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Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences    Follow    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 0038-3872
     Published by Southern California Academy of Sciences Homepage  [1 journal]
  • covers
    • PubDate: Mon, 10 Feb 2014 14:16:33 PST
  • Morphometric Relationships of Marine Fishes Common to Central California
           and the Southern California Bight
    • Authors: Chelsea M. Williams et al.
      Abstract: *Abstract not included in this research note.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Feb 2014 12:34:03 PST
    • Authors: Bayard H. Brattstrom
      Abstract: In order to access the endangered species status of any organism it is essential to know its past and present distribution. The Coast Lizard, Phrynosoma coronatum , was presumed to be threatened by habitat destruction due to human activities. I used historical literature and museum records to access past, and lizard survey teams to access current range and population numbers of P. coronatum in the five counties of Southern California between 1989-1991. The species occurs from sea level to 8,000’ (2440m) in a wide variety of habitats. Fieldwork and questionnaires increased by a third the number of locations (from 672 to 1148) where horned lizards are known to occur. There are (post 1985) records of the species throughout its range and from all habitats. The lizard occured in about 75% of its original range, and of that, more than 50% is in public lands where the lizard is protected or could be protected by effective management and enforcement.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Feb 2014 12:34:01 PST
  • Correction of Locality Records for the Endangered Arroyo Toad (Anaxyrus
           californicus) from the Desert Region of Southern California
    • Authors: Edward L. Ervin et al.
      Abstract: The recovery strategy for an endangered species requires accurate knowledge of its distribution and geographic range. Although the best available information is used when developing a recovery plan, uncertainty often remains in regard to a species actual geographic extent. The arroyo toad (Anaxyrus californicus) occurs almost exclusively in coastal drainages, from Monterey County, California, south into northwestern Baja California, Mexico. Through field reconnaissance and the study of preserved museum specimens we determined that the four reported populations of the arroyo toad from the Sonoran Desert region of Riverside, San Diego, and Imperial counties, California are in error. Two additional sites in the Sonoran Desert are discussed regarding the possibility that the arroyo toad occurs there. We recommend the continued scrutiny of arroyo toad records to maintain a high level of accuracy of its distribution and geographic extent.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Feb 2014 12:34:00 PST
  • Decline to Near Extinction of the Endangered Scotts Valley Polygonum
           Polygonum hickmanii (Polygonaceae) in Coastal Central California
    • Authors: Christopher P. Kofron et al.
      Abstract: Scotts Valley polygonum Polygonum hickmanii (Polygonaceae) is a narrow endemic plant restricted to a specialized microhabitat (exposed bedrock in California prairie) in Santa Cruz County, California. The species was named in 1995 and subsequently listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and California Endangered Species Act in 2003 and 2005, respectively. Two occurrences exist on three properties in a recently urbanized area at the northern edge of the city of Scotts Valley, with a geographic range of 0.03 km2. As of 2012 the species has declined to 128 plants on 61 m2, having decreased from 604 plants in 2003, 1,612 plants in 1998 and 2,388 plants in 1997. In 2013 the primary threats to P. hickmanii are habitat alteration due to adjacent land uses and developments, and invasive plant species and accumulation of thatch. Cessation of grazing and fire suppression have likely contributed to the increasing presence of invasive plant species and accumulation of thatch. Intensive and adaptive management with monitoring will be necessary for P. hickmanii to survive. Unless management is implemented as a matter of urgency, the species will likely disappear within just a few years.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Feb 2014 12:33:58 PST
  • Genetic Structure of Polycera alabe and P. atra (Mollusca: Opistobranchia:
           Nudibranchia) in the Pacific Coast of North America
    • Authors: Monica Santander et al.
      Abstract: Polycera alabe and Polycera atra are closely related opisthobranch sea slugs found in coastal habitats along the eastern Pacific. Both species are extremely variable in external coloration and some of this variation appears to be correlated with geographic range. To determine the phylogenetic relationships and genetic structure of P. alabe and P. atra molecular phylogenies were generated using two genes: H3 (nuclear) and 16S (mitochondrial). Sequence data indicate that populations of P. atra are genetically homogeneous and lack geographic structure along the range of the species. In contrast, Polycera alabe consists of three previously unrecognized, distinct clades with overlapping ranges. The northernmost clade of P. alabe is sister to P. atra, thus the current definition of P. alabe constitutes a paraphyletic assemblage. The southernmost clade presents morphological differences in the radula compared to the other two clades. These data suggest that P. alabe is most likely a species complex.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Feb 2014 12:33:55 PST
  • Evaluating Monoculture Versus Polyculture Planting Regimes in a
           Newly-Restored Southern California Salt Marsh
    • Authors: Emily M. Blair et al.
      Abstract: Salt marsh plants are a key source of primary productivity, ameliorate harsh abiotic conditions, and provide habitat structure to many organisms. As a consequence, rapid re-establishment of plant cover following restoration can speed the recovery of degraded ecosystems. Despite demonstrated positive relationships between plant biodiversity and ecosystem functions, many salt marsh restoration plans still incorporate single-species plantings under the belief that this approach will lead to faster increases in plant cover (a typical management goal). In this study, we evaluated post-restoration recovery of a non-vegetated high marsh berm in Brookhurst Marsh, Huntington Beach, CA, with two active planting strategies: monoculture plots of the competitive dominant Sarcocornia pacifica (pickleweed) versus polyculture plots of pickleweed and eight other common salt marsh plant species. Although monocultures did increase in total percent plant cover faster than polycultures, both treatments had reached 80–100% cover after one year, easily exceeding the permit-mandated goal of 20–40% cover in that time. The effects of increasing plant cover on abiotic parameters (e.g., % light reaching the ground, soil temperature, and soil salinity) were comparable between the two treatments and provided physical conditions sufficient to support similar macroinvertebrate communities. In contrast, plant species richness and canopy complexity were significantly higher in polyculture versus monoculture plots by the end of the experiment. Mean plant height was lower in polyculture plots, but maximum plant height (which can influence habitat use by perching birds) did not differ by treatment. Our data suggest that polyculture plots performed as well as, or better than, S. pacifica alone with respect to multiple indicators of ecosystem function. Active planting of high-diversity plots should therefore be seriously considered as a restoration tool to achieve common management goals in southern California salt marshes.
      PubDate: Tue, 04 Feb 2014 12:33:51 PST
  • Covers
    • PubDate: Mon, 30 Sep 2013 12:24:45 PDT
  • 106th Annual Meeting Abstracts
    • PubDate: Mon, 30 Sep 2013 12:24:43 PDT
  • Cetorhinus cf. C. maximus (Gunnerus) (Lamniformes: Cetorhinidae), A
           Basking Shark from the Late Miocene Empire Formation, Coos Bay, Oregon
    • Authors: Bruce J. Welton
      Abstract: Abstract - The family Cetorhinidae Gill includes one extant genus, Cetorhinus Blainville, and a single living species, the basking shark, C. maximus (Gunnerus). Basking sharks are coastal pelagic to oceanic with circumglobal distribution in boreal to warm-temperate waters of the continental and insular shelves. Second only in size to the whale shark, Rhincodon typus, basking sharks attain a maximum total length of 12 to 15 m (although generally not exceeding 9.8 m), and are planktivorous, feeding by filtering copepods, barnacles, decapod larvae and fish eggs from the water. The first Tertiary records of undisputed cetorhinids are from the middle Eocene of Antarctica, possibly the middle Eocene of Russia, and the late Eocene of Oregon. Eocene cetorhinids are referred to Keasius taylori, and Oligocene through early Miocene basking sharks are traditionally assigned to Keasius parvus. The earliest occurrence of Cetorhinus in the northeastern Pacific is early Miocene, and fossils attributed to this genus are relatively common in middle Miocene through Pleistocene marine sediments of Oregon, California, and Baja California, Mexico. Late Miocene and younger Cetorhinus are conventionally placed in the extant species, C. maximus. Late Miocene fossils of a basking shark from the Coos Conglomerate Member of the Empire Formation, Oregon, were collected in 1972 by students from the University of California, Berkeley. Associated vertebrae and gill rakers compare favorably in size and overall morphology with those of adult Recent Cetorhinus maximus. Based on correlations of vertebral and gill raker dimensions with the total length for Recent C. maximus, the Empire basking shark is estimated to have been between 4.5 and 5.75+ m in total length. Although gill rakers and vertebrae from the Empire Formation compare favorably with those of C. maximus, a definitive identification requires dentition. The occurrence of Cetorhinus cf. C. maximus in the late Miocene of Oregon is consistent with other late Miocene records of this species in California and Chile. C. maximus may range no earlier than late Miocene in the eastern North Pacific.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Sep 2013 12:24:41 PDT
  • Small Mammal Use of the Burn Perimeter Following a Chaparral Wildffire in
           Southern California
    • Authors: Mark I. Borchert et al.
      Abstract: Abstract.--Wildfires in southern California chaparral burn at high intensities and often cover thousands of hectares. Some small mammals survive the fire while others colonize from scattered unburned islands and from intact vegetation bordering the main fire perimeter. For ten years (2002-2011) we live-trapped two grids and used the number of captures to examine post-fire small mammal use of a narrow 65-m zone straddling the high-contrast edge between burned and unburned chaparral on the perimeter of a high-intensity wildfire. Results indicate that agile kangaroo rats (Dipodomys agilis) were captured more often in open, burned areas than in unburned chaparral. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were captured equally in burned and unburned chaparral but did not show an affinity for either habitat or the edge of the burn. Pinyon mice (Peromyscus truei) were captured most often in unburned chaparral throughout the study but were prevalent on the burn edge in years one and four. In the first year post-fire, California mice (Peromyscus californicus) were captured more frequently in unburned than burned chaparral but in years four and five, captures shifted toward the edge and then into the burn areas in year nine. We did not find evidence that any of the four species were dedicated edge specialists in this study. Neither pinyon mice nor California mice appeared to be permanent residents of the burns in the first ten years post-fire. We suggest that future research on post-fire small mammal succession in chaparral would benefit from chronosequence studies that give a more comprehensive, long term picture of succession.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Sep 2013 12:24:39 PDT
  • Developmental Mode in Opisthobranch Molluscs from the Northeast Pacific
           Ocean: Additional Species from Southern California and Supplemental Data
    • Authors: Jeffrey H. R. Goddard et al.
      Abstract: We document development type for 33 species of benthic opisthobranch gastropods – 15 for the first time – collected mainly from the Southern California Bight. Fourteen of the newly examined species had planktotrophic development, while the dorid nudibranch Atagema alba had capsular metamorphic development, the first example of direct development in a non-dendrodoridid nudibranch known from the northeast Pacific Ocean. For the remaining 18 species our new data are either consistent with earlier determinations of development type, or confirm previous inferences. The new data also broaden geographic coverage for some species, and for the sacoglossan Stiliger fuscovittatus and the nudibranch Melibe leonina, suggest that egg size is inversely related to temperature. We correct the previous erroneous identification of nephrocysts as eyespots in the hatching planktotrophic larvae of the nudibranchs Tritonia festiva and Janolus fuscus. These results further highlight the predominance of planktotrophic development in benthic opisthobranchs from the northeast Pacific Ocean.
      PubDate: Mon, 30 Sep 2013 12:24:35 PDT
  • A Comparative Study of Two Infaunal Sampling Devices: A Modified Van Veen
           Grab and a Clamshell Box Corer
    • Authors: Douglas R. Diener et al.
      Abstract: A new 0.1 m 2 benthic box core sampler, referred to as the CBC (Clam- shell Box Corer), has been developed. This sampler can be operated from small vessels and offers substantial improvements over Van Veen samplers, which are commonly used to sample infaunal organisms from southern California coastal areas. Field tests comparing the CBC and a modified, chain-rigged Van Veen showed that the CBC collected larger samples in various sediments tested, re- quired fewer attempts to collect acceptable samples, and generally collected more species of infauna in greater abundance and larger sizes than the Van Veen. Fur- ther, because the CBC penetrated more deeply than the Van Veen, it provided a better representation of the infaunal community.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Aug 2013 09:38:02 PDT
  • Adverse Effects of Hyposalinity from Stormwater Runoff on the Aggregating
           Anemone, Anthopleura elegantissima, in the Marine Intertidal Zone
    • Authors: K. L. M. Martin et al.
      Abstract: Coastal watersheds strongly impact the near-shore marine environ- ment with freshwater inundation and runoff from the land. At Leo Carillo State Beach in Malibu, California, we have noticed marked effects of stormwater runoff on the local marine fauna. The aggregating sea anemone expels symbiotic algae under the influence of hyposaline stress, causing bleaching. The number and distribution of bleached sea anemones have increased dramatically from 1992 to 1995 at Leo Carillo State Beach under the influence of increased rainfall and the artificial broadening of the arroyo channel at its mouth.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Aug 2013 09:37:18 PDT
  • Toxicity of Dry Weather Flow from the Santa Monica Bay Watershed
    • Authors: Steven M. Bay et al.
      Abstract: A significant source of contaminants to Santa Monica Bay is the daily discharge of 10-25 million gallons of urban runoff from approximately 70 storm drains. Research conducted in 1990-93 examined the toxicity of dry weather flow from Ballona Creek and three other drains discharging into Santa Monica Bay. Toxicity tests were conducted using sensitive life stages of purple sea urchins, red abalone, and giant kelp. Spatial and temporal variations in toxicity were observed. Sea urchin sperm and abalone embryos were more sensitive than kelp spores, with toxic effects produced by>5.6% dry weather flow. Preliminary toxicity identification evaluations indicated that the constituents causing toxicity in dry weather flow are variable.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Aug 2013 09:37:17 PDT
  • Observations of Oceanic Processes and Water Quality following Seven Years
           of CTD Surveys in Santa Monica Bay, California
    • Authors: Ann Dalkey et al.
      Abstract: The Environmental Monitoring Division conducted weekly CTD (con- ductivity-temperature-density) surveys in the Santa Monica Bay from September 1987 through June 1994 as part of a federal and state mandated ocean monitoring program for Los Angeles City's wastewater discharge. The data provide a unique opportunity to track the development and direction of movement of the discharged wastewater. Direction of wastewater field movement was highly variable whereas seasonal development followed general trends. Salinity anomaly, a measure of the deviation from mean salinity, was devised to more effectively detect the wastewater field and provided for estimation of effluent dilution in situ.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Aug 2013 09:37:16 PDT
  • San Diego Regional Storm Water Monitoring Program: Contaminant Inputs to
           Coastal Wetlands and Bays
    • Authors: Kenneth Schiff et al.
      Abstract: A watershed-based, Regional Monitoring Program was established by the City of San Diego, the County of San Diego, the San Diego Unified Port District, and 1 7 other incorporated cities within the county to evaluate the water quality of their wet weather runoff. Seventeen different locations were sampled between 1993 and 1995, and samples were analyzed for priority pollutants and toxicity. In general, measurable quantities of some metals and fecal indicator bacteria were found consistently while nearly all organic contaminants were below method detection limits. Results indicated that residential areas had similar event mean concentrations (EMC) of suspended solids, oil and grease, cadmium, chro- mium, nickel, and zinc compared to industrial or commercial areas. The EMC of copper and lead from residential areas were higher relative to commercial or industrial areas. However, even EMC from residential areas of San Diego were lower than the EMC from other urbanized watersheds measured from around the country as part of the Nationwide Urban Runoff Program. Potential receiving water effects included 7-day chronic toxicity of storm water effluents to Cerio- daphnia. Storm water was responsible for increased contamination of Mission Bay receiving waters by fecal indicator bacteria and exceedences in water quality objectives resulted in post-storm beach closures.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Aug 2013 09:37:15 PDT
  • The Border: Sharing a Problem and a Solution
    • Authors: Carol A. Sibley
      Abstract: The Tijuana River flows through two countries. It passes through the poverty-stricken but growing community of Tijuana, Mexico and southern San Diego County where it empties into the Tijuana Estuary. Raw sewage from Tijuana and the surrounding watershed is dumped into the river as it flows to the Pacific Ocean. Littoral currents transport the waste north to beaches in San Diego County, creating health risks and forcing beach closures. Repeated attempts to remedy the situation have been made since 1930, however, successful sewage treatment has not been attained. Lack of money from Mexico and different standards for sewage treatment between the United States and Mexico have made this situation difficult to remedy.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Aug 2013 09:37:13 PDT
  • Proceedings of a Special Symposium; Coastal Watersheds and their Effects
           on the Ocean Environment Sponsored by The Southern California Academy of
           Sciences May 5, 1995
    • Authors: Susan E. Yoder et al.
      PubDate: Fri, 30 Aug 2013 09:37:12 PDT
  • The Euryhaline Cottid Fish, Leptocottus armatus Girard 1854, Second
           Intermediate Host of the Trematode, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) diminuta
           Stunkard and Haviland 1924
    • Authors: Mark Armitage
      PubDate: Thu, 22 Aug 2013 06:50:40 PDT
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