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Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 0038-3872
     Published by Southern California Academy of Sciences Homepage  [1 journal]
  • A New Intranasal Chigger of the Subgenus Crypticula, Genus Microtrombicula
           (Acarina: Trombiculidae) from Texas

    • Authors: Richard B. Loomis
      Abstract: A new species of Microtrombicula (Crypticula) is based on intranasal larvae from Peromyscus pectoralis trapped near Del Rio, Val Verde Co., Texas.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Oct 2014 13:25:29 PDT
  • Two Bopyrids (Isopoda) from New Guinea

    • Authors: Charles G. Danforth
      Abstract: The female Parathelges weberi has been previously described but the male, host, and locale Were unknown. These data are hen provided and a new species of Pseudione is described from the same area.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Oct 2014 13:25:28 PDT
  • The Invasion and Distribution of the Asiatic Clam (Corbicular manilensis)
           in a Southern California Reservoir

    • Authors: Arlo W. Fast
      Abstract: Corbicula manilensis Philippi were probably established in EI Capitan Reservoir by 1962. Relatively few live specimens, and no empty shell' were observed during 1964. Empty shells were lirsl observed during the summer of 1965 and outnumbered living specimens by 1967. Live clam populations increased from 234 x 105 individuals during the summer 1964 to a peak of 10,816 x 105 during January 1966. They declined to 6,744 x 105 during the summer 1967. These fluctuations were partually attributed to water level changes and reservoir stratification. Thermal and chemical stratification limited the depth distribution of Corbicula to the shallow, aerated depths during stratified periods. Their distribution extended to all depths following prolonged periods of artificial destratification. Corbicula densities appeared positively correlated with sediment mean partical size.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Oct 2014 13:25:27 PDT
  • Two Types of Aggregation Grouping in the Large Milkweed Bug, Oncopeltus
           fasciatus (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae)

    • Authors: Steven R. Kutchner
      Abstract: Two types of grouping behavior, parallel and linear groups, in the large milkweed bug Oncopeltus fasciatus (Dallas) seem to have survival value. Grouped bugs receive mutual benefit from the ability to perceive stimuli from more directions and are usually touching each other. Color pattern and uniformity of direction causes a striking pattern in aposomatic insects. A combination of the shape of the bugs, limited areas for grouping on the plant, and microclimates have influences on the type and shape of aggregations. Aggregation may also be influenced by the substrate, position of the heat or light source, and changing behavioral and physiological stages of the bug.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Oct 2014 13:25:26 PDT
  • A New Species of Iphitime (Polychaeta) From Cancer Antennarius (Crustacea:

    • Authors: John Pilger
      Abstract: A new species of Iphitime is described from Cancer antennariits. Notes are given on the morphological criteria used in separation of the five species of the genus.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Oct 2014 13:25:25 PDT
  • A New Subspecies of Funnel-Eared Bat (Natalus Stramineus) From Western

    • Authors: Omar J. Linares
      Abstract: A new subspecies of the funnel-eared bat Natalus stramineus is described from a cave in the Guasare river, Zulia, Venezuela. On the basis of palatal Structure, the 3 recognized subspecies of N. major are assigned In N. stramineus. The species status of N. tumidirostris and its possible synonymy with N. stramineus are also discussed. Additional records of N. t. continentis from northern Venezuela are included.
      PubDate: Mon, 27 Oct 2014 13:25:25 PDT
  • A New Species of Hunterotrema (Digenea: Campulidae) from the Amazon River
           Dolphin (Inia Geoffrensis)

    • Authors: Murray D. Dailey
      Abstract: A new species of Hunterotrema (Digenea: Campulidae) is described from the lungs of the Amazon river dolphin (Inia geoffrensis). It differs from the single species in this genus, H. caballeroi, in body size, the lack of cuticular spines, placement of genital pore, and size of cirrus sac.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 15:10:25 PDT
  • New Species of Polydora (Polychaeta: Spionidae) from the Coast of

    • Authors: James A. Blake et al.
      Abstract: Four new species of Polydora are described. All species bore into calcareous substrata and occur in California, with one ranging as far north as British Columbia.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 14:05:24 PDT
  • Descriptions and Notes Concerning Some Oriental Aphelocheirus (Hemiptera:

    • Authors: Ira La Rivers
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 14:05:22 PDT
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    • PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 14:00:20 PDT
  • The Larvae of Pagurus samuelis (Decapoda: Anomura) Reared in the

    • Authors: Floy E. MacMillan
      Abstract: Pagurus samuelis (Stimpson) larvae from northern California were studied. Larvae were raised at 15 and I7°C. Illustrations and descriptions of the four zoeal stages and glaucothoe are presented. The zoea are compared with descriptions of zoea of this species from Japan.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 14:00:20 PDT
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    • PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 13:56:56 PDT
  • The Effect of Potassium Ions on the Rate of Ciliary Activity in Sphaerium
           transversum I. A Different Response in Small and Large Clam Preparations

    • Authors: Anthony A. Paparo et al.
      Abstract: The presence of potassium in the bathing solution is necessary to maintain a basal rate of beating in Sphaerium transversum. There is a significant difference in the response of small and large specimens to: (1) short- and long-term responses to various concentrations of potassium; (2) removal and subsequent addition of potassium; (3) variation of maintenance dosage of potassium in the washing solution; (4) lag period of response to a specific dose. The results suggest that an intracellular transmembrane potential change (surface effect) is necessary to activate ciliated cells of small clams. This latter change in small clams would account for the relatively short lag period for potassium activation.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 13:56:55 PDT
  • A Survey of the Family Caprellidae (Crustacea, Amphipoda) from Selected
           Sites Along the Northern California Coast

    • Authors: Donald M. Martin
      Abstract: Nineteen species of caprellid amphipods representing six genera are described for the northern California coast. The study area extended from the Oregon-California border south to Fort Bragg. Twenty-one collecting sites were established and classified as to habitat type. The ranges for the following six species have been extended: Caprella brevirostris, C. greenleyi, C. pustulata, C. alaskana, C. acanthogaster, and Cercops compactus. The latter five species are new to California, and one of these, a new subspecies of Caprella acanthogaster, is described. A key is presented, and correlations between the types of coastal habitat and observed caprellid distribution patterns are discussed.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 13:56:54 PDT
  • The Diet of Large and Small Individuals of the Sea Anemone Metridium

    • Authors: Jennifer E. Purcell
      Abstract: Microscopic examination of waste pellets of Metridium senile on wharf pilings in Monterey, California, revealed that the same foods were utilized by both large and small anemones. Zooplankters, including copepods, polychaete larvae, bivalve and gastropod veligers. copepod nauplii, and barnacle nauplii and cyprids constituted nearly all of the available planktonic animals and identifiable animals in waste pellets. Zooplankters were eaten roughly in proportion to their availability. Pieces of flesh, scraped from fish or squid by fishermen, were available in the water, and commonly occurred in waste pellets. Both large and small specimens of M. senile appear to feed non-selectively on small waterborne animal foods.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 13:56:53 PDT
  • Notes on the Biology of Ceuthothrombium cavaticum (Acari: Trombidiidae), a
           Parasite of Cave Crickets (Rhaphidophoridae: Ceuthophilus)

    • Authors: James P. Webb Jr. et al.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 13:56:45 PDT
  • A New Species of Cymatoceras (Nautilida: Cymatoceratidae) from West Texas

    • Authors: John K. Tucker et al.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 13:56:44 PDT
  • The Striped Dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba, in the Gulf of California

    • Authors: David A. Mullen
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 13:56:43 PDT
  • Selective Pressure on Predator and Prey When an Age Class Becomes a Refuge
           from Predation

    • Authors: Harrington Wells
      Abstract: A Lotka-Volterra predator-prey model, in which a sexually immature and a sexually mature age class exists, is studied in order to discover the effects on the system of an age class refuge from predation. Prey density-dependent effects are also considered. This refuge situation was found to be advantageous, in terms of group selection for predator and prey, but individually disadvantageous for predators. Prey density dependence reduces the likelihood of an equilibrium between predator and prey populations, but also reduces the necessary criteria for local stability when an equilibrium point exists. A method for the initial occurrence of group selection is suggested.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 13:51:49 PDT
  • Extraction of a Phytoecdysone, Ponasterone A, from Podocarpus gracilior
           Pilger, and Its Effect on Paramyelois transitella (Walker) (Lepidoptera:

    • Authors: Victoria Y. Yokoyama
      Abstract: A compound with insect-molting hormone activity extracted from Podocarpus gracilior Pilger was identified as ponasterone A by thin layer chromatography. Topical applications had no effect on the eggs or larvae of the navel orangeworm, Paramyelois transitella (Walker). Premolt sclerotization was induced in sixth instar larvae by intrahemocoele injection and 0.5 µl produced the greatest response. A larval-pupal intermediate was the most common type of premature development induced by the compound. Isolated abdomens from larvae with thoracic ligatures were highly sensitive to the phytoecdysone and were used to detect molting hormone activity. Ponasterone A applied to the larval stage by injected and oral dosages reduced the fecundity of the female survivors. The phytoecdysone had no effect when incorporated in the larval diet.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 13:51:48 PDT
  • A Telemetric Study of the Behavior of Free-Swimming Pacific Angel Sharks,
           Squatina californica

    • Authors: Edward A. Standora et al.
      Abstract: Nine Pacific angel sharks were tagged near Santa Catalina Island, California, with single-channel or multichannel ultrasonic transmitters incorporating various combinations of sensors to measure swimming speed, depth, light, and temperature. The sharks were tracked for periods of 13 to 25 h and were found to be basically nocturnal, apparently cuing on decreased light intensity averaging 7 lux (range, 1-16) to begin swimming activity which peaked at dusk and midnight. Mean of maximum rate of movement for each shark was 490 m/h. The tagged sharks moved an average of 4 km (range, 2-9) during the trackings and collectively occupied a home area of approximately 150 ha. The sharks swam at depths ranging from 27 to 100 m and readily crossed thermoclines. The number and size of individuals seen at the tagging site changed with season.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 13:51:47 PDT
  • Notes on the Behavior of Elasmobranch Fishes Exposed to Magnetic Fields

    • Authors: Bruce K. Knudtson et al.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 13:51:46 PDT
  • Unseasonable Occurrences of Gray Whales

    • Authors: Donald R. Patten et al.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 13:51:45 PDT
  • The Natal Pterylosis of the House Finch

    • Authors: Charles T. Collins et al.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 13:51:44 PDT
  • Cover

    • PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 13:41:47 PDT
  • A Resurvey of E. Yale Dawson's 42 Intertidal Algal Transects on the
           Southern California Mainland after 15 Years

    • Authors: Ronald M. Thom et al.
      Abstract: The 42 intertidal transects established by E. Y. Dawson on the southern California mainland from 1956-1959 were resurveyed for their algal flora during 1973-1974. Although there were no losses of conspicuous species, the relative abundances of various forms had changed over the time period. The shift in the flora has been toward the turf and crustose species and away from the massive species. The Orange County flora showed the greatest change and the Los Angeles flora the least. In the Santa Barbara. Ventura, and San Diego areas the flora was modified to an intermediate extent.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 13:36:55 PDT
  • The Natal Pterylosis of Hummingbirds

    • Authors: Charles T. Collins
      Abstract: Of the hummingbirds examined, most have a common pattern of natal down distribution: a single paired row of filamentous mid-dorsal neossoptiles. One exception, Glands hirsuta, typically has 30 short conglomerate downs on eight tracts, including the dorsal cervical region. The taxonomic usefulness of natal pterylosis seems to be at the intrafamilial level in the Apodiformes.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 13:36:54 PDT
  • A New Species of Syllides (Polychaeta: Syllidae) with Notes on
           Amblyosyllis speciosa Izuka from San Clemente Island, California

    • Authors: John H. Dorsey
      Abstract: A new species of Syllides is described and Amblyosyllis speciosa is recorded for the first time from California. Both species were taken from shallow rocky areas at San Clemente Island.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 13:36:53 PDT
  • Phycological Notes VIII. Two Brown Algae (Phaeophyta) New to California

    • Authors: George J. Hollenberg
      Abstract: Two brown algae, Cutleria cylindrica Okamura and Myriactiila rivulariae (Suhr in Areschoug) J. Feldmann from Santa Catalina Island are reported as new to California. Neither genus has been previously reported from the eastern north Pacific Ocean. Comparisons with related taxa are not wholly conclusive because of anomalous features shown by the California plants.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 13:36:52 PDT
  • A New Species of Chiton (Neoloricata: Ischnochitonidae) from the Galapagos

    • Authors: Antonio J. Ferreira
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 13:36:51 PDT
  • A New Genus and Species of Capitellidae (Polychaeta) from California

    • Authors: James A. McCammon et al.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 13:36:49 PDT
  • First Report of Brooding in Syllides japonica Imajima (Syllidae:

    • Authors: Albert E. Heacox et al.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:12:04 PDT
  • Notes on the Biology of Lithurgus gihhosus Smith in Florida (Hymenoptera:

    • Authors: Vincent Brach
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:12:03 PDT
  • Additions to the Cerambycidae of the Revilla Gigedo Islands (Coleoptera)

    • Authors: John A. Chemsak et al.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:12:02 PDT
  • Branchiate Dorvilleidae (Polychaeta) from the North Pacific

    • Authors: John W. Armstrong et al.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:12:02 PDT
  • Additional Notes on the Western Conenose, Triatoma p. protracta (Insecta:
           Hemiptera: Reduviidae), as a Carrier of Chagas' Trypanosome

    • Authors: Sherwin F. Wood et al.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:12:01 PDT
  • Pollination Ecology of Chlorogalum pomeridianum (D.C.) Kunth. (Liliaceae)

    • Authors: Robert E. Stockhouse II et al.
      Abstract: The pollination ecology of Chlorogalum pomeridianum was studied. This lily is a member of the Southern California coastal scrub community. Flower opening occurs at dusk and happens in a few seconds. The flowers deliquesce later the same evening. Large native bees appear to be the only effective pollinators. Self compatibility and the ability to self pollinate were studied.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:12:00 PDT
  • The Subspecific Status of Onychomys torridus clarus Hollister 1913
           (Rodentia: Cricetidae)

    • Authors: John O. Matson et al.
      Abstract: The subspecific status of various populations of the southern grasshopper mouse (Onychomys torridus) was examined using univariate and multivariate procedures. Sex, age and individual variation were assessed for the two populations with the largest sample sizes. Twenty four populations were analyzed for patterns of geographic variation corresponding to currently recognized subspecific boundaries of Onychomys torridus clarus, O. t. longicaudus, and O. t. pulcher.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:11:58 PDT
  • Relict Survival of the Sea Otter in Central California and Evidence of Its
           Recent Redispersal South of Point Conception

    • Authors: Stephen Leatherwood et al.
      Abstract: Historically the sea otter abounded around the North Pacific Rim from northern Japan to central Baja California, Mexico. But the population south of Alaska was so heavily hunted in the 18th and 19th centuries for its valuable fur that by very early in the 20th century it generally was assumed to have been extirpated there. In 1938, a remnant population was reported along the nearly inaccessible coast of southern Monterey County, California. Extensive exploration of the reefs from northern Washington to northern Baja California between 1913 and 1926, resulting in sightings only at Bixby Creek, supports the contention that the species persisted nowhere else in that area. The population has since markedly increased in central California, resulting in expansion of the species" range. Twenty four recent records south of Point Conception provide increasing evidence of limited redispersal there.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:11:57 PDT
  • Residual Effects of Summer Irrigation on Mojave Desert Annuals

    • Authors: Hyrun B. Johnson et al.
      Abstract: The response of summer and winter annuals to early summer irrigation and/or natural precipitation was determined for a rocky slope and a sandy bajada near East Ord Mountain in the Mojave Desert, California. Irrigation stimulated the germination of summer annuals on the rocky slope but not on the bajada, where a thundershower later in the summer caused a profusion of annuals. The following season, winter annuals showed markedly reduced densities on both irrigation plots and on the area receiving summer rain. These surprising results suggest that summer precipitation may have a much greater influence on vegetation response than had been previously supposed. Annuals comprised over 80% of the plant species on the two sites. Native winter annuals appear as components of highly integrated stable communities. The spatial heterogeneity of annual communities is greater than for perennial communities.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:11:56 PDT
  • 'Peter Left Because . . .': A Comparative Study of Family Oral

    • Authors: Nancy Thym
      Abstract: In 1854, Peter Oest left the small, northern German town of Otterndorf for America. He left behind a productive farm and high social position for the life of an unlucky gold miner in the California foothills. In Otterndorf the descendants of Peter's brother give one reason for Peter's seemingly irrational behavior, while Peter's descendants in California give quite another reason: the former, that he left for marital reasons, the latter, that he left for military reasons. The truth in these disparate accounts is no longer possible to determine and is perhaps not as important as the exploration of the motivations behind each family's account and the insights the accounts give us into the way in which narratives are generated.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:11:55 PDT
  • A New Synonymy in the Genus Chilicola (Hymenoptera: Colletidae)

    • Authors: Roy R. Snelling
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:10:14 PDT
  • Cover

    • PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:07:00 PDT
  • Cuvier's Beaked Whale, Ziphius cavirostris, from Barbados

    • Authors: David K. Caldwell et al.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:05:20 PDT
  • Additional Specimens of the Colubrid Snake Amastridium veliferum Cope from
           Costa Rica with Comments of a Pseudohermaphrodite

    • Authors: Larry David Wilson et al.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:05:19 PDT
  • An Evaluation of Two Methods of Measuring Metacarpal Length in Artibeus
           lituratus (Olfers) (Chiroptera: Phyllostomatidae)

    • Authors: Donald R. Patten
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:05:18 PDT
  • Distribution of Some Southern California Kangaroo Rats

    • Authors: Blair A. Csuti
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:05:17 PDT
  • Variation and Geographic Distribution in Some Argentine and Chilean
           Osmylidae, with a New Species of Kempynus (Neuroptera)

    • Authors: Philip A. Adams
      Abstract: A similar color variation, which consists in longitudinally streaked wings, occurs in Kempynus falcatus Navas and Phymatosmylus caprorum Adams. These species are sympatric with the newly described Kempynus crenatus on the western slope of the Andes between 34° 30' S and 40° S. but further south in Chiloe and Aysen, K. falcatus occurs on the coast.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:05:16 PDT
  • Parasitic Mites of Surinam. VIII. A New Genus and Species of Chigger,
           Fauranius atecmartus, and Additional Records of Species (Acarnia:

    • Authors: James M. Brennan et al.
      Abstract: Twenty-six species of chiggers are now known from Surinam. Nineteen are recorded here. Fauranius new genus is described for F. atecmartus, new species off Philander opossum and F. myoproctae (Fauran, 1960), new combination.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:05:15 PDT
  • Taxonomy and Distribution of the Artic Species Lucicutia (Copepoda:

    • Authors: Julio Vidal
      Abstract: The taxonomy and distribution Of the Arctic species of Lucicutia were studied. Analysis of approximately 400 plankton hauls from the Arctic Ocean revealed the presence of Lucicutia polaris Brodsky, L. pseudopolaris Heptner, and L. anomala Brodsky in samples collected in deep waters. The two former species are closely related hut differ in morphological and biological characteristics of the adults and juvenile stages. The male of Lucicutia anomala is described for the first time. These species have a wide geographical distribution in the Arctic Ocean. They inhabit the Arctic bottom water and show different but overlapping ranges of vertical distribution. L. pseudopolaris is most abundant at a depth of about 1500 m; L. polaris preferentially lives at a depth of about 2000 m; and L. anomala is found in waters deeper than 2000 m. This species is most abundant at depths exceeding 3000 m. Physical, chemical and biological factors which might restrict the distribution of these species at different depths were discussed.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:05:14 PDT
  • A Review of the Genus Boccardia Carazzi (Polychaeta: Spionidae) with
           Descriptions of the New Species

    • Authors: James A. Blake et al.
      Abstract: Taxonomic characteristics of 14 species of Boccardia are compiled in the form of a table. Each species is further distinguished in a key. Boccardia ligerica Ferronniere is redescribed with new synonymies. Two new species, B. berkeleyorum and B. chilensis are described.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:05:14 PDT
  • A Revision of the Genus Loandalia Monro with Description of a New Genus
           and Species of Pilargiid Polychaete

    • Authors: Raymond R. Emerson et al.
      Abstract: A re-examination of the genotype of Loandalia, L. aberrans Monro (1936) demonstrated several unique morphological features not previously noted. A new genus, Parandalia, is established to contain the other species usually considered in Loandalia. Type species is Parandalia ocularis, new species; others include P. americana, P.fauveli, P. gracilis and P. indica.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:05:13 PDT
  • A New Species of Simopelta from Costa Rica (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)

    • Authors: Roy R. Snelling
      Abstract: Simopelta paeminosa, new species, is described from Puntarenas Province. Costa Rica. Diagnostic features of this species are: tridentate mandibles with acute basal tooth; no median clypeal spine; rugose cephalic and alitrunk integument. This species appears to be most closely allied to S. williamsi of Ecuador.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:05:12 PDT
  • Changes in the Intertidal Algal Flora of the Los Angeles Area Since the
           Survey by E. Yale Dawson in 1956-1959

    • Authors: Thomas B. Widdowson
      Abstract: Each of the 15 stations set up by Dawson between Pt. Dume and Dana Point were reoccupied two or three times during the period 1968 to 1970. The data obtained were analysed in a manner comparable to Dawson's. The most conspicuous reductions were found in the flora of stations exposed to direct human interference, and in the species which characteristically grow half buried in sand. Methods are suggested by which problems associated with sand movement, seasonal variation, and taxonomy may be minimized.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:05:11 PDT
  • Cover

    • PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 12:00:16 PDT
  • Cover

    • PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 11:56:40 PDT
  • Survivorship Patterns in Captive Killer Whales (Orcinus orca)

    • Authors: Clifford A. Hui et al.
      Abstract: Captive killer whales have an overall mortality rate of 4.7% per year. Females have a significantly higher (7.0%) rate than males (2.1%). Larger females have a shorter captive life span than the smaller females. The ability to cope with the psychological dislocation caused by capture may be greater in younger females. The captive state may also possibly reduce intrasexual stress normal to wild males. Less stressful capture procedures may possibly increase captive longevity.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 11:56:39 PDT
  • Sympatry in Bufo horeas and Bufo canorus and Additional Evidence of
           Natural Hybridization

    • Authors: Martin L. Morton et al.
      Abstract: The second case of sympatry and hybridization between Bufo boreas and B. canorus in the Sierra Nevada Mountains is reported. The location of contact is Frog Lakes, a group of tarns at 3,170 m elevation in Mono County, California. Specimens of both species were collected in late summer of 1976. General appearance, amount of ventral pigmentation, and particularly measurements of parotoid gland width and of hind foot web length indicate that several of the specimens are actually hybrids.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 11:56:38 PDT
  • The genus Calloplax Thiele, 1909 (Mollusca: Polyplacophora) in the

    • Authors: Antonio J. Ferreira
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 11:56:37 PDT
  • On the Taxonomic Affinities of Collisella edmitchelli (Lipps) (Gastropoda:
           Acmaeidae) a Late Pleistocene Limpet from San Nicolas Island, California

    • Authors: David R. Lindberg
      Abstract: The taxonomic affinities between the extinct acmaeid Collisella edmitchelli (Lipps. 1966) and Recent California species has been previously studied using highly variable exterior shell characters. I use shell structure, a character I believe to be more conservative than either shell or radular morphology, to determine the taxonomic and phylogenetic relationships of this species. The shell structure of C. edmitchelli is identical to that of C. scabra (Gould. 1846). This shell structure group is not known to occur in any other acmaeid species. Although closely related to C. scabra, C. edmitchelli is morphologically distinct and is retained as a valid, extinct species known only from Late Pleistocene deposits on San Nicolas Island. California.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 11:56:36 PDT
  • Some Estimates of the Distribution of Benefits from Los Angeles City
           Government Activity

    • Authors: Henry B. Thomas
      Abstract: Analysis of the distribution of benefits generated by Los Angeles city government activity suggests that Los Angeles expenditure patterns may not be pro-poor. Benefits from nine program areas of service delivery are estimated and distributed to various income classes. For each program area a wide range of incidence assumptions is made. Results suggest that for the entire range of assumptions the lowest class does not benefit more than other classes. Furthermore for some assumptions the lowest class is significantly worse off. If the lowest class is ignored in the analysis, the remaining classes are treated identically under all assumptions. Because other studies have found such pro-poor expenditure patterns, these results may imply that Los Angeles is atypical of large U.S. cities. One reason for this difference may be that Los Angeles does not provide the education, welfare or health services that some large cities provide. In Los Angeles these services are provided by county or district level governments so benefits from these pro-poor services are not at all due to Los Angeles city government activity.
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 11:56:35 PDT
  • A First Report of Heteropodarke heteromorpha Hartmann-Schroder, 1962
           (Polychaeta: Hesionidae) from California

    • Authors: Mary K. Wicksten
      PubDate: Thu, 23 Oct 2014 11:56:34 PDT
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