Journal Cover
Crime, Law and Social Change
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.357
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 498  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-0751 - ISSN (Online) 0925-4994
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2570 journals]
  • Whistleblowing and the fight against corruption and fraud in Nigeria:
           perceptions of anti-corruption agents (ACAs)
    • Abstract: Abstract This study examines the intervention and operationalization of whistleblowing as a new anti-corruption mechanism, based on the experiences of anti-corruption agents (ACAs). Relying on the Theory of Expert Competence and the Institutional Diversity framework, the study examines the views of mid- and senior-level professionals at the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) and the Ministry of Finance (MoF) in Nigeria regarding the whistleblowing intervention recently introduced to fight corruption and fraud in the country. The findings suggest that while the intervention offers positive prospects in the fight against corruption and fraud in Nigeria, the ACAs face formidable enforcement challenges. The findings also suggest that insights from ACAs on whistleblowing can be harnessed to fight corruption and fraud in Nigeria because ACAs offer a combination of expertise and knowledge of local culture and context, and to be effective, whistleblowing intervention must incorporate local culture. Although critical in advancing anti-corruption initiatives including whistleblowing, the views of ACAs are often overlooked by policy makers.
      PubDate: 2020-03-01
       
  • Deciphering the crime-terror Nexus: an empirical analysis of the
           structural characteristics of terrorists in Narco-terror networks
    • Abstract: Abstract By using Social Network Analysis (SNA) technique, this study analyzes the structural characteristics of five PKK related narco-terror networks. It examines the roles and positions occupied by PKK members to uncover the nature of the terrorist nexus itself and analyzes structural characteristics to identify these networks’ prioritization between security and efficiency. This study finds that terrorists have key roles in narco-terror networks, i.e., leaders, managers, or drug suppliers. They take powerful and central positions in either controlling central hubs (exerting authority) or bridging separate subgroups (acting as a gateway) constituting the core parts of networks. Further, this study finds that despite terrorists’ dominating role and positions in control and coordination of information and resources, narco-terror networks reveal more reliance on efficiency than security. In general, these networks tend to be clustered into dense subgroups that are attached to networks’ cores, reflecting relatively denser and centralized structures with short average paths. Yet, networks have core(s) whereby key players act predominantly in these cores rather than on peripheries. Notwithstanding the dominance of terrorist members, narco-terror networks seem to focus more on efficiency, and the terrorist nexus in such networks does not appear to make these networks more security-driven. This study asserts that the nature of activity (i.e., crime for material incentive) determines how offenders behave and how covert networks are structured.
      PubDate: 2020-03-01
       
  • Misrecognising the victim of state violence: denial, ‘deep’
           imperialism and defending ‘our boys’
    • Abstract: Abstract This article critically examines public responses to attempts at holding former British soldiers accountable for historic human rights violations committed during conflicts fought overseas. Using the case of British Army veterans who served in the North of Ireland and Iraq as an empirical basis, it posits that such responses are defined by a moral myopia that distinguishes between state violence ‘here’ and ‘there’ and ‘now’ and ‘then’. This moral myopia, it is submitted, is a form of identity politics forged through a marriage between deep imperialism and the strategies of denial used by the state. This essentially misrecognises the victim of state violence and ultimately leads to public sympathy favouring those who stand accused of human rights abuse over and above those actually subjected to it. Ultimately, the article concludes, this means that public opinion is channelled in a way that calls for such violations not to be punished rather than for them to be punished.
      PubDate: 2020-03-01
       
  • Corruption and anti-corruption: a folklore problem'
    • Abstract: Abstract The Charbonneau Inquiry in Quebec, Canada, uncovered a complex nexus of collusion and corruption in the awarding of public works construction contracts. The aim of this article is to better illustrate and understand how corruption was perceived and collectively understood in the public works sector prior to the revelations of the Charbonneau Inquiry. This article argues that a ‘folklore’ of corruption was prevalent through which civil servants perceived the criminal phenomenon. This is achieved through a narrative analysis of two witness testimonies of civil engineers, who recounted their implication in the corrupt and collusive nexus in the city of Montreal during the commission’s hearings. This article makes a case for the importance of narratives in the study of corruption.
      PubDate: 2020-03-01
       
  • Recent trends in money laundering
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper illustrates how criminals currently launder money in Germany, Liechtenstein, and Switzerland. Semi-structured expert interviews were conducted with 50 money launderers and 50 compliance and prevention experts, whose responses were subjected to qualitative content analysis. Based on the findings therefrom, a quantitative survey of 200 compliance officers was conducted. Together, these two methods revealed the concrete techniques currently used to launder money in Europe. Contrary to popular belief, money laundering is found not to be associated with high costs, and can even generate significant profits. As the findings of the qualitative study are based on semi-standardised interviews, they are limited to the 100 participants’ perspectives. By identifying concrete methods of money laundering, this study’s findings provide compliance officers, law enforcement agencies, and legislators with valuable insights into how criminals act. Whereas prior literature primarily focuses on organisations and mechanisms aimed at fighting money laundering, this article instead describes how criminals avoid detection by analysing the perspectives of prevention experts and the criminals themselves. Acting on this information should enhance the effectiveness of combating and preventing money laundering.
      PubDate: 2020-03-01
       
  • The geography of prostitution arrests in Virginia, USA, 2002–2013
    • Abstract: Abstract Prostitution is a complex activity that involves diverse interactions, negotiations, and actors. The aim of this article is to use thematic maps and spatial statistics to illustrate the geographic distribution of police response to prostitution, namely arrests in Virginia, 2002–2013. A number of factors impact police responses to any crime, and variations in government policies influence the changing geography of anti-prostitution police initiatives. Prostitution, in particular, typically concentrates in areas with significant transient populations and male employment. Virginia has regions with gender/population imbalances due to the presence of military bases, government agencies, and industries that traditionally hire more men than women or draw individuals away from their families due to occupational demands. This paper describes prostitution arrests’ geography by examining data from police reports and the government’s press releases.
      PubDate: 2020-03-01
       
  • Avoiding the political dangers created when the state is replaced by a
           government
    • Abstract: Abstract States are independent territories in which governance is implemented by government agents, because states are complex systems that cannot spontaneously self-govern. However, governments sometimes forget that they are only agents of the state, and attempt to obtain a monopoly on power by controlling elected officials and the operation of the state. History has shown that this approach leads to errors in political development because government agents do not always act in the best interests of the state and its people. Centralized authority is often accompanied by the abuse of power, corruption, poverty, and a loss of human rights. To help countries avoid repeating these tragedies, this paper has proposed a model of institutional evolution in which state institutions can evolve to support peaceful socioeconomic development that benefits both the poor and the wealthy by avoiding institutional lock in. Statesmen must account for the lessons described in this paper to better understand and account for the difference between the state and its government.
      PubDate: 2020-02-14
       
  • Which institutions are most corrupt' Prevalence and social
           determinants of bribery in Tehran
    • Abstract: Abstract Corruption has relatively higher negative consequences in third world countries, which have weak and vulnerable structures. However, only a limited number of studies have been conducted on the prevalence and causes of corruption in these countries and these have mainly focused on the perception of corruption or the propensity to bribe. Besides determining the prevalence of bribe in different institutions, the present study also provides the feasibility of analyzing the determining factors affecting bribery. In this cross-sectional survey, 400 residents in different regions of Tehran were selected through cluster sampling method, and their experiences and opinions about corruption and bribery were examined. The results showed that, the perception of high corruption is most important factor affecting pay bribe. In addition, low obedience to the law and an increase in the perceived procedural justice are also among the other determinants affecting bribery. Each individual had paid bribes in one-third of their referrals to the institutions, as demonstrated by the findings, suggests that this problem may become a norm in certain organizations, so it must be taken seriously while framing anti-corruption policies.
      PubDate: 2020-02-08
       
  • Match-fixing under the state monopoly sports betting system: a case study
           of the 2011 K-League scandal
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper examines the characteristics of match-fixing under the state monopoly sports betting system, particularly focusing on the case of the 2011 K-League scandal. Drawing from policy documentation and interview data, this study explores the precipitating factors that underpin large-scale match-fixing in South Korea. The results of the analysis reveal that first, the financial stability of the legal, monopoly betting operator attracts match-fixers for manipulation due to its guaranteed payouts. Second, the legal betting system that only offers traditional products (e.g., final match results) required fixers to mobilize a larger number of players, increasing the size of the scandal. Third, within the small community of footballers, the networks based on school ties, and the training camp culture made it easier for fixers with soccer-playing backgrounds to mobilize many active players. Finally, the follow-up measures after the scandal only targeted illegal betting operators or individual player immorality, which allowed the government to continue to play a dual role as both the operator of the sports gambling business and the protector of sport integrity.
      PubDate: 2020-02-06
       
  • Those who counter match-fixing fraudsters: voices from a multistakeholder
           ecosystem
    • Abstract: Abstract This study sheds light on the match-fixing ecosystem, with particular focus on those entities engaged in protecting the integrity of competitions. It analyzes the characteristics of match-fixers, as perceived by some anti-match-fixing stakeholders; the known processes of match-fixing and their evolution; and the interactions among stakeholders in the match-fixing ecosystem. Results show that while anti-match-fixing actors seem to have only a fuzzy idea of match-fixers’ characteristics, they appear to know quite well how fraudsters manipulate games. Meanwhile, fixers seem to have adapted their processes across time in response to harsher countermeasures according to two main strategies: layering, in which mules are used to place bets on multiple operators to conceal suspicious betting pattern algorithms, and diversification/displacement, in which fixers decide to pursue new betting options or to target minor leagues or other, less monitored sports. Some fixers did not have to adapt since in many countries police investigations remain rare and criminal sanction mild. Further research should encourage comparative perspectives beyond the European dimension, develop a more systematic effort to establish a sport fraudsters typology, and focus on non-betting-related sports manipulations.
      PubDate: 2020-02-05
       
  • Too much at stake to uphold sport integrity' High-performance
           athletes’ involvement in match-fixing
    • Abstract: Abstract Non-betting-related match-fixing constitutes an important integrity issue in contemporary sports. With varied forms ranging from passive tanking to the purposeful, coercive, calculated bribing of others to gain advantages, non-betting-related match-fixing can be a form of corruption that deters sport development. This paper examines high-performance athletes’ involvement in non-betting-related match-fixing in South Korea. Drawing from survey data (n = 731), this paper describes and analyses the prevalence of match-fixing, its locales (i.e., levels of competition) and origins (i.e., who made the offer/approach). Results show that: (1) 74 athletes (10.12%) were approached to take part in match-fixing, while 33 of those athletes (4.51%) actually participated; and (2) the match-fixing offers were usually made ‘by coaches’, ‘at high school-level nationwide competitions’, ‘for the purpose of entering universities’. Finally, this paper concludes by suggesting that the excessive incentives (e.g., university admission) linked with elite sport development structures may account for the strong motive behind non-betting-related match-fixing, and its endangering of sport integrity.
      PubDate: 2020-02-04
       
  • Socio-economic and cultural sources of conflict between forest villagers
           and forest; a case study from Black Sea Region, Turkey
    • Abstract: Abstract Human relations with the forest ecosystem vary greatly according to biophysical, demographic and economic conditions. Understanding the mutual relationships among these conditions can enable a better understanding of their drivers. Therefore, in this study, a forest management unit and the rural population within this unit were examined and the existence of the conflict phenomenon, the mutual relations between the elements possibly causing the conflict, and the dimensions of these relations were investigated. The study found that only 12% of the forest villagers were educated at a middle-school level or higher and only 17% of this section of low-income people worked in forestry activities for additional income. It was determined that the crime awareness level of the villagers engaged in forestry activities was higher than in those who did not work in this sector (X2 = 30.78; p < 0.05). Moreover, the number of people who were penalized for forest crimes increased in parallel with the need for firewood / wood in their households (X2 = 9.96; p < 0.05). It was found that by raising the forest villagers’ awareness concerning their legal rights, their crime awareness level also increased. (X2 = 157.46; p < 0.05). As a result, the study revealed that the income and education levels of the forest villagers had a direct effect on forest crime as the main indicator of the conflict between forest villagers and forest management.
      PubDate: 2020-01-30
       
  • Bribery and corruption: assessing the fairness of the Malaysian judicial
           system
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper assesses the fairness of the Malaysian judicial system in handling cases pertaining to bribery and corruption. The assessment is based on an archival database of 1869 actual court cases that occurred between 2006 and 2013. The findings suggest that the Malaysian judicial system does not operate fairly. The punishment verdicts, in the form of fines and imprisonment, appear to be significantly influenced by offenders’ social, political, and personal characteristics. Specifically, the results reveal that white-collar workers, government employees, and indigenous Malaysians (Bumiputera) receive more lenient treatment from the judicial system than do other offenders. Males receive harsher sentences than females, and offenders in those states controlled by the ruling party receive softer treatment from the judicial system than those in opposition-controlled states. An unfair justice system erodes public confidence and enables prospective or existing offenders to exploit the system’s weaknesses for their personal gain. The contributions of this paper are as follows. First, unlike prior research which mostly draws upon public opinion surveys, this paper analyses real court cases. Second, it goes beyond the simple white-collar versus blue-collar distinction and considers offenders’ social, political and personal characteristics.
      PubDate: 2020-01-30
       
  • Chiaramonte, Xenia (2019). Governare il Conflitto. La Criminalizzazione
           del Movimento No TAV [Governing Conflict. The Criminalization of No TAV
           Movement] . Milano: Meltemi. 374 pp. 20.00€ (paperback) ISBN:
           9788883539060
    • PubDate: 2020-01-29
       
  • Between cooperation and conflict: the national union of road transport
           workers in Lagos, Nigeria
    • Abstract: Abstract Foregrounding urban public transport as a terrain of political action and meaning-making, this article explores the role and politics of the National Union of Road Transport Workers (NURTW) in Lagos, Nigeria’s commercial capital, located in the south-west of the country. Particular attention is paid to the ways in which political agency is being exercised at different levels (that is, both within the NURTW and towards workers and the state), the manner in which the union-state relationship is weaponized by both parties, and how the union is drawn into patronage networks that redistribute resources provided by the state. The analysis extends to the insecurities that road transport workers face on a daily basis in their struggle to navigate the extortionate power of the union-state alliance, and make ends meet.
      PubDate: 2020-01-22
       
  • Abrahms, M. (2018). Rules for rebels: The science of victory in militant
           history. Oxford University Press
    • PubDate: 2020-01-01
       
  • Corruption in the United States and China: codes of conduct vs. crackdowns
    • Abstract: Abstract Previous research on China’s corruption and its continued, tolerated existence tended to focus on guanxi wang networks (informal gift-giving) and baohu san (protective “umbrellas” from enforcement). This article compares China with the United States and argues that enforcement results between the two countries are similar even though the mechanisms are distinct. Issues of system capacity and non-issue making explain the similar effects of these disparate methods (codes of conduct in the U.S. and anti-corruption crackdowns in China).
      PubDate: 2020-01-01
       
  • A supply-based response to a demand-driven problem: a fifteen-year
           analysis of drug interdiction in Poland
    • Abstract: Abstract This study examined one key element of drug supply-reduction policies – drug interdiction – in the Central and Eastern European country of Poland. Poland is a nation that has experienced significant social, political, and cultural changes since the fall of communism, resulting in multiple reforms to their national policing model and drug laws. Poland is also uniquely situated in Europe as a consumer nation, a transit country for drugs, and a significant source of amphetamines. These factors place additional strain on agencies responsible for drug interdiction. To-date, however, the efficacy of police-driven interdiction efforts or factors that might impact the success of such policies (e.g., funding, strength of the police force, the number of drug-related crimes detected) have not been empirically examined in this setting. Thus, this study examined officially reported data in Poland over a 15-year time period (2001 to 2015) to determine how these factors were related to the seized amounts of heroin, cocaine, amphetamine, and herbal cannabis, given the historic national context. The main findings indicated that the cannabis and amphetamine markets were strongly linked, while user-based arrests related to particular drug-types (e.g., amphetamines) were found to be significantly related to seizures of different drug-types (e.g., heroin), suggesting possible market integration. Further, government expenditures for public safety were not found to be significantly associated with interdiction efforts.
      PubDate: 2020-01-01
       
  • Explaining the crime drop: contributions to declining crime rates from
           youth cohorts since 2005
    • Abstract: Abstract Since the mid-90s there has been almost a 50% reduction in the volume of crime in England and Wales - a trend that has been mirrored in many Western countries (Greenberg Justice Quarterly, 31(1), 154–188, 2014). Despite previous assumptions, for example, declining birth cohorts, it is proposed here that the decline in crime for the 1995–2005 period can largely be attributed to a doubling of the probability of a crime being ‘proven’ (cf Lloyd et al. 1994; MOJ, 2012; Taylor 2016). However, in the last decade these reductions in crime rates have levelled off to a relatively stable degree. Analysis of published data relating to the performance of the criminal justice system in England and Wales suggests that reductions in crime levels since 2005 are largely accounted for by the fall in proportion of the youth population engaging in offending behaviour. It is argued that falls in rates of crime are largely independent of the offending frequency of young people or variations in the probability of offences being proven; rather, reductions in youth crime over this period could largely be attributed to policy changes, including multiagency interventions targeted at young people who were at risk of starting to offend (McAra and McVie 2015; Smith 2015). Further discussion suggests that the binary proven reoffending rate is not an accurate barometer of criminal justice system performance; rather it is argued that reductions in the youth offending population feed forward into later reductions in the number of adult offenders and further impact on overall crime rates in the longer term.
      PubDate: 2020-01-01
       
  • Are regional crime rates in India natural'
    • Abstract: Abstract Crime has been around for as long as the human society. The present study examines whether there is a natural rate of crime in India at both national and state-level using annual data for aggregate and specific crime types. The presence of unit root in crime rate series has been investigated by accommodating endogenously determined structural break point. The empirical analysis indicates that most of the regional crime rates series are stationary which implies the existence of natural rate of crime in India. Based on our findings it is suggested that India should focus on improving the socioeconomic status of the general masses instead of devoting more resources to short-term measures of reducing crime rates. In addition, the state-level social profiles should be taken into consideration for articulating crime-fighting policies.
      PubDate: 2020-01-01
       
 
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