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Journal Cover   Current Oral Health Reports
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Online) 2196-3002
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2281 journals]
  • Dental Hygienists’ Awareness and Support for Existing and New Oral
           Health Workforce Models
    • Abstract: Abstract The study investigated dental hygienists’ scope of services and level of satisfaction as well as their awareness and support to the existing and proposed oral health workforce models: expanded function dental auxiliary (EFDA), dental therapist (DT), and advanced dental hygiene practitioner (ADHP). The study sample consisted of all 676 dental hygienists from Cuyahoga County, Ohio. Data were collected by a self-administered mail questionnaire that assessed hygienists’ scope of services, levels of satisfaction with the services, and their awareness as well as support for workforce models; the last two were assessed on a scale of 1–10. The effective response rate to the survey was 26 %. Respondents’ average ratings for the knowledge levels for DT, ADHP, and EFDA were as follows: 2.8 ± 2.6, 4.0 ± 3.4, and 8.1 ± 2.6. Hygienists were most supportive of the EFDAs (7.7 ± 2.9), followed by ADHP (7.0 ± 3.4), and DT (4.0 ± 3.4). Findings indicate a need to improve respondents’ awareness of the dental therapist position.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
  • Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells for Periodontal Regeneration
    • Abstract: Abstract Periodontal tissue is susceptible to chronic periodontal disease, which results in irreversible tissue destruction. Adult stem cells can be obtained from the periodontal ligament of the periodontium. Stem cells from the periodontal ligament (PDLSCs) are promising for periodontal regeneration because they can undergo guided differentiation under specialized conditions. Currently, growth factors and scaffolds are used for differentiation and clinical application of PDLSCs. In this review, characteristics of PDLSCs and related factors are selectively analyzed.
      PubDate: 2015-08-27
  • Nanoleakage and Durability of Resin/Dentin Bonds
    • Abstract: Abstract Micromorphological analysis is a useful method for the evaluation of resin–dentin bonds. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can also be used to analyze the structure of resin–dentin bonds because of its high resolution. There are several reasons for the degradation of resin–dentin bonds such as the activation of endogenous dentin matrix metalloproteinases and the hydrolysis of methacrylate resins. Nanoleakage expression is an effective method for the identification of these degradation pathways and uses silver nitrate as a nanoleakage tracer. However, the resulting TEM images only provide two-dimensional information and the corresponding three-dimensional structure can only be realized based on the consideration of other experimental findings. The evaluation of nanoleakage structures in this way should provide a better understanding of the bond degradation pathways. This review provides an overview of recent developments towards the study of nanoleakage structures, with particular emphasis on their shape and bond degradation processes.
      PubDate: 2015-08-25
  • Advancing Health Promotion in Dentistry: Articulating an Integrative
           Approach to Coaching Oral Health Behavior Change in the Dental Setting
    • Abstract: Abstract Oral health is managed based on objective measures such as the presence and severity of dental caries and periodontal disease. In recent years, oral health researchers and practitioners have shown increasing interest in a widened array of physical, psychological, and social factors found to influence patients’ oral health. In this article, we introduce a behavior change coaching approach that can be used to enhance psychosocial diagnosis and client-centered delivery of health-promoting interventions. Briefly, this health coaching approach is based on an interactive assessment (both physical and psychological), a non-judgmental exploration of patients’ knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs, a mapping of patient behaviors that may contribute to disease progression, gauging patient motivation, and tailoring health communication to encourage health-promoting behavior change. Developed in a clinical setting, this coaching model is supported by interdisciplinary theory, research, and practice on health behavior change. We suggest that, with supervision, this coaching process may be learned.
      PubDate: 2015-07-25
  • Cross-Nation Comparison of Oral Cancer in the Eastern Mediterranean
           Region: an Ecological Overview
    • Abstract: Abstract Eastern Mediterranean (EM) region countries include countries from the Mediterranean region and North Africa representing regions with wide variations in their politics, economy, peaceful status, and healthcare infrastructure. Commonly known lip and oral cancer risk factors such as consumption of tobacco and alcohol are widely prevalent in the region. Globocan data suggests that age-standardized incidence rates and age-adjusted mortality rates are higher in the region compared to world averages whereas 1-, 2-, and 3-year prevalence proportions are lower. These statistical profiles are generally similar for men and women. Within the region, in general, incidence, mortality, and prevalence is greater in men than women. However, there are important differences in overall incidence, prevalence, and mortality; differences between genders in these statistics which vary between countries. This manuscript describes and compares oral cancer statistics of the countries in the EM region.
      PubDate: 2015-07-24
  • Drilling Deeper into Toothbrushing Skills: is Proactive Interference an
           Under-Recognized Factor in Oral Hygiene Behavior Change'
    • Abstract: Abstract Proper toothbrushing is a seemingly simple motor activity that can promote oral health. Applying health theories, such as the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model, motivational interviewing (MI), and integrative health coaching (IHC), may help optimize toothbrushing technique in those with sub-optimal skills. Some motor activities, including toothbrushing, may over time become rote and unconscious actions, such that an existing habit can inhibit new learning, i.e., exert proactive interference on learning the new skill. Proactive interference may impede the acquisition of new toothbrushing skills; thus, in this report, we (1) review how the habit of toothbrushing is formed, (2) postulate how proactive interference could impede the establishment of proper toothbrushing retraining, (3) discuss the merits of this hypothesis, and (4) provide guidance for future work in this topic within the context of an approach to behavior change that integrates IMB, MI, and IHC methodology.
      PubDate: 2015-07-23
  • Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis: Towards Evidence-Based Treatment'
    • Abstract: Abstract Recurrent aphthous stomatitis is one of the most common oral mucosal diseases seen by dental professionals, and yet its aetiology remains unclear, and its management based on less than robust evidence. The literature remains confused because of the lack of clarity in diagnosis and the lack of a standardised ulcer severity scoring system and agreed outcome measures. However, recent literature is encouraging in meeting these aims. There is agreement that recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a localized mucosal disease not secondary to systemic disease and therefore distinguishable from over 40 other types of oral ulcers. Disease severity scores have been introduced and outcome measures have become more standardised. RAS appears to be an auto-immune disease directed at epitopes of heat shock proteins whilst most recent work on aetiology has focused on cytokines and genetics. Pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-a and IL-6 and IL-17 are raised in RAS and TNF inhibitors can inhibit episodes of ulceration. Many local anti-inflammatory agents will help ulcers heal, and local steroids remain the treatment of choice. Some systemic drugs have evidence-based data indicating efficacy at preventing new ulcers including colchicine, prednisolone, thalidomide, pentoxyfilline and dapsone. The field would benefit from further trials combining local and systemic therapy using defined outcome measures.
      PubDate: 2015-07-14
  • Neuropathic Orofacial Pain
    • Abstract: Abstract Dental practitioners will be exposed to patients experiencing neuropathic pain of the orofacial region at some point in their careers. The pain can be distressing and affect quality of life. Therefore, an understanding of the clinical presentation, diagnosis, and management of neuropathic orofacial pain is essential since some patients will convincingly express this pain to be originating from a dental source. Neuropathic pain may be episodic such as trigeminal neuralgias, or continuous, which includes peripheral painful trigeminal traumatic neuropathy, persistent idiopathic facial pain, neuritis, and burning mouth syndrome. Research has revealed that these various neuropathic pains often have specific treatment modalities. Hence, establishing an accurate diagnosis and understanding the pathophysiology of the disorders are critical in the management of pain as these will avoid the initiation of unnecessary dental interventions.
      PubDate: 2015-07-02
  • Antifibrinolytic Drugs (Aminocaproic Acid and Tranexamic Acid): Treatment
           Perspectives for Dental Surgery
    • Abstract: Abstract The purpose of the review was to evaluate the risks and benefits of antifibrinolytic drugs, aminocaproic acid and tranexamic acid, with respect to dental surgery. The literature supports the utilization of antifibrinolytic drugs particularly with regard to hemophilia and other bleeding dyscrasias. Systemic therapy has potential risks, although blood studies allow for the safe utilization of antifibrinolytics. The use of topical antifibrinolytic drugs demonstrates benefit without significant risk.
      PubDate: 2015-07-01
  • Detecting Short-Term Changes in the Activity of Caries Lesions with the
           Aid of New Technologies
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper discusses the use of new technologies for the assessment of caries and more in particular changes in caries activity. Over the past decades, we have seen a shift from restorative treatment caries to a prevention-driven approach. Also there is a need for shorter and less expensive caries clinical trials. These demand earlier detection of lesions and the monitoring of lesion changes longitudinally in time, which has led to the development of new technologies to aid clinical visual examination. Also clinical visual inspection indices have been refined to fit this purpose. There is a constant flow of technologies emerging and disappearing. This review discusses the merits of recent developments regarding their respective uses for research purposes in testing new caries prevention strategies as well as in clinical caries management in dental private practice. Which technique to choose highly depends on the needed resolution of information.
      PubDate: 2015-04-17
  • Application of Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) for Diagnosis of Caries,
           Cracks, and Defects of Restorations
    • Abstract: Abstract Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive technique providing cross-sectional images of a tooth structure. This review describes the use of OCT for detecting dental caries, tooth fractures, and interfacial gaps in intraoral restorations. OCT can be a reliable and an accurate method and a safer alternative to X-ray radiography.
      PubDate: 2015-04-09
  • Remineralization Therapies for Initial Caries Lesions
    • Abstract: Abstract This is a review of the latest scientific advances in technologies for effective management of initial (non-cavitated) caries lesions. The increasing emphasis on preventive and minimal intervention dentistry coupled with the established higher prevalence of non-cavitated caries compared to cavitated tooth surfaces is encouraging nonsurgical management of early caries among the practicing dentists. Thus, there is need for effective treatment strategies to facilitate non-operative care of initial caries lesions (remineralization). The new strategies should either facilitate fluoride action, work better than or synergistically with fluoride to provide a fuller remineralization of the lesions. An overview of new developments shows encouraging number of scientifically sound therapies with promising potential to be efficacious. However, there is shortage of strong clinical evidence generated through randomized clinical trials to support the efficacy and effectiveness of these new technologies. Devices with high validity and accuracy to measure and monitor remineralization are also needed to enable clinical data collection to validate effectiveness of these therapies.
      PubDate: 2015-04-09
  • Resin Coating Technique for Protection of Pulp and Increasing Bonding in
           Indirect Restoration
    • Abstract: Abstract A resin coating technique has been widely advocated in recent years. A combination of a dentin bonding system and a flowable composite is applied on the exposed dentin surfaces immediately after tooth preparation and before taking the final impression. The resin coating is beneficial to both minimize pulpal irritation and enhance the bond strength of a resin cement to dentin. Recently introduced thin-film coating materials based on all-in-one adhesive technology are used for resin coating of crown restorations. Thin-film coating materials can be applied in a single clinical procedure and followed by created a barrier-like film layer on the prepared dentin. Therefore, the resin coating technique may play an important role to protect the dentin physically, chemically, and biologically. The coating materials also have the potential to cover exposed sound enamel and dentin, leading to maximum tooth structure preservation.
      PubDate: 2015-04-09
  • Management of Dentin Hypersensitivity
    • Abstract: Abstract A PubMed literature research was undertaken by the author using various MeSH terms: (“therapy”[Subheading] OR “therapy”[All Fields] OR “treatment”[All Fields] OR “therapeutics”[MeSH Terms] OR “therapeutics”[All Fields]) AND (“organization and administration”[MeSH Terms] OR (“organization”[All Fields] AND “administration”[All Fields]) OR “organization and administration”[All Fields] OR “management”[All Fields] OR “disease management”[MeSH Terms] OR (“disease”[All Fields] AND “management”[All Fields]) OR “disease management”[All Fields]) AND (“dentin sensitivity”[MeSH Terms] OR (“dentin”[All Fields] AND “sensitivity”[All Fields]) OR “dentin sensitivity”[All Fields] OR (“dentin”[All Fields] AND “hypersensitivity”[All Fields]) OR “dentin hypersensitivity”[All Fields]). This search strategy generated a large number of papers on the topic of dentin hypersensitivity (DH); however, there were limited data on management strategies that could be successfully implemented in clinical practice. Although there have been a number of treatment paradigms published in the literature, there is a need for simple pragmatic guidelines to be recommended to the clinician in order to successfully manage the condition in the clinical environment. Furthermore, despite the published claims of clinical efficacy for both in-office and over-the-counter products there does not appear to be one ideal desensitizing agent than can be recommended to be used for the condition. The importance of educating both the clinician and the patient in the identification, prevention, and management of DH is paramount if the condition is to be successfully monitored and treated.
      PubDate: 2015-04-08
  • Advances in the Chemopreventive Targeting of Oral Carcinogenesis
    • Abstract: Abstract Control of oral cancer associated with the frequent exposure to traditional risk factors such as tobacco, betel quid, and alcohol, together with the recent rise in human papillomavirus-related oropharyngeal cancer is a major public health concern worldwide. Late diagnosis and “field cancerization,” where multifocal malignant lesions compromise standard surgical treatments and chemoradiotherapy are among the most critical challenges faced by clinical oncologists. In addition to improving methods of early diagnosis and periodic monitoring, halting tumor progression through long-term chemoprevention of at risk premalignant lesions with well-tolerated drugs or natural products remains an attractive strategy. This review discusses recent progress and challenges on the chemopreventive targeting of oral cancer, especially as it relates to the genomic and molecular characterization of oncogenic drivers underlying tumor development and progression. These emerging data may ultimately serve as the basis for novel early and predictable interventions to significantly reduce morbidity and mortality associated with oral cancer.
      PubDate: 2015-04-02
  • Photodynamic and Tissue Tolerable Plasma Therapies as Alternatives to
           Antimicrobials to Control Pathogenic Biofilms
    • Abstract: Abstract The need for novel antimicrobial techniques has become critical for a number of reasons, including the emergence of resistant strains because of excessive prescription and misuse of antibiotics. The mouth is colonized by a large number of microorganisms. When these microorganisms are organized as biofilms they can contribute to chronic diseases in the human population, such as dental caries, candidiasis, and periodontal disease. Hence, alternative antimicrobial approaches have risen to facilitate the treatment of these diseases. As novel therapies, photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy and tissue-tolerable plasma are promising methods that offer the possibility of microbial decontamination with decreased odds for the traditional side effects. Thus, the present review aims to offer an overview and future directions of these new approaches to control pathogenic oral biofilms.
      PubDate: 2015-01-11
  • The Biofilm Community: Rebels with a Cause
    • Abstract: Abstract Oral biofilms are some of the most complex and diverse ecosystems developed by successive colonization of more than 600 bacterial taxa. Development starts with the attachment of early colonizers such as Actinomyces species and oral streptococci on the acquired pellicle and tooth enamel. These bacteria not only adhere to the tooth’s surface, but also interact with each other and lay foundation for attachment of bridging colonizers such as Fusobacterium nucleatum followed by late colonizers including the red complex species Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia, and Treponema denticola, the founders of periodontal disease. As the biofilm progresses from supragingival sites to subgingival sites, the environment changes from aerobic to anaerobic, thus favoring the growth of mainly Gram-negative obligate anaerobes while restricting the growth of the early Gram-positive facultative aerobes. Microbes present at the supragingival level are mainly related to gingivitis and root caries, whereas subgingival species advance the destruction of teeth supporting tissues, and thus cause periodontitis. This review summarizes our present understanding and recent developments on the characteristic features of supra- and subgingival biofilms, interaction between different genera and species of bacteria constituting these biofilms, and draws our attention to the role of some of the recently discovered members of the oral community.
      PubDate: 2015-01-07
  • Is Citrullination the Missing Link between Periodontal Disease and
           Rheumatoid Arthritis?
    • Abstract: Abstract Connections between periodontitis (PD) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are suggested by an increased prevalence of PD in RA, shared environmental and genetic risk factors, and correlating levels of severity when the two diseases occur together. Here, we compare and contrast the results from numerous studies documenting this association, and highlight the involvement of citrullination in the development of autoimmunity leading to the destructive pathology that characterizes RA. The contribution of citrullination to RA may occur in at least three distinct phases: (i) the initial breakdown of tolerance leading to autoimmunity; (ii) the maturation of the citrulline specificity of the autoantibody response; and (iii) the pro-inflammatory effect of citrullinated proteins themselves in established disease. We conclude that citrullination is more than a ‘missing link’; rather, it is an active process in the evolution of low levels of autoimmunity found in PD into the pathogenic anti-citrullinated protein response specific to RA.
      PubDate: 2015-01-06
  • Microbiology of Oral Biofilm-Dependent Diseases: Have We Made Significant
           Progress to Understand and Treat These Diseases?
    • Abstract: Abstract The oral microbiome plays a crucial role in the establishment and maintenance of oral health. Major disturbances in the interactions between this microbiome, the microenvironment, and the host may lead to the development of oral diseases. A large proportion of infectious diseases that affect humans are caused by organisms living in biofilms. This is also the case for oral infections such as dental caries, periodontal diseases, and endodontic and fungal infections. In this review, new concepts regarding the role of the oral biofilm in the etiopathogenesis of these diseases are presented, and a more ecological view of pathogenic communities as causative agents of oral diseases is discussed. We believe that a better understanding of oral biofilm physiology and ecology will provide insight for the development of new cost-effective diagnostic tools, as well as preventive and therapeutic strategies for the management of these infections.
      PubDate: 2014-12-24
  • Host Responses in the Link Between Periodontitis and Rheumatoid Arthritis
    • Abstract: Abstract Periodontitis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are common chronic inflammatory conditions and share many clinical and pathologic features. There is evidence to suggest that similar profiles of cytokine genotypes and their coding proteins are involved in the pathogenesis of periodontitis and RA. In particular, constitutive overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), has been implicated to play a pathologic role in the two inflammatory diseases. Results from studies with animal and human subjects have suggested an improvement of periodontal inflammatory condition after treatment with TNF-α inhibitors. Likewise, IL-6 receptor inhibition therapy has been suggested to have an effect on control of periodontal inflammation in patients with RA. In the present review, we provide an overview of studies showing the pathological role of cytokines in the linkage between periodontitis and RA, and further summarize the current studies assessing the effect of cytokine targeted therapy on periodontal condition.
      PubDate: 2014-12-24
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