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Crime, Law and Social Change
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.357
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 486  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-0751 - ISSN (Online) 0925-4994
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2574 journals]
  • ETA and state action: the development of Spanish antiterrorism
    • Abstract: Abstract On 20 October 2011 ETA announced the ‘definitive cessation of its armed activity’, which had been increasing since shortly after its inception in 1959. On 8 April 2017 it disarmed by handing over its weapons to intermediaries from civil society. On 2 May 2018 ETA announced its dissolution. This was the end of the last ongoing armed conflict in Europe from the wave of political violence – linked to national and class disputes – that swept over the continent starting in the 1960s. This article analyses the development of Spanish antiterrorism in relation to the Basque conflict, observing how a free and democratic Spanish state has responded to the challenge of an armed insurgency that has continued to the present. While the history of the organisation is well known, less so is the development of the reaction to deal with it. ETA’s progression cannot be understood in isolation, but rather needs to be placed into the context of the measures taken by the state, which influenced, shaped, and was shaped by it throughout the course of the conflict.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • The surprising case of police bribery reduction in South Africa
    • Abstract: Abstract The paper examines why there was a reduction of almost 15% in police bribery in Limpopo province, South Africa between 2011 and 2015, compared to only a 4% reduction the country overall. Drawing on statistical analysis and in-depth qualitative fieldwork, the research shows that the reduction occurred during an unprecedented anticorruption intervention in the province that did not directly tackle police bribery. Despite this, the intervention’s high visibility, along with uncertainty among the police of its mandate, was likely to have made police less willing to engage in bribery during this period. While police sector-specific characteristics (high degree of discretion, peer solidarity and contact with criminals) make fighting entrenched corruption particularly difficult, the research shows how a disruptive event can counteract these factors and how this can happen more quickly than previously anticipated. For long-term impact, however, disruption strategies likely need to be driven by strong leadership and structural changes that will continually disrupt corruption patterns.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Understanding the criminal justice process in human trafficking cases in
           Portugal: factors associated with successful prosecutions
    • Abstract: Abstract The overall number of convictions for human trafficking is still very low. In order to understand the barriers and gaps to human trafficking prosecutions and convictions, it is pertinent to analyse the criminal justice processes at different stages of the criminal procedure. This study aims to respond to that gap by identifying the cases that initiated criminal justice procedure for the crime of human trafficking in Portugal, through the analysis of 30 records of criminal cases for human trafficking elapsed in Portugal between 2007 and 2015. The results showed that the majority of cases (71%) were filled after the criminal investigation phase, and only 2% of all cases were convicted for human trafficking. The analysis allowed to identify the factors of effectiveness and ineffectiveness shaping legal outcomes and also, the relevance of the victim cooperation in the different stages of criminal justice processes (e.g., police investigation, trial).
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Media portrayal of terrorism and Muslims: a content analysis of Turkey and
    • Abstract: Abstract The media plays a crucial role in highlighting the important facts the public should know by selecting, broadcasting, and emphasizing what events the public should classify and comprehend as important and what the public should assess as a threat (Slone Journal of Conflict Resolution 44(4): 508-522, 2000, Papacharissi and de Fatima Oliveira The International Journal of Press/Politics 13(1): 52-74, 2008). This paper explores the notion that the media reinforces a false synonym between Muslims and terrorism. I begin with a description of news framing bias and how this bias impacts the portrayal of terrorism and Muslims through politically and emotionally charged discourse. Then, through a content analysis of local and national news articles, I examine selected terrorist events in France and Turkey, analyzing the U.S media’s portrayal of these events to uncover what elements journalists select, emphasize, and deemphasize in countries with predominantly Muslim and non-Muslim populations. This analysis is useful in uncovering the mechanisms allowing U.S perception of perceived threat to rise in tandem with U.S national security’s placement on the current policy agenda, while the actual risks posed by terrorism and Muslim populations are marginal in comparison and continue to decline (Powell Communication Studies 62(1): 90-112, 2011). The findings suggest that news media framing utilizes biased, negative imagery, portraying the events in these countries in a way that reinforces current prejudices against Muslims, even when Muslims are themselves the victims. This unequal reporting increases viewership while simultaneously allowing current perceptions about terrorism and Muslims to continue.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • White-collar offenders vs. common offenders: a comparative study on
           personality traits and self-control
    • Abstract: Abstract Several studies have produced evidence of the existence of differences between common offenders and white-collar offenders. In Portugal, however, there is little or no empirical work on this topic. To fill this gap, a survey was administered to a sample of 137 incarcerated subjects in several Portuguese prisons, separated into white-collar offenders (n = 74) and common offenders (n = 63). For this evaluation, sociodemographic, personality and self-control variables were measured. The results showed significant differences between the two groups of offenders. White-collar offenders are older, have more qualifications and are mostly married or divorced, contrasting with common offenders, who are younger, less qualified and mostly single. Moreover, findings indicate personality differences regarding “openness to experience” in both groups. With regard to self-control, the General Theory of Crime is supported as no differences were found between both types of offenders. The results are discussed and the implications of the findings are outlined.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Examining gender differences in reintegrative shaming theory: the role of
           shame acknowledgment
    • Abstract: Abstract Reintegrative shaming theory operates on the assumption that shaming from important others is gendered: women are more likely than men to conform and desist from offending. This study examines the validity of this assumption using measures of parent shame, peer shame, and shame acknowledgment to determine the impact of shame on offending and conformity. Using waves six and seven of the National Youth Survey Family Study data, zero-inflated negative binomial modeling is employed to examine the impact of reintegrative shaming on female and male offending and non-offending behavior among a probability sample of adults (N = 1227). Parent shaming is not a significant predictor of offending, but peer shaming is influential. The relationship between gender and conformity was mediated by shame acknowledgement. Although the reintegrative shaming process is not as influential as the theory had predicted, the importance of shame for explaining prevalence in women is demonstrated.
      PubDate: 2019-12-01
  • Iberian-indigenous malice and institutionalization deficit: the origins of
           a lazy work mentality in Colombia
    • Abstract: Abstract This article is the result of the historical and documentary review of an investigation which, from a qualitative approach, intended to find the base that built the identity of Colombian people and their behavior towards work and the institutions. It discusses the consequences of the XV Century Spanish conquest model, the deficit of institutionalization and the initial concept of work in the creation of institutions as an essential condition for social cohesion. All of which might still affect the understanding of illegality as a favorable environment for the emergence of multiple informal or marginal trades in some social spheres. These contexts end up consolidating themselves as the basis of an illegal 'industry' permanently reinventing itself, giving rise to the development of certain skills, including Iberian-indigenous malice, necessary for survival in the Colonial period, that later could have had an impact on the emergence of illegal behavior.
      PubDate: 2019-11-16
  • Unemployment and property crime: evidence from Croatia
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper studies the effect of unemployment on property crime in Croatia. The workhorse model of economics of crime is estimated on yearly panel data at the county level over the period 1998-2016. The results show that unemployment has a significant and positive effect on burglaries. The estimated elasticity is higher for female unemployment. The main effect of unemployment comes from lower crime quantiles for female unemployment, and from higher crime quantiles for male unemployment. The police force has the strongest negative effect on crime in areas with the highest crime rates. The typical identifying variation in unemployment is used to interpret the economic significance of the estimated effect. For a typical increase in unemployment, the number of burglaries is estimated to increase by 3.3 percent, which translates to over 750,000 euros in reported damages.
      PubDate: 2019-11-13
  • The nature of organized crime leadership: criminal leaders in meeting and
           wiretap networks
    • Abstract: Abstract Criminal leaders enhance their social capital by strategically brokering information among associates. To balance security and efficiency, leaders may favor meetings instead of telephones, potentially affecting analyses relying solely on wiretap data. Yet, few studies explored criminal leaders’ use of meetings in the management of criminal groups. We analyze criminal leaders’ participation in meetings and telephone calls in four distinct investigations. For each case, we extracted meetings and wiretap networks, analyzed leaders’ network positioning and identified leadership roles through logistic regressions relying on network centrality. Results show that leaders minimize telephone use (20% missing in wiretap net-works), and act as brokers, particularly in meeting networks (betweenness 18 times higher than non-leaders). Regressions on meeting networks identify leaders more effectively than wiretap networks, with betweenness centrality as the strongest predictor of leadership. Leaders’ centrality in meetings shows their strategic brokering position and the social embeddedness of criminal groups. While meeting participation is a sign of power, it is also a social obligation that leaders can hardly minimize. This makes them more visible, with possible benefits to investigations and intelligence.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • Money laundering in rural areas with illicit crops: empirical evidence for
    • Abstract: Abstract This research presents the first evidence on the existence of money laundering in rural areas dedicated to the production of illicit crops. This paper uses, as money laundering (ML) measure, Financial Intelligence Reports (FIR). FIR is a more accurate ML measure than Suspicious Transaction Report (STR) since it implies more rigorous and detail analysis. The present research uses a new panel of municipal data for the period 2000–2013 which has information that measure: ML dynamics, economic activity, violence, conflicts, institutional presence and interdiction. Using a fixed-effects model by municipality and year, this study found a positive relationship between ML, measured as the value of FIR, and illicit crops. The results are maintained throughout specifications and robustness exercises. This paper found that a 1% increase in cultivated area in the municipality implies 3.04% increase in the FIR value. If one representative municipality of the sample is taken, an increase of 1% in cultivated area would be translated into 641 million COP (342.705 USD) in money laundering reported in FIR. Thus, the existence of money laundering in rural areas dedicated to illicit crops is concluded.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • The Prevent paradox: destroying liberalism in order to protect it
    • Abstract: Abstract Counter-extremism is the most dynamic part of UK counterterrorism policy. This article examines Prevent, the flagship counter-extremism programme, through a state-theoretical lens. It addresses questions of state institutionality, state power, and state-society relations. It argues that counter-extremism aims to avert the possibility of a political future by repressing the formation of non-liberal political subjectivities. To achieve this, Prevent divides society along political lines; aligns welfare institutions with the security apparatus; mobilises society in a security endeavour; exercises an authoritarian ‘pastoral’ power; replaces trust with generalised suspicion; and construes subjectivities without capacity for historical agency. Therefore, Prevent is a political paradox: an anti-liberal project aiming to secure and perpetuate liberalism.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • Regulating white-collar crime in Ireland: an analysis using the lens of
    • Abstract: Abstract A new way of governing corporate wrongdoing has emerged to address Ireland’s changed social, political and economic context. Traditional methods of laying blame, forged in the agrarian Irish State, are no longer capable of dealing with the contemporary challenges of an advanced industrial economy which is more willing to recognise the risks posed by increased corporate activity. The conventional crime monopoly became fragmented as specialist regulatory enforcement agencies were established to enforce the law. Moreover, contemporary enforcement became much more sophisticated, moving away from the “command and control” model to a “responsive” model of enforcement. Also, paradoxically, this model is explicitly cooperative and employs sanctions as a last resort but, also can actually be more instrumental and punitive in addressing corporate wrongdoing. More recently, however, since the financial crisis, the architecture seems to have shifted again. Corporate and financial crimes become politicised and new laws were passed to make it easier to hold wrongdoers to account. In addition to resolving problems in enforcing the law, they also had ostentatiously political purposes. They reflect the political desire to “tool up” executive power and “act out” for public approval, to “govern through” white-collar crime.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • Mass shootings and their asymmetric effect on societal armament
    • Abstract: Abstract Mixed evidence has been found for a positive relationship between mass shootings and civilian armament. This study suggests that the causal effect of mass shootings on subsequent societal gun acquisition is non-linear and asymmetric. Different shootings spur pathways that in turn, have variant impacts on civilian armament. Through utilization of directed acyclic graph (DAG) software, several causal models featuring pathways and mechanisms are presented. All three pathways feature a latent variable of fear, and are endogenous to a historical period marked by a discourse of fear that became embedded in U.S. political discourse after the 9/11 attacks. Along with an overview of potential confounding factors, analysis of data on background checks from the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (1999–2016) lends support to the argument.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • Social cohesion and violence in South Africa: constructing a puzzle with
           missing pieces
    • Abstract: Abstract Using social disorganisation theory as a framework for analysis, this article analyses the relationship between social cohesion and violence in post-apartheid South Africa. On the basis of published research, it considers the association between social cohesion and violence in the context of the family home and community, with a focus on violence against children, violence against women, youth violence, and collective violence. Available evidence is piecemeal in South Africa and elsewhere, but it does suggest that a lack of cohesion within families, particularly in economically depressed communities, is a major determinant of the perpetration of most forms of interpersonal violence. Available studies have also implied that neighbourhood factors related to social cohesion have a significant bearing on the level and intensity of violence in poorer neighbourhoods. Nonetheless, the literature on vigilantism, violent protests and xenophobia in poor communities in South Africa has suggested that such violence may have been facilitated by perverse forms of social cohesion that emerged out of common grievances about community well-being, particularly in relation to inadequate delivery of government services and resources.
      PubDate: 2019-11-01
  • Do companies pay the price for environmental crimes' Consequences of
           criminal penalties on corporate offenders
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper is concerned with the negative collateral consequences monetary sanctions may have on companies that are prosecuted for violating federal environmental laws such as the Clean Air Act and Clean Water Act. Companies often claim fines for law violations will force them to lay off employees and possibly go bankrupt. Using the treadmill of crime theoretical lens, we employ a multivariate analysis on a unique data set of 169 companies to determine if their federal prosecutions are associated with negative collateral consequences. We find that some companies, upon being fined, are more likely to experience negative collateral consequences than others.
      PubDate: 2019-10-24
  • Mexican cartel expansion: a quantitative examination of factors associated
           with territorial claims
    • Abstract: Abstract Since the war on Mexican drug trafficking organizations (DTOs) began, shortly after Felipe Calderón took office as president in 2006, violence has become the norm in many parts of Mexico. Numerous cartel leaders have been killed or captured during this time, and new leaders have filled the power vacuum. Throughout this process, warring cartel factions have staged intense battles over territory. In this context, DTOs have expanded their territories and their reach. Yet there remains a gap in the collective knowledge on why certain territories are selected over others. While there is a burgeoning literature on the mobility of organized crime groups, it remains new and open to various paths of exploration and analysis. This research builds on the mobility literature, examining the territorial selection of Mexican DTOs. Using a cross-sectional design, the authors examine territorial selection via the issuance of narco-messages. Various factors in the selection of territory are explored.
      PubDate: 2019-10-23
  • Mulheres e Crime: Perspetivas Sobre Intervenção, Violência e Reclusão,
           V.N. Famalicão, Húmus
    • PubDate: 2019-10-01
  • Variability of death penalty attitude in China: an empirical test of the
           Marshall hypotheses
    • Abstract: Abstract Though empirical studies of the Marshall hypotheses are rich, few examined the hypotheses in non-US nations. Based on a sample of 1077 students and a quasi-experimental design, this study tests the Marshall hypotheses in China. Except the control group, three intervention essays (on ‘international trend’, ‘wrongful conviction’, and ‘deterrence’) were provided to three experimental groups and students’ opinions were surveyed afterwards on capital punishment overall and six specific capital offenses. The results showed that the majority of Chinese students favored capital punishment and the wrongful conviction essay helped significantly reduce students’ support in the overall death penalty opinion, consistent with the Marshall hypotheses. Nevertheless, the international trend and deterrence essays boosted students’ support when opinions on specific capital offenses were surveyed, producing a counter-effect. Consistent with the hypotheses, students with a retribution belief were more likely to favor capital punishment and less likely to be swayed by essay interventions.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
  • Settings matter: Examining Protection’s influence on the illicit drug
           trade in convergence settings in the Paso del Norte metropolitan area
    • Abstract: Abstract Marcus Felson suggests that analysis of “organized crime” should be undertaken via the study settings, events, and their sequences. This study examines four intertwining settings in the Paso del Norte area: Ciudad Juárez as a plaza, El Paso as a plaza, Prisons, and the streets. It shows just how important settings are for understanding the events that lead to the establishment and maintenance of the protection that allows organized criminal events related to the drug trade to unfold in the region. By examining one region, bifurcated by an international border, this article shows that settings, even those that are in close proximity with one another, can significantly shift the way that protection arrangements are developed, which in turn affect how events unfold. However, criminal actors who move between these settings adapt their strategies to the available protection to maximize opportunity for the illicit enterprises they are involved in.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
  • Legal mobilization in Russia: how organizations of lawyers can support
           social changes
    • Abstract: Abstract To illustrate the role of organizations of lawyers in social changes we analyze the process of transforming legal and socio-political institutions in Russia over the past 30 years. We combine the theory of legal mobilization with the concept of violence and social orders proposed by North, Wallis and Weingast to describe the general logic of this process. Russian case shows that exogenous shocks stimulate collective action of criminal defence lawyers which, in turn, compel the government to respond. The state can promote the passivity of the legal community and stop legal mobilization by providing certain preferences for the profession. Even though in the 2000s, Russia took the path of destroying legal institutions, legal profession in certain circumstances could again act as an agent of social change. We conclude that the efficiency of collective action depends on the institutional capacity of legal association and on the position of the professional elite standing at its head.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
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