for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
Followed Journals
Journal you Follow: 0
Sign Up to follow journals, search in your chosen journals and, optionally, receive Email Alerts when new issues of your Followed Journals are published.
Already have an account? Sign In to see the journals you follow.
Journal Cover Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences
  [0 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 0038-3872
   Published by Southern California Academy of Sciences Homepage  [1 journal]
  • covers

    • PubDate: Fri, 12 Jan 2018 14:23:33 PST
  • Reproductive Morphology of Male Black Perch (Embiotoca jacksoni)

    • Authors: Evelyn C. Bond et al.
      Abstract: Black perch (Embiotoca jacksoni) are a common southern California fish that exhibits internal fertilization. During copulation, males transfer a spermatozeugmata to the female via an intromittent organ. Relatively little is known about the reproductive morphology of male black perch and the spermatozeugmata. The objective of our study was to describe the development of spermatocytes and the spermatozeugmata. We also used histology to examine the anal fin and describe the tissues of the intromittent organs. Black perch < 90 mm SL had testes that were composed of spermatocytes at all developmental stages. All stages of spermatocytes in addition to spermatozeugmata were present in males ³ 90 mm SL. On both sides of the anal fin at the anterior end, an intromittent organ was housed in a sheath composed of smooth muscle. Our research note is the first to document the formation of black perch spermatozeugmata within the testis. We also characterized the tissues of the intromittent organs and its muscular sheath which reside on an unmodified anal fin. The copulatory structures of embiotocid species have not been fully investigated, thus our work contributes to understanding the reproductive biology of surfperches.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Jan 2018 14:23:29 PST
  • Status of the isolated, threatened Valle de la Trinidad round-tailed
           ground squirrel, Baja California, Mexico

    • Authors: Eric Mellink et al.
      Abstract: In 1927 Lawrence M. Huey described a new subspecies of round-tailed ground squirrel (Xerospermophilus tereticaudus apricus) from the southernmost extreme of the species, in the geographically isolated valley ‘Valle de la Trinidad’ in Baja California, Mexico. The valley has been subject to extensive agricultural conversion and severe overgrazing, which had already begun when X. t. apricus was described. Despite the loss of natural habitat, a single remaining population of this isolated subspecies was re-discovered in 2015. Acoustic surveys documented individuals at 195 of 456 points sampled. The population does not appear to be adversely affected and may actually benefit from some disturbance from cattle. The densest populations were found in open communities of large leguminous trees or shrubs, principally mesquite, which may be critical seasonal diet components. Conservation considerations are discussed.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Jan 2018 14:23:25 PST
  • Distribution of the Eastern Gray Squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) within
           California as of 2015

    • Authors: Carly M. Creley et al.
      Abstract: - The goals of this study were to map the distribution of the invasive eastern gray squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis, in California as of 2015 and to assess range expansion since the first documented sightings within the state. Range maps exist, but the last update by the California Department of Fish and Wildlife was in 2007. An assessment of the rate of range expansion over time has not been conducted, but comparisons between the locations of initial sightings and the current distribution are included. Location data were obtained from museum specimens, wildlife rehabilitation centers, a roadkill database, and research-grade citizen observations. Range maps were produced with ArcGIS software. Populations of eastern gray squirrels are currently concentrated around Sacramento and Davis, the western side of San Francisco Bay, within as well as north and east of Santa Cruz, within Monterey, north of the Golden Gate Bridge through Marin County as well as around Santa Rosa, and around the Bellota / Stockton area. Isolated populations on the eastern side of San Francisco Bay occur around Berkeley, Hayward, and Pleasanton. Observations extend into the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountain Range from north of the American River to south of the San Antonio River. We suggest that the eastern gray squirrel might become more damaging to the two native diurnal species of tree squirrels in California (Sciurus griseus and Tamiasciurus douglasii) than the introduced eastern fox squirrel (Sciurus niger).
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Jan 2018 14:23:21 PST
  • Distribution of the Eastern Fox Squirrel (Sciurus niger) within California
           as of 2015

    • Authors: Alan E. Muchlinski et al.
      Abstract: - The eastern fox squirrel, Sciurus niger, has been introduced to many areas outside of its native range. Once introduced to a new region the species has generally expanded its geographic range and is considered to be an invasive species, causing both ecological and economic harm. While some information is available on where introductions have occurred, detailed information is not available on the current geographic distribution of the species within California. Since invasive species tend to be under-represented in specimen collections at museums, new methods for obtaining location data were needed. We used a time period of 1995 through 2015 for observations so that location data would be most up-to-date. A majority (51%) of location data used in this study came from wildlife rehabilitation centers, approximately 31% came from citizen-science type sources such as the California Road-Kill Observation System, a previously published journal article, and research-grade submissions to iNaturalist, 10% came from the California Department of Public Health West Nile Virus Surveillance Program, and 8% came from the authors and trained student observers. Maps are presented to show the current geographic distribution of the species indicating a broader range than what was previously known.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Jan 2018 14:23:17 PST
  • A longitudinal temperature profile of the Los Angeles River from June
           through October 2016

    • Authors: Jennifer Mongolo et al.
      Abstract: This pilot study developed a longitudinal temperature profile of the Los Angeles River by deploying temperature loggers throughout the watershed between June and October 2016. The watershed was divided into zones based on river system component, urbanization, and channelization. Channelized sites recorded the highest temperatures, tributaries recorded the lowest, and the estuary showed the most fluctuation. Overall, temperatures were too warm to support re-introduction of native fish but currently support non-native fish species. Temperature mitigation is needed for native species to re-establish. Albeit limited in scope, this study establishes a baseline of summer/fall temperatures in the Los Angeles River.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Jan 2018 14:23:14 PST
  • The effects of a prolonged drought on southern Steelhead Trout
           (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in a coastal creek, Los Angeles County, California

    • Authors: Rosi Dagit et al.
      Abstract: Long-term lifecycle monitoring of federally endangered southern steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Topanga Creek provides a unique opportunity to examine the health and abundance of a steelhead population before (2008-2011) and during (2012-2016) a prolonged drought. We found that the five-year drought resulted in a substantial and significant decline in available wetted habitat suitable for rearing and upstream migratory access for anadromous adults. The response of the steelhead population has been a significant reduction in anadromous spawning, distribution of rearing, and abundance of all life stages of anadromous and resident steelhead. After five years of drought a population that exceeded 325 individuals in 2008, now numbers fewer than 50 fish, and appears to be at extremely high risk of extirpation. Acknowledging the possibility of increased drought regionally and globally, the need to bolster southern steelhead resiliency to additional disturbance is paramount.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Jan 2018 14:23:10 PST
  • Geometric morphometric differentiation of Two Western USA Lizards
           (Phrynosomatidae: Squamata): Uta stansburiana and Urosaurus ornatus, with
           Implications for Fossil Identification

    • Authors: Julie Rej et al.
      Abstract: Squamate fossil identification has been challenging due to the incomplete understanding and sometimes complete lack of osteological research of extant species. Here we compared the maxilla of two similar species of phrynosomatids: Uta stansburiana (Common Side-blotched Lizard) and Urosaurus ornatus (Ornate Tree Lizard). Through landmark-based geometric morphometric analyses, we determined which characters significantly separated the two species. A principle component analysis (PCA) and a stepwise discriminant function analysis (DFA) were conducted, in which we compared 15 landmarks between U. stansburiana and U. ornatus. Both the PCA and stepwise DFA showed separation between the two species. The stepwise DFA selected five of the 15 characters as statistically significant, three of which are considered apomorphies and show promise for fossil identification. The first character is in the ventral region of the posterior maxilla process; U. ornatus has a defined notch, whereas U. stansburiana does not. The second and third characters are in the anterior portion of the maxilla, which is curved dorsally in U. stansburiana, whereas U. ornatus shows no curving. The results of this study are used to identify fossil Uta vs Urosaurus, but more analyses need to be conducted on other phrynosomatid species for comprehensive identification.
      PubDate: Fri, 12 Jan 2018 14:23:06 PST
  • Late-season Reproduction in Western Toads (Bufo boreas)

    • Authors: Gregory B. Pauly et al.
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Aug 2017 09:42:45 PDT
  • Endlicher and Sequoia: Determination of the Entymological Origin of the
           Taxon Sequoia

    • Authors: Nancy E. Muleady-Mecham Ph.D.
      Abstract: The genus Sequoia owes its taxonomic identity to Austrian botanist Stephen L. Endlicher. Research of primary material in Vienna and other locations have revealed Endlicher as a gifted linguist and botanist, who corresponded and interacted with colleagues throughout the world. These included persons who were experts on the Cherokee language and the person Sequoyah. Endlicher’s botanical work of creating eponymous taxa combined with his knowledge of the person Sequoyah throws new light on the origin of the genus Sequoia.
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Aug 2017 09:42:41 PDT
  • A Contribution to the Phylogeography and Anatomy of Helminthoglyptid land
           snails (Pulmonata:Helminthoglyptidae) from the Deserts of southern

    • Authors: David M. Goodward et al.
      Abstract: .— Land snails in the family Helminthoglyptidae are found sparingly and locally throughout southern California’s deserts. They are mostly restricted to rock outcrops and talus in partially shaded canyons where they can gain access to cooler temperatures under the rocks. Several species are known only from their type localities, and were described by shell characters only. We have endeavored to relocate known species, document their reproductive anatomy and embryonic shell structure, refine knowledge of their distribution, and incorporate genetic sequencing of two mitochondrial genes (COI and 16S) to investigate evolutionary relationships in these taxa. As a “first pass” molecular study, we have established basic sequence and divergence data for 27 populations of snails in five genera: Helminthoglypta (subgenus Coyote), Eremarionta, Cahuillus, Chamaearionta and Sonorelix. Fifteen of the populations were previously unknown. We confirmed that the Salton Rift/Coachella Valley is a major biogeographic barrier for land snails, as is the north/south transition between the Colorado and Mojave deserts. Described species of Helminthoglypta (Coyote) grouped together in our phylogenetic analyses and differed from each other by 8-18% in the sequence of the COI gene, concordant with differentiating shell characters. Two previously unknown populations also grouped with the Coyote species but their COI sequences differed from the described species by 5.7-17% suggesting they may represent undescribed Coyote species. Populations of Sonorelix from the eastern Mojave were somewhat similar genetically to Sonorella spp. from southern Arizona but the precise nature of any relationship between these genera remains unresolved. The remaining, previously unknown populations were genetically close to described species of Eremarionta, but inclusion of COI sequences of two Cahuillus spp. rendered the genus Eremarionta paraphyletic, raising questions about the validity of the names applied to some described species. In particular, the subspecies E. rowelli bakerensis was clearly different (>11% in COI) from E. rowelli amboiana and E. rowelli acus, and deserves elevation to at least species status. The eastern Mojave Eremarionta from near Pahrump, Nevada may also be an undescribed species, differing in its COI sequence from its closest described relative by 6.0%. Perhaps the most surprising result from our study was the finding of a population close to the Salton Sea that was very closely related to E. rowelli ssp. bakerensis which occurs ~200 km further north. This highlights the complex nature of genetic variation among geographically isolated Eremarionta populations across the eastern Mojave and western Colorado Deserts.
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Aug 2017 09:42:36 PDT
  • Individually-unique Spot Patterns of Young of the Year Giant Sea Bass,
           Stereolepis gigas in Captive-raised Fish

    • Authors: Michael C. Couffer
      Abstract: Young of the year giant sea bass spend the first several months after planktonic settlement within recreational dive limits, where they are available for underwater study. After planktonic settlement, young of the year giant sea bass enter color phases where a pattern of black spots unique to individual fish appears distinct against a lighter background. To determine whether or not underwater photos of spot patterns might be used to identify and track individuals, several early-stage giant sea bass were captured and raised at public aquaria. Both sides of each fish were planned to be photographed monthly for a year from the capture date. The black spots of young of the year giant sea bass are so few and so distinct that computer programs developed to discern individuals of species with complicated spot patterns are not necessary for re-identification of individuals. Each of three fish that survived twelve months in captivity could be individually identified by eye using photographs of their spot patterns for a year after collection. Two other fish that expired after several months could also be individually distinguished through photographs. This information opens the door to underwater field studies using photography as a passive mark and recapture method for studying young of the year giant sea bass along soft-bottomed nursery beaches where they can be found for the first several months after settlement.
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Aug 2017 09:42:33 PDT
  • Does Estuary Restoration Design Alter the Fine Scale Movements of Grey
           Smoothhounds (Mustelus californicus) in Southern California'

    • Authors: Ryan M. Freedman et al.
      Abstract: Restored estuaries in southern California are limited in size and shape by fragmentation from human development, which can in turn restrict habitat use. Thus, it is important to assess how habitat design affects how fish use restored estuaries. Acoustic telemetry tracking from prior studies revealed that Grey Smoothhounds (Mustelus californicus) used primarily the eelgrass ecotone and warm interior waters in Bolsa Chica Full Tidal Basin (BCFTB), a 1.48 km2 open-format marine dominated estuary. In this study, M. californicus utilized the Channel in Huntington Beach Wetlands Complex (HBWC), a smaller creek estuary. The Channel had more eelgrass than other available habitats but was also the coolest microhabitat, with temperatures below what M. californicus was found to select in BCFTB. Individuals may behaviorally thermoregulate by moving upstream, away from the HBWC Channel, during periods of incoming, cooler ocean water. Mustelus californicus translocated to different microhabitats within the HBWC selected the Channel habitat after the translocation regardless of where animals were released. Despite the large difference in available subtidal habitat between HBWC and BCFTB, no differences in patch size utilization distributions of M. californicus were observed. While individuals seem to shift between microhabitats based on temperature and eelgrass availability, the area size used by M. californicus appears to be the same within both sites despite the differences in overall size between sites. These results suggest that differences in microhabitat use may influence distribution patterns of M. californicus within each site, and therefore, shark abundance may vary with the restoration design (e.g. basin versus channel) and the size of the estuarine habitat. This information on habitat selection will be critical to planning future restorations on the Southern California coast.
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Aug 2017 09:42:28 PDT
  • The Organisms Living Around Energized Submarine Power Cables, Pipe, and
           Natural Sea Floor in the Inshore waters of Southern California

    • Authors: Milton S. Love et al.
      Abstract: Between 1 February 2012 and 26 February 2014 using scuba, we surveyed the fishes, invertebrates, and macrophytes living on two energized submarine power cables, an adjacent pipe, and nearby natural habitat in southern California at bottom depths of 10–11 m and 13–14 m. Over the course of the study, average electromagnetic field (EMF) levels at the two cables (A and B) were statistically similar (Cable A = 73.0µT, Cable B = 91.4µT) and were much higher at these two cables than at either the pipe (average = 0.5µT) or sand (0µT). Overall, our study demonstrated that 1) the fish and invertebrate communities on cables, pipe, and natural habitat strongly overlapped and 2) there were differences between the shallower and deeper fish and invertebrate communities. We saw no evidence that fishes or invertebrates are either preferentially attracted to, or repelled by, the EMF emitted by the cables. Any differences in the fish or invertebrate densities between cables, pipe, and natural habitat taxa were most likely due to the differences in the physical characteristics of these habitats. As with the fishes and invertebrates, macrophytes did not appear to be responding to the EMF emitted by the cables. Rather, it is likely that differences in the plant communities were driven by site depth and habitat type.
      PubDate: Fri, 25 Aug 2017 09:42:23 PDT
  • Covers

    • PubDate: Fri, 25 Aug 2017 09:42:20 PDT
  • covers

    • PubDate: Thu, 20 Jul 2017 11:32:15 PDT
  • Abnormal Coloration in Bighorn Sheep (Ovis canadensis)

    • Authors: Vernon C. Bleich
      Abstract: Despite no mention of abnormal coloration in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in two earlier reviews addressing that subject, leucism, piebaldism, and melanism do occur in that species. Presented herein is a compilation of observations of abnormally colored bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) assembled with information obtained from personal observations and the use of on-line literature search services, other on-line searches, private interviews, and a questionnaire. The majority of abnormally colored bighorn sheep have been described as "white" or "albinistic". Review of images provided by respondents, however, verified that the majority of such reports were of leucistic individuals. "White" or leucistic bighorn sheep have been described from 23 specific geographic areas distributed among one Canadian province, one state in Mexico, and seven of the western United States; reports of piebaldism or of melanism are much less frequent.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Jul 2017 11:32:12 PDT
  • Development of Oral Structure in Salmonema emphemeridarum (Nematoda:

    • Authors: Ralph G. Appy
      Abstract: This paper examines the development of the oral morphology of the parasite Salmonema emphemeridarum (Nematoda: Cystidicoidae) using Scanning Electron Microscopy. Larvated eggs, taken from female worms collected from brook trout, Salvelinus fontinalis, were fed to mayflies (Ephemeroptera) where larvae developed to the third larval stage. First stage larvae possessed an oral opening, boring tooth and secretory pore. Second stage larvae possessed a circular oral opening and amphids. Third stage larvae included all the features of adult worms include pseudolabia, submediant labia, sublabia, amphids and four oral papillae. The advanced development of oral structures of third stage larvae allows the identification of larval worms to genus and in some cases species and is consistent with the precocious reproductive development of infective larvae in the Cystidicolidae.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Jul 2017 11:32:08 PDT
  • First Reported Occurrence of the Southern Sea Otter at California‚Äôs
           Santa Barbara Island Since 1940

    • Authors: Michael C. Couffer
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Jul 2017 11:32:05 PDT
  • Range Expansion of the Eastern Fox Squirrel Within the Greater Los Angeles
           Metropolitan Area (2005-2014) and Projections for Continued Range

    • Authors: Rosemary B. Garcia et al.
      Abstract: Monitoring the spread and distribution of introduced species in an area can be challenging due to a variety of issues. Range expansion may exceed expected rates if the area of introduction is more suitable than expected, and may be slowed by an area in which it is difficult to establish a population. The species of interest in this study is the Eastern Fox Squirrel (Sciurus niger rufiventer) and the focus of the study is the spread of the species in Southern California. Previous studies have shown a steady and continuous spread from main points of introduction in Southern California and the species is now considered well established in the Los Angeles area. In this study, we collect, display, and discuss the spread of the Eastern Fox Squirrel in this area from 2005 through 2014 and include habitat suitability models to predict the future distribution of the species over time. Results show that the Eastern Fox Squirrel has spread east into Rancho Cucamonga, into southern portions of Irvine, and has maintained isolated populations in places such as San Diego and Riverside. Our models suggest future paths of movement for contiguous range expansion. Suggestions for species mitigation include controlling initial introductions of the species into new areas, and informing the public about continued spread of the species.
      PubDate: Thu, 20 Jul 2017 11:32:02 PDT
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Your IP address:
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-