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Journal Cover   Biomedical Research and Therapy
  [4 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2198-4093 - ISSN (Online) 2198-4093
   Published by Vietnam National University Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Seroprevalence of typhus fever at the Kality Prison, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    • Authors: Melat W/mariam, Baye Gelaw, Abate Assefa
      Abstract: Background: Peoples living in crowded situations like refugee camps and prisons are highly vulnerable to louse-born typhus infection. The information on the prevalence of louse-borne typhus among prisoners in Ethiopia is limited. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of typhus among prisoners at the Kality Prison, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: A five year retrospective study was conducted from February to March 2014. A total of 6104 typhus fever suspected prisoners tested for typhus at the Kality Prison Hospital from 2008 to 2012 were included. Data on the seroprevalence of typhus were abstracted from Kality Prison Laboratory. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS 20 statistical software. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square were computed. In all cases p-values less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Results: The overall prevalence of typhus fever infection was 26.3%. The prevalence of typhus fever infection was found to be higher among prisoners within the age group of 41-50 years (36.9%) and also among male patients (27.3%). The prevalence of typhus fever infection was higher by the year 2009 (40.7%) and overall in the five-year period the summer (31.8%) and fall (30%) seasons showed higher seroprevalence of typhus.  Conclusions: The prevalence of typhus fever infection at Kality prison was high. This high prevalence could be a possible risk for epidemic typhus fever infection within the prison and for the nearby population. Therefore, targeted public health intervention could be important in this high risk population.  
      PubDate: 2015-07-18
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 7 (2015)
  • Ex-vivo cytotoxic, antibacterial and DPPH free radical scavenging assay
           with ethanolic leaf extract of Glycosmis pentaphylla to justify its
           traditional use

    • Authors: Prawej Ansari, Anayt Ulla, AKM Riasat Ul Islam, Mahmuda Sultana, Mohammad Nazmul Alam, Mohammad Mustakim, Md. Nasir Uddin
      Abstract: Aim: Glycosmis pentaphylla belongs to the family Rutaceae. It is a shrub and locally common in the treatment of hepatic impairment. We have designed this study to provide a scientific basis with the traditional use of leaf of G. pentaphylla in the treatment of hepatitis. Methods: The well-established DPPH free radical scavenging activity was tested for antioxidant property evaluation. On the other hand, disk diffusion and brine shrimp method was respectively used to determine antibacterial and cytotoxic activity. Results & Discussion: In the evaluation of antioxidant property IC50 found 204.91 ± 2.223 µg/ml, in cytotoxicity testing, it is found that the plant part shows 30.49 ± 1.976 µg/ml of LC50. The ethanolic extract of G. pentaphylla leaves also have efficiency in bacterial growth inhibition; this extract is effective against for both gram, negative and positive. The zone of inhibition at 500 µg/ml dose in E. coli and C. albican culture was 18 mm and 15 mm, respectively. In thin layer chromatography analysis, we found presence of couple of non-polar and polar component, presence of three non-chromatophoric component are also evident. Conclusion: Appropriate isolation and identification of mechanism is suggested in further study.
      PubDate: 2015-07-17
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 7 (2015)
  • In vivo evaluation of graded fresh leave extracts of vernonia amygdalina
           and ocimum gratissimum on some oxidative stress indicators in rats

    • Authors: Hanson Iyawe, Azih Mark
      Abstract: Background: Vernonia amygdalina and Ocimum gratissimum are widely used plants in the tropics. The leaves of these plants are popularly acclaimed to have medicinal values, with scarce information on the effect of graded extracts in mediating oxidative stress. The interest on these leaves derives from the need to have an insight to the possible effect of these graded leaves extracts may have on oxidative stress. Objectives: The objective of the study was to examine the effect of graded extracts of Vernonia amygdalina and Ocimum gratissimum leaves specifically on free radical inhibition, reducing power and lipid peroxidation in rat liver and kidneys. Methods: The leave samples were collected and air dried, homogenized and sieved to obtain particle sizes of ≤ 0.250mm. Aqueous and methanolic extracts of samples were obtained and used to assay for total alkaloid and phenolic contents, free radical scavenging activity, reducing power and the extent of lipid peroxidation in liver and kidneys were determined, using standard analytical assays. Results: Phenolic contents of both leave extracts were higher in aqueous medium vernonia amygdalina (0.85 ± 0.07mgGAE/g) and Ocimum gratissimum (1.59 ± 0.13mgGAE/g). The alkaloid contents of the leaves were higher in methanolic extracts, with Ocimum gratissimum highest (0.96 ± 0.04µg/g) and vernonia amygdalina (0.38 ± 0.01µg/g). The reducing power of these leaves increased with increasing extract concentrations. Ocimum gratissimum had the highest reducing power in both methanolic (3.00 O.D) and aqueous (2.82 O.D) medium in comparison with respective butylatedhydroxytoluene (BHT) (2.49 O.D) and ascorbic acid (2.16 O.D) controls. The ability to scavenge free radicals increased with increasing extract concentrations in both leaves with highest percentages in aqueous extracts. Ocimum gratissimum (95.90%) and vernonia amygdalina (98.80%) compared to control (100%). The leave extracts of both plants significantly (p<0.05) increased lipid peroxidations in liver and kidneys of rats. Conclusion: Fresh leaves of Ocimum gratissimum and vernonia amygdalina have shown potentials to be valuable in reducing powers and free radical quenching.
      PubDate: 2015-07-17
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 7 (2015)
  • Retinoic acid improves the cisplatin effect on tumor initiating cells in
           liver cancer

    • Authors: Julie Arnold, William Hwang, Sudipto Bari, Hong Zhang
      Abstract: In recent years, cisplatin is used in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment as adjuvant treatment for post-operation patients. However, its efficiency also was largely limited because of the high incidence of chemoresistance. It was the aim of this study to assess the effects of cisplatin in combination with retinoic acid (RA) on differentiation and apoptosis of tumor-initiating cells (TICs) in human HCC. In this study, TICs would be treated cisplatin+RA and cisplatin or RA alone as the controls. The TIC differentiation was evaluated by phenotype changes while TIC apoptosis was evaluated by PI-annexin V assay. The results showed that RA effectively induced differentiation of TICs, which potentiated the cytotoxic effects of cisplatin. The combinatorial treatment of RA and cisplatin significantly promoted apoptosis, and differentiation of human TICs compared to the treatment with either drug alone. These findings demonstrated that the combination of RA with cisplatin may be a promising strategy in HCC treatment.
      PubDate: 2015-01-05
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2015)
  • Evaluation in vitro senescence of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from
           mouse bone marrow and adipose tissue

    • Authors: Sinai Walker, Gene Sam, Martin Hill, Matthie Robert
      Abstract: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) from bone marrow and adipose tissue are intensively used for regenerative medicine. This study aimed to compare the in vitro senescence of MSCs isolated from adipose (BM-MSCs) and bone marrow tissues (ADSCs). Both BM-MSCs and ADSCs were isolated from the same mice, and sub-cultured to 3rd passage. These MSCs were assessed cell proliferation, senescence associated beta-galactosidase staining, and telomere length as well as stemness marker expression. The results showed that both BM-MSCs and ADSCs would go to senescence after long-term culture. BM-MSCs significantly decreased the proliferation rate after passage 20, while ADSCs could strongly proliferate to passage 50. Based on beta-galactosidase expression, BM-MSCs also were positive sooner than ADSCs (passage 10 vs. passage 20, respectively). At these passages, both BM-MSCs and ADSCs exhibited the shortening of telomere length from 10.4 to 5.2 kbps in passage 3 to senescent cultures, respectively. In conclusion, MSCs from bone marrow appear to senesce much earlier than those from adipose tissue. These results suggested that numbers of sub-culture should be controlled to get MSCs in good status for research or application.
      PubDate: 2015-01-03
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2015)
  • Characterization and expression of pluripotency markers in human dental
           pulp stem cells

    • Authors: Miglino Maria, Laurino Carlos, Rosalia Mendez-Otero, Natasha Machado
      Abstract: Human dental pulp stem cell (DPSC) is new source of stem cells. In this study, we characterized expression of pluripotency markers such as Oct-3/4, Sox-2, and Nanog in DPSCs. DPSCs were isolated according to the published procedure. They were sub-cultured to 3rd passage and used for further experiments. Firstly, DPSCs were characterized with mesenchymal stem cell phenotypes included expression of CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90 and CD105; adipogenesis and osteogenesis differentiation. Secondly, DPSCs were checked expression of Oct-3/4, Sox-2, and Nanog by both RT-PCR, immunofluorescence. The results showed that DPSCs satisfied the minimal criteria of MSCs. Moreover, they also expressed the pluripotent markers Oct-3/4, Sox-2, and Nanog at both mRNA and protein level. Thus, these factors may have a potential role in influencing the high proliferation and differentiation of DPSCs. In conclusion, this result showed that DPSCs represent as autologous stem cell source with high potential for dental engineering as well as regenerative medicine.
      PubDate: 2015-01-02
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2015)
  • Hypoxia condition promoted the adipose derived stem cell proliferation via
           VEGF production

    • Authors: Phuc Van Pham, Ngoc Bich Vu, Nhung Hai Truong, Loan Thi-Tung Dang, Nhan Lu-Chinh Phan, Ngoc Kim Phan
      Abstract: Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) are a promising mesenchymal stem cells source with therapeutic applications. Some recent studies showed that ADSCs could be expanded in vitro without phenotype changes. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of hypoxia condition on ADSC proliferation in vitro and to determine the role of VEGF in ADSC proliferation. ADSCs were selectively cultured from stromal vascular fraction that obtained from adipose tissue in the DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with 10% FBS, 1% antibiotic-antimycotic. ADSCs were cultured in two conditions included hypoxia (5% O2) and normal oxygen (21% O2). Effects of oxygen concentration on cell proliferation were recorded by cell cycle and doubling time. Expression of VEGF was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR and ELISA assays. And the role of VEGF on ADSC proliferation was studied by neutralizing VEGF with anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody. The results showed that ADSC proliferation rate was increased 2.5 times in hypoxia compared to normal oxygen. And hypoxia condition, ADSCs also triggered VEGF synthesis at both mRNA and translational level. However, neutralizing VEGF with anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody significantly reduced the proliferation rate. These results suggested that hypoxia stimulated ADSC proliferation related to VEGF production. This finding will contribute not only in stem cell technology but also in obese treatment.
      PubDate: 2014-12-13
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 5 (2014)
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