Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0038-3872
Published by Southern California Academy of Sciences [1 journal]
PubDate: Mon, 20 Mar 2017 10:16:22 PDT
- Records of Wahoo, Acanthocybium solandri (Scombridae), from California
Authors: Richard F. Feeney et al.
PubDate: Mon, 20 Mar 2017 10:16:18 PDT
- The Largemouth Blenny, Labrisomus xanti, New to the California Marine
Fauna with a List of and Key to the Species of Labrisomidae, Clinidae, and
Chaenopsidae found in California Waters
Authors: Milton S. Love et al.
PubDate: Mon, 20 Mar 2017 10:16:13 PDT
- Environmental Factors Influencing Reproduction in a Temperate Marine Reef
Goby, Rhinogobiops nicholsii, and Associated Behaviors
Authors: Michael J. Schram et al.
Abstract: The blackeye goby is a protogynous reef fish common to the northeastern Pacific Ocean. While this ubiquitous species has been the focus of numerous studies, there are several aspects of its reproductive ecology that are unknown. By directly quantifying reproduction from digital photographs of blackeye goby nests in the field, this study aimed to determine whether reproductive patterns were linked to 1) lunar phase or 2) ambient water temperature; and 3) whether the behavior of gobies changed when a nearby conspecific had eggs in his nest. At Santa Catalina Island, California, twenty 2.25-m2 artificial reefs were established and stocked with similar numbers and size-distributions of blackeye gobies during the summers of 2012 and 2013. Photographs of nests were taken weekly for ~3 months each summer. Through analysis of photographs, incubation time was found to be more than 7 days but less than 14 days. Nests, each guarded by one male, contained an average of 8664 eggs, in an area of 43.8 cm2, with 215 eggs cm-2. Blackeye gobies laid eggs during all lunar phases and the number of eggs produced was not related to lunar phase. Reproductive output, however, was negatively correlated with water temperature, with populations on reefs that experienced cooler temperatures producing more eggs. The presence of eggs in a nest had little effect on behavior of blackeye gobies on that reef. Additional observations made outside of summer months indicated that blackeye gobies can reproduce year-round in southern California. These results suggest a reproductive strategy aimed at maximizing total reproductive output by spreading the risk of reproductive failure throughout the year rather than optimizing the timing of reproduction.
PubDate: Mon, 20 Mar 2017 10:16:07 PDT
- Status of the Endangered Chorro Creek Bog Thistle Cirsium fontinale var.
obispoense (Asteraceae) in Coastal Central California
Authors: Christopher P. Kofron et al.
Abstract: Chorro Creek bog thistle Cirsium fontinale var. obispoense (Asteraceae) is a biennial or short-lived perennial plant up to 2 m tall that occurs only in San Luis Obispo County, west of the outer coast ranges. It was listed as endangered under the California Endangered Species Act in 1993 and the U.S. Endangered Species Act in 1994. Chorro Creek bog thistle is a serpentine endemic, occupying perennial seeps and springs in serpentine soil and rock in western San Luis Obispo County from north of San Simeon Creek to south of the city of San Luis Obispo. At federal listing in 1994 Chorro Creek bog thistle was known from nine occurrences (one of these presumed extirpated) and with an estimate of
PubDate: Mon, 20 Mar 2017 10:16:03 PDT
- Rodent Removal of Fallen Joshua Tree (Yucca brevifolia) Fruits
Authors: Mark I. Borchert 8784318
Abstract: Abstract.—Joshua trees (Yucca brevifolia) produce large, indehiscent fruits that contain numerous large seeds. Seed dispersal in this species depends on rodents to dismantle fruits and extract the seeds which they disperse tens of meters from the source. Using camera trapping and fruits equipped with bobbins, I show that white-tailed antelope squirrels (Ammospermophilus leucurus) and kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.) moved intact, fallen fruits 6 to 7 m from trees before opening them. Pocket mice (Chaetodipus fallax and Perognathus longimembris) and pinyon mice (Peromyscus trueii) dismantled fruits in situ and harvested loose seeds but did not appear to move them. However, they readily harvested loose seeds. Mobilizing fruits may be an important, overlooked step in the seed dispersal process, especially if the fruits are indehiscent. Fruit-carrying behavior of rodents described in this study adds to the dispersal distance of Joshua tree seeds.
PubDate: Mon, 20 Mar 2017 10:15:58 PDT
- Site Fidelity of a Coastal Cactus Wren (Camphylorynchus brunneicapillus)
on the Palos Verdes Peninsula
Authors: Ann Dalkey
PubDate: Mon, 20 Mar 2017 10:15:54 PDT
PubDate: Thu, 11 Aug 2016 09:28:48 PDT
- The Whitetail Damselfish (Family Pomacentridae), Stegastes leucorus
(Gilbert, 1892), new to California Marine Waters with a Key to the
California Species of Pomacentridae
Authors: Milton S. Love et al.
Abstract: We report here on the first documented occurrences of the whitetail damselfish, Stegastes leucorus (Gilbert, 1892), from California and adjacent marine waters. In addition, we provide a list of the damselfishes (Pomacentridae) known from these waters and provide a key to these species.
PubDate: Thu, 11 Aug 2016 09:28:44 PDT
- A Baseline Investigation into the Population Structure of White Seabass,
Atractoscion nobilis, in California and Mexican Waters Using
Microsatellite DNA Analysis
Authors: Michael P. Franklin et al.
Abstract: The white seabass, Atractoscion nobilis, is a commercially important member of the Sciaenidae that has experienced historic exploitation by fisheries off the coast of southern California. For the present study, we sought to determine the levels of contemporary population connectivity among localities distributed throughout the species’ range using nuclear microsatellite markers. Data from the present study have revealed three distinct genetic units of white seabass: one in the north including the Southern California Bight to Ensenada, another in the south including Punta Abreojos, and the last from within the Gulf of California.
PubDate: Thu, 11 Aug 2016 09:28:41 PDT
- Significance of Bulb Polarity in Survival of Transplanted Mitigation Bulbs
Authors: Frances M. Shropshire et al.
Abstract: Our experimental design was formulated to determine whether or not bulb polarity (orientation) at the time of replanting of bulbs to salvage plants of Calochortus weedii A. W. Wood (Liliaceae) or Weed’s Mariposa Lily affected the success of the mitigation transplant effort. Polarity of bulbs at planting clearly did influence subsequent growth, most notably in the tip-down (D) treatment. Among these bulbs, 75% failed to emerge from dormancy and only four (20%) actually set mature fruit. This was in sharp contrast to the other three treatments where 100% of the bulbs successfully emerged in this season and between 80% (S) and 95% (UG and UN) set mature fruit. The data from this study do indicate that: 1) bulb planting orientation does influence survival and growth, and 2) proper bulb planting polarity (orientation) should be an important consideration in any transplantation of this or any sensitive bulb producing plant species for mitigation purposes.
PubDate: Thu, 11 Aug 2016 09:28:37 PDT
- Early Women Scientists of Los Angeles Harbor
Authors: Geraldine Knatz
Abstract: Abstract--Los Angeles Harbor, in San Pedro Bay, has long drawn scientific researchers, from its days as a 19th century muddy tide flat to today’s industrial complex of man-made channels and wharves. A marine biological laboratory was established on Terminal Island as an outpost of the University of California and operating for the summers of 1901 and 1902. As it was a teaching laboratory, it attracted women students and researchers. Two Los Angeles women associated with the laboratory and who made contributions to the advancement of biology were Sarah P. Monks, an instructor at the Los Angeles Normal School and Martha Burton Williamson, a self-taught conchologist. These women were born in the 1840’s and grew up at a time when scientific pursuits were not the norm for the proper Victorian women. Both had done research in Los Angeles Harbor before the laboratory on Terminal Island was opened and both continued their independent research in the harbor after the laboratory was relocated to San Diego. Both women had cottages on Terminal Island from where they collected and conducted their research. Monks named her cottage Phataria after a sea star, whose asexual reproduction and autonomy was the subject of her research. Williamson amassed a significant collection of shells, corresponding extensively with malacologists from around the world. Williamson’s most significant publication was her 1892 Smithsonian paper on the shells of San Pedro Bay, possibly the first paper published devoted exclusively to the biota of San Pedro Bay and certainly, the first written by a woman. Both faced setbacks in their careers, Monks by not being recognized as author of her anatomy textbook and Williamson for her inability to join the California Academy of Sciences. They both survived residing, at least part-time, within the inhospitable environment of the Terminal Island district of Los Angeles Harbor. They serve as role models for any women who face the prospect of going where few women go in their quest for scientific knowledge.
PubDate: Thu, 11 Aug 2016 09:28:32 PDT
- The Marine Biological Laboratory at Terminal Island, Los Angeles Harbor
Authors: Geraldine Knatz
Abstract: Abstract. - In 1891, Professor William E. Ritter of the biology department at the University of California began searching for a location along the California coast for a biological field station. After operating summer field stations from tents in Pacific Grove on Monterey Bay, Avalon on Catalina Island and San Pedro, California, Ritter selected Terminal Island in Los Angeles Harbor as the home for what he originally hoped would be a permanent station. The station opened in June 1901. Ritter’s goal was to catalog the rich fauna of San Pedro Bay, Santa Catalina Island and San Diego Bay. The laboratory also provided an educational opportunity for secondary school teachers in the field of marine zoology. Ritter sought help from prominent Los Angeles citizens and the Southern California Academy of Sciences to financially support the laboratory and the laboratory remained in operation for the summers of 1901 and 1902. The Marine Biological Laboratory of Terminal Island represented the first outpost of the University of California in Southern California and the true beginning for the study of marine science within the Los Angeles region. Scientific research in the Los Angeles region prior to this time gave little attention to marine life. It was during the laboratory’s first year of operation in 1901 that the first red tide off Southern California was recorded. This paper chronicles the history of the two summers of operation at the Terminal Island laboratory focusing on the challenges to establish, furnish and raise funds for the continuation of the laboratory in Los Angeles. Ultimately, Los Angeles found itself outcompeted by a focused fundraising campaign organized in San Diego and Ritter moved the laboratory to San Diego in 1903. In making the move, Ritter speculated that Los Angeles Harbor might become commercially significant reducing its appeal as a place for collecting and studying marine life. Ritter’s San Diego laboratory ultimately became the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Yet its humble beginning in an old bathhouse on Terminal Island is often overlooked.
PubDate: Thu, 11 Aug 2016 09:28:28 PDT
PubDate: Sat, 30 Apr 2016 09:40:34 PDT
- The Reef Cornetfish, Fistularia commersonii Rüppell, 1838, New to the
California Marine Fish Fauna
Authors: Milton S. Love
Abstract: In 2015, there were two sightings of the reef cornetfish, Fistularia commersonii Rüppell, 1838, in southern California waters. These two individuals, observed at San Clemente Island and Laguna Beach, mark the first time this species has been reported from California waters.
PubDate: Sat, 30 Apr 2016 09:40:27 PDT
- Redescription of Bathygyge grandis Hansen, 1897 (Crustacea, Isopoda,
Bopyridae) from Southern California with erection of a new subfamily,
Bathygyginae, for it
Authors: John C. Markham
Abstract: Abstract.—The bopyrid isopod species Bathygyge grandis Hansen, 1897, a reported parasite of several species of the genus Glyphocrangon (Caridea, family Glyphocrangonidae) worldwide, is fully described for the first time on the basis of material collected off the coast of southern California, the closest collection known to the type-locality of the species. Included are a complete synonymy and a discussion of the systematic position of the genus Bathygyge.
PubDate: Sat, 30 Apr 2016 09:40:21 PDT
- Seed Collection and Germination Strategies for Common Wetland and Coastal
Sage Scrub Species in Southern California
Authors: Michelle L. Barton et al.
Abstract: There is a need for a consolidated source of information on native vegetation seed collection and germination strategies in southern California. Published literature on these methods is often experimental, species-specific, and widely scattered throughout online and print media. Planting and restoration strategies may need to be site-specific; however, similar methodological approaches are often utilized allowing for the development of general strategies for seed collection, storage, and germination methods. A better understanding of species-specific seed attributes and growth processes will help restoration ecologists collect high-quality, viable seed, thereby increasing the potential success of the restored vegetation community by reducing plant mortality, project costs, and effort. This paper synthesizes seed collection and germination strategies for native vegetation common to southern California estuarine wetland, coastal dune, and coastal sage scrub systems.
PubDate: Sat, 30 Apr 2016 09:40:10 PDT
- Nudibranch Range Shifts associated with the 2014 Warm Anomaly in the
Authors: Jeffrey HR Goddard et al.
Abstract: Abstract.—The Northeast Pacific Ocean was anomalously warm in 2014, despite ENSO-neutral conditions in the tropical Pacific. We documented northern range shifts associated with this anomaly for 30 species of nudibranchs and other shallow-water, benthic heterobranch gastropods from southern California to southern Oregon. Nine of these (Placida cremoniana, Trapania velox, Doriopsilla fulva, Janolus anulatus, J. barbarensis, Flabellina cooperi, Anteaeolidiella chromosoma, A. oliviae, and Noumeaella rubrofasciata) were recorded from new northernmost localities, while the remainder were found at or near northern range limits established mainly during past El Niño events. All 30 species have planktotrophic larval development, and six were observed spawning at northern localities, increasing the likelihood that their ranges will continue to shift poleward as the strong 2015-16 El Niño develops. Notable among these was Okenia rosacea, usually found south of San Francisco and last observed in Oregon as a single specimen found during the 1997-98 El Niño. In 2015 this bright pink nudibranch reached high densities and was observed spawning throughout northern California and into southern Oregon. Okenia rosacea is therefore poised to exploit abundant prey resources previously out of its reach in northern Oregon and Washington. Our results not only demonstrate a striking biological response to the 2014 warm anomaly in the North Pacific Ocean, but also support early physical indications of a larger regional climate shift, one reinforced by long-term global warming. Combined with historical data, these results highlight how shallow-water nudibranchs, with their planktotrophic larvae, short life cycles, conspicuous coloration, and accessibility are excellent biological indicators of ocean climate in the region.
PubDate: Sat, 30 Apr 2016 08:55:26 PDT
- The Return of the King of the Kelp Forest: Distribution, Abundance, and
Biomass of Giant Sea Bass (Stereolepis gigas) off Santa Catalina Island,
Authors: Parker H. House et al.
Abstract: It is rare to find evidence of top predators recovering after being negatively affected by overfishing. However, recent findings suggest a nascent return of the critically endangered giant sea bass (Stereolepis gigas) to southern California. To provide the first population assessment of giant sea bass, surveys were conducted during the 2014/2015 summers off Santa Catalina Island, CA. Eight sites were surveyed on both the windward and leeward side of Santa Catalina Island every two weeks from June through August. Of the eight sites, three aggregations were identified at Goat Harbor, The V’s, and Little Harbor, CA. These three aggregation sites, the largest containing 24 individuals, contained a mean stock biomass of 19.6 kg/1000 m2 over both summers. Over the course of the both summers the giant sea bass population was primarily made up of 1.2 - 1.3 m TL individuals with several small and newly mature fish observed in aggregations. Comparison to historical data for the island suggests giant sea bass are recovering, but have not reached pre-exploitation levels.
PubDate: Sat, 30 Apr 2016 08:55:17 PDT
- A Water Cooler for Transporting Heat Sensitive Animals, Especially Insects
Authors: Sherwin F. Wood et al.
PubDate: Tue, 08 Mar 2016 15:09:12 PST