Journal Cover
Crime Prevention and Community Safety
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.268
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 152  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1460-3780 - ISSN (Online) 1743-4629
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2477 journals]
  • Horizon scanning rural crime in England
    • Abstract: Despite increasing levels of research addressing rural crime, this field of academia remains under-researched across the world, and the impact crime has upon rural communities continues to be underestimated. In particular, levels of rural crime research in England pale in comparison with the amount of research that is taking place in other developed countries such as the USA and Australia. This paper provides a horizon scan of emerging rural crime threats in England, and considers how this methodology could help practitioners in the UK and other countries. This study illustrates that there are a number of emerging crime trends affecting English rural communities. By identifying these evolving issues, this paper contributes to future research and guidance within the English rural crime arena.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
       
  • Policing and community safety in northern Canadian communities: challenges
           and opportunities for crime prevention
    • Abstract: Although there is an emerging body of research literature on rural policing, less is known about policing in small communities in Canada’s territories populated largely by Indigenous peoples. These communities are often situated in geographically isolated areas, are subjected to harsh weather conditions, and may experience high rates of crime and disorder. Drawing on interviews conducted with RCMP officers in the two Canadian territories of Yukon and Nunavut, this paper examines the dynamics of policing in northern communities and how these might affect efforts to create sustainable, effective crime prevention initiatives. The findings reveal that geographic isolation, social problems, and history of distrust of the police, combined with the structure through which police services are delivered, present significant challenges to the development and sustainability of crime prevention initiatives. The unique environments of northern communities, however, also provide opportunities for the creation of police–community partnerships built on mutual trust that can provide the basis for effective crime prevention programs.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
       
  • The interaction of crime & place: an exploratory study of crime &
           policing in non-metropolitan areas
    • Abstract: The importance of crime and place and the diversity inherent in crime problems and policing styles have been recognized for decades. However, less is known about the types of issues and challenges that must be confronted by agencies located in rural communities. This exploratory research presents preliminary findings from a study of six non-metropolitan law enforcement agencies nested within rural areas in Oklahoma. Qualitative interviews and field visits were conducted with a purposive sample of departmental officials. Data collection efforts focused on understanding the types of issues the departments face and the current state of the drug and crime problems in these areas. Key themes include law enforcement challenges, crime, drugs, and gang activity. Unanticipated findings that emerged during the course of the research are also discussed.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
       
  • A donnybrook in downtown' Observations of controlling aggression and
           the use of effective place management in a southern entertainment area
    • Abstract: Much of the research conducted on aggressive behavior outside of bars has been limited to large entertainment districts outside the USA. These studies consistently show that overcrowding and lack of patron control are main contributors to aggressive behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine if effective place managers and guardians could mitigate acts of aggression in smaller entertainment areas. Based on the work of Townsley and Grimshaw (Crime Prev Community Saf 15(1):23–47, 2013), observations of aggressive behavior were conducted on one street block in downtown Little Rock, Arkansas, on Friday night/Saturday mornings, over a 6-week period, totaling 24 h. Findings show the cities use of effective place mangers and capable guardians (e.g., police, bouncers, door attendants, and barricades) significantly limited the opportunities for aggression to rise to critical levels. Comparing these results to prior literature, the absence of aggressive behavior was attributed to proper place management and environmental design.
      PubDate: 2019-08-08
       
  • A crime script analysis of the Madoff Investment Scheme
    • Abstract: The Madoff Investment Scheme was a long-term and large-scale fraud which involved both an affinity fraud and a Ponzi scheme. Numerous studies have examined financial and legal aspects of the case, but relatively few have explored the case from a criminological perspective. This study applies crime script analysis (CSA) to the Madoff case in order to conceptualise the procedural elements of complex fraud offences and to identify crime prevention opportunities for investigators and regulatory bodies. CSA identifies 12 steps in the offence, occurring in three phases which create a relationship between earlier and later victims, with earlier victims providing credibility to the scheme and later victims generating the resources to sustain it. The study finds that crime prevention techniques which harden targets and extend guardianship could reduce criminal opportunities for offenders and techniques which strengthen formal surveillance and assist natural surveillance could control the capabilities required to perpetrate similar offences.
      PubDate: 2019-08-06
       
  • The ‘Fortress Farm’: articulating a new approach to redesigning
           ‘Defensible Space’ in a rural context
    • Abstract: This conceptual paper explores and develops a holistic, contemporary model of crime prevention, namely the ‘Fortress Farm’ concept as introduced by the National Farmers Union in the UK. This novel idea is underpinned by the criminological theory of defensible space as posited by Oscar Newman, and by other theories of crime prevention. A holistic model of crime prevention drawing on all aspects of the topic is developed and discussed in the context of preventing and deterring farm crime. This model can be adapted by individual farms or collectives to design out crime on farms. In the process, this paper advances our understanding of crime prevention both at a farm level and in a wider rural context.
      PubDate: 2019-07-09
       
  • Correction to: The Interaction of Crime & Place: An Exploratory Study
           of Crime & Policing in Non-Metropolitan Areas
    • Abstract: The article was published under the incorrect title “University of Oklahoma”. The title has now been corrected to “The Interaction of Crime & Place: An Exploratory Study of Crime & Policing in Non-Metropolitan Areas”.
      PubDate: 2019-07-08
       
  • Property of Fayard Hall: a pilot study on situational theft prevention on
           the university campus
    • Abstract: For the past three decades, property crime has been the single largest form of victimization reported to campus police and security. While prior research has focused extensively on improving security in high-theft areas around campus, surprisingly little attention has been paid to efforts at fortifying the targets of theft themselves. To address this gap, the present study employed a completely randomized experimental design testing the effect of an anti-theft strategy against a control strategy on property loss among 22 university classrooms. Compared to classrooms receiving property labeled with an anti-theft message, classrooms receiving property without such labels were significantly more likely (OR 20.25; 95% CI 2.32–176.80) to have their property removed. While these results are still in the pilot phase, they suggest that universities and colleges should identify their property, indicating to whom it belongs, if they wish to reduce property loss.
      PubDate: 2019-07-04
       
  • The business of farm crime: evaluating trust in the police and reporting
           of offences
    • Abstract: Annual estimates of the total cost of farm crime to the UK economy amount to the region of £45 m (NFU in NFU Rural Crime Report 2018. https://www.nfumutual.co.uk/news-and-stories/rural-crime-report-2018/, 2018). The purpose of this study was to assess the extent, effects and responses to farm crime from key stakeholders, principally the police and farming population. Survey responses were collected from farmers (n = 96) in rural Wales. Key findings suggest that the main categories of farm crime including machinery and livestock theft were similar to national patterns. Perceptions of organised crime groups from outside the local area being responsible for criminal activity were also prevalent. Satisfaction and trust in the police was generally healthy, despite awareness that the investigation and prosecution of farm and/or rural crime was often not being adequately resourced. The implications of this research propose that a broad lack of police training/experience, insight into farming issues generally, and wider organisational resource commitment, all hinder effective policing of farm business crime.
      PubDate: 2019-07-04
       
  • A review of crime prevention activities in an Australian local government
           area since the late 1980s
    • Abstract: To date, there has been limited analysis of local crime prevention approaches adopted in one council or local government area over time. This article seeks to partially address this gap. By reviewing crime prevention initiatives adopted by a single council in New South Wales (Australia) over time, it was possible to identify some continuities and discontinuities and to reflect on the impact of crime trends and changing demography on local approaches to crime prevention. Through a desktop analysis of the demographic profile of the area, crime trends across time, and crime prevention plans drafted by the council from the late 1980s, it became apparent that the council has adopted a myriad of crime prevention measures, many of which have continued over numerous years, complicating evaluation efforts of whole crime prevention plans and individual crime prevention measures; the cultural and linguistic diversity of the area has greatly affected how crime prevention is conceptualised and delivered and that crime trends have impacted crime prevention planning, but perhaps not in as clear a manner as might be expected. This case study highlights the challenges facing local governments with diverse populations, covering large geographic areas, with limited funding to support crime prevention activities, and raises questions about the roles of higher tiers in government in preventing crime.
      PubDate: 2019-07-04
       
  • Comparing measures of the concentration of crime at places
    • Abstract: The primary objectives of this research are (1) to introduce summary measures of concentration that are relatively new to our field; (2) compare four concentration measures to determine whether there are reasons to use one in favor of the others; and (3) apply the measures to a real-case data to further understand the concentration phenomenon. Using the crime data of Cincinnati, we compare four commonly used social science measures of concentration: Gini, Simpson, Shannon, and Decile indices. For some purposes, the measures are interchangeable, while for other purposes the measures may suggest different interpretations for the same set of data. This paper is the first quantitative comparison of multiple measures of crime place concentration. We describe the benefits and limitations of each index and the circumstances for which each is most useful. We also answer the question: is crime within street segments spread along the segment or is it concentrated at a few addresses, as most place-based crime studies have overlooked the interior variability of crime on street segments.
      PubDate: 2019-06-27
       
  • Evaluating Project Safe Neighborhoods in Connecticut: a Youth Opportunity
           Initiative
    • Abstract: Despite containing numerous wealthy geographic areas, the state of Connecticut continues to struggle with social and economic distress, along with gun-related crime. Problem analysis in urban areas revealed a critical need for services aimed at deterring violent and gun-related crime in two target populations: serious juvenile offenders, aged 14–17 years, and at-risk youth, aged 11–13 years. Using a quasi-experimental design, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of Project Safe Neighborhoods (PSN) on youth in two cities in Connecticut. Implementation resulted in 133 young people receiving a variety of services in New Haven and Bridgeport. Evaluation research assessed intervention efforts designed to (1) build on the strengths and address the challenges of each juvenile offender, (2) expand community outreach and education efforts to reinforce and reward positive attitudes and behaviors surrounding “no-gun policies,” and (3) utilize data-driven decision-making to guide program implementation and evaluate the results. Our findings suggest that youth who participated in Connecticut’s PSN Youth initiative benefited from the services provided and exhibited a decreased involvement in the juvenile justice system following enrollment.
      PubDate: 2019-06-27
       
  • Are victims of crime mostly angry or mostly afraid'
    • Abstract: Analysis of the Crime Survey for England and Wales identifies anger and annoyance rather than fear as the most common emotional responses to victimisation by crime, despite fear’s pre-eminence in the criminological literature. Whilst the trend since 2003 shows an increase in fear relative to anger, anger remains more common for all crime categories and all levels of victim-rated offence seriousness. The writers contend that the mismatch between the preponderance of anger in victim accounts and the preponderance of fear in the academic literature is convenient for government and police. Subtly setting fear as the default ‘appropriate’ emotion to be evoked by victimisation makes for a populace less inclined to ‘take matters into its own hands’. Plans to develop research on victim anger are outlined.
      PubDate: 2019-06-27
       
  • Advancing responses to mass shootings using a routine activity approach
    • Abstract: In the aftermath of high-profile mass shootings, such as those in Las Vegas, Nevada, and Sutherland Springs, Texas, there is continued demand for policy responses to such tragedies. Often, these responses are rooted in emotion rather than empirical evidence and a strong theoretical foundation. As a result, there is little progress toward prevention, and the same dialogue is revisited with each new event. In this paper, we propose that Cohen and Felson’s (Am Sociol Rev 44(4):588–608, 1979) routine activity theory can be used as a framework for developing evidence-based responses to mass shootings. Specifically, by considering mass shootings as a function of the theory’s three key elements (motivated offenders, suitable targets, and capable guardianship), we consider how this theory, which overcomes many of the challenges found with typical responses to mass shootings, can be used to develop effective policies.
      PubDate: 2019-06-27
       
  • How can conditional cash transfers diminish crime' An application of
           Travis Hirschi’s social control theory
    • Abstract: Recent literature has taken an interest in the potential of conditional cash transfer (CCT) poverty reduction programmes to alleviate crime. Whilst literature continues to grow, results have been inconsistent with variations in the impact recorded. Although the literature has continued to debate if a relationship exists between CCTs and crime, it fails to demonstrate how these programmes might impact crime. Utilising social control theory, the paper demonstrates how CCT programmes can facilitate crime reduction by strengthening social bonds. Drawing on the research, evidence is examined for each social bond, thus demonstrating the potential for CCTs to diminish crime. This paper concludes that further research is needed to give credence to the application of social control theory but by applying the theory to CCTs it offers the first theoretical understanding of relationships between CCTs and crime.
      PubDate: 2019-06-27
       
  • The growth of rural criminology: introduction to the special issue
    • PubDate: 2019-05-27
       
  • A comparison of aggravated assault rate trends in rural, suburban, and
           urban areas using the UCR and NCS/NCVS, 1988–2005
    • Abstract: Between the 1980s and 2000s, the USA experienced wide swings in violence rates. These swings were not experienced equally across urban, suburban, and rural areas. We employed UCR and NCS/NCVS data to compare aggravated assaults rates in rural, suburban, and urban areas between 1988 and 2005. As expected, urban aggravated assault rates tended to remain the highest. However, the crime decline was much greater for urban relative to suburban and rural areas. Further, NCS/NCVS rates were not always higher than UCR rates for a given time and location. In the latter years, UCR–NCVS rate ratios were close to one for suburban and rural areas but remained about 1.5–2.0 in urban areas. This urban–nonurban difference has implications for testing criminological theories in non-urban areas.
      PubDate: 2019-05-24
       
  • What caused the decline in child arrests in England and Wales: The Howard
           League’s programme or something else'
    • Abstract: There has been a steep decline in child arrests in recent years. The Howard League Research Briefing Child Arrests in England and Wales 2017 attributes this to a Howard League programme of work with police. We show the decline in arrests began well before that programme of work, and conclude the Research Briefing’s claims are unfounded. However, there is strong evidence that the decline in arrests is due to the long-term fall in child offending rates, probably caused by security improvements. While we are sympathetic to the aims of the Howard League, if security is having such positive effects in terms of safer communities and fewer children being processed through the criminal justice system, then it should command wide support.
      PubDate: 2019-04-16
       
  • The London killings of 2018: the story behind the numbers and some
           proposed solutions
    • Abstract: This paper examines the underlying issues behind the London killings of 2018 and considers some possible solutions. To do this, primary research has been undertaken with those involved in the violence, those charged with addressing it and those seeking a solution to this crisis. Violence among young people in the capital and elsewhere in Britain has been the focus of much media attention and academic discourse, some of which are examined here. In understanding the causes of the violence, it is, however, incumbent on us all to consider viable ways in which to address the issues behind the killings and identify possible solutions to the problems it creates in communities. The introduction, in January 2019, by the present Home Secretary of knife crime prevention orders appears to have aggravated the situation. Already known as Knife ASBOs (Guardian in Knife ASBOs won’t cut crime, but the will harm vulnerable young people, https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2019/feb/01/knife-asbos-crime-young-people-sajid-javid, 2019), these may simply criminalise a group of youngsters, sometimes as young as 11 or 12. Police are already able to tackle criminal behaviour among youngsters carrying knives through dispersal orders. This response by the Government has not addressed the root causes of the issue. As one respondent was to state: We have to find a way through this. It’s killing us. Not just the kids who are killed: it’s the people that get left behind. Something must be done to stop it. (R: 16, 13 November 2018)
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • Young driver enforcement within graduated driver licensing systems: a
           scoping review
    • Abstract: Young drivers have the highest crash rates when compared with other groups of drivers. One countermeasure that has successfully reduced these crash rates is graduated driver licensing. However, young drivers’ compliance with graduated driver licensing requirements decreases as they gain driving experience. This paper systematically reviews the literature in order to identify how enforcement practices can be used to influence the compliance of young drivers within graduated driver licensing systems. The review identified 21 relevant studies with all bar one of these being conducted in the USA or Australia. Additionally, young drivers and parents perceive that police enforcement of young drivers within graduated driver licensing systems is inconsistent. As young drivers are more concerned about their parents finding out that they broke the road rules, there appears to be scope for greater parental involvement in this area. The use of P plates or decals for drivers on an intermediate licence may also help to facilitate police enforcement.
      PubDate: 2019-03-26
       
 
 
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