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Journal Cover Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 0038-3872
   Published by Southern California Academy of Sciences Homepage  [1 journal]
  • covers

    • PubDate: Thu, 20 Jul 2017 11:32:15 PDT
  • Abnormal Coloration in Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis)

    • Authors: Vernon C. Bleich
      Abstract: Despite no mention of abnormal coloration in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in two earlier reviews addressing that subject, leucism, piebaldism, and melanism do occur in that species. Presented herein is a compilation of observations of abnormally colored bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) assembled with information obtained from personal observations and the use of on-line literature search services, other on-line searches, private interviews, and a questionnaire. The majority of abnormally colored bighorn sheep have been described as "white" or "albinistic". Review of images provided by respondents, however, verified that the majority of such reports were of leucistic individuals. "White" or leucistic bighorn sheep have been described from 23 specific geographic areas distributed among one Canadian province, one state in Mexico, and seven of the western United States; reports of piebaldism or of melanism are much less frequent.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Jul 2017 11:32:12 PDT
  • Development of Oral Structure in Salmonema emphemeridarum (Nematoda:

    • Authors: Ralph G. Appy
      Abstract: This paper examines the development of the oral morphology of the parasite Salmonema emphemeridarum (Nematoda: Cystidicoidae) using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Larvated eggs, taken from female worms collected from brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, were fed to mayflies (Ephemeroptera) where larvae developed to the third larval stage. First stage larvae possessed an oral opening, boring tooth and secretory pore. Second stage larvae possessed a circular oral opening and amphids. Third stage larvae included all the features of adult worms include pseudolabia, submediant labia, sublabia, amphids and four oral papillae. The advanced development of oral structures of third stage larvae allows the identification of larval worms to genus and in some cases species and is consistent with the precocious reproductive development of infective larvae in the Cystidicolidae.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Jul 2017 11:32:08 PDT
  • First Reported Occurrence of the Southern Sea Otter at California‚Äôs
           Santa Barbara Island Since 1940

    • Authors: Michael C. Couffer
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Jul 2017 11:32:05 PDT
  • Range Expansion of the Eastern Fox Squirrel Within the Greater Los Angeles
           Metropolitan Area (2005-2014) and Projections for Continued Range

    • Authors: Rosemary B. Garcia et al.
      Abstract: Monitoring the spread and distribution of introduced species in an area can be challenging due to a variety of issues. Range expansion may exceed expected rates if the area of introduction is more suitable than expected, and may be slowed by an area in which it is difficult to establish a population. The species of interest in this study is the Eastern Fox Squirrel (Sciurus niger rufiventer) and the focus of the study is the spread of the species in Southern California. Previous studies have shown a steady and continuous spread from main points of introduction in Southern California and the species is now considered well established in the Los Angeles area. In this study, we collect, display, and discuss the spread of the Eastern Fox Squirrel in this area from 2005 through 2014 and include habitat suitability models to predict the future distribution of the species over time. Results show that the Eastern Fox Squirrel has spread east into Rancho Cucamonga, into southern portions of Irvine, and has maintained isolated populations in places such as San Diego and Riverside. Our models suggest future paths of movement for contiguous range expansion. Suggestions for species mitigation include controlling initial introductions of the species into new areas, and informing the public about continued spread of the species.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Jul 2017 11:32:02 PDT
  • Habitat use and behavior of the east Pacific green turtle, Chelonia mydas
           in an urbanized system

    • Authors: Daniel P. Crear et al.
      Abstract: Green sea turtles, Chelonia mydas, are known to inhabit populated and often urbanized areas. To understand turtle habitat use and behavior within these unique habitats, seven juvenile green turtles were fitted with acoustic transmitters (September 2012 – August 2014), of which two transmitters included an accelerometer (AP transmitter). One individual fitted with an AP transmitter was tracked using a passive acoustic array in an urbanized river, the San Gabriel River, Long Beach, CA (33°45’ N, 118°05’ W). Three additional turtles in this river and three turtles (one with AP transmitter) in a restored estuary (33°44’ N, 118°03’ W) in southern California were actively tracked for two non-consecutive 24-h periods. Those fitted with AP transmitters indicated that turtles were less active at night (0.58 ± 0.56 m/s2 and 0.50 ± 0.63 m/s2) than during the day (0.86 ± 0.63 m/s2 and 0.78 ± 0.60 m/s2) at both sites. Activity data and corresponding movements of the actively tracked turtle fitted with the AP transmitter were used to infer resting periods for other tracked individuals. Turtles rested near bridge pilings and runoff outflows in the river to potentially shelter from tidal flow. Turtles used significantly larger daily areas in the urbanized river (0.046 ± 0.023 km2) where resources may be patchier and less abundant, compared to turtles in the estuary (0.024 ± 0.012 km2) where large, dense eelgrass beds are present. Based on the habitat use and behaviors of green sea turtles, it appears that some green sea turtles are able to make use of both highly developed and restored habitats and likely benefit from certain aspects of development.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Jul 2017 11:31:57 PDT

    • Authors: Julianne Kalman Passarelli et al.
      Abstract: A new copepod species, Lepeophtheirus schaadti n. sp., is established based on female and male specimens obtained from the Giant Kelpfish, Heterostichus rostratus Girard, 1854, and Striped Kelpfish, Gibbonsia metzi Hubbs, 1927, captured at Inner Cabrillo Beach in southern California, U.S.A. In addition, comparisons with copepod specimens identified by Wilson (1935) as L. parviventris Wilson, 1905 from the Spotted Kelpfish, Gibbonsia elegans (Cooper, 1864), in Newport Bay, California, revealed they are conspecific with L. schaadti n. sp. The new species differs from its congeners by a combination of characters that include: female with a genital complex that is more than half the length of the cephalothoracic shield and with posterolateral lobes, an abdomen that is composed of one somite and is less than one-quarter the length of the genital complex, a maxillulary dentiform process bearing a thin ridge on the inner tine and lacking a basal knob, no myxal process on the maxilliped, apically rounded tines on the sternal furca, the spine on the first exopodal segment of leg 3 inserted distally on the basal swelling, a 3-segmented leg 4 exopod, and a broad inner lobe of leg 5 that does not extend beyond the posterior margin of the genital complex; and male with three accessory claws on the antennal endopod and no myxal process on the maxilliped. L. schaadti n. sp. represents the first account of an ectoparasitic species from the Striped Kelpfish and Spotted Kelpfish, as well as the fourth ectoparasitic species reported from the Giant Kelpfish.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Jul 2017 10:40:20 PDT
  • covers

    • PubDate: Mon, 20 Mar 2017 10:16:22 PDT
  • Records of Wahoo, Acanthocybium solandri (Scombridae), from California

    • Authors: Richard F. Feeney et al.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Mar 2017 10:16:18 PDT
  • The Largemouth Blenny, Labrisomus xanti, New to the California Marine
           Fauna with a List of and Key to the Species of Labrisomidae, Clinidae, and
           Chaenopsidae found in California Waters

    • Authors: Milton S. Love et al.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Mar 2017 10:16:13 PDT
  • Environmental Factors Influencing Reproduction in a Temperate Marine Reef
           Goby, Rhinogobiops nicholsii, and Associated Behaviors

    • Authors: Michael J. Schram et al.
      Abstract: The blackeye goby is a protogynous reef fish common to the northeastern Pacific Ocean. While this ubiquitous species has been the focus of numerous studies, there are several aspects of its reproductive ecology that are unknown. By directly quantifying reproduction from digital photographs of blackeye goby nests in the field, this study aimed to determine whether reproductive patterns were linked to 1) lunar phase or 2) ambient water temperature; and 3) whether the behavior of gobies changed when a nearby conspecific had eggs in his nest. At Santa Catalina Island, California, twenty 2.25-m2 artificial reefs were established and stocked with similar numbers and size-distributions of blackeye gobies during the summers of 2012 and 2013. Photographs of nests were taken weekly for ~3 months each summer. Through analysis of photographs, incubation time was found to be more than 7 days but less than 14 days. Nests, each guarded by one male, contained an average of 8664 eggs, in an area of 43.8 cm2, with 215 eggs cm-2. Blackeye gobies laid eggs during all lunar phases and the number of eggs produced was not related to lunar phase. Reproductive output, however, was negatively correlated with water temperature, with populations on reefs that experienced cooler temperatures producing more eggs. The presence of eggs in a nest had little effect on behavior of blackeye gobies on that reef. Additional observations made outside of summer months indicated that blackeye gobies can reproduce year-round in southern California. These results suggest a reproductive strategy aimed at maximizing total reproductive output by spreading the risk of reproductive failure throughout the year rather than optimizing the timing of reproduction.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Mar 2017 10:16:07 PDT
  • Status of the Endangered Chorro Creek Bog Thistle Cirsium fontinale var.
           obispoense (Asteraceae) in Coastal Central California

    • Authors: Christopher P. Kofron et al.
      Abstract: Chorro Creek bog thistle Cirsium fontinale var. obispoense (Asteraceae) is a biennial or short-lived perennial plant up to 2 m tall that occurs only in San Luis Obispo County, west of the outer coast ranges. It was listed as endangered under the California Endangered Species Act in 1993 and the U.S. Endangered Species Act in 1994. Chorro Creek bog thistle is a serpentine endemic, occupying perennial seeps and springs in serpentine soil and rock in western San Luis Obispo County from north of San Simeon Creek to south of the city of San Luis Obispo. At federal listing in 1994 Chorro Creek bog thistle was known from nine occurrences (one of these presumed extirpated) and with an estimate of
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Mar 2017 10:16:03 PDT
  • Rodent Removal of Fallen Joshua Tree (Yucca brevifolia) Fruits

    • Authors: Mark I. Borchert 8784318
      Abstract: Abstract.—Joshua trees (Yucca brevifolia) produce large, indehiscent fruits that contain numerous large seeds. Seed dispersal in this species depends on rodents to dismantle fruits and extract the seeds which they disperse tens of meters from the source. Using camera trapping and fruits equipped with bobbins, I show that white-tailed antelope squirrels (Ammospermophilus leucurus) and kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.) moved intact, fallen fruits 6 to 7 m from trees before opening them. Pocket mice (Chaetodipus fallax and Perognathus longimembris) and pinyon mice (Peromyscus trueii) dismantled fruits in situ and harvested loose seeds but did not appear to move them. However, they readily harvested loose seeds. Mobilizing fruits may be an important, overlooked step in the seed dispersal process, especially if the fruits are indehiscent. Fruit-carrying behavior of rodents described in this study adds to the dispersal distance of Joshua tree seeds.
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Mar 2017 10:15:58 PDT
  • Site Fidelity of a Coastal Cactus Wren (Camphylorynchus brunneicapillus)
           on the Palos Verdes Peninsula

    • Authors: Ann Dalkey
      PubDate: Mon, 20 Mar 2017 10:15:54 PDT
  • covers

    • PubDate: Thu, 11 Aug 2016 09:28:48 PDT
  • The Whitetail Damselfish (Family Pomacentridae), Stegastes leucorus
           (Gilbert, 1892), new to California Marine Waters with a Key to the
           California Species of Pomacentridae

    • Authors: Milton S. Love et al.
      Abstract: We report here on the first documented occurrences of the whitetail damselfish, Stegastes leucorus (Gilbert, 1892), from California and adjacent marine waters. In addition, we provide a list of the damselfishes (Pomacentridae) known from these waters and provide a key to these species.
      PubDate: Thu, 11 Aug 2016 09:28:44 PDT
  • A Baseline Investigation into the Population Structure of White Seabass,
           Atractoscion nobilis, in California and Mexican Waters Using
           Microsatellite DNA Analysis

    • Authors: Michael P. Franklin et al.
      Abstract: The white seabass, Atractoscion nobilis, is a commercially important member of the Sciaenidae that has experienced historic exploitation by fisheries off the coast of southern California. For the present study, we sought to determine the levels of contemporary population connectivity among localities distributed throughout the species’ range using nuclear microsatellite markers. Data from the present study have revealed three distinct genetic units of white seabass: one in the north including the Southern California Bight to Ensenada, another in the south including Punta Abreojos, and the last from within the Gulf of California.
      PubDate: Thu, 11 Aug 2016 09:28:41 PDT
  • Significance of Bulb Polarity in Survival of Transplanted Mitigation Bulbs

    • Authors: Frances M. Shropshire et al.
      Abstract: Our experimental design was formulated to determine whether or not bulb polarity (orientation) at the time of replanting of bulbs to salvage plants of Calochortus weedii A. W. Wood (Liliaceae) or Weed’s Mariposa Lily affected the success of the mitigation transplant effort. Polarity of bulbs at planting clearly did influence subsequent growth, most notably in the tip-down (D) treatment. Among these bulbs, 75% failed to emerge from dormancy and only four (20%) actually set mature fruit. This was in sharp contrast to the other three treatments where 100% of the bulbs successfully emerged in this season and between 80% (S) and 95% (UG and UN) set mature fruit. The data from this study do indicate that: 1) bulb planting orientation does influence survival and growth, and 2) proper bulb planting polarity (orientation) should be an important consideration in any transplantation of this or any sensitive bulb producing plant species for mitigation purposes.
      PubDate: Thu, 11 Aug 2016 09:28:37 PDT
  • Early Women Scientists of Los Angeles Harbor

    • Authors: Geraldine Knatz
      Abstract: Abstract--Los Angeles Harbor, in San Pedro Bay, has long drawn scientific researchers, from its days as a 19th century muddy tide flat to today’s industrial complex of man-made channels and wharves. A marine biological laboratory was established on Terminal Island as an outpost of the University of California and operating for the summers of 1901 and 1902. As it was a teaching laboratory, it attracted women students and researchers. Two Los Angeles women associated with the laboratory and who made contributions to the advancement of biology were Sarah P. Monks, an instructor at the Los Angeles Normal School and Martha Burton Williamson, a self-taught conchologist. These women were born in the 1840’s and grew up at a time when scientific pursuits were not the norm for the proper Victorian women. Both had done research in Los Angeles Harbor before the laboratory on Terminal Island was opened and both continued their independent research in the harbor after the laboratory was relocated to San Diego. Both women had cottages on Terminal Island from where they collected and conducted their research. Monks named her cottage Phataria after a sea star, whose asexual reproduction and autonomy was the subject of her research. Williamson amassed a significant collection of shells, corresponding extensively with malacologists from around the world. Williamson’s most significant publication was her 1892 Smithsonian paper on the shells of San Pedro Bay, possibly the first paper published devoted exclusively to the biota of San Pedro Bay and certainly, the first written by a woman. Both faced setbacks in their careers, Monks by not being recognized as author of her anatomy textbook and Williamson for her inability to join the California Academy of Sciences. They both survived residing, at least part-time, within the inhospitable environment of the Terminal Island district of Los Angeles Harbor. They serve as role models for any women who face the prospect of going where few women go in their quest for scientific knowledge.
      PubDate: Thu, 11 Aug 2016 09:28:32 PDT
  • The Marine Biological Laboratory at Terminal Island, Los Angeles Harbor

    • Authors: Geraldine Knatz
      Abstract: Abstract. - In 1891, Professor William E. Ritter of the biology department at the University of California began searching for a location along the California coast for a biological field station. After operating summer field stations from tents in Pacific Grove on Monterey Bay, Avalon on Catalina Island and San Pedro, California, Ritter selected Terminal Island in Los Angeles Harbor as the home for what he originally hoped would be a permanent station. The station opened in June 1901. Ritter’s goal was to catalog the rich fauna of San Pedro Bay, Santa Catalina Island and San Diego Bay. The laboratory also provided an educational opportunity for secondary school teachers in the field of marine zoology. Ritter sought help from prominent Los Angeles citizens and the Southern California Academy of Sciences to financially support the laboratory and the laboratory remained in operation for the summers of 1901 and 1902. The Marine Biological Laboratory of Terminal Island represented the first outpost of the University of California in Southern California and the true beginning for the study of marine science within the Los Angeles region. Scientific research in the Los Angeles region prior to this time gave little attention to marine life. It was during the laboratory’s first year of operation in 1901 that the first red tide off Southern California was recorded. This paper chronicles the history of the two summers of operation at the Terminal Island laboratory focusing on the challenges to establish, furnish and raise funds for the continuation of the laboratory in Los Angeles. Ultimately, Los Angeles found itself outcompeted by a focused fundraising campaign organized in San Diego and Ritter moved the laboratory to San Diego in 1903. In making the move, Ritter speculated that Los Angeles Harbor might become commercially significant reducing its appeal as a place for collecting and studying marine life. Ritter’s San Diego laboratory ultimately became the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Yet its humble beginning in an old bathhouse on Terminal Island is often overlooked.
      PubDate: Thu, 11 Aug 2016 09:28:28 PDT
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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