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Journal Cover Plant Science Today
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2348-1900 - ISSN (Online) 2348-1900
   Published by Horizon e-Publishing Group Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Traditional medicinal plant knowledge of some spermatophytes of Samar Bagh
           Valley, Lower Dir District, Pakistan

    • Authors: Muhammad Irfan, Imran Ahmad, Sidra Hassan Saeed
      Pages: 151 - 153
      Abstract: The study on traditional knowledge of medicinal plants which are used by local people of Samar Bagh valley in district Lower Dir, Pakistan resulted in the report of 41 species of seed plants which belong to 37 genera and 30 families. Amongst them are 55% herbs, 25% shrubs, 17 % trees and 3% rhizome bearing species. The local peoples who use these plants for the treatment of various diseases were farmers, those who are raring of live stock and hakims.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.2017.4.4.334
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Mycorrhizal dependency and growth response of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.)
           Kunth ex Walp. under saline condition

    • Authors: Bhoopander Giri
      Pages: 154 - 160
      Abstract: In pursuit of salinity-mycorrhiza interaction, a pot experiment was conducted to determine the dependence of Gliricidia sepium on arbuscular mycorrhizal association under salinity stress, which was imposed using different concentrations of sodium chloride solutions. The present study revealed that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus; Rhizophagus fasciculatus significantly increased growth and biomass of G. sepium plants under saline condition. G. sepium showed a high degree of dependence on mycorrhizal symbiosis under saline as compared to non-saline condition. Under non-saline condition (SS0), G. sepium plants exhibited 23.9% dependence on R. fasciculatus, which increased with increase in the levels of salinity. At SS3 level, G. sepium plants showed 46.6% mycorrhizal dependency followed by SS2 and SS1 levels of salinity. However, there was no significant difference between mycorrhizal dependency of G. sepium at SS1 and SS2 levels of salinity. Improved growth of G. sepium under salinity stress revealed R. fasciculatus a promising inoculant for the reclamation of degraded saline soils.
      PubDate: 2017-10-07
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.2017.4.4.348
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Phytotherapy: Herbal medicine in the management of Diabetes mellitus

    • Authors: Twinkle Sunder Bansode, B K Salalkar
      Pages: 161 - 165
      Abstract: Despite considerable progress in the treatment of the diabetes with synthetic drugs, the search for effective, safe and inexpensive drugs is ongoing from herbs, since they offer a wide range of antidiabetic agents. Antidiabetic studies using in silico, in vitro and in vivo aspect of different medicinal plant products (Trigonella foenum-graecum, seeds; Syzygium cumini, seeds; Salvadora persica, leaves and Terminalia chebula, seeds) were reviewed. The objective of the study was to compare these medicinal plants for their hypoglycemic effect and phytochemical composition in order to find out most feasible and efficient antidiabetic agent. In this regard, the article is going to look at the phytochemical profile and the antihyperglycaemic properties and toxicity studies of the various fractions isolated from these plants. Studies claimed that all crude as well as partially purified fractions showed an antidiabetic effect hence are potent antidiabetic agents, but maximum effect observed in case of fraction isolated from Syzygium cumini and Salvadora persica.
      PubDate: 2017-10-15
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.2017.4.4.347
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Molecular markers assisted DNA polymorphism: Implications in mangrove
           research

    • Authors: Nirjhar Dasgupta, Sabyasachi Bhattacharya, Anjan Hazra, Sauren Das
      Pages: 166 - 171
      Abstract: Mangroves are defined as woody, evergreen group of plant community; grow on the swampy substrate at tropical and sub-tropical habitatsadjusted to high salinity, periodical tidal influence, strong winds, high temperatures, high precipitation and anaerobic soils. They possessunique morphological and physiological adaptive features to cope with these extreme conditions. Mangrove vegetation is the cradle of several marine fauna and provides first line of defense against devastating sea surges, typhoon, tsunami, etc. However, since industrial era, many of the mangrove members were affected by several environmental constrains and anthropogenic activities that raised the sea level, lowered sweet water influx from the adjacent rivers and encroachment for the new settlement formation, increasing salinity. Hence, mangrove restoration program is the front line topic of interest to the plant biologists across the tropical and subtropical world since it has a productive and protective role for the inhabitants. Sound knowledge of molecular characteristic of the individual taxa will be provide an advantage for this initiative.Recent advancement in molecular markers based on the PCR technique techniqueswill enhance the knowledge about genetic background of each individual taxon, ultimately leading to valid guided references towards the understanding the inherent nature of the plant itself and beneficial to proper restoration program.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.2017.4.4.349
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Algae as Source of Natural Flavour Enhancers - A Mini Review

    • Authors: Neera Sen Sarkar, Srijonee Choudhury
      Pages: 172 - 176
      Abstract: Algae are popular sources of food, fodder, feed, fuel, fertilizers, pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products, and other co-products. The reason for preferring algae as source of a wide array of commercial products is that provisions for algal biomass production for application in different fields are long-term, pro-environmental and sustainable. This is related to the numerous varieties of ways and places in which algae can grow naturally or can be cultivated for commercialization. The fact that different species of algae have traditionally been used as preferred food or delicacy throughout the world speaks volumes about the taste attributes of edible algae. However, the use of algae or its derivatives as taste or flavour enhancers has not been explored enough, though sporadic works and reports can be found worldwide. This review attempts to scout the role of algae in imparting flavours in various cuisines made from algae or algae derived products. Also a number of fish and marine organisms have been reported to have flavours which are considered to contain flavour-enhancing compounds derived from algae, with uniqueness in such tastes been attributed to algae. Contrary to this, few algae have also been reported to impart “off-flavour” in some marine organisms. The present review brings together all such available reports to open avenues in bio-prospecting algae for extracting natural flavour enhancing products to enhance flavours of food items deficit in these appetite-stimulating flavours. Further, this review could stimulate research on “off-flavour” producing algae to remove distaste or toxicity imparting compounds by modification of biochemical pathways.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Physiological characterization of SUB1 trait in rice under subsequent
           submergence and re-aeration with interaction of chemical elicitors

    • Authors: Bipul Sarkar, Arnab Kumar De, M K Adak
      Pages: 177 - 190
      Abstract: In the present study, the sensitivity of two chemical elicitors: polyamine (PA) and salicylic (SA) acid were exercised for submergence sensitivity in Swarna Sub1A rice variety. Under 5 days of submergence, the antioxidation responses were more distinguished in plants against control. Along with the anti-oxidation modules, significant changes in biomolecule loss were registered through lipid and protein oxidation by 1.91 and 1.46 -fold respectively. PA and SA treated plants were the reliever to recover the membrane potential. Total carbohydrate and reducing sugars were varied under submergence by down regulation of 36.66 and 44.44% as compared to control. This was also supported by regulation of α-amylase activity under submergence that also recovered significantly with PA and SA treatments against submergence. In association with carbohydrate metabolism, Under submergence Swarna Sub1A recorded to be prone with oxidative stress through O2.- (1.55 fold) and peroxide (1.70-fold) over-accumulation but recovered as PA and SA applied. In both cases, sustenance of non-enzymatic anti-oxidant like total carotenoid and lycopene content were also contributory through down-regulation. The enzymatic anti-oxidation paths like SOD, GPX, CAT and GR were regulated by 11.11, 19.54, 13.65, 10.03% declined respectively and thoroughly discussed with reference to PA and SA interactions.
      PubDate: 2017-11-27
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Role of tolerance to resource demand - supply mismatch in a model of
           annual plants

    • Authors: Michel Droz, Andrzej Pękalski
      Pages: 191 - 201
      Abstract: We propose and discuss a simulation model of annual plants competing for a single resource. Plants are characterised by their tolerance to a surplus of this resource and the maximum number of seeds a plant can produce in a year. Interaction among plants is reduced to blocking a part of the resource by the plant’s nearest neighbours. Spatial and temporal conditions are homogeneous. There are no trade-off mechanisms nor immigrants. Plants may suffer from both a lack and too much of the resource. We consider two systems - plants of one type (target plants) and a mixture of two types, where the second type differs from the target ones only by the tolerance to surplus of the resource. We show how the life cycle of a plant depends on its tolerance, on supply of the resource and on how it is affected by the presence of the second type of annuals. We demonstrate that even in such a simple system coexistence of the two species is possible, and we determine the conditions for this. We present also a mean field type approach to the problem, showing that the results from simulations and mean field are quite similar. However the mean field approach cannot answer questions concerning spatial arrangement of plants, like possible formation of niches for different types of plant.
      PubDate: 2017-11-29
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Responses of Rhizophora mangle L. to effluents from textile Industry in
           Kano, Nigeria

    • Authors: Iwuala Emmanuel, Afroz Alam, Ajiboye Abiodun
      Pages: 202 - 208
      Abstract: Polluted water discharge sourced from industrial effluent has emerge a distressing happening owing to its harmful effects on health, lives and safety of organisms. The extent of this unpleasant situation by and large remains unidentified. Thus, in the present study, the toxic effects of effluents from textile are analyzed through Rhizophora mangle L., by leaving it to polluted surface water by effluent from the Challawa stream.  An observation on the effects of textile effluent polluted water was analyzed on the growth, chlorophyll content, heavy metal quantification and membrane integrity in R. mangle was carried out. Seedlings raised from viviparous seeds (propagules) were grown in 50L effluent water from textile industry for 4 weeks.  Growth, physiological, biochemical parameters as well as quantification analysis of heavy metals of the seedlings were analysed immediately after the treatment period. The results proved that R. mangle seedlings were sensitive to metal toxicity. The treatment significantly reduced the growth index and chlorophyll contents evaluated. MDA content, catalase enzyme and heavy metal content (Fe, Ni and Cu) significantly increase when plants were grown in effluent water indicating ROS production. Therefore, this result implies that metals present in the textile effluent induce oxidative stress and membrane damage in R. mangle.
      PubDate: 2017-11-30
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Drought stress mitigation in Vigna radiata by the application of
           root-nodulating bacteria

    • Authors: Diksha Kumari, Dipjyoti Chakraborty
      Pages: 209 - 212
      Abstract: Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) facilitates plant growth and are of potential use as bio-fertilizer. Pulses are an important protein source in the vegetarian diet and being legumes harbour members of the Rhizobiaceae that form symbiotic relationships and nodules involved in nitrogen fixation. Vigna radiata is one such pulse crop popular in India. Nodulating bacteria were also found to mitigate biotic and abiotc stress and may be used as an alternative to chemical fertilizer for a sustainable agriculture. Here, we review rhizobial species isolated from V. radiata that have offered an efficient drought stress tolerance. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-04
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Enumerative checklist of pteridophytes from Satara district (MH), India

    • Authors: Sachin M. Patil, Meena M. Dongare
      Pages: 75 - 87
      Abstract: A checklist of pteridophytes from Satara Dt. (Maharashtra, India) presented 85 species of pteridophytes belonging to 39 genera under 26 families are listed. The most specious families found in Satara district are Pteridaceae, Ophioglossaceae, Adiantaceae, Lomariopsidaceae and Woodsiaceae followed by Polypodiaceae, Dryopteridaceae, and Davalliaceae. The most common species are Adiantum philippense, Actiniopteris radiata, Aleuritopteris bicolor, Pteridium revolutum, Pityrogramma calomelanos, Pteris biaurita, P. vittata, and Tectaria coadunata.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.2017.4.3.306
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Effects of exogenous and foliar applications of Brassinosteroid (BRs) and
           salt stress on the growth, yield and physiological parameters of
           Lycopersicon esculentum (Mill.)

    • Authors: Muhammad Irfan, Jan Alam, Imran Ahmad, Imtiaz Ali, Humaira Gul
      Pages: 88 - 101
      Abstract: The germination response of Lycopersicon esculentum was studied on different salinity levels from control (non-saline), 0.2,0.4,0.6 and 0.8% NaCl solution. Seeds germinating under salt stress exhibited decrease in saline media as compared to respective control. Seeds germinating with salinity and brassinosteroid (applied exogenously through roots and as foliar spray, 0.25 and 0.5 ppm) exhibited promotion in control as compared to their respective saline media. Plants treated with different salts concentrations (60 and 100mM) NaCl exhibited reduction in plant height, root length, number of leaves, number of fruits and biomass as compared to control while brassinosteroid having concentrations of 0.25 and 0.5 ppm (applied through roots and as foliar spray) caused promotion in plant height, root length, number of leaves, number of fruits and biomass in saline and non saline media. Plants treated with different salts concentration of (60 and 100mM) NaCl exhibited increase in Relative water content, leaf water loss, electrolyte leakage, shoot/- root ratio, root/- weight ratio and leaf/- weight ratio at both NaCl concentrations (60 and 100 mM) as compared to control, while stem/- weight ratio showed reduction at both salinity levels as compared to control while brassinosteroid applied in roots and as a foliar spray at 0.25 and 0.5 ppm concentrations exhibited reduction in stem/- weight ratio at high NaCl level (100 mM) as compared to control. 
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.2017.4.3.218
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Anisochilus carnosus (L. f.) Wall. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae) – a new
           generic record for Pakistan

    • Authors: Ashfaq Ali, Muhammad Irfan, Mahrine Rashid, Amir Sultan
      Pages: 102 - 104
      Abstract: Anisochilus carnosus (L. f.) Wall. ex Benth., is recorded for the first time from Gadoon mountain, district Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Detailed taxanomic description, habitat photographs are provided for its easy identification. Conservation status of the taxa in the relevant habitat is suggested.
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.2017.4.3.316
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Phytophthora infestans induced defense response in calli of wild and
           cultivated potato genotypes: Pathogen induced cell death in cultures - a
           marker for resistance

    • Authors: Kumari N Aruna, Veena S Anil, B. T. Krishnaprasad
      Pages: 105 - 120
      Abstract: Late Blight caused by Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary is the most destructive foliar disease causing 30% yield losses in the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) crop globally. Wild potato genotypes AC1 and AC4, and potato cultivar Kufri Girdhari are highly resistant, whereas wild genotype AC6, and cultivars Kufri Chandramuki and Kufri Jyoti are susceptible to Late Blight. In the current study, the calli of these six potato genotypes were used to understand the mechanism of cellular resistance to Late Blight. Exposure to P. infestans or its elicitors significantly induced peroxidase (POX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, and induced accumulation of phenolics and flavonoids, indicating the capability of the calli cells to mount a defense response. The study is the first to report the extracellular secretion of defense enzymes, SOD and POX when cells encounter the pathogen, implicating a similar whole-plant phenomenon of enhanced defense in the apoplast. Interestingly, the calli of resistant genotypes showed poor survival upon exposure to pathogen or when grown on elicitor medium, while the susceptible genotypes showed better survival. The percentage of calli cells accumulating intracellular H2O2 was high in resistant genotypes, and directly correlated with the observed higher cell death. The study shows that H2O2 accumulation in the cells of resistant genotypes is indeed self-destructive, a whole plant phenomenon termed hypersensitive response - cell death at site of infection. The potato callus system thus can be used to gain new insights into the plant-defense response to P. infestans.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.2017.4.3.319
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) and Plutella xylostella (L.)
           (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) interaction as a resistance inductor factor in
           Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    • Authors: Paula Cristina Brunini Crialesi, Robson Thomaz Thuler, Fernando Henrique Iost Filho, Ana Maria Guidelli Thuler, Manoel Victor Franco Lemos, Sergio Antonio de Bortoli
      Pages: 121 - 132
      Abstract: Resistance of Plutella xylostella populations to chemical insecticides has made its management difficult, and the utilization of resistant cabbage cultivars has been shown to be a useful alternative. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the induction of cabbage plant resistance to P. xylostella using PGPR and injuries caused by the pest larvae as elicitors. Therefore, we evaluated the insects’ responses utilizing a specific bioassay. Furthermore, this assay was used for selecting a PGPR strain that affects the insect’s biology, and to examine molecular and biochemical responses of the plants influenced by the plant-microbe-insect interaction. Among the strains used in this study, Kluyvera ascorbata showed the most relevant results by influencing biological characteristics of the insect. Thus, the following tests demonstrated that the cited strain possesses a high influence on plant metabolism when it undergoes different types of stress such as injuries caused by the pest. These findings were determined from the different responses obtained by the chemical analyses of the tested plants and from the differentiation in the genetic sequences obtained from plants inoculated with or without PGPR that were injured by the pest. The PGPR K. ascorbata alters the metabolism of cabbage plants, which directs a specific plant defense against P. xylostella.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.2017.4.3.305
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Vermicomposting of aquatic weeds: A quick review

    • Authors: Ishtiyaq Ahmed Najar
      Pages: 133 - 136
      Abstract: Aquatic plants play an important role in ecosystem functioning and services but they can also be deleterious if present in excess. The different anthropogenic activities result in accumulation of nutrients in aquatic ecosystems leads to eutrophication with massive weed growth and associated diverse adverse effects. Effective control/management of weeds in different aquatic systems is not only difficult but of short duration. The commonly used methods to manage/control the aquatic weeds are biological, chemical and mechanical, in addition to habitat manipulation. However, these methods can be highly disruptive causing adverse environmental effects and are relatively inefficient. On the other hand different species of earthworms can feed on wide range of weeds and convert them into stable product called vermicompost, rich in plant nutrients. Among different aquatic weeds the most extensively vermicomposted weed is water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms), using different earthworm species. Among different earthworm species used for vermicomposting of aquatic weeds, Eisenia fetida (Savigny) is the most commonly used species. Vermicomposting is an efficient ecobiotechnological process that converts the aquatic weeds into nutrient rich material that can acts as suitable plant growth media for sustainable agroecosystems. Further large scale utilization of aquatic weed based vermicompost in horticulture can solve their management and disposal issues along with restoration of organic matter and nutrient depletion at low input basis.
      PubDate: 2017-09-04
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.2017.4.3.311
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Distribution of alkaloids in woody plants

    • Authors: Isabel Desgagné-Penix
      Pages: 137 - 142
      Abstract: Alkaloids are nitrogen-containing compounds found in plants. Most are highly valued for their role in wide array of ailments such as anti-malarial, anti-cancerous, analgesics, and many more. In lights of tremendous interest in recent years on the chemistry and pharmacological properties of alkaloids, comprehensive data have been collected. Forest industries have recently started to develop sustainable ways to increase the value of its residues including the extraction and commercialization of high-valued plant natural compounds such as alkaloids. This review presents the distribution of alkaloids among woody plants (trees and shrubs).
      PubDate: 2017-09-05
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.2017.4.3.320
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Efficient synthesis of plant-mediated silver nanoparticles and their
           screening for antimicrobial activity

    • Authors: Kamlesh Shukla, Bhoopander Giri, Rashmi Dwivede
      Pages: 143 - 150
      Abstract: Now days, the development of safe, cost effective, reliable and eco-friendly processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles is an important aspect of nanotechnology. Among the various agents, plants show immense potential for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The bio-molecules found in plants induce reduction of Ag+ ions from silver nitrate to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs); therefore, in the present work, the aqueous leaves extract of the plant was used as reducing agent for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. We synthesized extracellular silver nanoparticles using extract of the leaves of four different medicinal plants which act as a reducing agent at room temperature. The characteristic color change was observed on addition of plant extract to the silver nitrate solution due to their specific properties (Surface Plasmon Resonance). UV-Vis spectroscopy was used for the characterization of the silver nanoparticles. Green synthesized nanoparticles are evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as two pathogenic fungi Aspergillus fumigatus and Curvularia lunata. The silver nanoparticles (SNPs) of selected plant parts have shown more toxicity towards bacterial species than that of the fungal species. Comparing with simple plant extracts, the SNPs exhibited greater antimicrobial efficacy and advantage over conventional antibiotics to which these microorganisms usually impart resistance.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.2017.4.3.328
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Ethnobotanical plants of Veligonda Hills, Southern Eastern Ghats, Andhra
           Pradesh, India

    • Authors: S K M Bhasha, P Siva Kumar Reddy
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: The Veligonda range which separates the Nellore district from Kadapa and Kurnool is the back bone of the Eastern Ghats, starting from Nagari promontory in Chittoor district. It runs in a northerly direction along the western boarders of the Nellore district, raising elevation of 3,626 feet at Penchalakona in Rapur thaluk. Veligonda hill ranges have high alttudinal and deep valley. These hills have rich biodiversity and many rare, endangered, endemic and threatned plants are habituated in these hills. The present paper mainly deals with the ethanobotanical plants used by local people.
      PubDate: 2017-01-01
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.2017.4.1.268
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Molecular characterization of two AP2/ERF transcription factor genes from
           Egyptian tomato cultivar (Edkawy)

    • Authors: Kareem Mosa, Eslam Heb El-din, Ahmed Ismail, Fawzy El- Feky, Ali El-Refy
      Pages: 12 - 20
      Abstract: The tomato is ranked first amongst vegetable crops in Egypt in relation to surface area and production. The Egyptian tomato cultivar Edkawy has shown abiotic stress tolerance characteristics. However, there is not much information about the molecular characterization of this cultivar. Furthermore, information regarding the identification of abiotic stress tolerance genes from the Edkawy tomato cultivar is lacking. Here, we investigated the ability of the Edkawy cultivar to tolerate drought stress. Two varieties were used as a control in this study; Peto86 (sensitive variety) and Strain B (tolerant variety). Edkawy, Peto86 and Strain B varieties were exposed to drought stress by reducing the water supply gradually. Interestingly, Edkawy demonstrated a remarkable tolerance phenotype to drought stress. Furthermore, we identified and isolated two members of the AP2/ERF transcription factor family from Edkawy which are associated with abiotic stress, particularly drought, i.e. ERF1 and ERF5. Protein prediction, validation and active site prediction of ERF1 and ERF5 were also determined. In addition to the domain obtained by the pfam online tool, the interaction between Edkawy ERFs proteins and other proteins in the Solanaceae family was obtained. Furthermore, subcellular localization was determined by the ngLOC and Plant-mPLoc online tools. Characterization of the Edkawy tomato cultivar and isolation and identification of such transcription factors will help in the engineering of tomato plants with abiotic stress tolerance.
      PubDate: 2017-01-01
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.2017.4.1.269
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • In vitro conservation protocol of Ceropegia bulbosa: An important
           medicinal and threatened plant species of Western Rajasthan

    • Authors: Suman Parihar
      Pages: 21 - 27
      Abstract: In vitro regeneration protocol has been standardized for highly medicinal and threatened succulent Ceropegia bulbosa Roxb. The paper focuses on morphogenic response of nodal explant when cultured on MS media. Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 6-benzyladenine (BA) (2.0 mgl-1) was found optimum for axillary shoot bud induction with 83.4 % response. Further shoots were multiplied through repetitive (3-4 times) transfer of the original explant and by subculture of the in vitro generated shoots. Maximum number of shoots 5.7±0.78 with shoot length of 3.6±0.82 cm was achieved on MS medium augmented with combination of 0.25 mgl-1 BA + 0.25 mgl-1 KN + 0.1 mgl-1 IAA and additives (50.0 mgl-1 ascorbic acid, 25 mgl-1 each of citric acid, arginine and adenine sulphate). For ex vitro rooting, pulse treatment of IBA 250 mgl-1 for 3 min was found optimum. The rooted shoots were successfully hardened in the green house condition (RH 75-80% at 26-28˚C) and about 80 % shoots were transferred to the garden.
      PubDate: 2017-01-01
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.2017.4.1.271
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Amelioration of salinity stress by NaCl pretreatment with reference to
           sugar metabolism in legumes Cajanas cajan L. and Vigna mungo L.

    • Authors: Paramita Chatterjee, Sabarni Biswas, Asok Kumar Biswas
      Pages: 28 - 40
      Abstract: The effect of salinity stress and its amelioration by pretreatment with low concentration of NaCl (50mM) on growth and sugar metabolism in arhar (cv. T120) and maskalai (cv. WBU109) seedlings were studied. Salinity was found to be more toxic for root growth than shoot growth. Fresh weight and dry weight of the seedlings gradually decreased with increasing concentrations of NaCl treatment. It was demonstrated that direct germination on NaCl solution increased both reducing sugar and non-reducing sugar contents while decreased the starch contents which were to some extent decreased by pretreatment of seeds with 50mM NaCl prior to germination in salt solutions. Salinity stress also affected the activites of different sugar metabolizing enzymes. The increase in the activities of starch phosphorylase, sucrose phosphate synthase, sucrose synthase and decrease in the activities of acid invertase were observed in directly salt treated test seedlings that were altered by pretreatment with sublethal concentration of NaCl in both the cultivars arhar (cv. T120) and maskalai (cv. WBU109) seeds. Thus the application of pretreatment by sublethal concentration of NaCl in both arhar (cv. T120) and maskalai (cv. WBU109) seeds exhibited significant alteration of all the partinent parameters tested under salinity stress and the effect of pretreatment in most of the parameters were more prominent in arhar (cv. T120) with compared to maskalai (cv. WBU109) seedlings.
      PubDate: 2017-01-01
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.2017.4.1.272
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Checklist of Mosses (Bryophyta) of Bodamalai Hills in Eastern Ghats, Tamil
           Nadu

    • Authors: R Palani, S Sahaya Sathish, T Thamizharasi, P Vijayakanth
      Pages: 49 - 54
      Abstract: Bodamalai Hills, situated on the Southern Eastern Ghats of Tamil Nadu, were explored for mosses (bryophyta) for the first time. As a result a checklist of mosses has been prepared comprising 52 species belonging to 38 genera and 21 families. The dominant families with the maximum number of species are Pottiaceae, Bryaceae, Stereophyllaceae, Sematophyllaceae and Brachytheciaceae. The dominant genera are Brachymenium and Bryum and the dominant species are Barbula javanica and Bryum capillare.
      PubDate: 2017-01-03
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.2017.4.1.278
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Diversity and distribution of physical dormant species in relation to
           ecosystem and life-forms

    • Authors: Ganesh K. Jaganathan, Danping Song, Baolin Liu
      Pages: 55 - 63
      Abstract: Impermeable seed/fruit coat, i.e. physical dormancy (PY) occurring only in several genera of 18 angiosperm families plays an important role in controlling seed persistence and germination timing. It has been theoretically speculated that PY is more prevalent in drylands than in moist vegetation zones, but unequivocal support for this assertion is currently unavailable. The broad objective of this contribution was to examine the distribution of PY on the various vegetation of tropics and temperate ecosystems using a data set of 13, 792 species. The number of species with PY in tropics (19%) is higher than the number of PY species in the temperate ecosystem (15%). However, in both tropics and temperate, there is a clear trend that PY is less common in moist and low-temperature vegetation zones compared with dry and high-temperature vegetation. In tropics, PY is more prevalent in dry woodlands (33%) and tropical deciduous forests (27.3%) compared with the evergreen rain forest (9%). Similarly, in the temperate zone, dry vegetation with seasonal rainfall such as Matorral (22.3) and deserts (19.5%) have a higher number of PY species compared with moist warm woodlands (8.1%) and deciduous forest (9%). Although PY is a trait found in various life-forms, it appears to be less common in trees, particularly of the temperate zone. We discuss the ecological adaptation of PY in the dry ecosystem and consider the mechanism of persistence and dormancy break in PY and physiological dormant (PD) species.
      PubDate: 2017-04-01
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.2017.4.2.293
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Leucobryum aduncum var. scalare (Leucobryaceae: Bryophyta) - new to the
           Eastern Ghats

    • Authors: P. M. Biju, Albert Ebenezer Dulip Daniels
      Pages: 64 - 67
      Abstract: Leucobryum aduncum var. scalare, so far known from the Northeast and the Western Ghats for India, is added here to the moss flora of the Eastern Ghats. A detailed description with figures substantiated by a photo plate and a key to distinguish the species of Leucobryum Hampe from the region.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.2017.4.2.295
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Anti-platelet aggregation effects of extracts from Arbutus unedo leaves

    • Authors: Mohammed El Haouari, Hassane Mekhfi
      Pages: 68 - 74
      Abstract: It is well known that platelet hyperactivity is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, stroke and myocardial infarction. This study aimed to examine the effects of extracts enriched in flavonoids obtained from Arbutus unedo leaves on platelet aggregation. Rat platelets were prepared and incubated in vitro with different doses of the tested extracts, and aggregation was trigged by physiological agonists. Platelet treatment with increasing concentrations (0.1 - 1 mg/ml) of diethyl ether extract (genins = free flavonoids) or ethyl acetate extract (hetrosidic flavonoids) inhibited platelet aggregation evoked by thrombin in a concentration-dependant manner. The IC50 values were 0.22 ± 0.03 and 0.36 ± 0.05 mg/ml for genins and heterosidic flavonoids respectively. Treatment with Arbutus unedo extracts also significantly reduced the initial rate of platelet aggregation. At 1 mg/ml, the rate inhibition was 97.8 ± 0.74 and 90.8 ± 1.55 % for genins and heterosidic flavonoids respectively. In addition, flavonoids significantly inhibited platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen or epinephrine. We conclude that Arbutus unedo extracts show antiaggregant effects due mainly to flavonoids. These results may partly explain the traditional use of Arbutus unedo leaves for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders such as hypertension.
      PubDate: 2017-05-06
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.2017.4.2.298
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2017)
       
 
 
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