Journal Cover
Crime Prevention and Community Safety
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.268
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 144  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1460-3780 - ISSN (Online) 1743-4629
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • The growth of rural criminology: introduction to the special issue
    • PubDate: 2019-05-27
  • A comparison of aggravated assault rate trends in rural, suburban, and
           urban areas using the UCR and NCS/NCVS, 1988–2005
    • Abstract: Between the 1980s and 2000s, the USA experienced wide swings in violence rates. These swings were not experienced equally across urban, suburban, and rural areas. We employed UCR and NCS/NCVS data to compare aggravated assaults rates in rural, suburban, and urban areas between 1988 and 2005. As expected, urban aggravated assault rates tended to remain the highest. However, the crime decline was much greater for urban relative to suburban and rural areas. Further, NCS/NCVS rates were not always higher than UCR rates for a given time and location. In the latter years, UCR–NCVS rate ratios were close to one for suburban and rural areas but remained about 1.5–2.0 in urban areas. This urban–nonurban difference has implications for testing criminological theories in non-urban areas.
      PubDate: 2019-05-24
  • University of Central Oklahoma
    • Abstract: The importance of crime and place and the diversity inherent in crime problems and policing styles have been recognized for decades. However, less is known about the types of issues and challenges that must be confronted by agencies located in rural communities. This exploratory research presents preliminary findings from a study of six non-metropolitan law enforcement agencies nested within rural areas in Oklahoma. Qualitative interviews and field visits were conducted with a purposive sample of departmental officials. Data collection efforts focused on understanding the types of issues the departments face and the current state of the drug and crime problems in these areas. Key themes include law enforcement challenges, crime, drugs, and gang activity. Unanticipated findings that emerged during the course of the research are also discussed.
      PubDate: 2019-05-17
  • Horizon scanning rural crime in England
    • Abstract: Despite increasing levels of research addressing rural crime, this field of academia remains under-researched across the world, and the impact crime has upon rural communities continues to be underestimated. In particular, levels of rural crime research in England pale in comparison with the amount of research that is taking place in other developed countries such as the USA and Australia. This paper provides a horizon scan of emerging rural crime threats in England, and considers how this methodology could help practitioners in the UK and other countries. This study illustrates that there are a number of emerging crime trends affecting English rural communities. By identifying these evolving issues, this paper contributes to future research and guidance within the English rural crime arena.
      PubDate: 2019-05-15
  • Policing and community safety in northern Canadian communities: challenges
           and opportunities for crime prevention
    • Abstract: Although there is an emerging body of research literature on rural policing, less is known about policing in small communities in Canada’s territories populated largely by Indigenous peoples. These communities are often situated in geographically isolated areas, are subjected to harsh weather conditions, and may experience high rates of crime and disorder. Drawing on interviews conducted with RCMP officers in the two Canadian territories of Yukon and Nunavut, this paper examines the dynamics of policing in northern communities and how these might affect efforts to create sustainable, effective crime prevention initiatives. The findings reveal that geographic isolation, social problems, and history of distrust of the police, combined with the structure through which police services are delivered, present significant challenges to the development and sustainability of crime prevention initiatives. The unique environments of northern communities, however, also provide opportunities for the creation of police–community partnerships built on mutual trust that can provide the basis for effective crime prevention programs.
      PubDate: 2019-05-15
  • What caused the decline in child arrests in England and Wales: The Howard
           League’s programme or something else'
    • Abstract: There has been a steep decline in child arrests in recent years. The Howard League Research Briefing Child Arrests in England and Wales 2017 attributes this to a Howard League programme of work with police. We show the decline in arrests began well before that programme of work, and conclude the Research Briefing’s claims are unfounded. However, there is strong evidence that the decline in arrests is due to the long-term fall in child offending rates, probably caused by security improvements. While we are sympathetic to the aims of the Howard League, if security is having such positive effects in terms of safer communities and fewer children being processed through the criminal justice system, then it should command wide support.
      PubDate: 2019-04-16
  • The London killings of 2018: the story behind the numbers and some
           proposed solutions
    • Abstract: This paper examines the underlying issues behind the London killings of 2018 and considers some possible solutions. To do this, primary research has been undertaken with those involved in the violence, those charged with addressing it and those seeking a solution to this crisis. Violence among young people in the capital and elsewhere in Britain has been the focus of much media attention and academic discourse, some of which are examined here. In understanding the causes of the violence, it is, however, incumbent on us all to consider viable ways in which to address the issues behind the killings and identify possible solutions to the problems it creates in communities. The introduction, in January 2019, by the present Home Secretary of knife crime prevention orders appears to have aggravated the situation. Already known as Knife ASBOs (Guardian in Knife ASBOs won’t cut crime, but the will harm vulnerable young people,, 2019), these may simply criminalise a group of youngsters, sometimes as young as 11 or 12. Police are already able to tackle criminal behaviour among youngsters carrying knives through dispersal orders. This response by the Government has not addressed the root causes of the issue. As one respondent was to state: We have to find a way through this. It’s killing us. Not just the kids who are killed: it’s the people that get left behind. Something must be done to stop it. (R: 16, 13 November 2018)
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • Examining collective efficacy and perceptions of policing in East
    • Abstract: This study examines how residents from a high-crime, high-poverty neighborhood in East Baltimore interact with one another, participate in their community, and perceive police. Using community surveys collected from 191 respondents, the study empirically measures collective efficacy, community participation, and police services and encounters. We predict that high levels of collective efficacy lead to more positive perceptions of police and an increased willingness to work with law enforcement. The results indicate that neighborhood trust is an important factor in shaping a community’s overall perception of police. Furthermore, older residents who own their homes are more likely to report a more positive perception of police, specifically police response.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
  • Young driver enforcement within graduated driver licensing systems: a
           scoping review
    • Abstract: Young drivers have the highest crash rates when compared with other groups of drivers. One countermeasure that has successfully reduced these crash rates is graduated driver licensing. However, young drivers’ compliance with graduated driver licensing requirements decreases as they gain driving experience. This paper systematically reviews the literature in order to identify how enforcement practices can be used to influence the compliance of young drivers within graduated driver licensing systems. The review identified 21 relevant studies with all bar one of these being conducted in the USA or Australia. Additionally, young drivers and parents perceive that police enforcement of young drivers within graduated driver licensing systems is inconsistent. As young drivers are more concerned about their parents finding out that they broke the road rules, there appears to be scope for greater parental involvement in this area. The use of P plates or decals for drivers on an intermediate licence may also help to facilitate police enforcement.
      PubDate: 2019-03-26
  • Employee variables influencing ‘Run Hide Fight’ policy knowledge
           retention and perceptions of preparedness in the hospital setting
    • Abstract: Nationally, there has been a large increase in the number of active shooter events within healthcare facilities such as hospitals. Due to this upturn, government organizations have recently released documents to guide healthcare facilities on implementing active shooter policies and updating emergency operation plans. Currently, recommendations from government entities, such as the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Department of Homeland Security, suggest the ‘Run, Hide, Fight’ approach during an active shooter incident. The current study uses data collected from hospital employees via a survey to determine and assesses variables that influence whether hospital employees retain knowledge related to the ‘Run Hide Fight’ policy, as well as employee perception of whether the training was adequate. Results reveal that level of education, clinical versus non-clinical work role, and work schedule are significant variables in determining successful program implementation.
      PubDate: 2019-03-26
  • The digital routes of human smuggling' Evidence from the UK
    • Abstract: There are justified concerns but little empirical evidence about the implications of the use of information and communication technologies (ICT) in the business of human smuggling. The knowledge base on the use of ICT in human smuggling has rarely gone beyond the rather generic observation that the Internet and mobile technologies are available to and are used by both smugglers and migrants, and there is a concrete knowledge gap regarding the extent and the mode in which the use of ICT is integrated in the process of smuggling. In this paper, which is part of a wider research effort concerned with the role of the Internet in human smuggling in the European Union, we interrogate the outlook and implications of the use of contemporary mobile technology and of social media in the organisation and conduct of human smuggling to the UK.
      PubDate: 2019-03-26
  • Advancing understanding of pinch-points and crime prevention in the food
           supply chain
    • Authors: Jan Mei Soon; Louise Manning; Robert Smith
      Abstract: From a crime prevention perspective, food crime remains a challenge. Whilst opportunity for crime can be reduced by implementing situational measures and addressing the potential perpetrators, their possible actions and criminal behaviour, the trade-offs which occur in the food supply chain that motivate such activity still remains complex. These heuristic factors have led, in this study, to the consideration of “pinch-points” where crime could occur as a result of capability, opportunity, motivation, rationalisation and supply chain pressure. Pinch-points can be addressed using the Food Crime Countermeasures Framework conceptualised in this paper. We argue that conventional anti-fraud measures—detection, deterrence and prevention—are essential to support food fraud risk assessments, as are continuous interventions and response strategies. The implementation of countermeasures that initially drive prevention and deterrence and where required, detection, intervention and response form the basis of our approach. Whilst this paper focuses on the UK, however, it should recognise that food crime is a global issue.
      PubDate: 2019-01-24
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-019-00059-5
  • Expectations versus effects regarding police surveillance cameras in a
           municipal park
    • Authors: Ray Surette; Matthew Stephenson
      Abstract: Surveillance cameras have become a popular response to crime and disorder in urban parks. The literature regarding park surveillance cameras however is sparse and few have examined the impact of park surveillance cameras. This research study examined a five camera police department network in a southern US municipal park. The study measured pre- and post-camera effects on reported crime, calls for service, and park visitor perceptions. Analysis determined that although the surveillance cameras had minimal impact on crime or disorder they were related to park visitor perceptions of the park. A camera surveilled park was seen more positively following police camera installation even though perceptions of the effectiveness of surveillance cameras decreased.
      PubDate: 2018-10-26
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-018-0058-3
  • Examining guardianship in action in Waco, Texas
    • Authors: Meghan E. Hollis; Danielle M. Fenimore; Monica Caballero; Shannon Hankhouse
      Abstract: The guardianship in action (GIA) instrument was originally developed by Reynald (Crime Prev Community Saf 11(1):1–20, 2009) as a tool for measuring guardianship potential at residential properties. This research determined that guardianship intensity at the property level can be measured through direct observation, and the measurement of guardianship intensity is enhanced when measures of aspects of the physical and social environment are included. Guardianship in action has been examined previously in major metropolitan areas and suburban contexts. Research has not examined the utility of the guardianship in action instrument or the related guardianship construct in rural areas, small cities and towns, or smaller non-metropolitan cities. The current study is designed to examine guardianship in action in a smaller, non-metropolitan city—Waco, Texas. Implications for research, theory, and policy are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-10-25
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-018-0056-5
  • Typologies of suburban guardians: understanding the role of
           responsibility, opportunities, and routine activities in facilitating
    • Authors: Emily Moir; Timothy C. Hart; Danielle M. Reynald; Anna Stewart
      Abstract: Research suggests that personal and situational characteristics influence how and when residents provide guardianship over where they live (Reynald in J Res Crime Delinq 47(3): 358–390, 2010). However, there is limited empirical scholarship regarding what motivates residents to act as guardians and control crime in different contexts. The current study explores the role motivation and opportunity play in facilitating monitoring and intervention among potential guardians against crime in suburban Australia. Twenty semi-structured interviews with Brisbane suburban residents were conducted and suggested the existence of four typologies of suburban guardians: active, opportunistic, responsive, and non-guardians. Factors crucial to facilitating monitoring include the physical design of houses, relationships with neighbours, prior victimisation, and daily routine activities. Direct intervention is supported by feelings of responsibility and capability. Other themes found to support guardianship decision-making were also identified, and results suggest that residents supervise and monitor their street regardless of current crime rates. Implications for theory and practice, and directions for future research, are discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-10-25
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-018-0057-4
  • To what extent is revictimization risk mitigated by police prevention
           advice after a previous burglary'
    • Authors: Henk Elffers; Frank Morgan
      Abstract: This article investigates the effect of police prevention visits to recently burgled households on revictimization risk, using data on 8984 burgled houses in Adelaide, South Australia. We compare burgled dwellings whose inhabitants got advice with burgled dwellings whose inhabitants did not accept the offer of a prevention visit, and with burgled dwellings that did not get an offer at all. Using survival analysis, we estimate the effect size of the impact of prevention visits on revictimization risk. More than one in five cases of revictimization has been prevented through the prevention visit scheme.
      PubDate: 2018-10-23
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-018-0055-6
  • Introduction
    • Authors: R. I. Mawby
      PubDate: 2018-10-15
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-018-0054-7
  • Whatever happened to repeat victimisation'
    • Authors: Ken Pease; Dainis Ignatans; Lauren Batty
      Abstract: Crime is concentrated at the individual level (hot dots) as well as at area level (hot spots). Research on repeat victimisation affords rich prevention opportunities but has been increasingly marginalised by policy makers and implementers despite repeat victims accounting for increasing proportions of total crime. The present paper seeks to trigger a resurgence of interest in research and initiatives based on the prevention of repeat victimisation.
      PubDate: 2018-10-04
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-018-0051-x
  • Developing a knowledge base for crime prevention: lessons learned from the
           British experience
    • Authors: Nick Tilley; Gloria Laycock
      Abstract: During the past 20 years, there have been several initiatives, led by the British government, to improve crime prevention by informing policy and practice with research. Two in particular stand out for the scale of the investment: The first was the establishment of the Crime Reduction Programme (CRP) in 1999. The CRP was supposed both to be based on what was already known from research and also to improve the evidence base and was scheduled to run for a decade. The CRP involved an unprecedented financial commitment to improving the knowledge base of crime prevention. The second was the establishment of the What Works Centre for Crime Reduction (WWCCR) in 2013. The WWCCR attempts both to distil findings from high quality research on what works in crime reduction in a form that would be readily accessible to and useable by decision-makers, and to encourage original research to improve the knowledge base. We touch more briefly also on the creation of the National Police Improvement Agency in 2007 and its successor body, the College of Policing in 2013. The core mission of both has been to professionalise policing (including police efforts to reduce crime) by making policing more evidence based, and the College of Policing has been home to WWCCR. This paper will provide a critical account of these major efforts to bring evidence to crime reduction and discuss lessons that can be learned from their experience.
      PubDate: 2018-09-28
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-018-0053-8
  • Reflections on community safety: the ongoing precarity of women’s
    • Authors: Sandra Walklate
      Abstract: In 2007 Jayne Mooney observed that violence against women was a public anathema and a private commonplace all at the same time. In the decade since this observation was made it would not be hard to conclude that the situation remains the same despite the increasing public policy profile afforded to such violence(s). The purpose of this paper is to consider how and why such forceful observations can still be made and it will do so by reflecting on five inter-connected ongoing tensions for the community safety agenda in addressing violence against women. These tensions are: epistemic (who can know what); methodological (how things, like violence against women, can be known); conceptual (how to make sense of what we think we know); saliency (what variables count and when); policy (what can be done in the light of the foregoing issues); and global (the Northern bias endemic in such policies). The paper will suggest that only when debates on community safety fully embrace the implications of these issues will effective in-roads be made into understanding and improving the ongoing precarity of women’s lives.
      PubDate: 2018-09-24
      DOI: 10.1057/s41300-018-0050-y
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