Journal Cover Criminology
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0011-1384 - ISSN (Online) 1745-9125
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1592 journals]
  • POISONED DEVELOPMENT: ASSESSING CHILDHOOD LEAD EXPOSURE AS A CAUSE OF
           CRIME IN A BIRTH COHORT FOLLOWED THROUGH ADOLESCENCE
    • Authors: ROBERT J. SAMPSON; ALIX S. WINTER
      Abstract: The consequences of lead exposure for later crime are theoretically compelling, but direct evidence from representative, longitudinal samples is sparse. By capitalizing on an original follow-up of more than 200 infants from the birth cohort of the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods matched to their blood lead levels from around age 3 years, we provide several tests. Through the use of four waves of longitudinal data that include measures of individual development, family background, and structural inequalities in how lead becomes embodied, we assess the hypothesized link between early childhood lead poisoning and both parent-reported delinquent behavior and official arrest in late adolescence. We also test for mediating developmental processes of impulsivity and anxiety or depression. The results from multiple analytic strategies that make different assumptions reveal a plausibly causal effect of childhood lead exposure on adolescent delinquent behavior but no direct link to arrests. The results underscore lead exposure as a trigger for poisoned development in the early life course and call for greater integration of the environment into theories of individual differences in criminal behavior.
      PubDate: 2018-02-20T11:50:54.082091-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12171
       
  • REASSESSING THE BREADTH OF THE PROTECTIVE BENEFIT OF IMMIGRANT
           NEIGHBORHOODS: A MULTILEVEL ANALYSIS OF VIOLENCE RISK BY RACE, ETHNICITY,
           AND LABOR MARKET STRATIFICATION
    • Authors: MIN XIE; ERIC P. BAUMER
      Abstract: Researchers in the United States have increasingly recognized that immigration reduces crime, but it remains unresolved whether this applies to people of different racial–ethnic and economic backgrounds. By using the 2008–2012 area-identified National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), we evaluate the effect of neighborhood immigrant concentration on individual violence risk across race/ethnicity and labor market stratification factors in areas with different histories of immigration. The results of our analysis reveal three key patterns. First, we find a consistent protective role of immigrant concentration that is not weakened by low education, low income, unemployment, or labor market competition. Therefore, even economically disadvantaged people enjoy the crime-reduction benefit of immigration. Second, we find support for threshold models that predict a nonlinear, stronger protective role of immigrant concentration on violence at higher levels of immigrant concentration. The protective function of immigration also is higher in areas of longer histories of immigration. Third, compared with Blacks and Whites, Latinos receive a greater violence-reduction benefit of immigrant concentration possibly because they live in closer proximity with immigrants and share common sociocultural features. Nevertheless, immigrant concentration yields a diminishing return in reducing Latino victimization as immigrants approach a near-majority of neighborhood residents. The implications of these results are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-02-02T11:00:32.608768-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12172
       
  • CORRELATES OF VIOLENT POLITICAL EXTREMISM IN THE UNITED STATES*
    • Authors: GARY LAFREE; MICHAEL A. JENSEN, PATRICK A. JAMES, AARON SAFER-LICHTENSTEIN
      Abstract: Although research on terrorism has grown rapidly in recent years, few scholars have applied criminological theories to the analysis of individual-level political extremism. Instead, researchers focused on radicalization have drawn primarily from political science and psychology and have overwhelmingly concentrated on violent extremists, leaving little variation in the dependent variable. With the use of a newly available data set, we test whether variables derived from prominent criminological theories are helpful in distinguishing between nonviolent and violent extremists. The results show that variables related to social control (lack of stable employment), social learning (radical peers), psychological perspectives (history of mental illness), and criminal record all have significant effects on participation in violent political extremism and are robust across multiple techniques for imputing missing data. At the same time, other common indicators of social control (e.g., education and marital status) and social learning perspectives (e.g., radical family members) were not significant in the multivariate models. We argue that terrorism research would benefit from including criminology insights and by considering political radicalization as a dynamic, evolving process, much as life-course criminology treats more common forms of crime.
      PubDate: 2018-02-02T10:55:24.783019-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12169
       
  • STUDYING CRIME TRENDS: NORMAL SCIENCE AND EXOGENOUS SHOCKS*
    • Authors: RICHARD ROSENFELD
      Abstract: The study of crime trends has proceeded along two paths: 1) normal science investigations of slow-moving and tractable changes in crime rates and explanatory conditions and 2) research encounters with unexpected and abrupt changes in crime rates resulting from exogenous shocks. I draw from my research on the relationship between crime rates and changing macroeconomic conditions to illustrate the pains and pleasures of studying crime trends with the tools of normal science. I describe my exploratory investigations of the recent homicide rise in the United States to underscore the theoretical importance and methodological challenges of research on exogenous shocks to crime rates. Finally, I hope to convey to the next generation of criminologists the intellectual excitement that comes from the study of crime trends.
      PubDate: 2018-01-23T06:45:34.090072-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12170
       
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 1 - 4
      PubDate: 2018-02-15T06:16:37.630523-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12156
       
  • REVISITING JUVENILE WAIVER: INTEGRATING THE INCAPACITATION EXPERIENCE*
    • Authors: MEGAN BEARS AUGUSTYN; JEAN MARIE MCGLOIN
      Abstract: More than 20 years after an expansion of juvenile transfer policies, questions remain regarding the specific deterrent effect of juvenile waiver given the singular focus on the court of jurisdiction and neglect of other critical aspects of the provision, such as the incapacitation experience. Prior research has also not been focused on identifying the mediating mechanisms that produce criminogenic, null, or deterrent effects. We use data from the Pathways to Desistance Study, propensity score methodology, and mediational analyses to examine how and why the waiver-incapacitation experience is related to recidivism rates during emerging adulthood. We find that the prior focus on a binary “waiver effect” is potentially misleading as it masks meaningful variation. Furthermore, we find that the path to increased recidivism in emerging adulthood is indirect and we identify stymied educational attainment as a mediator. Our discussion is focused on the criminogenic effects of incapacitation for juveniles and its implications for juvenile transfer research. The discussion also calls for future research to explore treatment heterogeneity further.
      PubDate: 2017-12-29T06:50:27.52505-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12165
       
  • THE ROLE OF TURNING POINTS IN ESTABLISHING BASELINE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN
           PEOPLE IN DEVELOPMENTAL AND LIFE-COURSE CRIMINOLOGY
    • Authors: JOHN H. BOMAN; THOMAS J. MOWEN
      Abstract: Turning points, between-person differences, and within-person changes have all been linked to desistance from crime. Nevertheless, the means through which between-person differences are frequently captured in life-course criminology makes them intertwined with, and perhaps confounded by, turning points in life. We propose that a new way of capturing the between-person effect—the baseline between-person difference—could benefit theoretically informed tests of developmental and life-course issues in criminology. Because they occur at one time point immediately preceding a turning point in life, we demonstrate that baseline between-person differences establish meaningful theoretical connections to behavior and the way people change over time. By using panel data from the Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative, we estimate models capturing within-person change and baseline between-person differences in social bonds (family support) and differential association (peer criminality) at the time of release from prison. The results demonstrate that baseline levels of family support protect people from postrelease substance use but not from crime. Baseline between-person differences and within-person changes in peer criminality, however, are robustly related to crime and substance use. Collectively, baseline between-person differences seem critical for behavior and within-person change over time, and the results carry implications for reentry-based policy as well as for theory testing in developmental criminology more broadly.
      PubDate: 2017-12-15T07:06:19.176886-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12167
       
  • TRACING CHARGE TRAJECTORIES: A STUDY OF THE INFLUENCE OF RACE IN CHARGE
           CHANGES AT CASE SCREENING, ARRAIGNMENT, AND DISPOSITION*
    • Authors: BESIKI LUKA KUTATELADZE
      Abstract: Although social scientists and legal scholars have made valuable headway in identifying and explaining the relationships between myriad demographic, social, and legal factors and case outcomes, a sizable gap in understanding remains with respect to how cases evolve across decision points and how charges change for different racial and ethnic groups at individual decision points and cumulatively. This gap is partially addressed in this study through the examination of charge decreases, increases, and no change at three essential decision points—case screening for prosecution, arraignment, and final disposition. The results show that, overall, screening and disposition were much more dynamic decision points than was arraignment and that one third of cases experienced a charge decrease at some point. Even though racial differences in charge reductions at case screening were not large, at arraignment and disposition, as well as cumulatively, Black and Latino defendants were less likely than White defendants to have charges decreased. Conversely, Asian defendants experienced even more favorable outcomes than White defendants as they were more likely to have charges reduced and less likely to experience an increase. These findings are framed in the context of focal concerns, cumulative disadvantage, and “charge reasonableness” arguments.
      PubDate: 2017-12-04T08:45:51.044522-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12166
       
  • DO CELLMATES MATTER' A CAUSAL TEST OF THE SCHOOLS OF CRIME HYPOTHESIS
           WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION AND DETERRENCE THEORIES
    • Authors: HEATHER M. HARRIS; KIMINORI NAKAMURA, KRISTOFER BRET BUCKLEN
      Abstract: In the schools of crime hypothesis, social interactions between inmates are assumed to produce criminogenic rather than deterrent prison peer effects, thus implicating them in the persistence of high recidivism rates and null or criminogenic prison effects. We assess the validity of the schools of crime hypothesis by estimating prison peer effects that result from differential cellmate associations in a male, first-time release cohort from the Pennsylvania Department of Corrections. To isolate causal prison peer effects in the presence of essential heterogeneity, we use a semiparametric local instrumental variables estimation strategy. Our results do not support the school of crime hypothesis. In our sample, prison peer effects produced in interaction with more criminally experienced cellmates are always null or deterrent rather than criminogenic. Although we do not explicitly test for the operant conditioning mechanisms theorized to underlie social influence in the context of differential association, we argue that, under the assumption that the differential association context relates positively to the direction of peer influence, our universally noncriminogenic estimates exclude direct reinforcement, vicarious reinforcement, and direct punishment as potential drivers of prison peer effects produced in interaction with more criminally experienced cellmates. Our results support the assertion that operant conditioning mechanisms connect differential association and deterrence theories.
      PubDate: 2017-11-04T08:15:27.895524-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12155
       
  • TOWARD A BIFURCATED THEORY OF EMOTIONAL DETERRENCE
    • Authors: JUSTIN T. PICKETT; SEAN PATRICK ROCHE, GREG POGARSKY
      Abstract: Since Hobbes (1957 [1651] and Beccaria (1963 [1764]), scholars have theorized that the emotion of fear is critical for deterrence. Nevertheless, contemporary deterrence researchers have mostly overlooked the distinction between perceived sanction risk and fear of apprehension. Whereas perceived risk is a cognitive judgment, fear involves visceral feelings of anxiety or dread. Equally important, a theory explicating the influence of deterrence on both criminal propensity and situational offending has remained elusive. We develop a theoretical model in which perceived risk and fear are distinguished at both the general and situational levels. We test this theoretical model with data from a set of survey-based experiments conducted in 2016 with a nationwide sample of adults (N = 965). We find that perceived risk and fear are empirically distinct and that perceived risk is positively related to fear at both the general and situational levels. Certain background and situational factors have indirect effects through perceived risk on fear. In turn, perceived risk has indirect effects through fear on both criminal propensity and situational intentions to offend. Fear's inclusion increases explanatory power for both criminal propensity and situational offending intentions. Fear is a stronger predictor than either self-control or prior offending of situational intentions to offend.
      PubDate: 2017-10-05T13:50:22.561114-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12153
       
  • TESTING THE TRANSITIVITY OF REPORTED RISK PERCEPTIONS: EVIDENCE OF
           COHERENT ARBITRARINESS
    • Authors: KYLE J. THOMAS; BENJAMIN C. HAMILTON, THOMAS A. LOUGHRAN
      Abstract: An often implicit assumption of perceptual deterrence tests is that the elicited values pertaining to arrest risk reflect stable underlying beliefs. But researchers in other disciplines have found that reported expectations are highly susceptible to exogenous factors (e.g., anchors and question ordering), indicating that such values are somewhat arbitrary responses to probabilistic questions. At the same time, reported expectations are coherent within persons, such that respondents rank order them rationally. For deterrence, then, absolute values reported on arrest risks are likely not stable but individuals still rank order specific crimes in meaningful ways. We examine the interpretability of reported arrest risk for three possibilities: 1) Reported risks are stable probabilistic values; 2) reported risks are arbitrary and uninformative for deterrence research; or 3) reported risks display “coherent arbitrariness” with unstable values between individuals but stable rank ordering of crimes within individuals. Through the use of three random experiments of college students, our results indicate that elicited risk perceptions are arbitrary in that they are influenced by the presentation of anchors and question ordering. Nevertheless, the rank ordering of crimes within and across conditions is unaffected by the presentation of anchors, suggesting that reported risks are locally coherent within persons.
      PubDate: 2017-09-25T06:55:25.444174-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1745-9125.12154
       
 
 
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