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Crime Prevention and Community Safety
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.268
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 133  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1460-3780 - ISSN (Online) 1743-4629
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Lost in implementation: NSW police force crime prevention officer
           perspectives on crime prevention through environmental design
    • Authors: Garner Clancey; Leanne Monchuk; Jessica Anderson; Justin Ellis
      Pages: 139 - 153
      Abstract: Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) is practiced by various professions and agencies in many jurisdictions. The role police play in CPTED has received limited scrutiny from academics within Australia (and other countries). This article makes an important contribution to addressing this gap in the literature through providing New South Wales Police Force Crime Prevention Officers (CPOs) perspectives on their role in reviewing council development applications from a CPTED perspective. Findings show police-council relations vary considerably. Some police-council areas have clear policies in place to enable police to contribute to reviewing crime risks of development applications, whilst others do not. Many police feel their engagement in the planning and development process is often tokenistic, receiving limited feedback from councils about their recommendations. For these police, they see little ongoing relevance of reviewing development applications. If police are to remain involved, there is a need to develop clearer parameters of how police will contribute and what they can realistically be expected to contribute to this process.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-018-0043-x
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Police Scotland: challenging the current democratic deficit in police
           governance and public accountability
    • Authors: Barry Loveday
      Pages: 154 - 167
      Abstract: This article considers the recent creation of Police Scotland and the substitution of local police forces for a national police service ‘Police Scotland’ in 2013. It assesses the drivers for change and the arguments presented by both politicians and police professionals in favour of the eradication of all 8 local Scottish forces and the creation of a single police force. It contrasts developments in Scotland with those in England and Wales where there has been a recommitment to local delivery of police services in which local police boundaries have been retained with the introduction of Police and Crime Commissioners. It considers the police boundaries and coterminosity with local authorities and highlights the absence of shared boundaries within Police Scotland. It reflects on the removal of local accountability in Scotland with the abolition of Police Boards and the creation of a national and unelected Scottish Police Authority. It highlights the significance of police planning led by senior officers from Strathclyde Police and the impact of this on Police Scotland. It raises legitimate questions as to the overall efficacy of a national force made answerable to a nationally appointed body, the Scottish Police Authority. Finally, it makes a number of recommendations which might go towards someway to re-establishing a degree of local accountability to communities and local governments in Scotland which is now so clearly absent.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-018-0044-9
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • A script analysis of the role of athletes’ support networks as social
           facilitators in doping in sport
    • Authors: Zarina I. Vakhitova; Peter J. Bell
      Pages: 168 - 188
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to examine the role of athletes’ support networks in doping in sport from a crime prevention perspective. To achieve this objective, the researchers conducted an in-depth script analysis of documents related to investigations in 2012 by the United States Anti-Doping Agency and in 2015 by the Cycling Independent Reform Commission of the doping programme carried out by the US Postal Service cycling team between 1996 and 2012. The results suggest that athletes’ support networks—such as team doctors, sports scientists, team directors and family members—play a critical role as social facilitators in doping in sport by encouraging, supporting and protecting both the doping programmes and the athletes who participate in them. This paper argues that a greater proportion of prevention measures must focus beyond the athlete themselves and on the activities of individuals within an athlete’s support network. The paper proposes several situational prevention strategies specifically targeting the activities of social facilitators.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-018-0045-8
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • The impact of crime rate, experience of crime, and fear of crime on
           residents’ participation in association: studying 25 districts in the
           City of Seoul, South Korea
    • Authors: Juheon Lee; Sarah Cho
      Pages: 189 - 207
      Abstract: While the majority of studies on community crime have focused on socio-economic characteristics that lead to high or low rates of crime, the impact of crime on community residents’ social ties has received less attention. This study examines the impact of district-level crime rate, experience of crime, and fear of crime on individual community residents’ participation in association—which has been widely seen as an indicator of social capital—in the city of Seoul, South Korea. Moreover, as recent social capital studies look deeper into the different types of neighborhood crime connected to different types of associations, this study separately examines the impact of total crime, violent crime, and property crime on the respondents’ social, civic engagement, reward-based, and online associations. We find that district-level crime rates negatively correlated with all types of associations, but the difference between violent crime and property crime was minimal. Additionally, individual-level experience of crime significantly decreased residents’ participation in social and online associations. However, fear of crime did not show a significant effect on any type of association.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-018-0047-6
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Transatlantic ‘Positive Youth Justice’: a distinctive new model for
           responding to offending by children'
    • Authors: Stephen Case; Kevin Haines
      Pages: 208 - 222
      Abstract: A model of ‘positive youth justice’ has been developed on both sides of the Atlantic to challenge the hegemonic punitivity and neo-correctionalism of contemporary actuarial risk-based approaches and the conceptually-restricted rights-based movement of child-friendly justice. This paper examines the origins, main features, guiding principles and underpinning evidence bases of the different versions of positive youth justice developed in England/Wales (Children First, Offenders Second) and the USA (Positive Youth Justice Model) and their respective critiques of negative and child-friendly forms of youth justice. Comparing and contrasting these two versions enables an evaluation of the extent to which positive youth justice presents as a coherent and coordinated transatlantic ‘movement’, as opposed to disparate critiques of traditional youth justice with limited similarities.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-018-0046-7
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • Correction to: Sexual harassment of students on public transport: an
           exploratory study in Lucknow, India
    • Authors: Kartikeya Tripathi; Hervé Borrion; Jyoti Belur
      Pages: 223 - 223
      Abstract: The article Sexual harassment of students on public transport: an exploratory study in Lucknow, India written by K. Tripathi, H. Borrion and J. Belur was originally published electronically on the publisher’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 7 September 2017 without open access.
      PubDate: 2018-08-01
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-018-0048-5
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 3 (2018)
       
  • The impact of population and economic decline: examining socio-demographic
           correlates of homicide in Detroit
    • Authors: Meghan E. Hollis
      Pages: 84 - 98
      Abstract: This study examined the relationship between neighborhood social ecology and homicide in Detroit, Michigan. Additionally, the research examined the influence of recent population decline in Detroit on homicides through a focus on localized population change at the census tract level. The study findings reveal that the traditional social ecological predictors of crime continue to operate in similar ways to previous studies. However, when the population change variable is introduced to the model, the traditional social ecological predictors are no longer significant. This indicates that population change might be a driving feature of the high homicide rate in Detroit. Implications for research, theory, and practice are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-017-0037-0
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Foot patrols and crime prevention in Harare Central Business District:
           police officers’ perspectives
    • Authors: Ishmael Mugari; Nomore Thabana
      Pages: 113 - 124
      Abstract: Despite the advent of modern crime control methods, chiefly brought about by technological advancement, foot patrol has remained as one of the crucial crime prevention methods in both the developed and developing world. This study was aimed at describing the implementation of foot beat patrols in Harare Central Business District (CBD), Zimbabwe. The study also attempted to gauge perceptions from police officers on the effectiveness of foot beat patrols as a crime control strategy. The study revealed that hot spot patrols and high visibility are the most widely used patrol initiatives in Harare CBD. Foot patrols were widely viewed to be effective in reducing specific crimes/problems such as assault, loitering, touts, plain robbery and pick pocketing. It was also felt that reduction in specific crimes within the central business district also lowers the aggregate crime levels for the whole city. Reduction in fear of crime and provision of a reassuring presence were also considered to be the major benefits of foot patrols by community representatives.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-017-0038-z
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Community safety partnerships: the limits and possibilities of ‘policing
           with the community’
    • Authors: Diarmaid Harkin
      Pages: 125 - 136
      Abstract: Partnerships between the police and the wider community to tackle safety issues are a cornerstone of contemporary thinking about policing. Using data from two studies into community safety partnerships in Northern Ireland and Scotland, this article argues that the level of policing ‘with’ the community varies greatly depending on the particular safety issue that is being addressed. Using Osborne and Gaebler’s (Reinventing government: how the entrepreneurial spirit is transforming the public sector, Plume, New York, 1991) metaphor, I argue that there is a spectrum of issues that moves from inevitably high levels of unilateral police action where the police retain firm control over ‘steering’ and ‘rowing’ functions, towards issues that enjoy higher levels of police–community collaboration where ‘steering’ and ‘rowing’ can be shared more democratically. Outlining such a spectrum can help clarify the suitable expectations of what community safety partnerships can practically achieve.
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-018-0042-y
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Erratum to: Vulnerability, risk and agroterrorism: an examination of
           international strategy and its relevance for the Republic of Korea
    • Authors: Stephen Green; Tom Ellis; Jeyong Jung; Julak Lee
      Pages: 137 - 137
      PubDate: 2018-05-01
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-017-0022-7
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 2 (2018)
       
  • Expectations versus effects regarding police surveillance cameras in a
           municipal park
    • Authors: Ray Surette; Matthew Stephenson
      Abstract: Surveillance cameras have become a popular response to crime and disorder in urban parks. The literature regarding park surveillance cameras however is sparse and few have examined the impact of park surveillance cameras. This research study examined a five camera police department network in a southern US municipal park. The study measured pre- and post-camera effects on reported crime, calls for service, and park visitor perceptions. Analysis determined that although the surveillance cameras had minimal impact on crime or disorder they were related to park visitor perceptions of the park. A camera surveilled park was seen more positively following police camera installation even though perceptions of the effectiveness of surveillance cameras decreased.
      PubDate: 2018-10-26
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-018-0058-3
       
  • Examining guardianship in action in Waco, Texas
    • Authors: Meghan E. Hollis; Danielle M. Fenimore; Monica Caballero; Shannon Hankhouse
      Abstract: The guardianship in action (GIA) instrument was originally developed by Reynald (Crime Prev Community Saf 11(1):1–20, 2009) as a tool for measuring guardianship potential at residential properties. This research determined that guardianship intensity at the property level can be measured through direct observation, and the measurement of guardianship intensity is enhanced when measures of aspects of the physical and social environment are included. Guardianship in action has been examined previously in major metropolitan areas and suburban contexts. Research has not examined the utility of the guardianship in action instrument or the related guardianship construct in rural areas, small cities and towns, or smaller non-metropolitan cities. The current study is designed to examine guardianship in action in a smaller, non-metropolitan city—Waco, Texas. Implications for research, theory, and policy are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-10-25
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-018-0056-5
       
  • Typologies of suburban guardians: understanding the role of
           responsibility, opportunities, and routine activities in facilitating
           surveillance
    • Authors: Emily Moir; Timothy C. Hart; Danielle M. Reynald; Anna Stewart
      Abstract: Research suggests that personal and situational characteristics influence how and when residents provide guardianship over where they live (Reynald in J Res Crime Delinq 47(3): 358–390, 2010). However, there is limited empirical scholarship regarding what motivates residents to act as guardians and control crime in different contexts. The current study explores the role motivation and opportunity play in facilitating monitoring and intervention among potential guardians against crime in suburban Australia. Twenty semi-structured interviews with Brisbane suburban residents were conducted and suggested the existence of four typologies of suburban guardians: active, opportunistic, responsive, and non-guardians. Factors crucial to facilitating monitoring include the physical design of houses, relationships with neighbours, prior victimisation, and daily routine activities. Direct intervention is supported by feelings of responsibility and capability. Other themes found to support guardianship decision-making were also identified, and results suggest that residents supervise and monitor their street regardless of current crime rates. Implications for theory and practice, and directions for future research, are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-10-25
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-018-0057-4
       
  • To what extent is revictimization risk mitigated by police prevention
           advice after a previous burglary'
    • Authors: Henk Elffers; Frank Morgan
      Abstract: This article investigates the effect of police prevention visits to recently burgled households on revictimization risk, using data on 8984 burgled houses in Adelaide, South Australia. We compare burgled dwellings whose inhabitants got advice with burgled dwellings whose inhabitants did not accept the offer of a prevention visit, and with burgled dwellings that did not get an offer at all. Using survival analysis, we estimate the effect size of the impact of prevention visits on revictimization risk. More than one in five cases of revictimization has been prevented through the prevention visit scheme.
      PubDate: 2018-10-23
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-018-0055-6
       
  • Introduction
    • Authors: R. I. Mawby
      PubDate: 2018-10-15
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-018-0054-7
       
  • Changing perspectives on guardianship against crime: an examination of the
           importance of micro-level factors
    • Authors: Danielle M. Reynald; Emily Moir; Alana Cook; Zarina Vakhitova
      Abstract: This paper focuses on how the narrative around guardianship as a crime prevention strategy has evolved from its original roots in macro-level theory and examination predominantly in residential places with a focus on property crime. It first highlights the ways in which some of the most useful insights about how guardianship functions to protect against crime have been illuminated by micro-level studies which have built on macro-level trends. Recent scholarship is used to illustrate how criminological understanding about guardianship against crime has been significantly developed through a focus on micro-level environmental factors and, most recently, individual factors. Perhaps one of the most significant developments in guardianship research in recent years has been its application beyond the residential context to extend to interpersonal crimes (sexual crimes in particular) and to cybercrime (cyberabuse in particular). Conclusions are drawn about how these new developments can be interwoven to advance the theoretical underpinnings of guardianship.
      PubDate: 2018-10-05
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-018-0049-4
       
  • Whatever happened to repeat victimisation'
    • Authors: Ken Pease; Dainis Ignatans; Lauren Batty
      Abstract: Crime is concentrated at the individual level (hot dots) as well as at area level (hot spots). Research on repeat victimisation affords rich prevention opportunities but has been increasingly marginalised by policy makers and implementers despite repeat victims accounting for increasing proportions of total crime. The present paper seeks to trigger a resurgence of interest in research and initiatives based on the prevention of repeat victimisation.
      PubDate: 2018-10-04
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-018-0051-x
       
  • Developing a knowledge base for crime prevention: lessons learned from the
           British experience
    • Authors: Nick Tilley; Gloria Laycock
      Abstract: During the past 20 years, there have been several initiatives, led by the British government, to improve crime prevention by informing policy and practice with research. Two in particular stand out for the scale of the investment: The first was the establishment of the Crime Reduction Programme (CRP) in 1999. The CRP was supposed both to be based on what was already known from research and also to improve the evidence base and was scheduled to run for a decade. The CRP involved an unprecedented financial commitment to improving the knowledge base of crime prevention. The second was the establishment of the What Works Centre for Crime Reduction (WWCCR) in 2013. The WWCCR attempts both to distil findings from high quality research on what works in crime reduction in a form that would be readily accessible to and useable by decision-makers, and to encourage original research to improve the knowledge base. We touch more briefly also on the creation of the National Police Improvement Agency in 2007 and its successor body, the College of Policing in 2013. The core mission of both has been to professionalise policing (including police efforts to reduce crime) by making policing more evidence based, and the College of Policing has been home to WWCCR. This paper will provide a critical account of these major efforts to bring evidence to crime reduction and discuss lessons that can be learned from their experience.
      PubDate: 2018-09-28
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-018-0053-8
       
  • Reflections on community safety: the ongoing precarity of women’s
           lives
    • Authors: Sandra Walklate
      Abstract: In 2007 Jayne Mooney observed that violence against women was a public anathema and a private commonplace all at the same time. In the decade since this observation was made it would not be hard to conclude that the situation remains the same despite the increasing public policy profile afforded to such violence(s). The purpose of this paper is to consider how and why such forceful observations can still be made and it will do so by reflecting on five inter-connected ongoing tensions for the community safety agenda in addressing violence against women. These tensions are: epistemic (who can know what); methodological (how things, like violence against women, can be known); conceptual (how to make sense of what we think we know); saliency (what variables count and when); policy (what can be done in the light of the foregoing issues); and global (the Northern bias endemic in such policies). The paper will suggest that only when debates on community safety fully embrace the implications of these issues will effective in-roads be made into understanding and improving the ongoing precarity of women’s lives.
      PubDate: 2018-09-24
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-018-0050-y
       
  • Prevention and prevarication: the fits and starts of prevention in the USA
    • Authors: Steven P. Lab
      Abstract: Crime prevention and its discourse in the USA has been a series of fits and starts since at least the late 1990s. There continues to exist an absence of any driving force giving direction to a true prevention movement. Most major initiatives that could be considered “prevention” tend to be gut level responses by criminal justice system actors to address existing offending (tertiary prevention) rather than identifying emerging opportunities or prospective problems and developing/initiating true primary or secondary preventive actions. When attempts are made to eliminate initial acts or opportunities to act, there is a marked lack of follow through, leaving only halfhearted attempts. This article attempts to illustrate this failure and the reasons for the failure, and makes suggestions for improving primary and secondary prevention in the future.
      PubDate: 2018-09-21
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-018-0052-9
       
 
 
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