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Crime, Law and Social Change
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.357
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 482  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-0751 - ISSN (Online) 0925-4994
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • The surprising case of police bribery reduction in South Africa
    • Abstract: The paper examines why there was a reduction of almost 15% in police bribery in Limpopo province, South Africa between 2011 and 2015, compared to only a 4% reduction the country overall. Drawing on statistical analysis and in-depth qualitative fieldwork, the research shows that the reduction occurred during an unprecedented anticorruption intervention in the province that did not directly tackle police bribery. Despite this, the intervention’s high visibility, along with uncertainty among the police of its mandate, was likely to have made police less willing to engage in bribery during this period. While police sector-specific characteristics (high degree of discretion, peer solidarity and contact with criminals) make fighting entrenched corruption particularly difficult, the research shows how a disruptive event can counteract these factors and how this can happen more quickly than previously anticipated. For long-term impact, however, disruption strategies likely need to be driven by strong leadership and structural changes that will continually disrupt corruption patterns.
      PubDate: 2019-05-17
       
  • White-collar offenders vs. common offenders: a comparative study on
           personality traits and self-control
    • Abstract: Several studies have produced evidence of the existence of differences between common offenders and white-collar offenders. In Portugal, however, there is little or no empirical work on this topic. To fill this gap, a survey was administered to a sample of 137 incarcerated subjects in several Portuguese prisons, separated into white-collar offenders (n = 74) and common offenders (n = 63). For this evaluation, sociodemographic, personality and self-control variables were measured. The results showed significant differences between the two groups of offenders. White-collar offenders are older, have more qualifications and are mostly married or divorced, contrasting with common offenders, who are younger, less qualified and mostly single. Moreover, findings indicate personality differences regarding “openness to experience” in both groups. With regard to self-control, the General Theory of Crime is supported as no differences were found between both types of offenders. The results are discussed and the implications of the findings are outlined.
      PubDate: 2019-05-17
       
  • ETA and state action: the development of Spanish antiterrorism
    • Abstract: On 20 October 2011 ETA announced the ‘definitive cessation of its armed activity’, which had been increasing since shortly after its inception in 1959. On 8 April 2017 it disarmed by handing over its weapons to intermediaries from civil society. On 2 May 2018 ETA announced its dissolution. This was the end of the last ongoing armed conflict in Europe from the wave of political violence – linked to national and class disputes – that swept over the continent starting in the 1960s. This article analyses the development of Spanish antiterrorism in relation to the Basque conflict, observing how a free and democratic Spanish state has responded to the challenge of an armed insurgency that has continued to the present. While the history of the organisation is well known, less so is the development of the reaction to deal with it. ETA’s progression cannot be understood in isolation, but rather needs to be placed into the context of the measures taken by the state, which influenced, shaped, and was shaped by it throughout the course of the conflict.
      PubDate: 2019-05-15
       
  • Female offenders of human trafficking and sexual exploitation
    • Abstract: Female offenders are seldom studied by criminological scholars. This is certainly the case regarding offenses like human trafficking and sexual exploitation. However, the number of women suspected of being a perpetrator of human trafficking should not be underestimated. In this paper we present the results of a study on female perpetrators of human trafficking. We have analyzed the court-files of 150 women who have been convicted for human trafficking. We present results on the prevalence of female offenders of human trafficking and the forms of exploitation they have been convicted for. After this we present the sanctions that were imposed on the women and the offender, offense and victim characteristics. This paper concludes by discussing implications for criminal justice authorities, policy and research.
      PubDate: 2019-05-10
       
  • Media portrayal of terrorism and Muslims: a content analysis of Turkey and
           France
    • Abstract: The media plays a crucial role in highlighting the important facts the public should know by selecting, broadcasting, and emphasizing what events the public should classify and comprehend as important and what the public should assess as a threat (Slone Journal of Conflict Resolution 44(4): 508-522, 2000, Papacharissi and de Fatima Oliveira The International Journal of Press/Politics 13(1): 52-74, 2008). This paper explores the notion that the media reinforces a false synonym between Muslims and terrorism. I begin with a description of news framing bias and how this bias impacts the portrayal of terrorism and Muslims through politically and emotionally charged discourse. Then, through a content analysis of local and national news articles, I examine selected terrorist events in France and Turkey, analyzing the U.S media’s portrayal of these events to uncover what elements journalists select, emphasize, and deemphasize in countries with predominantly Muslim and non-Muslim populations. This analysis is useful in uncovering the mechanisms allowing U.S perception of perceived threat to rise in tandem with U.S national security’s placement on the current policy agenda, while the actual risks posed by terrorism and Muslim populations are marginal in comparison and continue to decline (Powell Communication Studies 62(1): 90-112, 2011). The findings suggest that news media framing utilizes biased, negative imagery, portraying the events in these countries in a way that reinforces current prejudices against Muslims, even when Muslims are themselves the victims. This unequal reporting increases viewership while simultaneously allowing current perceptions about terrorism and Muslims to continue.
      PubDate: 2019-05-06
       
  • Testing the symbolic properties of alcohol prohibition in Hermann, MO
    • Abstract: Gusfield (1963) describes constitutional prohibition as symbolically representing status and not concerned with social control. The importance of this perspective for the prohibition of alcohol rests in the rural, Protestant, native segments of the United States symbolically demonstrating their values publicly through law over that of the urban, Catholic, immigrants. This case study tests the symbolic properties of constitutional prohibition through an analysis of the small German-American, rural, winemaking community of Hermann, MO. I analyze Hermann’s major English newspaper, the Advertiser-Courier, during two time periods: 1908 to 1911 and 1918 to 1921 to understand the changes in legislative reform and the importance of the social environment for each time period. In order to demonstrate the limitations of a strictly symbolic understanding of constitutional prohibition through Gusfield’s (1963) status politics paradigm, I utilize the theoretical tools of structural foundations and triggering events (Galliher (1980) 2012) to assess the social origins of prohibition legislation in Missouri. This perspective further demonstrates the instrumental aspects of social control involved during the passage of this law.
      PubDate: 2019-05-01
       
  • Promoting pirate prisons: exploring the intersections of narratives,
           media, and criminal justice reform in East Africa
    • Abstract: In March of 2011, several news media outlets published articles announcing the opening of a “pirate prison” in the northwest region of Somalia. Over the next five years, news articles about East African prisons holding piracy prisoners en masse were among the few ways in which the public came to know pirate prisons—what they look like, who they punish, and how they punish. Our analysis of the text and imagery in news articles about these prisons reveals that pirate prison narratives reflects the unique political, social, and economic issues of each location. The geographically-specific narratives are created, promoted, and in some cases silenced by different actors and entities to shape public perception of pirate prisons and motivate funding decisions. This case study aims to theorize what these pirate prison narratives tells us more broadly about the complexities underlying the promotion of criminal justice reforms in the media and the political economy of punishment in East Africa. We contend that the production and maintenance of particular pirate prison narratives helps various actors and agencies maximize benefits tied to a broader penal market where piracy prisoners are detained and transferred in exchange for development aid.
      PubDate: 2019-05-01
       
  • Bio-smuggling in Turkey
    • Abstract: Turkey is among the countries with the richest biodiversity in Europe and the Middle East; it ranks ninth in the European continent in terms of biodiversity. Its distinct and varied geography affords a high level of endemism and genetic diversity. Due to its high level of endemism and genetic diversity, Turkey is also a center of attraction in terms of genetic resources. This raises the issue of bio-smuggling, which is a significant problem that threatens both the biodiversity and the economic future of the country. The insufficiency of legal, political and institutional systems are a major determining factor on the problem of bio-smuggling in Turkey. Although there are 50 different legislations (11 different international conventions, 14 different laws, 2 different statutory decrees, and 23 different specific regulations) germane to bio-smuggling, between 2002 and 2015 59 incidents of bio-smuggling were documented. Prevention of bio-smuggling in Turkey has remained low and insufficient. With this study, we will review and examine several case examples: legal ramifications of combatting bio-smuggling; pertinent national regulations; legal and administrative sanctions against bio-smuggling and their effectiveness.
      PubDate: 2019-05-01
       
  • Education or enforcement' Enrolling universities in the surveillance
           and policing of migration
    • Abstract: This article examines the enlistment of educational providers in the surveillance and policing of non-citizen students. Employing the USA, UK, and Australia as cases, it situates efforts that render universities responsible for managing migrant “illegality” in broader trends concerning legal control and security governance. In particular, it analyzes the development of electronic surveillance and information-sharing systems that mobilize the knowledge, energies, and access of educational providers for the purposes of identification, tracking, and reporting. University personnel’s conscription as de facto border guards accentuates the pluralization of migration policing, highlighting how techniques of governance and surveillance are effectuated through quotidian actors and sites positioned beyond the sovereign state. By drawing universities into the orbit of territorial gatekeeping and interior enforcement, emergent policies are producing numerous tensions, whether in relation to their officially stated objectives or transformations in higher education’s character, ethos, and mission and their implications for non-citizens’ legal and social identities. Alongside enhancing understandings of migration control, this paper advances conversations regarding the increasingly networked, pre-emptive, and ubiquitous qualities of social ordering and control.
      PubDate: 2019-05-01
       
  • No model in practice: a ‘Nordic model’ to respond to
           prostitution'
    • Abstract: The so-called Nordic model to respond to prostitution has been considered in legislative debates across Europe and internationally, and hailed by some as best practice to tackle sex trafficking and is believed to support gender equality. Yet, when we interrogate the utilisation of the Nordic countries laws by law enforcers, it is not being implemented as per the law. We argue that ‘all that is occurring is the transfer of rhetoric and ideology’ in these countries ((Stone Politics, 19 (1): 51–59, 1999) at 56). In this article, we expose the cracks in the so-called Nordic model, thereby discrediting the ‘persuasive’ nature of a unified Nordic approach to prostitution. We draw on policy transfer and comparative law literature to illuminate the problems and challenges of naïve adoption of this so-called model, arguing that this can lead to uninformed, inappropriate and incomplete transfer of the Nordic model, which then becomes a policy irritant, further exacerbating the very problems it seeks to address.
      PubDate: 2019-05-01
       
  • Disaggregating gang activity: an exploratory study of the
           socio-demographic context of gang activity
    • Abstract: This paper examines the social ecology of gang activity in Fort Worth, Texas, a community with decades-long and recent growth in Latino immigrant populations. Focusing on the contextual correlates of police-defined gang incidents, the paper explores the relationship between traditional social ecological measures of concentrated disadvantage, residential stability, Latino immigration and racial composition and police-defined gang crime activity in Fort Worth communities. To better understand the social ecological dynamics that correlate with gang activity, the analysis uniquely disaggregates gang activity using 1) the police department’s gang-related classification system and, 2) four categories of gang crime behaviors within police classifications. Overall, the findings reveal that traditional social ecological indicators are significantly related to gang activity; however, the relationship collapses with disaggregation by gang-involved and gang-related crime behaviors and the four disaggregated crime classifications. Implications for research, theory, and policy are discussed.
      PubDate: 2019-05-01
       
  • Anti-immigration sentiment and public opinion on human trafficking
    • Abstract: Prior research shows that anti-immigration sentiment affects public opinion about criminal justice problems and solutions. However, we know little about how these sentiments affect public opinion about human trafficking. This paper attempts to fill this gap by examining the role of anti-immigration sentiment in shaping public support for anti-trafficking efforts in the United States. Specifically, this research examines the effect of anti-immigration sentiment on the public’s understanding about vulnerabilities for human trafficking among migrant populations and corresponding support for policies directed at the protection of migrant trafficked persons. This is particularly important because public policies that safeguard migrant trafficked persons have been among the most difficult to pass despite strong support for the governmental prioritization of anti-trafficking efforts overall. Utilizing public opinion data from an original, nationally representative survey experiment of 2000 Americans, this study finds that anti-immigration sentiment (1) is associated with greater recognition of the vulnerability of immigrants to human trafficking victimization; (2) does not impact public support for a general governmental prioritization of human trafficking policies; yet (3) creates less public support for victim services for non-citizen trafficked persons; and (4) stems from differences in political views impacting support for services for immigrant victims. These findings contribute to an understanding of the role of anti-immigration sentiment in public opinion about crime and have implications for policies aimed at improving the identification of and outcomes for migrant trafficked persons.
      PubDate: 2019-04-26
       
  • Human trafficking for sex, labour and domestic servitude: how do key
           trafficking types compare and what are their predictors'
    • Abstract: Combatting trafficking in human beings is a well-established social policy and crime prevention priority for the twenty-first Century. Human trafficking, as defined in international law, can occur for diverse exploitative purposes. Yet, different forms of trafficking are routinely conflated in research, policy and interventions. Most of the attention to date has been on sex trafficking of women and girls, leaving male victims and other trafficking types comparatively overlooked. In this study, we disentangle differences between key trafficking types using rare individual-level data from the United Kingdom’s central system for identifying trafficking victims. For a sample of 2630 confirmed victims, we compare those trafficked for sex, domestic servitude and other labour across variables relating to victim demographics, the trafficking process and official responses. Having established significant and substantial differences at bivariate level, we use multinomial logistic regression to identify predictors of trafficking type. Overall, our results underline the complexity and diversity of human trafficking and warn against conflating different types. Within a holistic counter-trafficking framework, a more disaggregated and nuanced approach to analysis and intervention is vital in ensuring more finely-targeted responses. This original study has clear lessons for research, policy and practice.
      PubDate: 2019-04-25
       
  • Examining gender differences in reintegrative shaming theory: the role of
           shame acknowledgment
    • Abstract: Reintegrative shaming theory operates on the assumption that shaming from important others is gendered: women are more likely than men to conform and desist from offending. This study examines the validity of this assumption using measures of parent shame, peer shame, and shame acknowledgment to determine the impact of shame on offending and conformity. Using waves six and seven of the National Youth Survey Family Study data, zero-inflated negative binomial modeling is employed to examine the impact of reintegrative shaming on female and male offending and non-offending behavior among a probability sample of adults (N = 1227). Parent shaming is not a significant predictor of offending, but peer shaming is influential. The relationship between gender and conformity was mediated by shame acknowledgement. Although the reintegrative shaming process is not as influential as the theory had predicted, the importance of shame for explaining prevalence in women is demonstrated.
      PubDate: 2019-04-15
       
  • Combating xenophobia and hate through compassionate migration: the present
           struggle of irregular migrants escaping fear and extreme poverty
    • Abstract: This paper advances the need for a blueprint for a concept and practice of “compassionate migration” as a pressing response to the escalating xenophobia and hate towards migrants escaping fear and extreme poverty. Irregular migrants and refugees from certain countries are perceived by many as self-interested individuals whose aims are to exploit the social benefits of the state or destroy its core values. Although fear of migrants has long existed, particularly towards those who come from cultures that do not share the dominant values of their host communities, after 9/11, the increase in terror attacks in the Global North, and the ongoing conflicts in the Global South, the U.S., and many European states have securitized migration, including the militarization of their borders. Moreover, receiving states are criminalizing migration offenses, including the assistance of irregular migrants from a humanitarian standpoint. Although all migrants have protections under domestic and international humanitarian laws, this paper draws from cases of discourses and actions of hate towards migrants in the U.S. and Europe that inform us that under the securitization and criminalizing of migration such laws are not adequate to protect the human rights of migrants from a dangerous rise in xenophobia and nativism.
      PubDate: 2019-04-12
       
  • Understanding the criminal justice process in human trafficking cases in
           Portugal: factors associated with successful prosecutions
    • Abstract: The overall number of convictions for human trafficking is still very low. In order to understand the barriers and gaps to human trafficking prosecutions and convictions, it is pertinent to analyse the criminal justice processes at different stages of the criminal procedure. This study aims to respond to that gap by identifying the cases that initiated criminal justice procedure for the crime of human trafficking in Portugal, through the analysis of 30 records of criminal cases for human trafficking elapsed in Portugal between 2007 and 2015. The results showed that the majority of cases (71%) were filled after the criminal investigation phase, and only 2% of all cases were convicted for human trafficking. The analysis allowed to identify the factors of effectiveness and ineffectiveness shaping legal outcomes and also, the relevance of the victim cooperation in the different stages of criminal justice processes (e.g., police investigation, trial).
      PubDate: 2019-04-02
       
  • Introduction to the special issue on the politics of hate: community,
           societal and global responses
    • PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • To what extent have international organizations triggered
           responses/actions at national levels to address hate crime'
    • Abstract: This article looks at how international organizations supported increased response and actions at national level through to address hate crime based on practical experience. It argues that, while international organizations may support actions at national level and facilitate exchange of good practices, change occurs only when there is a genuine political in a country. The article also lists four major factors which may contribute to change at the national level and which may also overlap. These include: actions following public pressure after a hate crime case(s) that has stirred the public; international reputation and positioning of the government in multilateral affairs; internal factors – caused by events that may have significant impact on the security situation, and pressure from civil society groups and international organizations to respond to hate crime challenges.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • Correction to: Demographic variables predicting ISIS and Al-Queda armed
           political violence
    • Abstract: In the original publication, the word Daesh should have been Al-Queda. The word Daesh appeared in the article title, in the first sentence of the abstract, and in the last sentence of the third paragraph of the Introduction section.
      PubDate: 2019-03-20
       
  • Protecting commonly targeted groups in the context of ‘new politics’:
           the case of Ireland
    • Authors: Amanda Haynes; Jennifer Schweppe
      Abstract: This article addresses the big ‘P’ politics of hate by examining the circumstances that produced an apparent radical and sudden shift among the parties of government in Ireland from long-standing resistance to the introduction of hate crime legislation to an expansive approach to protecting commonly targeted minorities. By means of a directed qualitative content analysis of parliamentary debate regarding the Criminal Justice (Aggravation by Prejudice) Bill 2016, we argue that four factors aid comprehension of this uncommon pattern - the range of the Irish political spectrum, the current balance of power in parliament, the approach to the protection of difference adopted by established parties and finally, the permeability of the Irish political system and the consequent influence of civil society organisations representing targeted communities on the parliamentary debate. We argue that, rather than underscoring the national influence of global trends and international good practice, recent developments in Ireland demonstrate the importance of attending to the peculiarities of the local context in interpreting the meaning and significance of responses to hate crime.
      PubDate: 2019-02-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s10611-019-09819-8
       
 
 
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