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Journal Cover Crime Prevention and Community Safety
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   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1460-3780 - ISSN (Online) 1743-4629
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • Edgeways as a theoretical extension: connecting crime pattern theory and
           New Urbanism
    • Authors: Ethan M. Higgins; Kristin Swartz
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: Recently, scholars have examined the criminological implications of the growing trend of new urban design. Building on recent research (Cozens in Urban Policy Res 26(4):429–444, 2008) and past theoretical works (Brantingham and Brantingham in J Environ Psychol 13(1):3–28, 1993; Eur J Crim Policy Res 3(3):5–26, 1995), the current project suggests crime pattern theory requires new conceptual terms to understand and investigate the implications of crime clustering in new urban areas. It is argued in the current project that “edgeways”—or edges that become simultaneous paths—are prevalent in new urban space due to an array of combining features such as crowd generation, alleyways and parking difficulties, incomplete implementation of new urban principles, and the density paradox. The current paper entails a theoretical discussion of the problem and potential policy implications.
      PubDate: 2018-02-01
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-017-0021-8
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 1 (2018)
  • “Staying out that public housing”: examining the role of security
           measures in public housing design
    • Authors: Tarah Hodgkinson; Martin A. Andresen; Gregory Saville
      Abstract: Much research exists to demonstrate that strategies related to situational crime prevention are important for reducing opportunities for crime. Despite evidence for these strategies, many municipalities and developers do not implement them consistently or appropriately. The current study explores the impact of disregarding such research in a housing development in the southern USA. The failure of proper security measures may lead to higher levels of property and violent crime. Alternatively, surrounding developments, with better site management and access control, may experience fewer police calls for service. The results have implications for crime prevention practitioners, property managers, and liability concerns.
      PubDate: 2018-02-22
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-018-0040-0
  • Visual representations in crime prevention: exploring the use of building
           information modelling (BIM) to investigate burglary and crime prevention
           through environmental design (CPTED)
    • Authors: Paul Cozens; Sam McLeod; Jane Matthews
      Abstract: Criminological research has long utilized visual representations of environments in seeking to explore perceptions of crime and personal safety and to investigate the relevance of specific design and security features. Much of this research has been in the field of environmental psychology and crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED). This paper traces the development of visual representations and the use of environmental stimuli in criminological research. We briefly review the contributions made by various visual media, including maps and drawings, photographs, models, video, virtual reality and gaming engines. These developments in visualization, building design and management technology have drastically improved the realism of representations of environments, and the potential for more standardized, widespread exploration and application of CPTED principles to reduce crime. To scope and evaluate the future potential of such emergent technologies, we critically review the literature concerned with virtual reality and building information technology (BIM), outlining uses in practice and new opportunities for criminological research. We frame the discussion with specific focus on analysing proposed residential dwellings to reduce vulnerability to burglary. A layered exploration for how BIM technologies may assist in implementing increasingly sophisticated assessments of crime vulnerability for proposed residential building designs brings the paper to a close. These discussions provide both a comprehensive overview for interested practitioners and chart specific opportunities for further research.
      PubDate: 2018-02-20
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-018-0039-6
  • Community safety partnerships: the limits and possibilities of ‘policing
           with the community’
    • Authors: Diarmaid Harkin
      Abstract: Partnerships between the police and the wider community to tackle safety issues are a cornerstone of contemporary thinking about policing. Using data from two studies into community safety partnerships in Northern Ireland and Scotland, this article argues that the level of policing ‘with’ the community varies greatly depending on the particular safety issue that is being addressed. Using Osborne and Gaebler’s (Reinventing government: how the entrepreneurial spirit is transforming the public sector, Plume, New York, 1991) metaphor, I argue that there is a spectrum of issues that moves from inevitably high levels of unilateral police action where the police retain firm control over ‘steering’ and ‘rowing’ functions, towards issues that enjoy higher levels of police–community collaboration where ‘steering’ and ‘rowing’ can be shared more democratically. Outlining such a spectrum can help clarify the suitable expectations of what community safety partnerships can practically achieve.
      PubDate: 2018-02-16
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-018-0042-y
  • The impact of population and economic decline: examining socio-demographic
           correlates of homicide in Detroit
    • Authors: Meghan E. Hollis
      Abstract: This study examined the relationship between neighborhood social ecology and homicide in Detroit, Michigan. Additionally, the research examined the influence of recent population decline in Detroit on homicides through a focus on localized population change at the census tract level. The study findings reveal that the traditional social ecological predictors of crime continue to operate in similar ways to previous studies. However, when the population change variable is introduced to the model, the traditional social ecological predictors are no longer significant. This indicates that population change might be a driving feature of the high homicide rate in Detroit. Implications for research, theory, and practice are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-02-15
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-018-0041-z
  • Foot patrols and crime prevention in Harare Central Business District:
           police officers’ perspectives
    • Authors: Ishmael Mugari; Nomore Thabana
      Abstract: Despite the advent of modern crime control methods, chiefly brought about by technological advancement, foot patrol has remained as one of the crucial crime prevention methods in both the developed and developing world. This study was aimed at describing the implementation of foot beat patrols in Harare Central Business District (CBD), Zimbabwe. The study also attempted to gauge perceptions from police officers on the effectiveness of foot beat patrols as a crime control strategy. The study revealed that hot spot patrols and high visibility are the most widely used patrol initiatives in Harare CBD. Foot patrols were widely viewed to be effective in reducing specific crimes/problems such as assault, loitering, touts, plain robbery and pick pocketing. It was also felt that reduction in specific crimes within the central business district also lowers the aggregate crime levels for the whole city. Reduction in fear of crime and provision of a reassuring presence were also considered to be the major benefits of foot patrols by community representatives.
      PubDate: 2018-01-04
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-017-0038-z
  • The impact of population and economic decline: examining socio-demographic
           correlates of homicide in Detroit
    • Authors: Meghan E. Hollis
      Abstract: This study examined the relationship between neighborhood social ecology and homicide in Detroit, Michigan. Additionally, the research examined the influence of recent population decline in Detroit on homicides through a focus on localized population change at the census tract level. The study findings reveal that the traditional social ecological predictors of crime continue to operate in similar ways to previous studies. However, when the population change variable is introduced to the model, the traditional social ecological predictors are no longer significant. This indicates that population change might be a driving feature of the high homicide rate in Detroit. Implications for research, theory, and practice are discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-11-25
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-017-0037-0
  • Understanding and preventing hit-and-run driving: a crime script analysis
    • Authors: Matt Hopkins; Sally Chivers
      Abstract: Although a small body of research has explored drivers’ decisions to leave the scene of a road traffic collision (hit-and-run), little research has explored how understanding the processes of hit-and-run collisions could inform prevention strategies. Drawing upon findings from a literature review and in-depth interviews with 52 convicted hit-and-run drivers, a crime script approach is utilised as a heuristic device to explore the precursors, immediate aftermath and longer-term aftermath of hit-and-run events. This method allows for motivational factors to be identified. Then, utilising Clarke’s techniques of situational crime prevention as a guiding framework, possibilities for the prevention of hit-and-run are presented.
      PubDate: 2017-11-20
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-017-0036-1
  • The spatial distribution of crime and population density in Saudi Arabia
    • Authors: Mofza Algahtany; Lalit Kumar; Elaine Barclay; Hassan M. Khormi
      Abstract: This study examined the relationship between crime and place across the 13 provinces of Saudi Arabia using geographic information systems techniques based on population density, identifying and visualising the spatial distributions of national and regional crime rates for drug crimes, theft, murder, assault, alcohol and ‘outrageous crimes’ (offences against Islam) over a 10-year period from 2003 to 2012. Social disorganisation theory was employed to guide the study and explain the diversity in patterns in crime across the country. The highest rates of overall crimes were identified in the Northern Border and Jizan areas, located in the north and south of the country, respectively, while the East Area has the lowest crime rate. Most drug offences occurred in Northern Borders and Jizan, high rates of theft were recorded in Northern Borders, Jouf and Makkah, while the highest rates of homicide occurred in Asir.
      PubDate: 2017-11-20
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-017-0034-3
  • A method of identifying dark-time crime locations for street lighting
    • Authors: Rustu Deryol; Troy C. Payne
      Abstract: Research on the effect of street lighting on crime and fear of crime has received much attention, especially between 1970s and early 2000s. Yet no study has documented an empirical method for choosing where to best site street lights for the purpose of crime prevention. This study describes a statistical clustering method (Kohonen’s SOM) that can be used to identify microplaces where crimes mostly occur during nighttime within stable crime hot spots. The results of this clustering analysis were visually examined and compared with streets, which are located near the University of Cincinnati West Campus and selected for lighting during early 2014. The findings revealed temporal patterns of crime within crime hot spots. In addition, there is a substantial overlap between the areas identified as heavily dark-time locations by clustering analysis and previously lighted streets determined by the city of Cincinnati managers. Implications of the study are discussed in conclusions.
      PubDate: 2017-11-13
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-017-0035-2
  • Perceptions of unwanted sexual behaviour on public transport: exploring
           transport density and behaviour severity
    • Abstract: This study focuses on bystander perceptions and expected responses to unwanted sexual behaviours on public transport. Level of blame, incident seriousness, likelihood of reporting and intervening were evaluated using a series of 6 vignettes that manipulated passenger density and severity of the behaviour. Half of the participants also viewed a video to raise their awareness of unwanted sexual behaviours. The results indicated that blame was attributed to the perpetrator and not the victim, with perpetrator blame, incident seriousness and likelihood of reporting all being influenced by a passenger density and behaviour severity interaction. Increasing awareness of unwanted sexual behaviours had no effect with the exception of likelihood of intervention. Findings are discussed in relation to women’s safety during travel in peak and off peak hours as well as the role of the bystander. Finally, the article concludes with considerations of these findings for women’s safety in transit settings.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-017-0026-3
  • Vania Ceccato and Andrew Newton (eds): Safety and security in transit
           environments: an interdisciplinary approach
    • PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-017-0033-4
  • Sexual harassment of students on public transport: an exploratory study in
           Lucknow, India
    • Abstract: Studies suggest that incidents of sexual harassment are common occurrence on public transport in India, but there is little reliable data to understand and tackle the problem. This research explores actual and witnessed victimisations as well as perceptions of the risk by a sample of 200 tertiary female students in Lucknow, India. Consistent with literature, sexual harassment victimisation appears to be most prevalent in buses and increases with the frequency of use of public transport. We found that the number of incidents experienced as a victim and as a witness were comparable, suggesting events of sexual harassment are not widely noticed by other passengers, perhaps because they are so commonplace as not to be especially noticed. Finally, the respondents felt female students were particularly targeted amongst women more generally, but did not identify any specific risk factors in relation to the profiles of the offenders or victims.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-017-0029-0
  • Women’s victimisation and safety in transit environments
    • PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-017-0024-5
  • The ‘invisible’ needs of women with disabilities in
           transportation systems
    • Abstract: Women with disabilities are among those who suffer most from sexual assault in transit environments. This paper offers a review of international literature concerning women’s victimisation and safety in transit environments with focus on (a) the concept of vulnerability, (b) data on victimisation in transport systems, (c) the perspective of criminals who target women with disabilities and (d) prevention policies and intervention strategies.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-017-0031-6
  • Women’s transit safety: making connections and defining future
           directions in research and practice
    • Abstract: Drawing from a diverse range of examples, the guest editor aims to summarise and reflect upon the key material presented in this special issue. This ‘afterword’ to the special issue also highlights the key messages that emerge from the diverse research techniques and methodologies employed in the varied range of case studies, most of them small-scale studies. This final article identifies the unanswered questions and looks forward discussing future research agendas and policy recommendations that arise from this international and multidisciplinary take on women’s victimisation and perceived safety in transit environments.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-017-0032-5
  • Women’s strategies addressing sexual harassment and assault on public
           buses: an analysis of crowdsourced data
    • Abstract: This paper uses crowdsourced data on women’s self-reports of harassment and assault on public buses in India. The data provide a basis to identify the strategies that women use to respond to and manage this everyday threat. The study examines 137 accounts of assault collected by a crowdsourced platform in which women detail, keeping silent (n = 27), fleeing (n = 38), or resisting (n = 72) such an assault. Findings show that confronting incidents in the moment by “making a scene” and “engaging the crowd” works well in the closed, shared-space setting of a crowded public bus. The study concludes by asserting crowdmapping as a multi-faceted tool: it can allow women to be aware of potentially dangerous locales, empowers them to report incidents to help keep others safe, and provides a source of data to advise on best practices for navigating street harassment and assault in public buses.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-017-0028-1
  • Crime in São Paulo’s metro system: sexual crimes against women
    • Abstract: The article investigates personal safety conditions in the São Paulo metro, the largest rapid transit system in Brazil. The study looks at all types of crimes, but devotes special attention to the nature and spatio-temporal dynamics of sexual crimes against women while in transit. The methodology combines Geographical Information System and crime records with data collected using Google Street View and other secondary data into a set of regression models. Findings show that sexual violence is concentrated at the busiest central stations; it often takes place during the morning and afternoon rush hours, and at stations that also attract all sorts of violence and events of public disorder. The study finalises with an analysis of the metro’s current prevention practices targeting women’s sexual victimisation.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-017-0027-2
  • Sexual victimization of college students in public transport environments:
           a whole journey approach
    • Abstract: Sexual victimization of female students during the commute to college is a common and sometimes serious problem. This small-scale study that gathers victim survey data from a sample of 140 female college students in New York City provides insight into their experiences of sexual victimization during the commute to college. It is informed by a “whole journey” approach that includes walking to and from the bus/subway stops as well as waiting for and riding on the bus or subway. The study findings highlight extensive patterns of victimization during all stages of female students’ subway commute to and from college. It is important for colleges and universities in the cities to learn about and deal with off-campus sexual victimization and work with other stakeholders to enhance the safety of commuting students by developing effective and appropriate measures to reduce the opportunities for sexual victimization.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-017-0025-4
  • Women’s avoidance behaviours in public transport in the
           Ile-de-France region
    • Abstract: Adaptive behaviours are an important aspect of personal safety. When feeling unsafe in public transport, women are likely to take avoidance measures. Drawing from a sample of 3188 women who participated in the victimisation survey “Cadre de vie et sécurité” (Living Environment and Security) between 2010 and 2013, this study examines whether and how female passengers in the Ile-de-France region change their routines when feeling unsafe in the transit environment. Logistic regressions were conducted to assess the relationship between avoidance behaviours, individual characteristics, transport habits, and personal safety. Results suggest that education, previous victimisation, and declared perceived safety are consistently associated with time-based and space-based avoidance. However, avoidance appears to be constrained by transport habits, such as frequency of use and riding to work.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-017-0023-6
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