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Journal Cover Biomedical Research and Therapy
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   ISSN (Print) 2198-4093 - ISSN (Online) 2198-4093
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  • Mortality rate associated with hospital acquired infections among burn

    • Authors: Saima Aslam Bharwana, Mujahid Farid, Shafaqat Ali, Muhammad Rizwan, Muhammad Nadeem, Muhammad Waqas Haider, Hafiz Muhammad Tauqeer, Rasahm Sallah-Ud-Din, Rehan Ahmad
      Pages: 790 - 799
      Abstract: Hospital acquired infections (HAIs) are the major contributors of mortality associated with burn injuries. The aim of this research was to document the antecedents affiliated with major burn injuries, hospitalization and mortality in burn patients. We performed a single center prospective study of patients admitted during 3 months period (April-June 2014) in burn wards of government hospital. There were 100 patients in this investigation which were observed weekly. The inclusion criterion was based on the shifting of patients from emergency to the wards after initial treatment of more than 24 h. Variables included were age and gender of the patient, the percent total body surface area (%TBSA) burn, the cause of the burn. Mean age of patients was 30.29 years. More females (55.67%) were admitted than males (44.32%). The total body surface area (%TBSA) burnt were from 15%- 95% respectively moreover children were more sensitive to hospital acquired infections (HAIs) and mortality rate was 34% in children with mean age of 5 years and disability of body parts were 42% among 75% were females. Whereas the most common (HAIs) were primary blood stream (PBS) with mean value of 30.50, wound infections (WIS) were at second prevalence with mean value of 27.50, followed by sepsis (S) and pneumonia (P) 10.33, eye infections (EIs) 4.833 and urinary tract infections (UTIs) 2.667. Factors significantly (p-value= 0.000) associated with increased duration of hospitalization caught HAIs mortality include the age and gender of the patient, the cause of burn, inhalation injury, the region affected and %TBSA burnt. It concluded that the mortality was very much dependent on age and gender of the patient, burn causes, affected area as well as %TBSA burnt are considerable factors in determining the relationship of HAIs and whether the patients will survive or knuckle to injuries. Better compliance techniques, stricter control over disinfection and sterilization practices and usage of broad spectrum antibiotics, and reduction of the environmental contamination are required to reduce the HAIs rates among burn patients.
      PubDate: 2016-09-29
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 9 (2016)
  • Incidence and Mortality of Liver Cancer and their Relationship with the
           Human Development Index in the World

    • Authors: Masoumeh Arabsalmani, Maryam Mirzaei, Mahshid Ghoncheh, Ali Soroush, Hamid Salehiniya
      Pages: 800 - 807
      Abstract: Background: Information on the incidence and mortality of liver cancer can be useful for health programs and research activities, and with regard to the possible role of the HDI and liver cancer, this study aimed to investigate incidence and mortality from the cancer and their relationship with the indicator and its components in 2012 in world. Methods: In this ecologic study, data were extracted from GLOBOCAN in 2012. Data on HDI and its components were extracted from the World Bank. The number and standardized incidence and mortality rates of liver cancer were reported by regions in the world. Data were analyzed by SPSS software and Correlation coefficient test.Results: There was a total of 782,451 incidence cases.  Of these patients, 228, 082 cases (29.15 %) were women and 554, 369 cases (70.85 %) men, and there were 745,533 deaths. Of the deaths, 224, 492 cases (30.11 %) occurred in women and 521, 041 cases (69.89 %) men were recorded in the world in 2012. Results showed that there was a significant inverse correlation between age-specific incidence rate ( ASIR) and HDI (r=-0.345, p≤0.001), as well significant inverse correlation was seen between age-specific mortality rate (ASMR), and HDI and its components. Conclusion: Liver cancer incidence and mortality are higher in the medium HDI countries. The relationship between the standardized incidence and mortality of liver cancer with HDI and its components, including life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling and income level per person was significantly negative. 
      PubDate: 2016-09-29
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 9 (2016)
  • Toxicological and melanin synthesis effects of Polygonum multiflorum root
           extracts on zebrafish embryos and human melanocytes

    • Authors: Thanh Thi Hoai Dang, Thanh Lai Nguyen, Thang Dinh Nguyen
      Pages: 808 - 818
      Abstract: Polygonum multiflorum (PM) has been commmonly used as folk medicine for treatment of various conditions, such as early graying of hair in humans. However, there have been limited studies which have evaluated the toxicological and biological effects of PM in vitro as well as in vivo. In this study, PM root extracts in ethyl acetate (PM-E) and in distilled water (PM-W) were examined for their effects on the development of teratogenic defects/deaths. Additionally, they were evaluated for their effects on melanin formation in human melanocytes and pigmentation in embryos/larvae of wild type strain AB zebrafish (Danio rerio). Our results showed that PM root extracts at concentrations of 40 mg/L and 105 mg/L induced the development of teratogenic defects, including yolk sac edema (or heart edema), hemovascular defects, necrosis and abnormal trunk in zebrafish embryos at 4 days post fertilization; teratogenic indexes (TIs) were 1.43 and 0.63 for ethyl acetate extract and distilled water extract, respectively. Our results also demonstrated that PM-W significantly increased the pigmentation level of embryos/larvae and induced melanin formation in human melanocytes. The amount of melanin in PM-W-exposed embryos/larvae was 2.2-fold and 1.71-fold greater than those in the control embryos/larvae and control melanocytes, respectively. Our study also showed that the increased level of pigmentation in PM-W embryos/larvae or melanin biosynthesis in melanocytes were both regulated by activation of tyrosinase. Conclusively, our study suggests that PM root extracts could be used as potential agents for treatment of early hair graying as well as various other diseases related to loss of pigmentation. However, these PM root extracts may also have some negative effects on embryos; therefore it should be careful when using for women during pregnancy.  
      PubDate: 2016-09-29
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 9 (2016)
  • Discrepancy in Menstrual Cycle Relates to Diverse Profession and Age
           Cluster of District Mardan Khyber PakhtoonKhwa, Pakistan

    • Authors: Naseem Rafiq, Luqman Khan, Tauseef Ullah, Farid ulHaq
      Pages: 819 - 825
      Abstract: Menstruation cycle is the discharge of blood from the inner uterine lining of female reproductive tract. About 500 Females from 6 different professions from district Mardan were included in this study. These 500 working females were divided into different age groups starting from 13 to 50 years to examine the length of menstrual cycle in relation to different professions and age. Number of Menstruating days of each female was recorded. Observation was recorded from the 1st day of menstruating till the end of menstruation period. An unlimited relation of profession and menstruation period was observed in this study, a decreased or prolonged menstrual period was observed in those women who were having more physical or mental activities as compare to sedentary ones. The same case is also found in start of teenage and in aged women. In different professional females about 29.2% respondents were reported with 3-4 days of menstrual period, 40.4% respondents were observed with 5-6 days of menstrual period, 23.2% respondents were reported with 7-8 days of menstrual period while only 7.2% respondents were observed with the longest menstrual period i.e. 9-10 days. About 15.49% Teachers and 15.39% Maids had the longest menstruation periods i.e. 9-20 days. A fairly normal menstruation (5-6 days) period of 69.31% respondents was observed in house hold females while in students about 48.63% respondents had least days of menstruation period i.e. 3-4 days. In different age groups about 32.8% female population had 3-4 days’ menstruation period which is measured to be short period, a total of 44.4% female population had 5-6 days’ menstruation period, 15.6% female population had 7-8 days’ menstruation period while only 7.2% female population of this study had the longest (9-10days) menstruation period. About 11.11% aged female population had the longest menstruation periods i.e. 9-20 days. A comparatively normal menstruation (5-6 days) period of 59.09% respondents was observed in age group 26-30. About 37.41% respondents of age group 21-25 and 37.70% respondents of age group 31-35 had least days of menstruation period i.e. 3-4 days. This reveals that the mental activity as well as the age has also an effect on menstruation period. This study reveals that the menstrual period is also reliant upon the nature of the job / profession of a female. Period may be shortened as 3 days or prolonged as 10 days depend upon the nature of physical and mental activity.
      PubDate: 2016-09-29
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 9 (2016)
  • Overexpress of CD47 does not alter the stemness of MCF-7 breast cancer

    • Authors: Oanh Thi-Kieu Nguyen, Anh Nguyen-Tu Bui, Ngoc Bich Vu, Phuc Van Pham
      Pages: 826 - 835
      Abstract: Background: CD47 is a transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on all cells in the body and particularly overexpressed on cancer cells and cancer stem cells of both hematologic and solid malignancies. In the immune system, CD47 acts as a “don’t eat me” signal, inhibiting phagocytosis by macrophages by interaction with signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα). In cancer, CD47 promotes tumor invasion and metastasis. This study aimed to evaluate the stemness of breast cancer cells when CD47 is overexpressed.Methods: MCF-7 breast cancer cells were transfected with plasmid pcDNA3.4-CD47 containing the CD47 gene. The stemness of the transduced MCF7 cell population was evaluated by expression of CD44 and CD24 markers, anti-tumor drug resistance and mammosphere formation.Results: Transfection of plasmid pcDNA3.4-CD47 significantly increased the expression of CD47 in MCF-7 cells. The overexpression of CD47 in transfected MCF-7 cells led to a significant increase in the CD44+CD24- population, but did not increase doxorubicin resistance of the cells or their capacity to form mammospheres. Conclusion: CD47 overexpression enhances the CD44+CD24- phenotype of breast cancer cells as observed by an increase in the CD44+CD24- expressing population. However, these changes are insufficient to increase the stemness of breast cancer cells.
      PubDate: 2016-09-29
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 9 (2016)
  • Hepatocyte growth factor improves direct reprogramming of fibroblasts
           towards endothelial progenitor cells via ETV2 transduction

    • Authors: Phuc Van Pham, Ngoc Bich Vu, Mai Thi-Hoang Truong, Oanh Thuy Huynh, Hoa Trong Nguyen, Liem Hieu Pham, Ngoc Kim Phan
      Pages: 836 - 843
      Abstract: Human fibroblasts can be differentiated into endothelial progenitor cells by direct reprogramming via ETV-2 transfection. Previously, we have shown that the efficacy of direct reprogramming can be enhanced by hypoxia treatment. In this study, we aim to investigate whether the efficacy of direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into EPCs via Ets variant gene 2 (ETV2) transfection can be increased with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) treatment. Foreskin-derived fibroblasts were cultured in standard medium (DMEM/F12 supplemented with fetal bovine serum). They were then transduced with a viral vector expressing ETV2 in culture medium supplemented with HGF. The transduced fibroblasts were cultured in endothelial cell medium supplemented with HGF for 28 days. The efficacy of direct reprogramming was evaluated based on expression of CD31 and VEGFR2 markers by transduced cells. Phenotypic and functional characterization of induced EPCs were also confirmed by expression of particular genes and in vitro angiogenesis assays. Our results showed that HGF significantly increased the efficacy of direct reprogramming of fibroblasts towards EPCs via ETV2 transcription factors; efficiency increased from 5.41±1.51% for ETV2 transduction alone to 12.31±2.15% for ETV2 transduction combined with HGF treatment. These findings suggest the rationale for combined use of ETV2 and HGF in direct in vitro reprogramming of fibroblasts into EPCs.
      PubDate: 2016-09-29
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 9 (2016)
  • Adipose derived stem cell transplantation is better than bone marrow
           mesenchymal stem cell transplantation in treating hindlimb ischemia in

    • Authors: Ngoc Bich Vu, Lan Thi Phi, Thuy Thi-Thanh Dao, Ha Thi-Ngan Le, Van Thanh Ta, Phuc Van Pham
      Pages: 844 - 856
      Abstract: Introduction: Bone marrow derived MSCs (BM-MSCs) and adipose derived MSCs (AD-MSCs) are among the types of stem cells most commonly studied. Our study aims to compare the therapeutic efficacy of allograft AD-MSCs versus BM-MSCs in a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia. Methods: AD-MSCs were isolated from belly fat and BM-MSCs were isolated from femur bone marrow. They were used to treat mice with acute hindlimb ischemia. Treatment efficacy was compared among 4 groups: injected with BM-MSCs, injected with AD-MSCs, non-treated and injected with phosphate buffered saline. Mice in the groups were evaluated for the following: necrosis grade of leg, leg edema, blood flow, muscle cell restructure and new blood vessel formation. Results: Results showed that AD-MSC transplantation significantly recovered acute limb ischemia, with 76.5% of mice fully recovered, while the ratio was only 48.5% in BM-MSC transplanted group, and 0% in the non-treated and PBS groups. Evaluation of leg edema, blood flow, muscle cell restructure and new blood vessel formation also supported the observation that AD-MSC transplantation was superior over BM-MSC transplantation. Conclusion: Therefore, AD-MSCs may serve as the more suitable MSC for hindlimb ischemia treatment and angiogenesis therapy.
      PubDate: 2016-09-29
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 9 (2016)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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