Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences
Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0038-3872
Published by Southern California Academy of Sciences [1 journal]
Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0038-3872
Published by Southern California Academy of Sciences [1 journal]
- Fish Remains From an Archaeological Site at Rancho Carrillo on the Silver
Strand, San Diego County, California
Authors: W. I. Follett
Abstract: A collection of 170 fish remains from an archaeological site on the Silver Strand, immediately west of San Diego Bay. California, represents nine species, all of which are edible: Mustelus californicus, Sardinops sagax, Atherinopsis californiensis, Paralabrax sp.,Roncador stearnsii, Genyonemus lineatus, Cynoscion parvipinnis, Sphyraena argentea, and Pneumatophorusis japonicus. Remains of Cynoscion parvipinnis, a subtropical fish unknown from California in recent years, indicate the occurrence of a former warmwater fauna in this vicinity, probably during more than two centuries. Remains of large Sphyraena argentea and Pneumatophorus japonicus, probably caught in the ocean, suggest aboriginal use of the tule balsa.
PubDate: Mon, 22 Sep 2014 16:36:06 PDT
- Thermal and Respiratory Studies with Reference to Temperature and Oxygen
Tolerance for the Unarmored Stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus williamsoni
Authors: C. Robert Feldmeth et al.
Abstract: The tolerance to high temperature and low oxygen concentration was measured for the unarmored stickleback. These fish have a critical thermal maximum (CTM) of 30.5 °C when acclimated to 8°C and a CTM of 34.6''C when acclimated to 22.7°C. Respiratory experiments indicated that the critical oxygen concentration for this species is about 2.0 ppm. Above this concentration, the respiratory rate is independent of oxygen concentration; however below 2.0 ppm, oxygen consumption rapidly declines. To maintain respiratory independence as oxygen concentration decreases, ventilatory rate rises rapidly. In an oxygen concentration of 7.4 ppm the mean ventilatory rate is 104.6 per minute. As the oxygen decreases, ventilatory rate increases to 230.7 per minute in 1.32 ppm of oxygen. In lower oxygen concentrations, gill ventilation rapidly decreases.
PubDate: Mon, 22 Sep 2014 16:36:05 PDT
- Hermaphroditism and Gonadal Teratoma-Like Growths in Sturgeon (Acipenser)
Authors: J. W. Atz et al.
Abstract: Two adult sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrhyncIuis and A. brevirostrum) from the Hudson River exhibited ovotestes. In the former, testicular and ovarian tissues were mostly separated", in the latter, intermingled. One ovotestis of A. h rev i rostrum contained small, cyst-like structures that consisted of disorganized tissues including cartilage, bone, blood vessels, gut epithelium, and connective tissue. These teratoma-like structures may have been the result of the abnormal development of a parthenogenetic or self-fertilized egg rather than a neoplastic process. None of the abnormal growths in fishes that have been described as teratomas can be considered unequivocally as examples of a true tumor or neoplasm.
PubDate: Mon, 22 Sep 2014 16:36:04 PDT
- Feeding Ecology of the Pit Sculpin, Cottus pitensis in Ash Creek,
Authors: Hiram W. Li et al.
Abstract: The diet of the Pit sculpin, Cottus pitensis, consists mainly of benthic invertebrates and is similar to the diet of other stream-dwelling members of the genus Coitus. They feed at all hours but show a peak of feeding intensity in the early morning. Electivity indices indicate that they are highly selective in their feeding but that the reasons they select particular organisms are complex. They appear to be ecologically segregated from the three species that commonly occur with them, speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus), Sacramento sucker (Catostomus occidentalis), and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri).
PubDate: Mon, 22 Sep 2014 16:31:07 PDT
- Life History of the Freshwater Lampreys, Okkelbergia aepyptera and
Lampetra lamottenii (Pisces: Petromyzonidae), on the Delmarva Peninsula
(East Cost, United States)
Authors: Fred C. Rohde et al.
Abstract: We studied the life history of the least brook lamprey, Okkelbergia aepyptera, and the American brook lamprey, Lampetra lamottenii, in Delaware. Observations of nest construction and spawning in O. aepyptera are presented. Mean number of eggs per female is 874. Larvae average 3.40 mm TL at hatching. Analysis of length-frequency data for ammocoetes indicates that the duration of the larval period is at least 5.4 years. Length-weight equation for ammocoetes is Log W = -5.24 -f- 2.73 Log L. Meristic data are presented. Mean number of eggs in L. lamnltcnii is 1691. Larvae average 2.60 mm TL at hatching. Ammocoete length-weight equation is Log W = -5.31 -f 2.76 Log L. Comparisons are made with northern populations.
PubDate: Mon, 22 Sep 2014 16:31:06 PDT
- Ethological Isolating Mechanisms in Goodeid Fishes of the Genus Xenotoca
Authors: John Michael Fitzsimons
Abstract: Although no natural hybrids are known, fertile laboratory hybrids were readily obtained from Xenotoca eiseni and X. melanosoma in forced crosses in which a conspecific mate was not available. In choice crosses with males and females of both species, sympatric stocks never hybridized, but allopatric fishes frequently mismated. Ethological data reveal differences in courtship behavior and discriminatory ability in sympatric fishes not observed for allopatric conspecific stocks nor in fish from two populations of the congener X. variata. These differences, which prevent interbreeding, are offered as evidence for the perfection of premating isolating mechanisms in sympatry. Hybrid inferiority, essential for divergence in sympatry, was reflected in reduced survival and inability to compete for mates.
PubDate: Mon, 22 Sep 2014 16:31:05 PDT
- Vertebral Variation in the Emerald Shiner Notropis atherinoides from the
Ohio River: An Apparent Contradiction to "Jordan's Rule"
Authors: Vincent H. Resh et al.
Abstract: Vertebral numbers of the emerald shiner Notropis atherinoides collected from approximately 100-mile intervals of the Ohio River during 1957-1959 were analyzed using x-rays. Counts ranged from 36 to 42 with an overall mean of 39.58 vertebrae. There was a consistent gradual cline in numbers of vertebrae with significant differences in mean numbers. Numbers were smallest near the source and largest near the mouth of the river. This is a reversal of the usual trend of greater numbers of vertebrae at higher latitudes, but it may be consistent with Jordan's Rule in that habitats in the upper (more northerly) reaches of the river may warm more quickly, and embryonic development may proceed there at higher temperatures than in the lower reaches.
PubDate: Mon, 22 Sep 2014 16:31:04 PDT
- Four New Pupfishes of the Genus Cyprinodon from Mexico, with a Key to the
C. eximius Complex
Authors: Robert Rush Miller
Abstract: The pupfishes (genus Cyprinodon) referable to the C. eximius complex comprise seven species that are restricted to, or had their origin in, the Chihuahuan Desert region of Mexico and adjacent parts of Texas and New Mexico. Four are described as new; the remainder are C. eximius, C. atrorus, and C. latifasciatus. Most are of restricted distribution; one is extinct and another may be. Keys, diagnoses, and ranges are given for each species and all are illustrated. The distinctive morphometric characters of the new species are given. Life colors and color patterns are important in distinguishing species.
PubDate: Mon, 22 Sep 2014 16:31:02 PDT
- A New Nonparasitic Species of Lamprey of the Genus Entosphenus Gill, 1862,
(Petromyzonidae) From South Central California
Authors: Vadim D. Vladykov et al.
Abstract: A new nonparasitic lamprey from the Friant-Kern Canal, east of Delano, California, is described and illustrated. The holotype (number CAS 35987) is deposited in the California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California. The species is distinguishable from all species of the genus Entosphenus by: 1) low number of trunk myomeres — 53 in the ammocoete and between 54 and 57 (average 55.5) in transformed specimens, whereas in other species the range is 58-73; 2) reduced dentition with typical numbers of teeth — 2 supraoral cusps, 1-1-1-1 inner lateral teeth on each side of the disc, 9-12 (average 10.3) posterial teeth; 3) only 3 velar tentacles, whereas in other species the number of tentacles varies from 5 to 18; 4) small size of transformed specimens, 117-142; and 5) restricted distribution. The description is based on the study of eleven newly transformed individuals and one ammocoete.
PubDate: Mon, 22 Sep 2014 16:31:01 PDT
- In Honor of Carl L. Hubbs
Authors: Michael H. Horn
PubDate: Mon, 22 Sep 2014 16:31:00 PDT
PubDate: Mon, 22 Sep 2014 16:30:59 PDT
- Incidence of the Entoniscid Parasite, Portunion conformis Muscatine
(Crustacea: Isopoda) in the Mudcrab Hemigrapsus orenonensis From San Diego
Authors: David Lapota
PubDate: Mon, 22 Sep 2014 16:30:53 PDT
- The Coordinated Role of the Cerebral and Visceral Ganglia in Ciliary
Authors: Anthony A. Paparo et al.
Abstract: Lateral ciliary activity was studied on isolated gill preparations of the mussell Mytilus edulis. Electrical stimulation of the branchial nerve at 5 Hz (increased) and 50 Hz (decreased) changed the average rate of ciliary beating. These modifications in the ciliary activity were significantly altered in specimens lacking an intact cerebrovisceral connective. It appears that the cerebral and visceral ganglia exhibit a coordinated role in the control of ciliary beating.
PubDate: Mon, 22 Sep 2014 16:30:52 PDT
- Variation in the South American Colubrid Snake Tantilla semicincta
(Dumeril, Bibron, and Dumeril), with Comments on Pattern Dimorphism
Authors: Larry David Wilson
Abstract: Variation and distribution of Tanrilla semicincta are discussed. This species exhibits pattern dimorphism. One phase has a banded dorsal pattern and the other a striped dorsal pattern. Variation in scutellation is described. This species is known to occur along the Caribbean coastal regions of Colombia and Venezuela. Purported occurrence of this snake in Panama is discounted. Relationships of T. seinicincta with other banded species of Tantilla are discussed and a key to those species is provided.
PubDate: Mon, 22 Sep 2014 16:20:54 PDT
- Spathipora mazatlanica, a New Species of Burrowing Bryozoa (Ctenostomata)
From Mazatlan, Sinaloa, Mexico
Authors: John D. Soule et al.
Abstract: A new species of burrowing Bryozoa (Ctenostomata) from Mexico, Spathipora mazatlanica, is described and illustrated. The polypide anatomy of the genus Spathipora is determined for the first time.
PubDate: Mon, 22 Sep 2014 16:15:58 PDT
- The Cranial Osteology of Amphistichus argenteus (Pisces: Embiotocidae)
Authors: Steven L. Morris et al.
Abstract: The cranial and branchial skeleton of Amphistichus argenteus, a member of the embiotocid subfamily Amphistichinae, is described here for the first time and compared to that of Damalichthys vacca, a member of the second embiotocid subfamily, the Embiotocinae. In A. argenteus the circumorbital ring is composed of seven bones, and four pairs of pharyngobranchials are present; whereas in D. vacca, the circumorbital ring is composed of six elements and the fourth pair of pharyngobranchials is absent. The reduction in numbers of bony elements is considered to be a more derived condition and. based on this information, the Amphistichinae are here considered more primitive than the Embiotocinae.
PubDate: Mon, 22 Sep 2014 16:15:57 PDT
- A New Species of Cylopoid Copepod, Parasitic on Shiner Surfperch,
Cymatogaster aggregata Gibbons, in Anaheim Bay and Huntington Harbor,
California, with Notes on Bomolochus cuneatus Fraser and Ergasilus lizae
Authors: Doyle A. Hanan
Abstract: Three species of parasitic cyclopoid copepods are reported from the Shiner Surfperch, Cymatogaster aggregata Gibbons, collected from Anaheim Bay and Huntington Harbor, California. One of the copepods, Holobomoloclhus embiotocae, new species, of the family Bomolochidae inhabits the nasal cavity of the shiner perch. The other two copepods, Bomoloclus cuneatus Eraser and Ergasilus lizae Kroyer, are reported as new host and locality records.
PubDate: Mon, 22 Sep 2014 16:15:55 PDT
- A New Species of Dioplosyllis (Polychaeta: Syllidae) From California
Authors: George J. Mueller et al.
Abstract: A new species of Dioplosyllis is described. Three specimens were collected swarming at a night light. A table is presented to separate the four known species.
PubDate: Mon, 22 Sep 2014 16:15:54 PDT
- Some Nephtyidae (Polychaeta) From Ubatuba, Brazil
Authors: Kristian Fauchald
Abstract: Four species of nephtyid polychaetes are reported from Ubatuba, Brasil. The description of Aglaophamus juvenalis (Kinberg, 1866) is amplified and illustrations of median parapodia are given for all four species.
PubDate: Mon, 22 Sep 2014 16:15:53 PDT
- Two New Species of Helminthoglypta (Mollusca: Pulmonata) From San Diego
Authors: W. O. Gregg et al.
Abstract: Two new species of land snails of the genus Helminthoglypta are described from San Diego County, California.
PubDate: Mon, 22 Sep 2014 16:15:52 PDT
- An Analysis of the Fluid Contents in the Postanal Sac of the Gray Whale,
Authors: John W. Beierle et al.
Abstract: A distinctive, thick walled, postanal sac is found midventrally on the caudal peduncle of most gray whales. The structure appears to be unique to this cetacean and is a relatively unknown organ, with no known function. This study describes partial physicochemical characterization of the fluid contents in the sac. The major chemical component is a unique glycoprotein of molecular weight greater than 150,000 daltons, as determined by gel filtration, analytical ultracentrifugation, acrylamide gel electrophoresis, and colorimetric analyses. A second component of lesser molecular weight, appears to be predominantly protein.
PubDate: Mon, 22 Sep 2014 16:15:50 PDT
- Investigations on the Postanal Sac of the Grey Whale Eschrichtius robustus
Authors: Floyd E. Durham et al.
Abstract: An unusual thick-walled, sac-like structure occurs embedded in the blubber of the midventral ridge of the tail posterior to the anus, and appears to be unique to the gray whale. Data on six postanal sacs are reported. Histological examination of one sac revealed a smooth-walled, striated structure with an apparent epithelial lining. Partial chemical analysis of the contents of one sac disclosed two major components consisting of relatively homogeneous types of protein-polysaccharide complexes, at least one being a glycoprotein. Inasmuch as the structure is rather consistent in shape, routinely present, and occurs in immature and adult gray whales of both sexes, it is thought to be a naturally occurring structure rather than a tumor or parasite-induced cyst. It is possible that the postanal sacs are scent glands and function in "track laying" during migration and /or to maintain group integrity.
PubDate: Mon, 22 Sep 2014 16:15:49 PDT
PubDate: Mon, 22 Sep 2014 16:15:47 PDT
- A Case of Active Brood Defense in the Thornbug, Umbonia Crassicornis
Authors: Vincent Brach
PubDate: Mon, 22 Sep 2014 16:10:50 PDT
- Seasonal Cycles of Body Weights and Lipids in Belding Ground Squirrels
Authors: Martin L. Morton
Abstract: Seasonal changes in body weight, carcass composition, food habits, and general behavior were determined in Spermophilus beldingi beldingi, a hibernatory ground squirrel that lives at high altitude. Effects of photoperiod and constant or cycling ambient temperature on body weight regulation were tested in the laboratory. There was about a two-fold annual variation in body weight. Most of this variation was due to fluctuations in fat stores. Basic (fat-free, dry) weight was quite constant throughout the season. Carcass water content varied in that squirrels became slightly dehydrated during hibernation and total body water was inversely related to total body lipid. Prehibernatory fattening occurred over a period of about seven weeks in the population of adults at a given location and involved about a 15-fold increase in total body lipid. In individuals, the response took only about five weeks in males and three weeks in females. All individuals hibernated for about nine months. Body weights decreased during hibernation by as little as 33 percent in yearling females and as much as 43 percent in adult males. Even so, all squirrels emerged with 20 to 25 percent of total prehibernatory lipid stores intact. The schedule of prehibernatory fattening varied by as much as four weeks between individual years. This variation seemed to be related directly to snowpack. The more snow, the later fattening occurred. Following the first weeks of snow disappearance, food was plentiful. Many squirrels fattened and entered hibernation before or at the peak of vegetation abundance. Green grass was the main food item but arthropods were taken throughout the season and large quantities of seeds were eaten when they became available. A greater percentage of time above ground was spent feeding during the fattening phase than earlier in the season. Neither photoperiod nor ambient temperature affected the timing of fattening in captives. There was a seasonal change in propensity to fatten noted in captives. The abrupt inception and termination of prehibernatory fattening and the rapidity with which it occurs indicate that the response is due to hypothalamic hyperphagia and not to seasonal changes in food availability or to decreased metabolic rate. The response may be a manifestation of an annual rhythm in appetite that is phased periodically by environmental factors.
PubDate: Mon, 22 Sep 2014 16:10:49 PDT
- Calcanea of Members of the Canidae
Authors: Howard J. Stains
Abstract: The calcanea of 25 species (14 genera) of canids are described and compared. All canids have a dual anterior surface which articulates proximally with the astragulus and distally with the scaphoid. Most canid calcanea are similar with those of Speothos, Nyctereutes, Atelocynus, and Chrysocyon being the most distinctive. Calcanea of Cains dingo exhibit the most variability. Those of Vulpes vulpes and Vulpes fulva are indistinguishable and those of Canis nlger are intermediate to those of Canis lalrans and Canis lupus.
PubDate: Mon, 22 Sep 2014 16:10:47 PDT
- Evolutionary Implications of the Karyotypes of the Stenodermine Genera
Ardops, Ariteus, Phyllops, and Ectophylla
Authors: Ira F. Greenbaum et al.
Abstract: Karyotypes of representatives of four genera of the subfamily Stenoderminae (Phyllostomatidae), Ardops, Ariteus, Phyllops, and Ectophylla are presented. Karyotypic characteristics of Ardops, Ariteus, and Phyllops support a close relationship between these genera and the genera Stenoderma and Ametrida. The karyotype of Ectophylla alba does not support the conclusion that it is congeneric with the morphologically similar Mesophylla. Chromosomally, Mesophylla and Vampyressa pusilla are more closely related to each other than either is to Ectophylla or the other species of Vampyressa that have been karyotyped. Evolutionary, early distributional, and taxonomic aspects of the genera involved are discussed.
PubDate: Mon, 22 Sep 2014 16:10:46 PDT
- A New Chilean Frog of the Extra-Andean Assemblage of Telmatobius
Authors: Richard B. Loomis et al.
PubDate: Mon, 22 Sep 2014 16:10:44 PDT