FIRE : Forum of International Research in Education
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2326-3873
Published by Lehigh University [1 journal]
- What Shapes Policy Formation in China? A Study of National Student
Authors: Ji Liu
Abstract: This article juxtaposes world culture and policy borrowing and lending literatures to understand policy formation in China. Through reviewing China’s student nutrition policy evolution since the International Conference on Nutrition in 1992 to the launch of China’s landmark national rural student nutrition program in 2011, I examine what the key explanations to the policy developments in China were. This paper analyzes both quantitative and qualitative data from the MOE, State Council, and media sources, and draws on policy documents, scholarly publications, civil society activities, and international aid flows. Findings show that although neither world culture nor policy borrowing and lending frameworks could fully explain the case in China, local actors became increasingly active in student nutrition, as suggested by world culture theory, even when local conditions such as rural-urban poverty gaps were decreasing. In addition, the lack of international aid alignment and domestic politics may have led to the decoupling in policy and practice for China’s student nutrition agenda.
PubDate: Wed, 09 Dec 2015 11:20:42 PST
- The Incoherence of Success: Intersections of Marriage and Education in a
Second-Chance Girls' Education Initiative in Rural Upper Egypt
Authors: Mohamed K. Sallam
Abstract: In Egypt, early-marriage is implicated as a barrier to educational access for girls living in rural areas. It is understood to impede women’s access to education and the labor market. This paper focuses on Ishraq, a second chance girls’ education initiative brought on by the Girls Education Initiative-Egypt. Using a critical poststructural conceptual framework, this paper examines how individuals associated with the Ishraq program engage in social contests concerning the relationship between marriage and education by employing a qualitative case study approach grounded in ethnographic methodological considerations. This essay argues participant’s view religious life as the single most important consideration in articulating and enacting their conceptions of community development and girl’s empowerment, providing a framework for understanding the relationship between marriage and education. These perspectives demonstrate how participants navigate certain structural realities in their lives and the strategies they employ in localizing the designed affects of the Ishraq program.
PubDate: Mon, 28 Sep 2015 04:25:13 PDT
- BOOK REVIEW: MIR, S. (2014). Muslim American Women on Campus:
Undergraduate Social Life and Identity. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of
North Carolina Press. 224 pp., ISBN: 978-1-4696-1078-8.
Authors: Aziz Fatnassi
Abstract: As I was recently reminded after listening to an imam repeatedly reject ISIS on Vermont Public Radio, the ‘long shadow’ cast upon the religion by the events of 9/11 and subsequent acts of terror remain scarlet letters that must be expunged from the chests of each individual Muslim. For the past 15 years, Muslims as a whole have been at the forefront of a discussion of ‘modernity’ in newspapers, television shows, and digital news feeds; in a sense, Islam has been subject to a sort of asynchronous ‘digital labor’ that serves to construct the identities of Muslims in absentia. Within such an environment, Muslim Americans have continued to participate as productive members of society, “with 40 percent holding a college degree or higher, compared to 29 percent among the general American public” (Mir, 2014, p. 3). Indeed, as Shabana Mir demonstrates in Muslim American Women on Campus, even within the most pluralistic spaces, Muslims are negatively stereotyped, marginalized, and essentialized; in the same spaces, however, Muslims work to positively self-define, seek out compromise, and sensitively negotiate infringements on personal autonomy.
PubDate: Fri, 25 Sep 2015 05:15:38 PDT
- BOOK REVIEW: Mir, S. (2014). Muslim American Women on Campus:
Undergraduate Social Life and Identity. Chapel Hill: The University of
North Carolina Press. 224 pp., ISBN: 978-1-4696-1078-8.
Authors: Ariel Sincoff-Yedid
Abstract: BOOK REVIEW: Mir, S. (2014). Muslim American Women on Campus: Undergraduate Social Life and Identity. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press. 224 pp., ISBN: 978-1-4696-1078-8.
PubDate: Fri, 25 Sep 2015 05:15:36 PDT
- Education as an Ethical Concern in the Global Era
Authors: Robert Arnove et al.
Abstract: This article examines the issue of the ethical status of education, particularly as related to individual dignity and freedom. We select cases that have been described in fine detail by social science—the education of girls and the education of all children within counter-hegemonic movements. These cases involve issues of access to equitable and high quality education. Such issues arise when cultural norms and political exigencies place restrictions on who can attend various types of schools, if any, and when students cannot render their own judgments about particular worldviews espoused by their religious, cultural, and sociopolitical communities. We examine recently developed philosophical frameworks that can provide a reasonable respect for cultural traditions and the rights of individuals to shape their own destinies. Then we apply two such frameworks (Amartya Sen’s and Martha Nussbaum’s) to the cases and discuss the relative merits of each.
PubDate: Fri, 25 Sep 2015 05:10:35 PDT
- The Relationships among Heritage Language Proficiency, Ethnic Identity,
Authors: Shu-Chun Yu
Abstract: With the trend toward globalization and the continual change of the ethnic composition of the U.S. population, there is increasing awareness in the U.S. that not every child is raised in an English-only family. The purpose of this research is to explore the relationships among heritage language proficiency, ethnic identity, and self-esteem in the American-born Chinese (ABC) children who go to Chinese language schools for Chinese language learning on weekends. A total of 63 students and their 56 parents are surveyed in the quantitative study. Results show that there are positive relationships between Chinese heritage language proficiency and ethnic identity (r = .316, p = .006), language proficiency and self-esteem (r = .255, p = .022), and ethnic identity and self-esteem (r = .240, p = .029). The study provides implications for the Chinese language schools, parents, educators, and policymakers, as well as the implications for future study.
PubDate: Fri, 25 Sep 2015 05:10:17 PDT
- Teacher Preparation for the Global Stage: International Student Teaching
Authors: Jacob B. Chacko et al.
Abstract: As globalization lessens the distance between peoples and diversifies the common classroom, teacher education programs lag behind in producing globally-minded educators. One approach used by some teacher education programs to remedy this issue is to offer international student teaching experiences. While the literature related to these programs is rather positive, information related to why students choose to participate in international student teaching experiences and the challenges they encounter while abroad is limited. This study attempts to fill this gap in the literature. Drawing on interview and documentation data from current (n=3) and former (n=2) participants, as well as two program administrators, this multiple-case study utilizes a cross-case analysis to draw conclusions within and between the cases. Programmatic recommendations that are applicable to both faculty members and study abroad professionals are included.
PubDate: Fri, 25 Sep 2015 05:10:14 PDT
- Faculty Internationalization Priorities
Authors: John R. Criswell II et al.
Abstract: The internationalization of higher education has been the subject of a substantial body of research. However, few studies have examined how faculty members, significant implementers of internationalization, think about internationalization priorities. This article presents the results of a questionnaire which was sent to faculty members at three institutions of higher education, two in the United States and one in Canada. Three-hundred and seventy-five faculty members responded to an open ended question asking how they would prioritize international initiatives at their institution. These comments were coded and categorized based on patterns that emerged from the data. Additionally, the top five topics were examined more in depth to reveal faculty rationale for each. Two findings emerged from this study. First, respondents overwhelmingly support internationalization. Second, they expect the institution to shoulder the burden for the implementation of institutional directives. These findings inform institutional internationalization administrators.
PubDate: Fri, 25 Sep 2015 05:10:12 PDT
- Critical Internationalization: Moving from Theory to Practice
Authors: Frances Vavrus et al.
Abstract: This article utilizes critical social theory to illuminate structures of inequality that undergird certain practices of internationalization in higher education institutions, particularly in U.S. institutions. We demonstrate how such theory can be productively employed to analyze three key dimensions of contemporary internationalization: 1) a representational dimension, 2) a political-economic dimension, and 3) a symbolic capital dimension. We argue that these three elements are central to any critical conceptualization of internationalization that has at its core a consideration of equity, ethics, and social justice. The overarching goal of this article is to illustrate how critical social theory can foster more extensive debate regarding the material and ideological systems of exclusion in international education and contribute to the task of reimagining internationalization.
PubDate: Fri, 25 Sep 2015 05:10:09 PDT
- Reimagining Internationalization: Critical Dialogues on Global Dimensions
of Education - Guest Editors' Introduction
Authors: Patricia K. Kubow et al.
Abstract: Introduction to the FIRE Special Issue titled, "Reimagining Internationalization: Critical Dialogues on Global Dimensions of Education".
PubDate: Fri, 25 Sep 2015 05:10:07 PDT
- BOOK REVIEW: Bigalke, T. W., & Zurbuchen, M. S. (Eds.). (2014).
Leadership for Social Justice in Higher Education: The Legacy of the Ford
Foundation International Fellowships Program. Palgrave Macmillan. 250
pages. ISBN: 9781137366498
Authors: Budi Waluyo
Abstract: BOOK REVIEW: Bigalke, T. W., & Zurbuchen, M. S. (Eds.). (2014). Leadership for Social Justice in Higher Education: The Legacy of the Ford Foundation International Fellowships Program. Palgrave Macmillan. 250 pages. ISBN: 9781137366498
PubDate: Mon, 27 Jul 2015 06:05:33 PDT
- The Effectiveness of Using Technology in English Language Classrooms in
Government Primary Schools in Bangladesh
Authors: Ruxana Hossain Parvin et al.
Abstract: Across the globe, governments of different countries have recognized the importance and value of digital technologies in language learning. This article is based on the pilot project of Save the Children using information and communication technology (ICT) in education. Through this initiative, interactive multimedia software based on national curriculum of English Class 4 were developed and tested in selected government primary schools. The pre-intervention survey indicated that the teachers do not have the language competence to confidently facilitate English classes using the Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) approach. The results of the project showed that the use of audio-visual content has strong potential for enhancing and promoting interactive language classes. However, the success of the program depends on how the technology is designed and implemented and how the teachers are trained to use it.
PubDate: Mon, 27 Jul 2015 06:00:42 PDT
- Patterns of Indigenous Learning: An Ethnographic Study on How
Kindergartners Learn in Mana, Fiji
Authors: Jeffrey Chih-Yih Lee et al.
Abstract: Technology has greatly impacted educational systems around the world, even in the most geographically isolated places. This study utilizes an ethnographic approach to examine the patterns of learning in a kindergarten in Mana, Fiji. Data comprised of interviews, observations and examination of related artifacts. The results provide baseline data for a larger study examining the evolution of learning patterns after iPads were introduced to the Mana school. Data were examined through two frameworks: Multiple Intelligence and 21st Century Skills during the baseline study; the same two frameworks will be utilized in the next round of data analysis. A comparative analysis will finally be conducted after the summer of 2015. Approval and support from three Fijian ministries was acquired for this study.
PubDate: Mon, 27 Jul 2015 06:00:39 PDT
- Plans for Embedding ICTs into Teaching and Learning through a Large-Scale
Secondary Education Reform in the Country of Georgia
Authors: Jayson W. Richardson et al.
Abstract: Integrating ICTs into international development projects is common. However, focusing on how ICTs support leading, teaching, and learning is often overlooked. This article describes a team’s approach to technology integration into the design of a large-scale, five year, teacher and leader professional development project in the country of Georgia. The main goal of this project was to improve student outcomes via changing core pedagogical practices such as formative assessment, higher order thinking, and student-centered learning. In this article, we describe the background of the project, detail the country and sector context, the project team composition, the technological approach used in the development plan, and offer an analysis of how the proposed technology interventions push teachers and leaders to use technology to improve tasks and improve the teaching and learning experience.
PubDate: Mon, 27 Jul 2015 06:00:37 PDT
- Kenya’s ICT Policy in Practice: The Effectiveness of Tablets and
E-readers in Improving Student Outcomes
Authors: Benjamin Piper et al.
Abstract: Kenya is investing in information and communication technology (ICT) to improve children’s learning outcomes. However, the literature on ICT is pessimistic about the ability of ICT alone to improve outcomes, and few ICT programs have created the instructional change necessary to increase learning. The Primary Math and Reading (PRIMR) Initiative implemented a randomized controlled trial of three ICT interventions to enhance learning outcomes: tablets for instructional supervisors, tablets for teachers, and e-readers for students. All three showed significant impacts in English and Kiswahili above the results of the control group. The impacts of the three interventions were not statistically significantly different from each other. Based on the findings, we recommend that Kenyan policy makers embed ICT interventions in a larger instructional reform, using ICT to support particular instructional improvement challenges. We also suggest that policy makers incorporate empirically derived cost-effectiveness analysis into investment decisions, to ensure that ICT provides value for money.
PubDate: Mon, 27 Jul 2015 06:00:33 PDT
- Redefining Technology in Development Work: A Need for Learning Outcomes in
Authors: Jayson W. Richardson et al.
Abstract: Redefining Technology in Development Work: A Need for Learning Outcomes in ICT Projects Jayson W. Richardson Gregory C. Sales Technology has redefined, and will likely continue to redefine, educational processes and procedures around the world. In many development efforts, however, the focus is on the hardware, software, or professional development. Rare is the international development project focused on teaching and learning. In this special issue of the Forum for International Research in Education (FIRE), we propose a reframing of ICT by shifting the paradigm to focus on Instructional quality, Curriculum development, and Teaching pedagogy. Thinking of ICTs in this I-C-T context moves the discussion away from the technology itself, and spotlights changing and improving teaching and learning. In this special issue the Information and Communication Technology for Development Special Interest Group (ICT4D SIG) of the Comparative and International Education Society (CIES), solicited articles that focus on improving and measuring teaching and learning outcomes in technology-focused development projects.
PubDate: Mon, 27 Jul 2015 06:00:30 PDT
- Day-By-Day: Higher Education in Afghanistan
Authors: David J. Roof
Abstract: This paper examines higher education in Afghanistan. Based on qualitative research, including interviews with key policymakers and stakeholders, the paper examines the primary issues, challenges, progress, and future vision for higher education in the country. The research reveals that one of the most significant issues in the country in the post-Taliban era is female participation in higher education. It also shows the importance of alternative forms of higher education, such as two-year institutions, private education, and technical/vocational education. The paper also discusses the emergence of quality assurance mechanisms and international partnerships with other universities. Regarding the future direction and vision for higher education, the paper reveals two primary focuses: preparing students for the labor market, and the potential for education to influence democratic values and social cohesion in a divided country.
PubDate: Fri, 29 May 2015 10:50:23 PDT
- Effect of Transnational Standards on U.S. Teacher Education
Authors: Kevin G. Murry et al.
Abstract: The Standards for Effective Pedagogy and Learning (CREDE, 2014) specify five transnational universals of teaching that are especially effective for the rapidly growing population of English language learners in North America. CLASSIC is an evidence-based, CREDE-aligned model of teacher education for classroom educators of English language learners. CLASSIC has utilized with more than 10,000 teachers in 100 school districts, located in eight states, in collaboration with eight different universities. This study examined the impact of the transnational standards of CLASSIC curricula on teachers’ observed practices with English language learners as measured by the recently developed Inventory of Situationally and Culturally Responsive Teaching (ISCRT). Despite some variability, over 110 participating teachers in 37 U.S. schools demonstrated statistically significant improvements in their delivery of effective pedagogy, across a wide range (18 of 22) ISCRT indicators; teachers exhibited highest levels of growth in instructional conversations, joint productive activity, and challenging activities.
PubDate: Fri, 29 May 2015 10:45:27 PDT
- Higher Education Regionalization in Asia Pacific: Implications for
Governance, Citizenship and University Transformation
Authors: Neete Saha
Abstract: Higher education regionalization in Asia Pacific: Implications for governance, citizenship and university transformation edited by J. N. Hawkins, K. H. Mok, and D. E. Neubauer describes and summarizes the conversations happening around regionalization in the Asia-Pacific region, and is a potential resource for the higher education community interested in the Asia-Pacific region.
PubDate: Mon, 26 Jan 2015 13:45:23 PST
- Exploring Human Resource Development: Adult Learning and Education in the
Authors: Andrea N. Smith
Abstract: The twentieth century has witnessed an upsurge of Human Resource Development (HRD) activities reflected through globalization and overall economic initiatives to improve the economy. This paper undertakes a critical approach to adult education in the United States and does so through the lens of human resource development issues, trends and policies. Through the use of key reports and other recent literature, adult education is placed in a wider economic development framework. It concludes that there is a future for adult education in the United States with implications for the program to provide a more comprehensive lens for understanding adult education programs and economic issues.
PubDate: Wed, 21 Jan 2015 09:20:27 PST