Health of American Indians and Alaska Natives
    • Abstract: American Indian and Alaska Native people experience more oral disease and are more likely to have unmet oral health needs than the general US population. These disparities may be attributed to limited access to and use of the dental care delivery system plus a high prevalence of disease risk factors such as social inequities, diet and infant-feeding practices, smoking, and oral hygiene behaviors. This review provides information on the use of and effectiveness of strategies designed to increase access, prevent oral disease, and change systems. To address the oral health crisis in Indian Country, a multi-modal approach which engages the individual, family, community, tribal leadership, plus health and social service providers must be developed, implemented, and sustained. This multi-modal approach should combine primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention strategies layered with strategies to increase access and system changes to reduce the consequences of social inequities.
      PubDate: 2016-06-03
  • Rise of Managed Care in the USA: Lessons for Dentistry
    • Abstract: Since the 1960s, the USA has experienced rapid growth in national health care expenditures, outpacing growth in other sectors of the economy. As a result, the late 1970s experienced a rise in the use of mechanisms designed to control the cost and utilization of health care. These mechanisms have come to be known as managed care. Various models of managed care have used different approaches to contain costs and improve health care quality, including capitation payments, restricted provider networks, and, more recently, financial incentives to reduce cost and improve health outcomes. In dentistry during the past two decades, the majority of the payment system has moved from primarily fee-for-service to one model of managed care called Dental Preferred Provider Organizations (DPPOs), which now accounts for more than 80 % of the market share for commercial plans. Despite a lack of recent growth in national expenditures for dental care, dentistry will need to become increasingly involved in new types of managed care due to emphasis on reducing costs and improving health care quality in the US health care system as a whole.
      PubDate: 2016-06-02
  • Analysis of Oral Health Advocacy in the Peer-Reviewed Literature, 2013 to
    • Abstract: Introduction Advocacy is the act or process of supporting a cause or proposal. The recent peer-reviewed literature on advocacy for oral health and dental care is slim, disparate, and not reflective of the ever-expanding dynamism of this field. Methods Using Medline searches for journal articles in English with abstracts published between January 1, 2013 and March 15, 2016, only 33 qualifying articles were identified in 26 unique journals by authors in nine countries. Findings This paucity of articles may reflect oral health advocates’ belief that peer-reviewed journals are ineffective venues for their contributions. Given the very sizable literature on general, rather than oral, health advocacy, the paucity of oral health articles more likely reflects the lack of empirical studies analyzing oral health advocates’ experience and impact. Identified articles were assigned to one of six overlapping topical domains: (1) advocacy for governmental action, (2) training students as advocates, (3) advocacy by health professional and public health membership organizations, (4) promoting oral health for specific underserved populations, (5) advancing clinical dental practice, and (6) promoting dental research. Themes that cut across many articles are the close relationship between advocacy and policy and calls for research to substantiate a problem or proposed solution. Conclusion Overall, most articles relate directly or tangentially to addressing oral health disparities at the population level although oral health is frequently conflated with dental care, implying that resolution of disparities requires greater access to dental treatment rather than to preventative public health interventions.
      PubDate: 2016-06-02
  • Current Status of Adding Dental Therapists to the Oral Health Workforce in
           the United States
    • Abstract: Dental therapists are members of the oral health care workforce in over 50 countries of the world. Until recently, they have not participated as members of the professional dental team in the USA. It was not until the publication of Oral Health in America: A Report of the Surgeon General in 2000, describing the significant problem of access to dental care, that the issue of dental therapists emerged in the USA in a significant manner. Details of the development of dental therapists in the workforce in the USA through 2011 were previously chronicled by Mathu-Muju. Since then, there has been a major increase in interest and licensing of dental therapists in a number of states. This article updates the dental therapist movement to the present time. The literature and activities of the movement will be reviewed by the categories of research, education, and legislation/practice, as well as analytical essays and commentaries.
      PubDate: 2016-06-02
  • Artificial Aging of Zirconium Dioxide: An Evaluation of Current Knowledge
           and Clinical Relevance
    • Abstract: Due to its superior mechanical properties, yttrium-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal is considered as one of the most promising materials to manufacture prosthetic frameworks, monolithic crowns, and abutments for implants in dentistry. When stabilized in the tetragonal phase, the structure of zirconia can respond to external stress by increasing its toughness and resistance. Unfortunately, when subjected to a humid environment, zirconia may undergo considerable degradation characterized by increased surface roughness, grain growth, and propagation of microcracks that could be detrimental for its mechanical properties. This phenomenon, also known as low-temperature degradation (LTD), when not minimized, may represent a setback for the longevity of zirconia especially used for biomedical applications. LTD is studied in in vitro or in vivo settings employing different strategies. Present clinical studies, however, with their shortcomings, do not signify high incidence of failures of zirconia for dental applications. The LTD of zirconia is currently being criticized based on laboratory testing which may be suboptimal. This review will highlight the existing knowledge on the artificial aging methods studying LTD in zirconia and their relevance considering clinical performance of zirconia prostheses.
      PubDate: 2016-06-01
  • The Dental Drug Delivery System for Prevention of Dental Caries
    • Abstract: A new therapy for the management of early caries lesions and caries prevention was established for clinical use. This therapy was named the Dental Drug Delivery System (3DS), and its effectiveness was confirmed by clinical evaluations. The 3DS method involves the application of either antimicrobial drugs or fluoride gels, with individual trays at the chair-side and also for home care program. By using the individual trays, only the cariogenic bacteria “Streptococcus mutans” that adheres to the tooth surface is controlled without changing the core composition of oral microflora. Therefore, we recommend the use of this method in dental clinics for caries management. The 3DS method should be used especially by pregnant women and mothers raising small children because children most often receive the S. mutans from their mothers via saliva. Patients with dental implants also should be treated by 3DS in order to prevent peri-implantitis. Perioperative patients and bed-ridden people who find it physically challenging to take care of their teeth would also benefit from the 3DS. Patients with severe halitosis are also candidates for 3DS treatment. The scientific rationale of 3DS and the clinical procedure involved are introduced in this article.
      PubDate: 2016-04-04
  • Molecular Markers of Fibro-Osseous Lesions and Osteosarcomas of the
           Craniofacial Complex—Current Situation and Recent Advances
    • Abstract: Fibro-osseous lesions share clinical, radiological, and pathological features, particularly in the craniofacial complex, a location where diagnosing these lesions is challenging. Some molecular markers involved in the pathogenesis of these lesions offer significant diagnostic support. Guanine nucleotide-binding protein/alpha subunit (GNAS) mutations are specific to fibrous dysplasias and are not encountered in ossifying fibromas (including juvenile variants), or in low-grade and high-grade osteosarcomas of the jaw. Low-grade and dedifferentiated osteosarcomas show murine double-minute 2 (MDM2) amplification, with overexpression of MDM2, abnormalities not encountered in fibrous dysplasia, or in ossifying fibroma. No recurrent cytogenetic or molecular abnormality has been reported to date in conventional ossifying fibromas. The juvenile variants of ossifying fibroma exhibit MDM2/RAS protein activator like-1 (RASAL1) co-amplification, without MDM2 overexpression, abnormalities also observed in certain aggressive osteosarcomas of the jaw, which may derive from juvenile ossifying fibroma. MDM2/RASAL1 co-amplification may constitute an early molecular marker of aggressive juvenile ossifying fibroma and may indicate a need for closer follow-up and more radical treatment.
      PubDate: 2016-04-02
  • Root Caries Management: Evidence and Consensus Based Report
    • Abstract: Root caries are becoming an increasingly common clinical problem, especially as aged-society. This report is based on the clinical practice guideline which offers a practical expert review of managing root caries with the best scientific evidence and the general consensus of expert clinicians. Root caries should be managed differently from coronal caries, and a shift of its strategy from “early-detection and early-treatment” to “early-detection and long-term management” is called for. Once the restorative treatment is chosen, it is often more advantageous to use glass-ionomer than resin composite. In addition, as we face a super-aged society now, in today’s dentistry setting, silver diammine fluoride (SDF) with high demineralization inhibitory effect is being re-evaluated as the “rescue material” (material for emergency cases) for root caries.
      PubDate: 2016-03-30
  • Immunotherapy for Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma
    • Abstract: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma has been found to be an immunosuppressive malignancy, with many defects in the host immune system contributing to the progression of disease. A greater understanding of these defects has lead to the identification and investigation of new therapeutic strategies, targeting immune system dysfunction in an effort to improve the outcomes of this disease. This article provides a brief review of the knowledge regarding the immune defects present in head and neck cancer, as well as a review of the current therapeutic strategies being investigated for use.
      PubDate: 2016-03-12
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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