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Journal Cover Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 0038-3872
   Published by Southern California Academy of Sciences Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Late-season Reproduction in Western Toads (Bufo boreas)

    • Authors: Gregory B. Pauly et al.
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Aug 2017 09:42:45 PDT
  • Endlicher and Sequoia: Determination of the Entymological Origin of the
           Taxon Sequoia

    • Authors: Nancy E. Muleady-Mecham Ph.D.
      Abstract: The genus Sequoia owes its taxonomic identity to Austrian botanist Stephen L. Endlicher. Research of primary material in Vienna and other locations have revealed Endlicher as a gifted linguist and botanist, who corresponded and interacted with colleagues throughout the world. These included persons who were experts on the Cherokee language and the person Sequoyah. Endlicher’s botanical work of creating eponymous taxa combined with his knowledge of the person Sequoyah throws new light on the origin of the genus Sequoia.
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Aug 2017 09:42:41 PDT
  • A Contribution to the Phylogeography and Anatomy of Helminthoglyptid land
           snails (Pulmonata:Helminthoglyptidae) from the Deserts of southern

    • Authors: David M. Goodward et al.
      Abstract: .— Land snails in the family Helminthoglyptidae are found sparingly and locally throughout southern California’s deserts. They are mostly restricted to rock outcrops and talus in partially shaded canyons where they can gain access to cooler temperatures under the rocks. Several species are known only from their type localities, and were described by shell characters only. We have endeavored to relocate known species, document their reproductive anatomy and embryonic shell structure, refine knowledge of their distribution, and incorporate genetic sequencing of two mitochondrial genes (COI and 16S) to investigate evolutionary relationships in these taxa. As a “first pass” molecular study, we have established basic sequence and divergence data for 27 populations of snails in five genera: Helminthoglypta (subgenus Coyote), Eremarionta, Cahuillus, Chamaearionta and Sonorelix. Fifteen of the populations were previously unknown. We confirmed that the Salton Rift/Coachella Valley is a major biogeographic barrier for land snails, as is the north/south transition between the Colorado and Mojave deserts. Described species of Helminthoglypta (Coyote) grouped together in our phylogenetic analyses and differed from each other by 8-18% in the sequence of the COI gene, concordant with differentiating shell characters. Two previously unknown populations also grouped with the Coyote species but their COI sequences differed from the described species by 5.7-17% suggesting they may represent undescribed Coyote species. Populations of Sonorelix from the eastern Mojave were somewhat similar genetically to Sonorella spp. from southern Arizona but the precise nature of any relationship between these genera remains unresolved. The remaining, previously unknown populations were genetically close to described species of Eremarionta, but inclusion of COI sequences of two Cahuillus spp. rendered the genus Eremarionta paraphyletic, raising questions about the validity of the names applied to some described species. In particular, the subspecies E. rowelli bakerensis was clearly different (>11% in COI) from E. rowelli amboiana and E. rowelli acus, and deserves elevation to at least species status. The eastern Mojave Eremarionta from near Pahrump, Nevada may also be an undescribed species, differing in its COI sequence from its closest described relative by 6.0%. Perhaps the most surprising result from our study was the finding of a population close to the Salton Sea that was very closely related to E. rowelli ssp. bakerensis which occurs ~200 km further north. This highlights the complex nature of genetic variation among geographically isolated Eremarionta populations across the eastern Mojave and western Colorado Deserts.
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Aug 2017 09:42:36 PDT
  • Individually-unique Spot Patterns of Young of the Year Giant Sea Bass,
           Stereolepis gigas in Captive-raised Fish

    • Authors: Michael C. Couffer
      Abstract: Young of the year giant sea bass spend the first several months after planktonic settlement within recreational dive limits, where they are available for underwater study. After planktonic settlement, young of the year giant sea bass enter color phases where a pattern of black spots unique to individual fish appears distinct against a lighter background. To determine whether or not underwater photos of spot patterns might be used to identify and track individuals, several early-stage giant sea bass were captured and raised at public aquaria. Both sides of each fish were planned to be photographed monthly for a year from the capture date. The black spots of young of the year giant sea bass are so few and so distinct that computer programs developed to discern individuals of species with complicated spot patterns are not necessary for re-identification of individuals. Each of three fish that survived twelve months in captivity could be individually identified by eye using photographs of their spot patterns for a year after collection. Two other fish that expired after several months could also be individually distinguished through photographs. This information opens the door to underwater field studies using photography as a passive mark and recapture method for studying young of the year giant sea bass along soft-bottomed nursery beaches where they can be found for the first several months after settlement.
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Aug 2017 09:42:33 PDT
  • Does Estuary Restoration Design Alter the Fine Scale Movements of Grey
           Smoothhounds (Mustelus californicus) in Southern California'

    • Authors: Ryan M. Freedman et al.
      Abstract: Restored estuaries in southern California are limited in size and shape by fragmentation from human development, which can in turn restrict habitat use. Thus, it is important to assess how habitat design affects how fish use restored estuaries. Acoustic telemetry tracking from prior studies revealed that Grey Smoothhounds (Mustelus californicus) used primarily the eelgrass ecotone and warm interior waters in Bolsa Chica Full Tidal Basin (BCFTB), a 1.48 km2 open-format marine dominated estuary. In this study, M. californicus utilized the Channel in Huntington Beach Wetlands Complex (HBWC), a smaller creek estuary. The Channel had more eelgrass than other available habitats but was also the coolest microhabitat, with temperatures below what M. californicus was found to select in BCFTB. Individuals may behaviorally thermoregulate by moving upstream, away from the HBWC Channel, during periods of incoming, cooler ocean water. Mustelus californicus translocated to different microhabitats within the HBWC selected the Channel habitat after the translocation regardless of where animals were released. Despite the large difference in available subtidal habitat between HBWC and BCFTB, no differences in patch size utilization distributions of M. californicus were observed. While individuals seem to shift between microhabitats based on temperature and eelgrass availability, the area size used by M. californicus appears to be the same within both sites despite the differences in overall size between sites. These results suggest that differences in microhabitat use may influence distribution patterns of M. californicus within each site, and therefore, shark abundance may vary with the restoration design (e.g. basin versus channel) and the size of the estuarine habitat. This information on habitat selection will be critical to planning future restorations on the Southern California coast.
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Aug 2017 09:42:28 PDT
  • The Organisms Living Around Energized Submarine Power Cables, Pipe, and
           Natural Sea Floor in the Inshore waters of Southern California

    • Authors: Milton S. Love et al.
      Abstract: Between 1 February 2012 and 26 February 2014 using scuba, we surveyed the fishes, invertebrates, and macrophytes living on two energized submarine power cables, an adjacent pipe, and nearby natural habitat in southern California at bottom depths of 10–11 m and 13–14 m. Over the course of the study, average electromagnetic field (EMF) levels at the two cables (A and B) were statistically similar (Cable A = 73.0µT, Cable B = 91.4µT) and were much higher at these two cables than at either the pipe (average = 0.5µT) or sand (0µT). Overall, our study demonstrated that 1) the fish and invertebrate communities on cables, pipe, and natural habitat strongly overlapped and 2) there were differences between the shallower and deeper fish and invertebrate communities. We saw no evidence that fishes or invertebrates are either preferentially attracted to, or repelled by, the EMF emitted by the cables. Any differences in the fish or invertebrate densities between cables, pipe, and natural habitat taxa were most likely due to the differences in the physical characteristics of these habitats. As with the fishes and invertebrates, macrophytes did not appear to be responding to the EMF emitted by the cables. Rather, it is likely that differences in the plant communities were driven by site depth and habitat type.
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Aug 2017 09:42:23 PDT
  • Covers

    • PubDate: Fri, 25 Aug 2017 09:42:20 PDT
  • covers

    • PubDate: Thu, 20 Jul 2017 11:32:15 PDT
  • Abnormal Coloration in Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis)

    • Authors: Vernon C. Bleich
      Abstract: Despite no mention of abnormal coloration in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in two earlier reviews addressing that subject, leucism, piebaldism, and melanism do occur in that species. Presented herein is a compilation of observations of abnormally colored bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) assembled with information obtained from personal observations and the use of on-line literature search services, other on-line searches, private interviews, and a questionnaire. The majority of abnormally colored bighorn sheep have been described as "white" or "albinistic". Review of images provided by respondents, however, verified that the majority of such reports were of leucistic individuals. "White" or leucistic bighorn sheep have been described from 23 specific geographic areas distributed among one Canadian province, one state in Mexico, and seven of the western United States; reports of piebaldism or of melanism are much less frequent.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Jul 2017 11:32:12 PDT
  • Development of Oral Structure in Salmonema emphemeridarum (Nematoda:

    • Authors: Ralph G. Appy
      Abstract: This paper examines the development of the oral morphology of the parasite Salmonema emphemeridarum (Nematoda: Cystidicoidae) using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Larvated eggs, taken from female worms collected from brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, were fed to mayflies (Ephemeroptera) where larvae developed to the third larval stage. First stage larvae possessed an oral opening, boring tooth and secretory pore. Second stage larvae possessed a circular oral opening and amphids. Third stage larvae included all the features of adult worms include pseudolabia, submediant labia, sublabia, amphids and four oral papillae. The advanced development of oral structures of third stage larvae allows the identification of larval worms to genus and in some cases species and is consistent with the precocious reproductive development of infective larvae in the Cystidicolidae.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Jul 2017 11:32:08 PDT
  • First Reported Occurrence of the Southern Sea Otter at California‚Äôs
           Santa Barbara Island Since 1940

    • Authors: Michael C. Couffer
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Jul 2017 11:32:05 PDT
  • Range Expansion of the Eastern Fox Squirrel Within the Greater Los Angeles
           Metropolitan Area (2005-2014) and Projections for Continued Range

    • Authors: Rosemary B. Garcia et al.
      Abstract: Monitoring the spread and distribution of introduced species in an area can be challenging due to a variety of issues. Range expansion may exceed expected rates if the area of introduction is more suitable than expected, and may be slowed by an area in which it is difficult to establish a population. The species of interest in this study is the Eastern Fox Squirrel (Sciurus niger rufiventer) and the focus of the study is the spread of the species in Southern California. Previous studies have shown a steady and continuous spread from main points of introduction in Southern California and the species is now considered well established in the Los Angeles area. In this study, we collect, display, and discuss the spread of the Eastern Fox Squirrel in this area from 2005 through 2014 and include habitat suitability models to predict the future distribution of the species over time. Results show that the Eastern Fox Squirrel has spread east into Rancho Cucamonga, into southern portions of Irvine, and has maintained isolated populations in places such as San Diego and Riverside. Our models suggest future paths of movement for contiguous range expansion. Suggestions for species mitigation include controlling initial introductions of the species into new areas, and informing the public about continued spread of the species.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Jul 2017 11:32:02 PDT
  • Habitat use and behavior of the east Pacific green turtle, Chelonia mydas
           in an urbanized system

    • Authors: Daniel P. Crear et al.
      Abstract: Green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, are known to inhabit populated and often urbanized areas. To understand turtle habitat use and behavior within these unique habitats, seven juvenile green turtles were fitted with acoustic transmitters (September 2012 – August 2014), of which two transmitters included an accelerometer (AP transmitter). One individual fitted with an AP transmitter was tracked using a passive acoustic array in an urbanized river, the San Gabriel River, Long Beach, CA (33°45’ N, 118°05’ W). Three additional turtles in this river and three turtles (one with AP transmitter) in a restored estuary (33°44’ N, 118°03’ W) in southern California were actively tracked for two non-consecutive 24-h periods. Those fitted with AP transmitters indicated that turtles were less active at night (0.58 ± 0.56 m/s2 and 0.50 ± 0.63 m/s2) than during the day (0.86 ± 0.63 m/s2 and 0.78 ± 0.60 m/s2) at both sites. Activity data and corresponding movements of the actively tracked turtle fitted with the AP transmitter were used to infer resting periods for other tracked individuals. Turtles rested near bridge pilings and runoff outflows in the river to potentially shelter from tidal flow. Turtles used significantly larger daily areas in the urbanized river (0.046 ± 0.023 km2) where resources may be patchier and less abundant, compared to turtles in the estuary (0.024 ± 0.012 km2) where large, dense eelgrass beds are present. Based on the habitat use and behaviors of green sea turtles, it appears that some green sea turtles are able to make use of both highly developed and restored habitats and likely benefit from certain aspects of development.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Jul 2017 11:31:57 PDT

    • Authors: Julianne Kalman Passarelli et al.
      Abstract: A new copepod species, Lepeophtheirus schaadti n. sp., is established based on female and male specimens obtained from the Giant Kelpfish, Heterostichus rostratus Girard, 1854, and Striped Kelpfish, Gibbonsia metzi Hubbs, 1927, captured at Inner Cabrillo Beach in southern California, U.S.A. In addition, comparisons with copepod specimens identified by Wilson (1935) as L. parviventris Wilson, 1905 from the Spotted Kelpfish, Gibbonsia elegans (Cooper, 1864), in Newport Bay, California, revealed they are conspecific with L. schaadti n. sp. The new species differs from its congeners by a combination of characters that include: female with a genital complex that is more than half the length of the cephalothoracic shield and with posterolateral lobes, an abdomen that is composed of one somite and is less than one-quarter the length of the genital complex, a maxillulary dentiform process bearing a thin ridge on the inner tine and lacking a basal knob, no myxal process on the maxilliped, apically rounded tines on the sternal furca, the spine on the first exopodal segment of leg 3 inserted distally on the basal swelling, a 3-segmented leg 4 exopod, and a broad inner lobe of leg 5 that does not extend beyond the posterior margin of the genital complex; and male with three accessory claws on the antennal endopod and no myxal process on the maxilliped. L. schaadti n. sp. represents the first account of an ectoparasitic species from the Striped Kelpfish and Spotted Kelpfish, as well as the fourth ectoparasitic species reported from the Giant Kelpfish.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Jul 2017 10:40:20 PDT
  • covers

    • PubDate: Mon, 20 Mar 2017 10:16:22 PDT
  • Records of Wahoo, Acanthocybium solandri (Scombridae), from California

    • Authors: Richard F. Feeney et al.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Mar 2017 10:16:18 PDT
  • The Largemouth Blenny, Labrisomus xanti, New to the California Marine
           Fauna with a List of and Key to the Species of Labrisomidae, Clinidae, and
           Chaenopsidae found in California Waters

    • Authors: Milton S. Love et al.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Mar 2017 10:16:13 PDT
  • Environmental Factors Influencing Reproduction in a Temperate Marine Reef
           Goby, Rhinogobiops nicholsii, and Associated Behaviors

    • Authors: Michael J. Schram et al.
      Abstract: The blackeye goby is a protogynous reef fish common to the northeastern Pacific Ocean. While this ubiquitous species has been the focus of numerous studies, there are several aspects of its reproductive ecology that are unknown. By directly quantifying reproduction from digital photographs of blackeye goby nests in the field, this study aimed to determine whether reproductive patterns were linked to 1) lunar phase or 2) ambient water temperature; and 3) whether the behavior of gobies changed when a nearby conspecific had eggs in his nest. At Santa Catalina Island, California, twenty 2.25-m2 artificial reefs were established and stocked with similar numbers and size-distributions of blackeye gobies during the summers of 2012 and 2013. Photographs of nests were taken weekly for ~3 months each summer. Through analysis of photographs, incubation time was found to be more than 7 days but less than 14 days. Nests, each guarded by one male, contained an average of 8664 eggs, in an area of 43.8 cm2, with 215 eggs cm-2. Blackeye gobies laid eggs during all lunar phases and the number of eggs produced was not related to lunar phase. Reproductive output, however, was negatively correlated with water temperature, with populations on reefs that experienced cooler temperatures producing more eggs. The presence of eggs in a nest had little effect on behavior of blackeye gobies on that reef. Additional observations made outside of summer months indicated that blackeye gobies can reproduce year-round in southern California. These results suggest a reproductive strategy aimed at maximizing total reproductive output by spreading the risk of reproductive failure throughout the year rather than optimizing the timing of reproduction.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Mar 2017 10:16:07 PDT
  • Status of the Endangered Chorro Creek Bog Thistle Cirsium fontinale var.
           obispoense (Asteraceae) in Coastal Central California

    • Authors: Christopher P. Kofron et al.
      Abstract: Chorro Creek bog thistle Cirsium fontinale var. obispoense (Asteraceae) is a biennial or short-lived perennial plant up to 2 m tall that occurs only in San Luis Obispo County, west of the outer coast ranges. It was listed as endangered under the California Endangered Species Act in 1993 and the U.S. Endangered Species Act in 1994. Chorro Creek bog thistle is a serpentine endemic, occupying perennial seeps and springs in serpentine soil and rock in western San Luis Obispo County from north of San Simeon Creek to south of the city of San Luis Obispo. At federal listing in 1994 Chorro Creek bog thistle was known from nine occurrences (one of these presumed extirpated) and with an estimate of
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Mar 2017 10:16:03 PDT
  • Rodent Removal of Fallen Joshua Tree (Yucca brevifolia) Fruits

    • Authors: Mark I. Borchert 8784318
      Abstract: .—Joshua trees (Yucca brevifolia) produce large, indehiscent fruits that contain numerous large seeds. Seed dispersal in this species depends on rodents to dismantle fruits and extract the seeds which they disperse tens of meters from the source. Using camera trapping and fruits equipped with bobbins, I show that white-tailed antelope squirrels (Ammospermophilus leucurus) and kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.) moved intact, fallen fruits 6 to 7 m from trees before opening them. Pocket mice (Chaetodipus fallax and Perognathus longimembris) and pinyon mice (Peromyscus trueii) dismantled fruits in situ and harvested loose seeds but did not appear to move them. However, they readily harvested loose seeds. Mobilizing fruits may be an important, overlooked step in the seed dispersal process, especially if the fruits are indehiscent. Fruit-carrying behavior of rodents described in this study adds to the dispersal distance of Joshua tree seeds.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Mar 2017 10:15:58 PDT
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