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Journal Cover Research & Reviews : Journal of Physics
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   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 2278-2265 - ISSN (Online) 2278-2265
   Published by STM Journals Homepage  [67 journals]
  • Experimental Studies on the Bonding Techniques to Record a Leakage-Free
           Surface-Driven Capillary Flow of Ethylene Glycol in the SU-8 based Glass
           Microfluidic Devices
    • Authors: Subhadeep Mukhopadhyay
      Abstract: The SU-8 based glass microfluidic devices are fabricated by maskless lithography and indirect bonding technique. Ethylene glycol is used as the working liquid to test the level of bonding in each microfluidic device. In the indirect bonding technique of this work, the vertical bonding force is optimised to fabricate the leakage-free microfluidic device. A vertical bonding force of 4 kg-wt is determined as optimum level to produce the leakage-free microfluidic devices. This indirect bonding technique will be suitable to fabricate the SU-8 based microfluidic lab-on-a-chip systems. Keywords: SU-8; Microchannel; Bonding; Ethylene glycolCite this Article Subhadeep Mukhopadhyay. Experimental Studies on the Bonding Techniques to Record a Leakage-free Surface-Driven Capillary Flow of Ethylene Glycol in the SU-8 based Glass Microfluidic Devices. Research & Reviews: Journal of Physics. 2017; 6(2): 30–34p.

      PubDate: 2017-08-22
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Modelling and Design of Punch and its Operation on Sheet
    • Authors: Maneesh Kumar, Trilok Chauhan
      Abstract: Punching of a sheet is widely used in manufacturing industries due to its applications. It can be used to give the required shape or to process a hole. It can be very large or small depending upon the application required. A lot of household items are being made by punching operation. Punching involves parts such as punch which applies the force and is motion, sheet on which load is being applied, blank die which gives the shapes to the sheet and blank holder which holds the sheet on its position. The present work focuses on the survey of the earlier work done on the punching operation. Modelling of the punching assembly is conducted in the present work. During punching operation which parts come under maximum load, and different types of stresses developed during the punching operation were also studied and reviewed in the present work. Keywords: Punching, sheet, blank die, blank holder, finite element analysis (FEA)  Cite this Article Kumar M, Chauhan T. Modelling and Design of Punch and its Operation on Sheet. Research & Reviews: Journal of Physics. 2017; 6(2): 21–29p.
      PubDate: 2017-08-22
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Statistical Analysis of Geomagnetic Activity and Solar Activity Features
           during Solar Cycle 23 & 24
    • Authors: Bimal Pande, Mahesh Chandra Mathpal, Seema Pande
      Abstract: We present a statistical analysis of the geomagnetic storm (GMSs) with the solar activity features (Sunspot number (SN), H-α flare and coronal mass ejection (CME)) during solar cycle 23 and 24. Sunspot number (SN) shows good correlation with peak values of GMSs indices (correlations coefficient R= 0.76) while CME(R=0.59) and H-α (R=0.55) show moderate correlation. So we conclude that GMSs have good correlation with solar activity features during major geomagnetic storms of solar cycle 23 and 24. These parameters may act as reliable indicators for predicting GMSs and their strength. We have also correlated peak values of various geomagnetic indices among themselves with the highest correlations between Dst-ap (R=0.80) and A.E-ap (R=0.71). We have analyzed the GMSs data during different phases of the solar cycle 23 and 24 and concluded that CMEs are more important drivers of GMSs during the maximum phase of solar cycle while CIR are more significant drivers of GMSs during the decay phase. Keywords: GMSs, Solar Cycle, GI indicesCite this Article Bimal Pande, Mahesh Chandra Mathpal, Seema Pande. Statistical Analysis of Geomagnetic Activity and Solar Activity Features during Solar Cycle 23 & 24. Research & Reviews: Journal of Physics. 2017, 6(2): 14–20p.

      PubDate: 2017-08-22
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Validation of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) for Trace Elements
           Analysis of Environmental Samples
    • Authors: Adamu Ibrahim Usman, Hankouraou Seydou, Abdurrahman Abubakar, Muhammad Sabiu Bala
      Abstract: The investigation focused on the validation of the methodology used in determining the presence of specific trace elements in environmental soil concern. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) available in Gombe State University, Nigeria was employed in analyzing the elemental concentrations on the certified values in three reference materials obtained from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST). The elements determined were Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mg, Mn, Ni, and Pb. The percentage recovery of the measured trace elements concentrations were found within the range of 90–100% of the certified values for most of the elements; the machine was calibrated using standard solution. Keywords: AAS, Gombe, reference materials, trace elements, percentage recoveryCite this Article Usman AI, Seydou H, Abubakar A, Bala MS. Validation of Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) for Trace Elements Analysis of Environmental Samples. Research & Reviews: Journal of Physics. 2017; 6(2): 8–13p.

      PubDate: 2017-08-22
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • The Square of Rotational Energy and the Moment of Inertia for Pt (A=192
           – 198) Isotopes
    • Authors: Alya'a Abdulkadhim
      Abstract: The aim of the present work was to study the square of rotational energy of Pt (A=192–198) isotopes, depending on the energy levels E(L) and angular momentum (L), as has been the study of moment of inertia for same isotopes, depending on the energy transitions for spin sequences and angular momentum (L). All that has been found by using (IBM-1) program. After that, all of the data from theoretical work were compared with the experimental results and shown through drawing.   Keywords: Interacting Boson model, square of rotational energy, moment of inertia, Pt isotopes, energy levelsCite this Article Abdulkadhim A. The Square of Rotational Energy & the Moment of Inertia for Pt (A=192–198) Isotopes. Research & Reviews: Journal of Physics. 2017; 6(2): 1–7p.
       
      PubDate: 2017-08-21
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Research on Laser Hardened Bead Geometry in Laser Hardening Parameters of
           ASTM Grade3 Pure Titanium
    • Authors: Duradundi Sawant Badkar
      Abstract: In the presented study, the laser transformation hardening of commercially pure titanium sheet material of thickness being 1.6 mm is investigated using CW (continuous wave) 1.6 kW solid state Nd:YAG laser. Commercially pure titanium has widespread application in various fields of industries including the medical, nuclear, automobile and aerospace. A full factorial design (FFD) with response surface methodology (RSM) is employed to establish, optimize and to investigate the relationships of three laser transformation hardening process parameters such as laser power, scanning speed, and focused position on laser hardened bead profile parameters such as hardened bead width, hardened depth, heat input. RSM is used to develop pseudo-closed-form models from the computational parametric studies. Effects of laser process parameters: laser power, scanning speed and focal point position on laser hardened bead geometries such as hardened bead width, hardened depth and heat input were carried out using RSM. Results indicate that the scanning speed and laser power have the significant effect as compared to the focal point position on the laser hardening process parameters. The scanning speed has a positive effect on all responses while the laser power has a positive effect particularly on hardened bead width and as compared to hardened depth and heat input. The optimum laser hardening conditions are identified sequentially to minimise hardened depth, heat input, and maximum hardened bead width. The validation results demonstrate that the developed models are accurate with low percentages of error (less than 7.409%). Keywords: Laser transformation hardening; response surface methodology; full factorial design; analysis of variance; bead geometry Cite this Article Duradundi Sawant Badkar. Research on Laser Hardened Bead Geometry in Laser Hardening Parameters of ASTM Grade3 Pure Titanium. Research & Reviews: Journal of Physics. 2017; 6(1): 22–37p. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-14
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Novel Recording of the Surface-Driven Capillary Flow of Water in a PMMA
           Microfluidic Device by CMOS Camera
    • Authors: Subhadeep Mukhopadhyay
      Abstract: The polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) microfluidic device is fabricated in the cleanroom laboratory. In the fabrication process, maskless lithography, hot embossing lithography, drilling, direct bonding technique and chip separation technique are used inside the cleanroom laboratory, mechanical engineering workshop and materials science laboratory. The surface-driven capillary flow of dyed water is recorded by a CMOS camera. This work will be useful for different microfluidic applications. Keywords: PMMA, maskless lithography, hot embossing lithography, dyed water, CMOS cameraCite this Article Subhadeep Mukhopadhyay. Novel Recording of the Surface-Driven Capillary Flow of Water in a PMMA Microfluidic Device by CMOS Camera. Research & Reviews: Journal of Physics. 2017; 6(1): 16–21p. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-12
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Experimental Studies on the Surface-Driven Capillary Flow of Isopropyl
           Alcohol in PMMA Microfluidic Devices
    • Authors: Subhadeep Mukhopadhyay
      Abstract: The polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) microfluidic devices are fabricated by the maskless lithography, hot embossing lithography, surface modification techniques and direct bonding technique. The effect of surface area to volume ratio on the surface-driven capillary flow is studied in the PMMA microfluidic devices using isopropyl alcohol (IPA) as working liquid. These experimental studies will be useful to manipulate the working liquid inside the microfluidic lab-on-a-chip systems. Keywords: PMMA, surface area to volume ratio, capillary flow, isopropyl alcohol Cite this Article Subhadeep Mukhopadhyay. Experimental Studies on the Surface-Driven Capillary Flow of Isopropyl Alcohol in PMMA Microfluidic Devices. Research & Reviews: Journal of Physics. 2017; 6(1): 12–15p.

      PubDate: 2017-05-12
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Absorption Spectra Calculation and Charge Distribution Analysis of
           para-azoxyanisole: A Semiempirical Study
    • Authors: P. Lakshmi Praveen
      Abstract: Semiempirical study of electronic structure of para-azoxyanisole (PAA) has been carried out. In order to obtain more information on the reactivity of PAA molecule towards nucleophile and electrophile, semiempirical (CNDO/S, and INDO/S) based calculations have been performed to evaluate the negative and positive charge distribution. Further, CNDO/S + CI and INDO/S + CI methods have been employed to calculate and analyze the absorbance spectral measurements in UV-visible range, and charge distribution analysis of the systems. The electronic transitions, absorption wavelength, HOMO (Highest Occupied Molecular Orbital), and LUMO (Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbital) energies have been calculated. Further, ultraviolet (UV) stability of the molecule has been discussed. The decreasing order of reactivity of these sites for electrophilic attack, the most, and the lowest negative charge sites may be understood from this analysis. Keywords: para-azoxyanisole, oscillator strength, liquid crystalCite this Article P. Lakshmi Praveen. Absorption Spectra Calculation and Charge Distribution Analysis of para-azoxyanisole: A Semiempirical Study. Research & Reviews: Journal of Physics. 2017; 6(1): 5–11p. 
      PubDate: 2017-05-12
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
  • Heliospheric Modulation of Galactic Cosmic Rays during Solar Minimum of SC
           23/24
    • Authors: B.K. Tiwari, B.R. Ghormare
      Abstract: Galactic cosmic ray (GCR) flux at earth is modulated by the heliospheric magnetic field. Heliospheric modulation potential during grand solar minimum is observed using an open solar flux (OSF) model, with OSF source based on Sunspot number. Structure of the heliosphere controls the solar outputs and their variability, and produces changes in cosmic ray intensity. Observation was based on the data taken from Omniweb data centre for solar-interplanetary data and yearly mean count rate of cosmic ray intensity (CRI) variation data from Oulu (Rc = 0.80 GV) and Moscow (Rc = 2.42 GV) neutron monitors during 1996–2016. It was observed that slow decline of solar cycle 23 and slow rise of solar cycle 24 resulted in prolonged low solar activity that lasted from about 2006 to 2009 with 2008 and 2009 being sun remarkably quiet. Therefore, solar minimum between cycle 23 and 24 was very extended and deep in contrast to previous solar minima’s and the strength of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) has been falling off to new low levels, reducing the GCR entering inner-heliosphere and it was high anti-correlation between sunspot number and GCR flux. The correlation between the count rate of cosmic ray intensity with solar indices and heliospheric parameters was also found. Keywords: Interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), galactic cosmic ray intensity (GCRI), interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs), solar activityCite this Article Tiwari BK, Ghormare BR. Heliospheric Modulation of Galactic Cosmic Rays During Solar Minimum of SC 23/24. Research & Reviews: Journal of Physics. 2017; 6(1): 1–4p. 
      PubDate: 2017-02-21
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
       
 
 
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