Biomedical Research and Therapy
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2198-4093 - ISSN (Online) 2198-4093
Published by Vietnam National University [1 journal]
- Antimicrobial Resistance in Uropathogen Isolates from Patients with
Urinary Tract Infections
Authors: Sanjib Saha, Md. Shaifur Rahman, F. M. Nazmul Hassan, Shovon Lal Sarkar, Md. Khirul Islam, Prianka Saha, Md. Badrul Alam, Nigarin Sultana, K.M. Taufiqur Rahman, Sharmin Sultana Sumi, Shihab Hasan
Abstract: Aims: Because of uncontrolled and widespread use of antibiotics, the resistance pattern of uropathogens is changing drastically, specifically in developing countries, such as Bangladesh. The aim of the study was to identify the common Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) causing pathogens in the city of Jessore, Bangladesh and to check the performance of available antibiotics used by those patients. Study Design: Random 100 UTI patients who exhibited general UTI symptoms were included in our cross-sectional study. A medical proforma was prepared to input the information associated with the experiment including symptoms of patient’s age, sex, laboratory diagnosis and antimicrobial susceptibility. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, University of Science and Technology, Jessore 7408 and Pharmacy Discipline, Life Science School, Khulna University, Khulna 9208, Bangladesh, between June 2013 and July 2014. Methodology: Urine samples from 100 suspicious urinary tract infected patients were collected as described by Thomson and Miller. Bacterial isolates were tested to identify the bacterial species and to evaluate their antimicrobial susceptibility by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion technique against some common antibiotics. Epidata® computer program 3.1 and SPSS version 16 statistical software used for confidence interval (CI) and P value, which were defined as P value is <0.05 and CI was set at 95% level of significance for all the proportions. Results: Among 100 samples, 74 samples showed positive for cultures adversely responsible for UTIs. About 5 different species of uropathogens were identified from 74 cases. Comparative prevalence of E. coli was detected in 69 of the 100 samples (69%), while Staphylococcus spp was found in 18 samples (18%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa in 8 samples (8%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae in 6 samples (6%), respectively. Comparative antibiotic resistance profile showed that most of the strains were highly resistant to Amoxicillin (85.14%) and Cotrimoxazole (81.08%). On the contrary, the strains showed significant sensitivity to Amikacin (94.59%), Azithromycin (93.24%), Doxycycline (90.54%), and Ceftriaxone (89.18%), respectively showed significant sensitivity. Conclusion: Our results could be helpful to compel rational antibiotic use for UTI. High resistance of uropathogens to antibiotics, such as Amoxicillin and Cotrimoxaxole, has been observed in a significant number of patients in the developing world, such as Bangladesh. Our studies may provoke further investigations into the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance of particular microbes.
Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 5 (2015)
- Bacterial Meningitis: a five year retrospective study among patients who
had attended at University of Gondar Teaching Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia
Authors: Birehanemeskel Tegene, Solomon Gebreselassie, Nigus Fikrie
Abstract: Acute Bacterial Meningitis (ABM) is an important cause of death and long-term neurological disability. Recent Information on the relative frequency of the isolation and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of these pathogens is scarce in Ethiopia. This study was to document the microbial characteristics, the antibacterial sensitivity pattern, and seasonal variation of community acquired acute bacterial meningitis. The study was retrospective, conducted at university of Gondar referral hospital, serving the rural population of the northwest parts of Ethiopia. A total of three thousand and eighty five cerebrospinal fluid specimens submitted to the bacteriology laboratory for culture and antibiotic susceptibility patterns in a period between January 2006 and December 2010. Analysis of extracted data was performed using SPSS statistical software (Version 17). The etiological agent had been identified in 120 (3.8%) of the total 3,085 CSF samples by culture. Thirty-nine (32.5%) of them were infants below the age of 12 months. S. pneumoniae was the predominant pathogen accounting for 52 (43.3%) of the cases. Whereas N. meningitidis and H. influenzae accounted for 27(22.5%), and 12(10%), respectively. Other gram negative bacilli and S. aureus were isolated from 21(17.2%), and 11(9.2%) cases, respectively. Among gram positive organisms S.pneumoniae showed a high level of drug resistance against co-trimoxazole 44(84.3%). Among gram negative bacteria, N.meningitidis was found to be resistant to co-trimoxazole in 25(92.5%). E. coli and salmonella spp. were found to be resistant to most antibiotics except ciprofloxacin. Multiple drug resistance was observed in 58.3% of the isolates. S. pneumoniae remains the major etiological agent of Community Acquired Acute Bacterial Meningitis (CAABM) both in adults and children in the study area. 5.7% of S. pneumoniae were resistances to penicillin. Further research should focus on preventable aspects CAABM of, especially pneumococcal vaccines, to reduce the disease burden.
Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 5 (2015)
- Retinoic acid improves the cisplatin effect on tumor initiating cells in
Authors: Julie Arnold, William Hwang, Sudipto Bari, Hong Zhang
Abstract: In recent years, cisplatin is used in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment as adjuvant treatment for post-operation patients. However, its efficiency also was largely limited because of the high incidence of chemoresistance. It was the aim of this study to assess the effects of cisplatin in combination with retinoic acid (RA) on differentiation and apoptosis of tumor-initiating cells (TICs) in human HCC. In this study, TICs would be treated cisplatin+RA and cisplatin or RA alone as the controls. The TIC differentiation was evaluated by phenotype changes while TIC apoptosis was evaluated by PI-annexin V assay. The results showed that RA effectively induced differentiation of TICs, which potentiated the cytotoxic effects of cisplatin. The combinatorial treatment of RA and cisplatin significantly promoted apoptosis, and differentiation of human TICs compared to the treatment with either drug alone. These findings demonstrated that the combination of RA with cisplatin may be a promising strategy in HCC treatment.
Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2015)
- In vitro spontaneous differentiation of human breast cancer stem cell and
Authors: Phuc Van Pham
Abstract: Breast cancer stem cells were considered as origins of breast cancer. Previously published studies showed that breast cancer stem cells exhibited high multi-drug resistance. This study aimed to evaluate the spontaneous differentiation of human breast cancer stem cells and investigate some in vitro conditions to control this process. Human breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) were sorted from primary culture of breast malignant tumors based on expression of CD44 and CD24. The in vitro spontaneous differentiation of BCSCs was evaluated in the popular culture medium DMEM/F12 supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), 1% antibiotic-antimycotic. There were some different methods to control the spontaneous differentiation of BCSCs included free serum culture, mammosphere culture, basic fibroblast growth factor and epidermal growth factor supplement to serum medium, and hypoxia culture. The results showed that BCSCs always were spontaneously differentiated in vitro in the popular culture medium DMEM/F12 plus 10% FBS. The percentage of BCSCs gradually decreased according to sub-culture times and became stable after 20 sub-culture times. All investigated methods could not completely inhibit the spontaneous differentiation of BCSCs. Serum-free culture combined with hypoxia condition had strongest inhibition of this process. These results demonstrated that the spontaneous differentiation is nature process of BCSCs; therefore this process should be determined and suitably controlled depending on different experiments.
Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2015)
- Evaluation in vitro senescence of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from
mouse bone marrow and adipose tissue
Authors: Sinai Walker, Gene Sam, Martin Hill, Matthie Robert
Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from bone marrow and adipose tissue are intensively used for regenerative medicine. This study aimed to compare the in vitro senescence of MSCs isolated from adipose (BM-MSCs) and bone marrow tissues (ADSCs). Both BM-MSCs and ADSCs were isolated from the same mice, and sub-cultured to 3rd passage. These MSCs were assessed cell proliferation, senescence associated beta-galactosidase staining, and telomere length as well as stemness marker expression. The results showed that both BM-MSCs and ADSCs would go to senescence after long-term culture. BM-MSCs significantly decreased the proliferation rate after passage 20, while ADSCs could strongly proliferate to passage 50. Based on beta-galactosidase expression, BM-MSCs also were positive sooner than ADSCs (passage 10 vs. passage 20, respectively). At these passages, both BM-MSCs and ADSCs exhibited the shortening of telomere length from 10.4 to 5.2 kbps in passage 3 to senescent cultures, respectively. In conclusion, MSCs from bone marrow appear to senesce much earlier than those from adipose tissue. These results suggested that numbers of sub-culture should be controlled to get MSCs in good status for research or application.
Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2015)
- Characterization and expression of pluripotency markers in human dental
pulp stem cells
Authors: Miglino Maria, Laurino Carlos, Rosalia Mendez-Otero, Natasha Machado
Abstract: Human dental pulp stem cell (DPSC) is new source of stem cells. In this study, we characterized expression of pluripotency markers such as Oct-3/4, Sox-2, and Nanog in DPSCs. DPSCs were isolated according to the published procedure. They were sub-cultured to 3rd passage and used for further experiments. Firstly, DPSCs were characterized with mesenchymal stem cell phenotypes included expression of CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90 and CD105; adipogenesis and osteogenesis differentiation. Secondly, DPSCs were checked expression of Oct-3/4, Sox-2, and Nanog by both RT-PCR, immunofluorescence. The results showed that DPSCs satisfied the minimal criteria of MSCs. Moreover, they also expressed the pluripotent markers Oct-3/4, Sox-2, and Nanog at both mRNA and protein level. Thus, these factors may have a potential role in influencing the high proliferation and differentiation of DPSCs. In conclusion, this result showed that DPSCs represent as autologous stem cell source with high potential for dental engineering as well as regenerative medicine.
Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2015)
- Oncolytic virotherapy for cancer
Authors: Kotovoe Erlomeava
Abstract: Cancer is the leading caused of death in human. In recent years, there are some therapies developed in the diagnosis and treatment of cancers. However, overall outcome is not efficiently improved. Virotherapy using oncolytic viruses is considered as novel strategy for cancer treatment. In principle, virotherapy used oncolytic viruses that can infect and lyse target cancer cells. Because oncolytic viruses can specific infect to target cells through receptors in cell surface. So this therapy promises without damage with healthy tissue. This review aimed to describe the use of oncolytic viruses in cancer treatment in recent years.
Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2014)
- Hypoxia condition promoted the adipose derived stem cell proliferation via
Authors: Phuc Van Pham, Ngoc Bich Vu, Nhung Hai Truong, Loan Thi-Tung Dang, Nhan Lu-Chinh Phan, Ngoc Kim Phan
Abstract: Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are a promising mesenchymal stem cells source with therapeutic applications. Some recent studies showed that ADSCs could be expanded in vitro without phenotype changes. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of hypoxia condition on ADSC proliferation in vitro and to determine the role of VEGF in ADSC proliferation. ADSCs were selectively cultured from stromal vascular fraction that obtained from adipose tissue in the DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with 10% FBS, 1% antibiotic-antimycotic. ADSCs were cultured in two conditions included hypoxia (5% O2) and normal oxygen (21% O2). Effects of oxygen concentration on cell proliferation were recorded by cell cycle and doubling time. Expression of VEGF was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR and ELISA assays. And the role of VEGF on ADSC proliferation was studied by neutralizing VEGF with anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody. The results showed that ADSC proliferation rate was increased 2.5 times in hypoxia compared to normal oxygen. And hypoxia condition, ADSCs also triggered VEGF synthesis at both mRNA and translational level. However, neutralizing VEGF with anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody significantly reduced the proliferation rate. These results suggested that hypoxia stimulated ADSC proliferation related to VEGF production. This finding will contribute not only in stem cell technology but also in obese treatment.
Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 5 (2014)