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Journal Cover Plant Science Today
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2348-1900 - ISSN (Online) 2348-1900
   Published by Horizon e-Publishing Group Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Tissue culture of Ophiorrhiza mungos L., a prospective method for the
           production of an anticancer drug, camptothecin

    • Authors: Geethu Gopinath, Binoy Jose, P Ravichandran, K Satheeshkumar
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Camptothecin (CPT), a cytotoxic quinoline indole alkaloid, is an anticancer compound. Its two major semi synthetic derivatives, topotecan and irinotecan, are Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs effectively used for treating different cancer types and sold under the trade names Hycamtin and Camptosar. Among the Ophiorrhiza species, Ophiorrhiza mungos contains the highest CPT level (0.02 % g dw). CPT level was determined in plants before flowering (0.074 ± 0.003 % g dw) and at flowering (0.052 ± 0.002 % g dw). Multiple shoot cultures were induced on seedling-derived explants of O. mungos in half strength MS solid media supplemented with 1.0 mg/L BAP to obtain 12.00 ± 1.22 shoots in 20 days. Repeated subcultures at 20 days interval yielded 20.00 ± 3.71 shoots/subculture of shoot clusters. After elongation, rooting and transplanting, the growth of shoot clusters were studied in both in vitro and same aged naturally grown seedlings. Highest biomass (4.62 ± 0.158 g fw) was obtained in in vitro-derived shoot clusters. CPT increased according to biomass and the maximum CPT was recorded in in vitro rooted shoot clusters after 15 days (0.031 ± 0.001 % g dw). Hence, in vitro-derived rooted shoot clusters of O. mungos cultivated in net-pots for 60 days under shade net house conditions found to be a sustainable source for CPT.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2018)
  • Heavy metals and their general toxicity for plants

    • Authors: Darinka Gjorgieva Ackova
      Pages: 14 - 18
      Abstract: Heavy metals are important environmental pollutants, and their toxicity is a serious problem of great concern for environmental, ecological, nutritional and toxicological reasons. Metals can affected long list of physiological and biochemical processes in plants and their toxicity varies with plant species, particular metal, metal concentration and it chemical form. Throughout the world, researches have been conducted extensive investigations to determine the effects of toxic heavy metals on plants. The process is still going on and the need of intensification of the research programmes for better understanding of heavy metal toxicity is evident.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2018)
  • Genus Symphysodontella M. Fleisch. (Pterobryaceae: Bryophyta) - new to the
           moss flora of the Eastern Ghats

    • Authors: Albert Ebenezer Dulip Daniels, M M Preetha, V Asha, P M Biju
      Pages: 19 - 23
      Abstract: Surveys carried out in the Kolli Hills of Eastern Ghats resulted in the discovery of 2 species of Symphysodontella M. Fleisch. namely S. cylindracea (Mont.) M. Fleisch. and S. involuta (Thwaites & Mitt.) M. Fleisch. of which the former is new to the moss flora of India whereas the latter is new to the moss flora of Eastern Ghats. Detailed descriptions with figures substantiated by photo plates and a key to distinguish the two species are provided. Incidentally, genus Symphysodontella is new to the moss flora of Eastern Ghats.
      PubDate: 2018-01-02
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2018)
  • Plant growth promoting traits of psychrotolerant bacteria: A boon for
           agriculture in hilly terrains

    • Authors: B Patni, A S Panwar, P Negi, Gopal Krishna Joshi
      Pages: 24 - 28
      Abstract: Plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) are well known to promote plant growth in a number of ways. It is important to study plant growth promoting potential of bacteria capable of growing in extreme environments to establish their role in promoting agricultural yield under harsh conditions. Psychrophilic or psychrotolerant bacteria with plant growth promoting traits may improve the quality of agricultural practices in hilly terrain. The agricultural importance of such microbes stems from the fact that the world over temperate agro-ecosystems are characterized by low temperatures and short growing seasons that subject both plant and microbial life to cold temperature induced stress. Hence, there is a need to identify potential microbes that retain their functional traits under low temperature conditions. Such microbes can be used to enhance the agricultural yields in low temperature areas of the world. This review describes plant growth promoting activities identified in cold adapted bacteria.
      PubDate: 2018-01-04
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2018)
  • New distribution record of a rare taxa Gottschelia schizopleura (Spruce)
           Grolle, of Jungermanniales occurring in Anamudi shola National Park in the
           Western Ghats of Kerala

    • Authors: B Mufeed, Manju C Nair
      Pages: 29 - 31
      Abstract: A rare liverwort Gottschelia schizopleura (Spruce) Grolle, of Jungermanniales is discovered from the Western Ghats of Kerala. A brief description with colour plate is provided.
      PubDate: 2018-02-05
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2018)
  • DNA barcoding of plants: Selection of core markers for taxonomic groups

    • Authors: Ankush Ashok Saddhe, Kundan Kumar
      Pages: 9 - 13
      Abstract: Plant identification is a crucial and routine taxonomic procedure in order to understand and conserve the biodiversity. Anthropogenic activity, pollution, deforestation, and exploitation of natural resources have been threatening to the plant biodiversity. Unfortunately, the major concern of traditional identification of plants is the gradual declined number of taxonomic expertise and lack of tools which accurately discriminate plant seeds, plant parts and seedling, and herbal adulterant. Presently, it is of utmost importance that plant biodiversity to be preserved. To overcome this issues the advent of molecular marker based technique which utilized short fragment of DNA and correctly assign plant taxa to their taxonomic group, called as DNA barcoding. First time, single marker based taxon identification successfully implemented to an animal taxa using mitochondrial cytochrome I (COI) gene fragment. However, Plant DNA barcoding is more complex and it often requires more than one set of DNA markers. In the present review, we have compiled the recent progress of plant DNA barcoding in various taxonomic groups and utility of plastids and nuclear DNA based markers for plant identification.
      PubDate: 2017-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • Traditional medicinal plant knowledge of some spermatophytes of Samar Bagh
           Valley, Lower Dir District, Pakistan

    • Authors: Muhammad Irfan, Imran Ahmad, Sidra Hassan Saeed
      Pages: 151 - 153
      Abstract: The study on traditional knowledge of medicinal plants which are used by local people of Samar Bagh valley in district Lower Dir, Pakistan resulted in the report of 41 species of seed plants which belong to 37 genera and 30 families. Amongst them are 55% herbs, 25% shrubs, 17 % trees and 3% rhizome bearing species. The local peoples who use these plants for the treatment of various diseases were farmers, those who are raring of live stock and hakims.
      PubDate: 2017-10-01
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.2017.4.4.334
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Mycorrhizal dependency and growth response of Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.)
           Kunth ex Walp. under saline condition

    • Authors: Bhoopander Giri
      Pages: 154 - 160
      Abstract: In pursuit of salinity-mycorrhiza interaction, a pot experiment was conducted to determine the dependence of Gliricidia sepium on arbuscular mycorrhizal association under salinity stress, which was imposed using different concentrations of sodium chloride solutions. The present study revealed that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus; Rhizophagus fasciculatus significantly increased growth and biomass of G. sepium plants under saline condition. G. sepium showed a high degree of dependence on mycorrhizal symbiosis under saline as compared to non-saline condition. Under non-saline condition (SS0), G. sepium plants exhibited 23.9% dependence on R. fasciculatus, which increased with increase in the levels of salinity. At SS3 level, G. sepium plants showed 46.6% mycorrhizal dependency followed by SS2 and SS1 levels of salinity. However, there was no significant difference between mycorrhizal dependency of G. sepium at SS1 and SS2 levels of salinity. Improved growth of G. sepium under salinity stress revealed R. fasciculatus a promising inoculant for the reclamation of degraded saline soils.
      PubDate: 2017-10-07
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.2017.4.4.348
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Phytotherapy: Herbal medicine in the management of Diabetes mellitus

    • Authors: Twinkle Sunder Bansode, B K Salalkar
      Pages: 161 - 165
      Abstract: Despite considerable progress in the treatment of the diabetes with synthetic drugs, the search for effective, safe and inexpensive drugs is ongoing from herbs, since they offer a wide range of antidiabetic agents. Antidiabetic studies using in silico, in vitro and in vivo aspect of different medicinal plant products (Trigonella foenum-graecum, seeds; Syzygium cumini, seeds; Salvadora persica, leaves and Terminalia chebula, seeds) were reviewed. The objective of the study was to compare these medicinal plants for their hypoglycemic effect and phytochemical composition in order to find out most feasible and efficient antidiabetic agent. In this regard, the article is going to look at the phytochemical profile and the antihyperglycaemic properties and toxicity studies of the various fractions isolated from these plants. Studies claimed that all crude as well as partially purified fractions showed an antidiabetic effect hence are potent antidiabetic agents, but maximum effect observed in case of fraction isolated from Syzygium cumini and Salvadora persica.
      PubDate: 2017-10-15
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.2017.4.4.347
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Molecular markers assisted DNA polymorphism: Implications in mangrove

    • Authors: Nirjhar Dasgupta, Sabyasachi Bhattacharya, Anjan Hazra, Sauren Das
      Pages: 166 - 171
      Abstract: Mangroves are defined as woody, evergreen group of plant community; grow on the swampy substrate at tropical and sub-tropical habitatsadjusted to high salinity, periodical tidal influence, strong winds, high temperatures, high precipitation and anaerobic soils. They possessunique morphological and physiological adaptive features to cope with these extreme conditions. Mangrove vegetation is the cradle of several marine fauna and provides first line of defense against devastating sea surges, typhoon, tsunami, etc. However, since industrial era, many of the mangrove members were affected by several environmental constrains and anthropogenic activities that raised the sea level, lowered sweet water influx from the adjacent rivers and encroachment for the new settlement formation, increasing salinity. Hence, mangrove restoration program is the front line topic of interest to the plant biologists across the tropical and subtropical world since it has a productive and protective role for the inhabitants. Sound knowledge of molecular characteristic of the individual taxa will be provide an advantage for this initiative.Recent advancement in molecular markers based on the PCR technique techniqueswill enhance the knowledge about genetic background of each individual taxon, ultimately leading to valid guided references towards the understanding the inherent nature of the plant itself and beneficial to proper restoration program.
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.2017.4.4.349
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Algae as Source of Natural Flavour Enhancers - A Mini Review

    • Authors: Neera Sen Sarkar, Srijonee Choudhury
      Pages: 172 - 176
      Abstract: Algae are popular sources of food, fodder, feed, fuel, fertilizers, pharmaceutical and nutraceutical products, and other co-products. The reason for preferring algae as source of a wide array of commercial products is that provisions for algal biomass production for application in different fields are long-term, pro-environmental and sustainable. This is related to the numerous varieties of ways and places in which algae can grow naturally or can be cultivated for commercialization. The fact that different species of algae have traditionally been used as preferred food or delicacy throughout the world speaks volumes about the taste attributes of edible algae. However, the use of algae or its derivatives as taste or flavour enhancers has not been explored enough, though sporadic works and reports can be found worldwide. This review attempts to scout the role of algae in imparting flavours in various cuisines made from algae or algae derived products. Also a number of fish and marine organisms have been reported to have flavours which are considered to contain flavour-enhancing compounds derived from algae, with uniqueness in such tastes been attributed to algae. Contrary to this, few algae have also been reported to impart “off-flavour” in some marine organisms. The present review brings together all such available reports to open avenues in bio-prospecting algae for extracting natural flavour enhancing products to enhance flavours of food items deficit in these appetite-stimulating flavours. Further, this review could stimulate research on “off-flavour” producing algae to remove distaste or toxicity imparting compounds by modification of biochemical pathways.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Physiological characterization of SUB1 trait in rice under subsequent
           submergence and re-aeration with interaction of chemical elicitors

    • Authors: Bipul Sarkar, Arnab Kumar De, M K Adak
      Pages: 177 - 190
      Abstract: In the present study, the sensitivity of two chemical elicitors: polyamine (PA) and salicylic (SA) acid were exercised for submergence sensitivity in Swarna Sub1A rice variety. Under 5 days of submergence, the antioxidation responses were more distinguished in plants against control. Along with the anti-oxidation modules, significant changes in biomolecule loss were registered through lipid and protein oxidation by 1.91 and 1.46 -fold respectively. PA and SA treated plants were the reliever to recover the membrane potential. Total carbohydrate and reducing sugars were varied under submergence by down regulation of 36.66 and 44.44% as compared to control. This was also supported by regulation of α-amylase activity under submergence that also recovered significantly with PA and SA treatments against submergence. In association with carbohydrate metabolism, Under submergence Swarna Sub1A recorded to be prone with oxidative stress through O2.- (1.55 fold) and peroxide (1.70-fold) over-accumulation but recovered as PA and SA applied. In both cases, sustenance of non-enzymatic anti-oxidant like total carotenoid and lycopene content were also contributory through down-regulation. The enzymatic anti-oxidation paths like SOD, GPX, CAT and GR were regulated by 11.11, 19.54, 13.65, 10.03% declined respectively and thoroughly discussed with reference to PA and SA interactions.
      PubDate: 2017-11-27
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Role of tolerance to resource demand - supply mismatch in a model of
           annual plants

    • Authors: Michel Droz, Andrzej Pękalski
      Pages: 191 - 201
      Abstract: We propose and discuss a simulation model of annual plants competing for a single resource. Plants are characterised by their tolerance to a surplus of this resource and the maximum number of seeds a plant can produce in a year. Interaction among plants is reduced to blocking a part of the resource by the plant’s nearest neighbours. Spatial and temporal conditions are homogeneous. There are no trade-off mechanisms nor immigrants. Plants may suffer from both a lack and too much of the resource. We consider two systems - plants of one type (target plants) and a mixture of two types, where the second type differs from the target ones only by the tolerance to surplus of the resource. We show how the life cycle of a plant depends on its tolerance, on supply of the resource and on how it is affected by the presence of the second type of annuals. We demonstrate that even in such a simple system coexistence of the two species is possible, and we determine the conditions for this. We present also a mean field type approach to the problem, showing that the results from simulations and mean field are quite similar. However the mean field approach cannot answer questions concerning spatial arrangement of plants, like possible formation of niches for different types of plant.
      PubDate: 2017-11-29
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Responses of Rhizophora mangle L. to effluents from textile Industry in
           Kano, Nigeria

    • Authors: Iwuala Emmanuel, Afroz Alam, Ajiboye Abiodun
      Pages: 202 - 208
      Abstract: Polluted water discharge sourced from industrial effluent has emerge a distressing happening owing to its harmful effects on health, lives and safety of organisms. The extent of this unpleasant situation by and large remains unidentified. Thus, in the present study, the toxic effects of effluents from textile are analyzed through Rhizophora mangle L., by leaving it to polluted surface water by effluent from the Challawa stream.  An observation on the effects of textile effluent polluted water was analyzed on the growth, chlorophyll content, heavy metal quantification and membrane integrity in R. mangle was carried out. Seedlings raised from viviparous seeds (propagules) were grown in 50L effluent water from textile industry for 4 weeks.  Growth, physiological, biochemical parameters as well as quantification analysis of heavy metals of the seedlings were analysed immediately after the treatment period. The results proved that R. mangle seedlings were sensitive to metal toxicity. The treatment significantly reduced the growth index and chlorophyll contents evaluated. MDA content, catalase enzyme and heavy metal content (Fe, Ni and Cu) significantly increase when plants were grown in effluent water indicating ROS production. Therefore, this result implies that metals present in the textile effluent induce oxidative stress and membrane damage in R. mangle.
      PubDate: 2017-11-30
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Drought stress mitigation in Vigna radiata by the application of
           root-nodulating bacteria

    • Authors: Diksha Kumari, Dipjyoti Chakraborty
      Pages: 209 - 212
      Abstract: Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) facilitates plant growth and are of potential use as bio-fertilizer. Pulses are an important protein source in the vegetarian diet and being legumes harbour members of the Rhizobiaceae that form symbiotic relationships and nodules involved in nitrogen fixation. Vigna radiata is one such pulse crop popular in India. Nodulating bacteria were also found to mitigate biotic and abiotc stress and may be used as an alternative to chemical fertilizer for a sustainable agriculture. Here, we review rhizobial species isolated from V. radiata that have offered an efficient drought stress tolerance. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-04
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • The genus Isoetes from India: An overview

    • Authors: Sachin Patil, Kishore S Rajput
      Pages: 213 - 226
      Abstract: The information regarding the Indian quillwort is reviewed herewith to highlight the taxonomy, history, distribution, phytogeography, morphology, phenology, chromosome count, numerical taxonomy and present taxonomic scenario of Indian species.
      Authors also reviewed the opinions of different researchers on doubtful species of Indian Isoetes. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-11
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Enumerative checklist of pteridophytes from Satara district (MH), India

    • Authors: Sachin M. Patil, Meena M. Dongare
      Pages: 75 - 87
      Abstract: A checklist of pteridophytes from Satara Dt. (Maharashtra, India) presented 85 species of pteridophytes belonging to 39 genera under 26 families are listed. The most specious families found in Satara district are Pteridaceae, Ophioglossaceae, Adiantaceae, Lomariopsidaceae and Woodsiaceae followed by Polypodiaceae, Dryopteridaceae, and Davalliaceae. The most common species are Adiantum philippense, Actiniopteris radiata, Aleuritopteris bicolor, Pteridium revolutum, Pityrogramma calomelanos, Pteris biaurita, P. vittata, and Tectaria coadunata.
      PubDate: 2017-06-28
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.2017.4.3.306
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Effects of exogenous and foliar applications of Brassinosteroid (BRs) and
           salt stress on the growth, yield and physiological parameters of
           Lycopersicon esculentum (Mill.)

    • Authors: Muhammad Irfan, Jan Alam, Imran Ahmad, Imtiaz Ali, Humaira Gul
      Pages: 88 - 101
      Abstract: The germination response of Lycopersicon esculentum was studied on different salinity levels from control (non-saline), 0.2,0.4,0.6 and 0.8% NaCl solution. Seeds germinating under salt stress exhibited decrease in saline media as compared to respective control. Seeds germinating with salinity and brassinosteroid (applied exogenously through roots and as foliar spray, 0.25 and 0.5 ppm) exhibited promotion in control as compared to their respective saline media. Plants treated with different salts concentrations (60 and 100mM) NaCl exhibited reduction in plant height, root length, number of leaves, number of fruits and biomass as compared to control while brassinosteroid having concentrations of 0.25 and 0.5 ppm (applied through roots and as foliar spray) caused promotion in plant height, root length, number of leaves, number of fruits and biomass in saline and non saline media. Plants treated with different salts concentration of (60 and 100mM) NaCl exhibited increase in Relative water content, leaf water loss, electrolyte leakage, shoot/- root ratio, root/- weight ratio and leaf/- weight ratio at both NaCl concentrations (60 and 100 mM) as compared to control, while stem/- weight ratio showed reduction at both salinity levels as compared to control while brassinosteroid applied in roots and as a foliar spray at 0.25 and 0.5 ppm concentrations exhibited reduction in stem/- weight ratio at high NaCl level (100 mM) as compared to control. 
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.2017.4.3.218
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Anisochilus carnosus (L. f.) Wall. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae) – a new
           generic record for Pakistan

    • Authors: Ashfaq Ali, Muhammad Irfan, Mahrine Rashid, Amir Sultan
      Pages: 102 - 104
      Abstract: Anisochilus carnosus (L. f.) Wall. ex Benth., is recorded for the first time from Gadoon mountain, district Swabi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Detailed taxanomic description, habitat photographs are provided for its easy identification. Conservation status of the taxa in the relevant habitat is suggested.
      PubDate: 2017-07-14
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.2017.4.3.316
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Phytophthora infestans induced defense response in calli of wild and
           cultivated potato genotypes: Pathogen induced cell death in cultures - a
           marker for resistance

    • Authors: Kumari N Aruna, Veena S Anil, B. T. Krishnaprasad
      Pages: 105 - 120
      Abstract: Late Blight caused by Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary is the most destructive foliar disease causing 30% yield losses in the potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) crop globally. Wild potato genotypes AC1 and AC4, and potato cultivar Kufri Girdhari are highly resistant, whereas wild genotype AC6, and cultivars Kufri Chandramuki and Kufri Jyoti are susceptible to Late Blight. In the current study, the calli of these six potato genotypes were used to understand the mechanism of cellular resistance to Late Blight. Exposure to P. infestans or its elicitors significantly induced peroxidase (POX) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, and induced accumulation of phenolics and flavonoids, indicating the capability of the calli cells to mount a defense response. The study is the first to report the extracellular secretion of defense enzymes, SOD and POX when cells encounter the pathogen, implicating a similar whole-plant phenomenon of enhanced defense in the apoplast. Interestingly, the calli of resistant genotypes showed poor survival upon exposure to pathogen or when grown on elicitor medium, while the susceptible genotypes showed better survival. The percentage of calli cells accumulating intracellular H2O2 was high in resistant genotypes, and directly correlated with the observed higher cell death. The study shows that H2O2 accumulation in the cells of resistant genotypes is indeed self-destructive, a whole plant phenomenon termed hypersensitive response - cell death at site of infection. The potato callus system thus can be used to gain new insights into the plant-defense response to P. infestans.
      PubDate: 2017-07-22
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.2017.4.3.319
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR) and Plutella xylostella (L.)
           (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae) interaction as a resistance inductor factor in
           Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    • Authors: Paula Cristina Brunini Crialesi, Robson Thomaz Thuler, Fernando Henrique Iost Filho, Ana Maria Guidelli Thuler, Manoel Victor Franco Lemos, Sergio Antonio de Bortoli
      Pages: 121 - 132
      Abstract: Resistance of Plutella xylostella populations to chemical insecticides has made its management difficult, and the utilization of resistant cabbage cultivars has been shown to be a useful alternative. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the induction of cabbage plant resistance to P. xylostella using PGPR and injuries caused by the pest larvae as elicitors. Therefore, we evaluated the insects’ responses utilizing a specific bioassay. Furthermore, this assay was used for selecting a PGPR strain that affects the insect’s biology, and to examine molecular and biochemical responses of the plants influenced by the plant-microbe-insect interaction. Among the strains used in this study, Kluyvera ascorbata showed the most relevant results by influencing biological characteristics of the insect. Thus, the following tests demonstrated that the cited strain possesses a high influence on plant metabolism when it undergoes different types of stress such as injuries caused by the pest. These findings were determined from the different responses obtained by the chemical analyses of the tested plants and from the differentiation in the genetic sequences obtained from plants inoculated with or without PGPR that were injured by the pest. The PGPR K. ascorbata alters the metabolism of cabbage plants, which directs a specific plant defense against P. xylostella.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.2017.4.3.305
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Vermicomposting of aquatic weeds: A quick review

    • Authors: Ishtiyaq Ahmed Najar
      Pages: 133 - 136
      Abstract: Aquatic plants play an important role in ecosystem functioning and services but they can also be deleterious if present in excess. The different anthropogenic activities result in accumulation of nutrients in aquatic ecosystems leads to eutrophication with massive weed growth and associated diverse adverse effects. Effective control/management of weeds in different aquatic systems is not only difficult but of short duration. The commonly used methods to manage/control the aquatic weeds are biological, chemical and mechanical, in addition to habitat manipulation. However, these methods can be highly disruptive causing adverse environmental effects and are relatively inefficient. On the other hand different species of earthworms can feed on wide range of weeds and convert them into stable product called vermicompost, rich in plant nutrients. Among different aquatic weeds the most extensively vermicomposted weed is water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms), using different earthworm species. Among different earthworm species used for vermicomposting of aquatic weeds, Eisenia fetida (Savigny) is the most commonly used species. Vermicomposting is an efficient ecobiotechnological process that converts the aquatic weeds into nutrient rich material that can acts as suitable plant growth media for sustainable agroecosystems. Further large scale utilization of aquatic weed based vermicompost in horticulture can solve their management and disposal issues along with restoration of organic matter and nutrient depletion at low input basis.
      PubDate: 2017-09-04
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.2017.4.3.311
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Distribution of alkaloids in woody plants

    • Authors: Isabel Desgagné-Penix
      Pages: 137 - 142
      Abstract: Alkaloids are nitrogen-containing compounds found in plants. Most are highly valued for their role in wide array of ailments such as anti-malarial, anti-cancerous, analgesics, and many more. In lights of tremendous interest in recent years on the chemistry and pharmacological properties of alkaloids, comprehensive data have been collected. Forest industries have recently started to develop sustainable ways to increase the value of its residues including the extraction and commercialization of high-valued plant natural compounds such as alkaloids. This review presents the distribution of alkaloids among woody plants (trees and shrubs).
      PubDate: 2017-09-05
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.2017.4.3.320
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Efficient synthesis of plant-mediated silver nanoparticles and their
           screening for antimicrobial activity

    • Authors: Kamlesh Shukla, Bhoopander Giri, Rashmi Dwivede
      Pages: 143 - 150
      Abstract: Now days, the development of safe, cost effective, reliable and eco-friendly processes for the synthesis of nanoparticles is an important aspect of nanotechnology. Among the various agents, plants show immense potential for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The bio-molecules found in plants induce reduction of Ag+ ions from silver nitrate to silver nanoparticles (AgNPs); therefore, in the present work, the aqueous leaves extract of the plant was used as reducing agent for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. We synthesized extracellular silver nanoparticles using extract of the leaves of four different medicinal plants which act as a reducing agent at room temperature. The characteristic color change was observed on addition of plant extract to the silver nitrate solution due to their specific properties (Surface Plasmon Resonance). UV-Vis spectroscopy was used for the characterization of the silver nanoparticles. Green synthesized nanoparticles are evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria as well as two pathogenic fungi Aspergillus fumigatus and Curvularia lunata. The silver nanoparticles (SNPs) of selected plant parts have shown more toxicity towards bacterial species than that of the fungal species. Comparing with simple plant extracts, the SNPs exhibited greater antimicrobial efficacy and advantage over conventional antibiotics to which these microorganisms usually impart resistance.
      PubDate: 2017-09-11
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.2017.4.3.328
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
  • Anti-platelet aggregation effects of extracts from Arbutus unedo leaves

    • Authors: Mohammed El Haouari, Hassane Mekhfi
      Pages: 68 - 74
      Abstract: It is well known that platelet hyperactivity is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis, stroke and myocardial infarction. This study aimed to examine the effects of extracts enriched in flavonoids obtained from Arbutus unedo leaves on platelet aggregation. Rat platelets were prepared and incubated in vitro with different doses of the tested extracts, and aggregation was trigged by physiological agonists. Platelet treatment with increasing concentrations (0.1 - 1 mg/ml) of diethyl ether extract (genins = free flavonoids) or ethyl acetate extract (hetrosidic flavonoids) inhibited platelet aggregation evoked by thrombin in a concentration-dependant manner. The IC50 values were 0.22 ± 0.03 and 0.36 ± 0.05 mg/ml for genins and heterosidic flavonoids respectively. Treatment with Arbutus unedo extracts also significantly reduced the initial rate of platelet aggregation. At 1 mg/ml, the rate inhibition was 97.8 ± 0.74 and 90.8 ± 1.55 % for genins and heterosidic flavonoids respectively. In addition, flavonoids significantly inhibited platelet aggregation induced by ADP, collagen or epinephrine. We conclude that Arbutus unedo extracts show antiaggregant effects due mainly to flavonoids. These results may partly explain the traditional use of Arbutus unedo leaves for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders such as hypertension.
      PubDate: 2017-05-06
      DOI: 10.14719/pst.2017.4.2.298
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2017)
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Heriot-Watt University
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