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Journal Cover Research & Reviews : Journal of Physics
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   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 2278-2265 - ISSN (Online) 2278-2265
   Published by STM Journals Homepage  [67 journals]
  • Free Vibration of Cross-ply Composite Plates by a High-Order Shear
           Deformable Finite Element
    • Authors: Mihir Chandra Manna, Mainak Manna
      Abstract: Free vibration analysis of composite rectangular plates with different thickness ratios, different boundary conditions and different aspect ratios has been investigated using a high-order shear flexible triangular plate element. The first order shear deformation theory (FOSDT) is used to include the effect of transverse shear deformation. The element has eighteen nodes on the sides and seven internal nodes. Element geometry is expressed in terms of three linear shape functions of area coordinates. The formulation is displacement type. The element has seventy-one degrees of freedom, which has been reduced to fifty-seven degrees of freedom by Guyan reduction scheme for the degrees of freedom associated with the internal nodes. Rotary inertia has been included in the consistent mass matrix. Numerical examples are presented to show the accuracy and convergence characteristics of the element. Keywords: Shear deformation, Guyan reduction scheme, rotary inertia, consistent mass matrixCite this Article Mihir Chandra Manna, Mainak Manna. Free Vibration of Cross-ply Composite Plates by A High-Order Shear Deformable Finite Element. Research & Reviews: Journal of Physics. 2016; 5(3): 36–47p.
       
      PubDate: 2016-11-28
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Chemical Potential of Water from Monte Carlo Simulation: The Fundamentals
    • Authors: H. Bashir, Y. Wang, A. J. Abbas
      Abstract: Monte Carlo simulation was conducted using the Towhee software to calculate the chemical potential of water. The implementation is made simple and provides a clear demonstration of the concept of Monte Carlo simulation. This paper is targeted to new researchers interested in molecular modelling and can be used as a guide for beginners in the art of molecular modelling, specifically Monte Carlo simulation. The purpose of carrying out the calculation of the water chemical potential is that the value obtained can be implemented in the Grand Canonical ( ensemble or Gibbs ensemble for further research. The result obtained from the Monte Carlo simulation for the chemical potential of water are in agreement with published water potential values, therefore validating the SPC water model and MCCCS Towhee software [1]. Keywords: Monte Carlo simulation, molecular modelling, water chemical potentialCite this Article Bashir H, Wang Y, Abbas AJ. Chemical Potential of Water from Monte Carlo Simulation: The Fundamentals. Research & Reviews: Journal of Physics. 2016; 5(3): 16–27p.
       
      PubDate: 2016-11-28
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Strength and Stability of Copper in (100) Loading using EAM
    • Authors: Vikram Singh, Gitam Singh
      Abstract: Numerical computations of strength and stability of copper in case of (100) loading are carried out by taking new embedded atom method (EAM). New EAM contains three adjustable parameters and four unknown parameters, which have calculated using experimental values of lattice constant, second order elastic constants. Computed value of theoretical strength of Cu is same order in magnitude of the results of other investigators. Second unstable phase found in compression. Keywords: Strength, stability, EAM, stressCite this Article Vikram Singh, Gitam Singh. Strength and Stability of Copper in (100) loading using EAM. Research & Reviews: Journal of Physics. 2016; 5(3): 28–35p.

      PubDate: 2016-11-28
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • On the Role of Surface Roughness in Ankle Joint Replacements
    • Authors: Puneet Katyal
      Abstract: Research efforts in biomechanics have geared towards the long-term effectiveness and survival of total joint replacements, because of osteoarthritis causes loosening, instability, wear of articulating components and finally loss of function. Surface roughness of articulating components significantly influences their tribological behavior. Other factors affecting the wear of articulating surfaces include material and geometrical properties. In this work, the human ankle joint is represented by an equivalent ellipsoid-on-plane model to study the effect of surface roughness on the pressure profile, film shape, minimum film thickness, lambda ratio ( ) and coefficient of friction in total joint replacements under steady-state conditions. The main purpose here is to promote fluid film lubrication and therefore, reduce wear in ankle joint replacements. Keywords: EHL, Surface roughness, film thicknessCite this Article Puneet Katyal. On the role of surface roughness in ankle joint replacements. Research & Reviews: Journal of Physics. 2016; 5(3): 48–55p.
       
      PubDate: 2016-11-28
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Stress Analysis of Rotating Cylindrical Pressure Vessel of Functionally
           Graded Material by Element Based Material Gradation
    • Authors: Amit Kumar Thawait
      Abstract: The present study aims at the elastic analysis of rotating cylindrical pressure vessels made of functionally graded materials (FGMs), by element based gradation. Material properties of the shells vary in radial direction according to exponential distribution law. Ceramic-metal and metal-ceramic, both the types of FGM are considered and the effects of gradation of material properties on stress and deformation behavior of the shells are investigated. Further, a comparison of deformation and stresses for different values of thickness parameters in ceramic-metal and metal-ceramic shell is made. Results obtained show that there is a significant variation in stresses and deformation behavior of the FGM shells for different values of thickness parameter. Keywords: Functionally graded material (FGM), elastic stress analysis, cylindrical pressure vessel, rotating shell, element based material gradationCite this Article Amit Kumar Thawait. Stress Analysis of Rotating Cylindrical Pressure Vessel of Functionally Graded Material by Element Based Material Gradation. Research & Reviews: Journal of Physics. 2016; 5(3): 7–15p.
       
      PubDate: 2016-10-03
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • A Review Study of Advances in the Science and Technology of Carbon
           Nanotubes
    • Authors: Sufiyan Nudrat, Yadav Archana, Saeed S. Hasan
      Abstract: In this paper, we are presenting a brief literature review of present and future carbon nano tubes applications in different fields. Carbon nanotubes are the allotropes of carbon present as wires of pure carbon with nanometer diameters and lengths of many microns. There are several carbon nanotubes applications, which take full advantage of CNTs unique properties of mechanical strength, electrical and thermal conductivity. Many developments on fabrication of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been made to fulfill the demands on better performance including response time and higher sensitivity. In the very near future, carbon nanotubes will play a significant role in a wide range of commercial applications. Keywords: Carbon nanotube, electronics, current, grapheneCite this Article Sufiyan Nudrat, Yadav Archana, Hasan Saeed S. A Review Study of Advances in the Science and Technology of Carbon Nanotubes. Research & Reviews: Journal of Physics. 2016; 5(3): 1–6p.
       
      PubDate: 2016-10-02
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Stress and Deformation Analysis of Rotating Thick Truncated Conical Shells
           of Exponential FGM
    • Authors: Amit Kumar Thawait
      Abstract: The present study reports stress and deformation analysis of rotating thick truncated conical shells made of exponentially varying functionally graded material, subjected to linearly varying internal pressure. Material properties of the shells are graded exponentially along the axial direction. Metal-ceramic as well as ceramic-metal (FGM) of aluminum metal and zirconia ceramic is considered. The stresses and deformation behavior are evaluated at different surfaces along the radius and at different angular velocities. A comparison of behavior of FGM shells and homogeneous shell is also made. Numerical results obtained shows that the stresses and deformation are maximum at inner surface, near the bottom zone and it is observed that the effect of angular velocity is more dominant over internal pressure, at high speeds. Keywords: Thick truncated conical shell, Functionally graded material, Linear elastic analysis, Linear varying pressureCite this Article Amit Kumar Thawait. Stress and Deformation Analysis of Rotating Thick Truncated Conical Shells of Exponential FGM. Research & Reviews: Journal of Physics. 2016; 5(2): 36–44p.
       
      PubDate: 2016-08-09
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Determination of Crystalline Planes and Directions in Cubic System
    • Authors: Jobish Johns, R. Jeevan Kumar, Vijayakumar P.C.
      Abstract: A new method to draw the planes in cubic crystal system has been introduced. According to this method, it is very convenient to draw the planes along negative directions. The origin for the plane along all the directions can be identified easily by referring the standard table given in the text. After referring various technical papers, journals and textbooks it is noticed that there is no definite method and proper directions to draw planes in all possible directions of cubic crystals. In general, it is not a familiar technique for a teacher to explain fundamentals especially to draw the planes along negative directions. In addition to refer x, y and z directions according the available directions, it has been introduced an alternative method by considering a fixed site index for each plane. By using both reference axes and specific lattice point, one can draw all possible planes successfully including negative directions. It is an easy and new method to draw planes. Identification of origin to draw plane is important. Table provides the origin or lattice point out of eight points. Based on this table, it is possible to draw planes for n number of planes in all the possible directions including negative directions. Therefore, the information highlighted in the manuscript is very much helpful in the field of crystallography. Keywords: Planes, Cubic crystal system, Miller IndicesCite this Article Jobish Johns, R Jeevan Kumar, Vijayakumar PC. Determination of Crystalline Planes and Directions in Cubic System. Research & Reviews: Journal of Physics. 2016; 5(2): 31–35p.
       
      PubDate: 2016-07-27
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Third Order Perturbed Heisenberg Hamiltonian of BCC Ferromagnetic
           Ultra-Thin Films
    • Authors: P. Samarasekara, N. U. S. Yapa
      Abstract: For the first time, the solution of third order perturbed classical Heisenberg Hamiltonian equation with all the seven magnetic parameters including stress induced anisotropy and demagnetization factor is presented in this manuscript. Variation of third order perturbed total energy with applied in plane magnetic field, applied out of plane magnetic field, demagnetization factor and spin exchange interaction is described in this manuscript. Several peaks can be observed in each 3-D plot implying that there are many easy and hard directions for magnetization. All the simulations reported in this manuscript are given for a ferromagnetic film with three spin layers (N=3). Although this simulation was performed for some selected values of seven magnetic energy parameters, the simulation can be carried out for any values of magnetic energy parameters. Keywords: Perturbation, Heisenberg Hamiltonian, Ferromagnetic thin filmsCite this Article Samarasekara P, Yapa NUS. Third Order Perturbed Heisenberg Hamiltonian of BCC Ferromagnetic Ultra-Thin Films. Research & Reviews: Journal of Physics. 2016; 5(2): 23–30p.
       
      PubDate: 2016-07-26
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Evaluation of Image Reconstruction Techniques in Single Photon Emission
           Computed Tomography (SPECT/CT) Imaging
    • Authors: F. Usman, R. Zainon, A. Saidu, A. Bala
      Abstract: This work is aimed at evaluating the image reconstruction techniques used in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging. The reconstruction techniques considered in this work are: the ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) and the Filtered Back Projection (FBP). An anthropomorphic torso phantom with lung and liver inserts was injected with 99mTc. The liver and the background were given 0.2 MBq/ml and 0.07 MBq/ml respectively. The lungs inserts were filled with polystyrene beads for humanization. A mimicked 30 ml tumor (27 mm) in the liver insert was given 2 MBq/ml sequential SPECT/CT (step and shot, 10 mins over 180° per head) and CT (120 kVp, 80 mAs) projections were acquired using dual head SPECT/16 slice CT system. The projections were reconstructed using OSEM (10 subsets for 2–10 numbers of iterations, Butterworth post filtering, 10 orders and 0.48 frequencies) and FBP (using Butterworth post filtering at 10 order and cutoff frequencies of 0.38–0.58, 0.05 gaps). Image J software was used for the image analysis. Statistical t-test tested the mean gray values of the tumor and its background. The OSEM and FBP reconstructed images were evaluated from their contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). The optimal parameter was selected based on 3–5 CNR detection range set by the Rose criterion. The t-test showed the background and the tumors mean values to be statistically significant (P ≪ 0.05). The CNR values for FBP images were all below the detection range, maximum value at the cutoff frequency 0.48 (1.69). In OSEM images at cutoff frequency 0.48, the CNR values were within the detection range for 2–8 numbers of iteration with maximum value (4.89) at 4 numbers of iteration. OSEM was found to be the best for tumor detection and administered activity can be reduced at 4 OSEM’s of iterations (40 MLEM iterations) for patient safety. Keywords: Anthropomorphic torso phantom, 99mTc, SPECT, iterative reconstruction, CNR, P-Value, liverCite this Article F. Usman, R. Zainon, A. Saidu, A. Bala. Evaluation of image reconstruction techniques in Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT/CT) imaging. Research & Reviews: Journal of Physics. 2016; 5(2): 13–22p.
       
      PubDate: 2016-07-19
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Geophysical Determination of Construction Clay Deposit Using 2-Dimensional
           Resistivity Imaging In Ologbo Area of Edo State
    • Authors: Aisabokhae J. E., Adagbon J. E.
      Abstract: Geophysical exploration based on a two-dimensional electrical resistivity survey was carried out to determine the presence of construction clay deposits in Ologbo Area of Edo State, Nigeria. Begin and end co-ordinates for line 1 were N6°05.585′, E005°39.686′ and N6°05.541′, E005°39.652′ and N6°03.754′, E005°39.029′ and N6°03.700′, E005°39.054′ for line 2. The survey technique utilized was Wenner-Schlumberger array in the two explored areas to justify the operation of assembling apparent resistivity data. Significantly, clay finds its use in the steel industry where it is used to make refractories. Petrozenith earth resistivity meter, 21 electrodes, 4 cables cases and a GPRS device comprised the field equipment. The data recorded after prospecting with maximum current electrode spacing of 100.0 meters was interpreted using Zondres2D computer program to produce true resistivity models. Geologic interpretation of the survey revealed that clay and clayey soil were present intermingled with pure silt and traces of fine sand deposits. The depths of clay formations were measured at 4 meters and 12 meters for survey line 1 and survey line 2, respectively. Areas of probable clay formations have been identified especially for future exploitation. Keywords: 2-D resistivity survey, construction clay, refractories, pseudosection.Cite this Article Aisabokhae J.E., Adagbon J.E. Geophysical Determination of Construction Clay Deposit Using 2-Dimensional Resistivity Imaging In Ologbo Area of Edo State. Research & Reviews: Journal of Physics. 2016; 5(2): 1–12p.
       
      PubDate: 2016-06-29
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Investigation of the Pulse Shape and Amplitude of 4He Gas Scintillations
           Produced by a 5.5 MeV Alpha Particle Source
    • Authors: A. Bala
      Abstract: Scintillation light is normally produced when ionizing particles such as alpha particles deposit their energy as they travel through a scintillating material, which can be solid, liquid or gaseous (e.g. 4He). In this project we compared scintillations produced in 4He gas by alpha particles (from the decay of 241Am) to those produced in plastic scintillator by cosmic-ray muons. The properties of photomultiplier and Si photomultipliers as sensors of scintillation light were also compared. A Geant 4 simulation was done to measure the amount of energy deposited in the gas cell and a plastic scintillator. The mean energy deposited in the gas cell was found to be 4.3 MeV and that in the plastic scintillator produced by cosmic muons was found to be 4.76 MeV. The mean amplitude was 5 mV and 8 mV at a bias voltage of 73.5 V for both the gas cell and plastic scintillator, respectively. Keywords: scintillation, photomultiplier tube, noble gas, cosmic muons, 4He Cite this Article Bala A. Investigation of the pulse shape and amplitude of 4He gas scintillations produced by a 5.5 MeV alpha particle source. Research & Reviews: Journal of Physics. 2016; 5(1): 18–29p. 
      PubDate: 2016-04-20
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Review of Reliability and Availability Evaluation of MPPGCL Sirmour
           Hydropower Station using Markov Modelling
    • Authors: Ankit Singh, B. K. Tiwari
      Abstract: Water is one of the best renewable energy sources available, as we are almost totally dependent on the availability of depleting fossil fuels. Being more reliable and cost effective, hydel energy is attracting more investors and entrepreneurs for investing and establishing hydro power plant. Since maintenance and operation of a power plant is very challenging and complicated process, calculating and analyzing its compatibility and reliability is very important. This paper introduces Markov reliability model for MPPGCL Sirmour, India by studying the operational data and analysis of all parts of generating unit of the power plant for period of 2010–2015. The availability and reliability of individual unit of power plant is evaluated by taking into account different indices, namely failure rate (λ), repair rate (µ), MTTR, MTTF, MTBF through data collection and tabulating all types of failures for separate analysis. By these evaluations and analyses we can improve reliability of all the components of each unit of power plant. The error of a single sub-unit can affect the annual performance and efficiency of power generation. Thus Markov modelling technique will help to decrease repair cost and identify sensitive equipments to be replaced. And probably errors can be removed that make more power available at low cost as per given input, and allow a fair step towards energy independence of local community. Keywords: Hydro power plant, performance, failure and repair rate, Markov modelling, renewable energyCite this Article Ankit Singh, Tiwari BK. Review of Reliability and Availability Evaluation of MPPGCL Sirmour Hydropower Station using Markov Modelling. Research and Reviews: Journal of Physics. 2016; 5(1): 30–37p. 
      PubDate: 2016-04-20
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Structural and Electrical Characterization of Mn-Zn Substituted Casr2:
           W-Type Hexaferrite
    • Authors: A.K. Akant, C.L. Khobaragade
      Abstract: In the present investigation the samples with chemical composition CaSr2 (Mn-Zn)x/2Fe16- xO27 (x= 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0) have been synthesized by using chemical co-precipitation method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to study structure, lattice constants, crystallites size, x-ray density, bulk density, porosity and shape of ferrite powders. The prepared samples were found to have W-type hexagonal structure with the lattice parameters a= (5.77 Å–5.82 Å) and c= (33.08–33.47 Å). The average crystallites size calculated from XRD analysis is found to be 27.9 nm. The dependence of conductivity, dielectric constant and dielectric loss tangent on both the frequency and temperature was studied by using impedance analyzer. The increase in conductivity with an increase in temperature shows a semiconducting behavior of the compound. The room temperature (RT) resistivity varies from 5.38x105Ω-cm to 1.43x108Ω-cm with the doping concentration. Keywords: XRD, VSM, electrical properties, hysteresisCite this Article Akant and Khobaragade. Structural and Electrical Characterization of Mn-Zn Substituted Casr2: W-Type Hexaferrite. Research & Reviews: Journal of Physics. 2016; 5(1): 11–17p.

      PubDate: 2016-04-14
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Pressure-Dependent Structural and Optical Properties of CdSe
    • Authors: A. Asad, A. Afaq
      Abstract: The structural and optical properties of Cadmium Selenide compound is investigated in Zinc blende phases under 0-30 GPa pressure using Density Functional Theory (DFT) with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functional embodied in wien2k code. At zero pressure lattice constant and bulk modulus, are found to be in good agreement with experimental and other theoretical works. Other than zero pressure, there is reduction in volume of unit cell according to Murnaghan equation of state. The Results of dielectric constant, refractive index, absorption coefficient and reflectivity versus energy plots showed that peak values increase as well as shift towards higher energies as we increase pressure. This increase or shift of peak values indicates the enhancement of direct band gap in CdSe. Keywords: Density Functional Theory, Pressure dependent optical properties, GGACite this Article Asad A, Afaq A. Pressure-Dependent Structural and Optical Properties of CdSe. Research & Reviews: Journal of Physics. 2016; 5(1): 1–5p.

       
      PubDate: 2016-04-12
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Structural and Optical Properties of ZnSe under Pressure
    • Authors: A. Asad, A. Afaq
      Abstract: The structural and optical properties of zinc selenide compound is investigated in zinc blende phases under 0-30 GPa pressure using density functional theory (DFT) calculations with generalized gradient approximation (GGA) embodied in Wien2k code. At zero pressure, lattice constant and bulk modulus are found to be in good agreement with experimental and other theoretical works. Other than zero pressure, there is a reduction in volume of the unit cell according to murnaghan equation of state. The results of dielectric constant, refractive index, absorption coefficient and reflectivity versus (vs.) energy plots showed that the peak value increases as well as shift towards higher energies as we increase pressure. This increase or shift of peak values indicates the enhancement of direct band gap in ZnSe. Keywords: GGA, density functional theory, pressure dependent optical properties Cite this Article Asad and Afaq. Structural and Optical Properties of ZnSe under Pressure. Research & Reviews: Journal of Physics. 2016; 5(1): 6–10p. 
      PubDate: 2016-03-27
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Quantum Computation in the Brain and Emergence of Unperturbed Mind Due to
           Inductive BIS Load
    • Authors: Sobinder Singh, Madan Mohan Bajaj
      Abstract: “Solitons”, are comprised of a loosely coupled coherent system of subquantum entities. This coherent solitonic system of loosely coupled entities can be viewed as a partial description of consciousness. BIS stands for breakdown of integrated system. It is of three kinds: resistive, capacitative and inductive. In our present paper we will study the behavior of unperturbed mind due to strong inductive BIS processes.Keywords: BIS effect, quantum computation, microtubules, quantum zeno effect, solitonsCite this Article Sobinder Singh, Madan Mohan Bajaj. Quantum computation in the brain and emergence of unperturbed mind due to inductive BIS load. Research & Reviews: Journal of Physics. 2015; 4(3): 27–31p.

       
      PubDate: 2015-12-28
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Galactic Cosmic Rays Modulation Due to Solar-Interplanetary Activity
    • Authors: BK Tiwari, BR Ghormare
      Abstract: The Sun displays a multiple magnetic activities collectivity referred as solar activity. Galactic cosmic rays are subjected to heliospheric modulation under the influence of solar outputs and their variability. We observed relation between selected solar activity parameters and GCR variation. The observation based on data of Omniweb data centre for solar- interplanetary  activity  and monthly mean count rate of cosmic ray intensity from neutron monitor Oulu ( cutoff rigidity Rc=0.80 GV) during the period of 23/24 solar cycle .We observed a record high value of galactic cosmic ray intensity with low values of solar - interplanetary activity parameters during this minimum period of solar activity and also  correlate count rate of cosmic ray intensity with solar activity parameters  i.e. better anti-correlated. Keywords: Cosmic ray intensity (CRI), Magnetic clouds (MCs), Coronal mass ejections (CMEs), Heliospheric magnetic field (HMF)Cite this Article B.K. Tiwari, B.R. Ghormare. Galactic cosmic rays modulation due to solar-interplanetary activity. Research & Reviews: Journal of Physics. 2015; 4(3): 23–26p.

      PubDate: 2015-12-18
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • GEOPHYSICAL DETERMINATION OF WATER BEARING FORMATION USING 2-DIMENSIONAL
           GEO-ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY IMAGING IN OLOGBO AREA OF EDO STATE.
    • Authors: Joshua Esangbedo, Justice Efam Adagbon
      Abstract: 2-Dimensional Geoelectrical Resistivity Imaging Survey was carried out to locate water bearing formation at Ozolua road (line 12) and Lonestar area (line 19) in Ologbo, Ikpoba-Okha Local Government area of Edo State, Nigeria. Wenner – Schlumberger Array was carried out to map the electrical properties as an aid to characterizing the subsurface conditions using Petrozenith Earth Resistivity Meter. A total of seventy-eight soundings were obtained in each of the areas and the field data was processed and inverted using zondres2d software to obtain 2-dimensional true resistivity of the subsurface. In the first profile, the resistivity range lies between 350 to about 10000Ωm, indicating variation in soil matrix, grain size distribution and water saturation. The decrease in resistivity at a depth below the top soil along the bottom right of the profile indicates the presence of saturated soil. In the second profile, the study reveals the range of spatial distribution of sand deposits with large quantity of gravel indicated by high resistivity of about 10000Ωm.The resistivity of the study areas suggest that the near surface materials comprises of coarse sand and gravel while the underlying deeper materials also has high resistivity values. The resistivity values of the models probably indicates presence of water bearing formation in the survey area at greater depth of penetration. It is suggested that more research should be carried out so as to probe deeper into the formation in other to get to the aquifer table.
      PubDate: 2015-12-16
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • An Overview on Powder X-Ray Diffraction and Its Current Applications
    • Authors: Gunashekar GS, Krishna M
      Abstract: Industries and research centres are continuously developing novel materials with light weight, higher strength and which can retain their properties at environmental temperatures. The cited properties mainly depend upon micro-structure and chemical composition of materials. Many research works focused to characterize the materials by different experiment techniques. Among them powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) is a most prominent, non-destructive technique used for investigation, characterization, and quality control of crystalline materials. Numerous fundamental XRD techniques and software packages are available for analyzing the crystal structure, crystallite size, degrees of crystallinity and other structural parameters of materials. In this work the brief description of XRD techniques employed in quantitative analysis and its current applications have been discussed. Keywords: XRD, crystal structures, crystallite size, degrees of crystallinity, quantitative analysisCite this Article Gunashekar GS, Krishna M. An Overview on Powder X-Ray Diffraction and Its Current Applications. Research & Reviews: Journal of Physics. 2015; 4(3): 6–10p.
       
      PubDate: 2015-12-14
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Response of Magnetic Field by Conduction Electrons at Low Temperature in
           2H-NbSe2
    • Authors: I Naik
      Abstract: Here, we have presented the magneto-resistance (MR) on polycrystalline and single crystal of 2H-NbSe2. The obtained MR on single crystal shows anisotropic nature associated with small longitudinal MR i.e.  in which  direction of current flow compared to transverse MR i.e.  in which ^ direction of current flow. This anisotropy behaviour is associated with the complex Fermi surface found from the analysis of two-band model and Kohler’s rule. Keywords: Transition metal compound, magneto-resistance, two-band model, Kohler’s ruleCite this Article I. Naik. Response of Magnetic Field by Conduction Electrons at Low Temperature in 2H-NbSe2. Research & Reviews: Journal of Physics. 2015; 4(3): 1–5p.

      PubDate: 2015-10-26
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Potential Energy Surface for 190-198Hg Isotopes
    • Authors: Kahtan A. Hussain, Musa K. Mohsin, Fadhil I. Sharrad
      Abstract: The 190-198Hg isotopes with proton number Z=80 and neutron numbers (n) between 110 and 118 in O(6) region were investigated. The potential energy surface has been calculated within the framework using interacting boson model (IBM-1). The contour plot of the potential energy surfaces shows that the interested nuclei are deformed and have γ-unstable-like characters. Keywords: IBM-1, O(6), Hg isotopes, Potential energy surfaceCite this Article Kahtan A. Hussain. Musa K. Mohsin,  Fadhil I. Sharrad, Potential Energy surface for 190-198Hg Isotopes. Research & Reviews: Journal of Physics (RRJoPHY) 2015; 4(2): 14–18p.

      PubDate: 2015-07-29
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • A Review of the Use of Super Kamiokande to Determine Atmospheric Neutrino
           Oscillations
    • Authors: A. Bala
      Abstract: Super Kamiokande is a large water Cherenkov detectors situated at kamioka town in Japan. It was commissioned in 1996 and data taken began since then. The sole aim of this detector is to study atmospheric neutrinos, solar neutrinos, sterile neutrinos search for proton decays and other astrophysical sources. Lots of significant progress has been made during recent years in understanding of neutrino oscillation. This paper reports some findings of atmospheric neutrino oscillation using data taken from super kamiokande and other detectors of similar purpose. It also highlights some of the future projects based on this research area. Keywords: Kamiokande, neutrino, atmospheric, oscillationCite this Article Bala A, A Review of the Use of Super Kamiokande to Determine Atmospheric Neutrino Oscillations, Research & Reviews: Journal of Physics (RRJoPHY) 2015; 4(2): 19–24p.

      PubDate: 2015-07-29
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Kinetics of Non-isothermal Crystallization of Ge-Se-Sn Chalcogenide
           Glasses
    • Authors: Anusaiya Kaswan, Vandana Kumari, D. Patidar, N. S. Saxena, Kananbala Sharma
      Abstract: The calorimetric measurements of as-prepared Ge30-xSe70Snx (8≤x≤20) chalcogenide glasses have been performed using differential scanning calorimetery (DSC) at five different heating rates (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 Kmin-1) under non-isothermal conditions. These non-isothermal calorimetric measurements have been analyzed in terms of activation energy (Ec), Avrami exponent, dimensionality of growth, frequency factor, Ko(sec-1), half time of crystallization,t1/2(min) and crystallization rate parameter. These kinetic parameters have been evaluated using different theoretical approaches such as; Kissinger model, Ozawa model, Augis-Bennett, Matusita model, Gao-Wang model, Avrami model and Mo׳s approach. It has been observed that the activation energy of crystallization Ec (KJmole-1) is composition dependent. The activation energy decreases with increasing Sn content due to the decreasing rate of crystallization. It has also been observed that the half-time of crystallization decreases with increasing heating rate because when heating rate increases crystallization rate become faster. Keywords: Avrami exponent, Half-time of crystallization, Frequency factorCite this Article Anusaiya Kaswan, Vandana Kumari, Patidar D et al. Kinetics of non-isothermal crystallization of Ge-Se-Sn Chalcogenide Glasses, Research & Reviews: Journal of Physics (RRJoPHY) 2015; 4(2): 25–34p.
       
      PubDate: 2015-07-29
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Structural Properties of Spin Coated Multilayered Cupric Oxide Thin Films
    • Authors: P. Samarasekara, N. G. K. V. M. Premasiri
      Abstract: CuO thin films were spin-coated at 1500, 2200 and 2400 rpm for 30 sec, and subsequently annealed at 150–550°C for 1 h. Multi-layered CuO thin films were prepared including three and five layers. These thin films were characterized using XRD, Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and polarizing light microscopy. The XRD and FTIR analysis confirmed the crystallization of CuO phase in thin films annealed above 350°C, and corresponding crystallite sizes were observed to be increasing with the annealing temperature. The Scherrer formula was applied for (111) and peaks of XRD patterns of CuO thin films. According to the data of peak, average crystallite size increased from 0.801 to 55.20A as annealing temperature was increased from 350 to 500°C. In FTIR spectrum, peak corresponding to Cu-O bond appeared at wavelength of 532.4 cm-1above annealing temperature of 350°C. Keywords: Spin coating, CuO, XRD, FTIR, StructureCite this Article Samarasekara P, Premasiri NGKVM. Structural Properties of Spin Coated Multilayered Cupric Oxide Thin Films. Research & Reviews: Journal of Physics (RRJoPHY). 2015; 4(2): 8–13p.
       
      PubDate: 2015-06-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
 
 
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