Journal Cover
Crime, Law and Social Change
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.357
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 485  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1573-0751 - ISSN (Online) 0925-4994
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2351 journals]
  • Exploring the motherhood experiences of active methamphetamine users
    • Abstract: Drug panics involve the emergence of “demon drugs” argued to be symptomatic of larger social and moral breakdown among society. Nowhere is this more evident than the discourse surrounding women methamphetamine users, who are framed by the media as rejecting the central values of American social life, including motherhood and family. While there is substantive research on drug use generally, and some examinations of motherhood, identity, and careers such as initiation, desistance and persistence of drug use, there is far less research addressing how users’ life experiences with drugs shape their identity as addicts. The present study employed ethnographic observations and semi-structured interviews in order to explore the roles and identities associated with motherhood in a sample of twenty-eight active female methamphetamine users in a rural southern area. The central research questions are: 1) How do women who are actively using methamphetamine understand and experience motherhood' 2) What role does their drug use play in shaping their identity as mothers' Findings suggest that women draw from larger cultural narratives about motherhood to engage in identity work to minimize the double stigma of being a drug user and a drug user who is a mother. Implications for treatment and policy are discussed.
      PubDate: 2019-09-10
  • Policy distraction: sentencing reform adoption as a diversion from rising
           social inequality
    • Abstract: Since the mid-1970s, more than two-thirds of U.S. states adopted some combination of sentencing reforms. This paper assessed the possibility that reforms were, at least, partly a reflection of a concerted effort of policymakers to divert attention away from social and economic inequalities. Event History Analysis was used to measure the relative change in the odds of adoption for four main reforms based on changes in several state-level economic, social, political, and demographic indicators. With some mixed findings, the analysis suggests that a number of state characteristics, including higher economic inequality (Gini coefficient), prior reform history, increased percent black, increased percent Hispanic (most models), increased unemployment, and, to a lesser extent, poverty rates significantly increased the rate of adoption for some reforms. The results suggest, among other things, that reforms were more likely to be passed when economic inequality increased.
      PubDate: 2019-09-02
  • Why do consumers perpetrate fraudulent behaviors in insurance'
    • Abstract: Insurance fraud is an increasing problem with major financial, societal and humanitarian impact. Several disciplines have attempted to explain fraudulent behaviors in insurance perpetrated by consumers from economics to criminology and social psychology. Drawing on data from a national survey in Portugal, this study analyzed the levels of acceptance of and justifications underlying fraudulent behavior related to automobile, workplace accidents, and health insurance. Cluster analysis revealed two main groups of respondents with divergent positions: those who consider fraud unacceptable and unjustifiable vs. those who consider it normal and justifiable. A third cluster of respondents consider fraud generally unacceptable but justifiable when it attempts to restore justice. Results are discussed considering the importance of contractual, individual, relational as well as cultural and macrosocial factors in dealing with the complexity of consumers’ unethical behavior. We argue for an integrated approach to research and prevention of consumer insurance fraud.
      PubDate: 2019-09-02
  • What is crime' A search for an answer encompassing civilisational
           legitimacy and social harm
    • Abstract: Mainstream sociology and criminology uncritically accept the legal definition of crime. This paper rejects this academic ideologically-laden approach in favour of the current power relations by critically analysing and evaluating consensus, conflict and interactionist views as well as integrated definitions of crime. Later on, an alternative definition of crime is presented. This builds on the inclusion of civilisational legitimacy and social harm. Civilisational legitimacy stems from general justice and fairness. Harm is a necessary component of crime and is always linked with the abuse of power. The new definition of crime encompasses harmful acts and processes that penal codes do not recognise as crime while excluding legitimate yet illegal actions.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Revocation of citizenship: how punitive theories and restorative justice
           principles apply to acts of disloyalty toward the state
    • Abstract: Several countries have recently amended or attempted to amend their laws to make it easier for the state to revoke citizenship. Such laws suggest that citizenship is tied to loyalty to the nation state, and can therefore be taken away if it is deemed to have been breached. This paper focuses on possible justifications for applying the punishment of citizenship revocation to acts that are ‘contrary to the interests of the state’ or manifest ‘disloyalty’ to the nation. The paper compares such acts with other criminal acts, and analyses them according to a conventional punitive model of criminal law that includes also a restorative justice perspective. The paper argues that revocation of citizenship as punishment for acts of disloyalty can be justified by several theories of punishment, such as retribution, deterrence, denunciation, rehabilitation, and prevention. When it comes to carrying out the revocation of citizenship, however, several problems may arise. As a possible solution, the paper suggests applying a restorative justice approach to minor or moderate acts of disloyalty.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Private sector corruption: realities, difficulties of comprehension,
           causes and perspectives. The Lithuanian approach
    • Abstract: The problem of corruption has many significant aspects. With the growth of powers of business and transition of powers from state to private entities problem of private sector corruption becomes more important. While states employ legal and social mechanisms to make an impact on corruption the private sector is usually left with lesser attention. As experience of Lithuania shows even when such attention is pointed towards the private sector and business it sometimes is not adequately judged. If such attention presents traditional institutional approach without proper understanding of the depth of the problem inadequacy and sluggishness prevail. This paper focuses on concepts of corruption in the private sector, the academic ideas, conceptual backings, also presents the difficulties of characterization, analysis of legal acts and shortcomings thereof. The legal tools employed in Lithuania to combat business corruption are analyzed. For the proper understanding of the problem author points out the major reasons behind the private sector corruption, presents the significance of economic motivation as well as the causal spectrum of private sector corruption. The significance of business ethics and self regulation mechanisms and various shortcomings related to them are analyzed.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Demographic variables predicting ISIS and Daesh armed political violence
    • Abstract: This study recruited 30 members of ISIS and Daesh groups held in Kuwait’s Central Prison to understand the contribution of demographic data, rigidity, and behavioral change in predicting armed political violence. The results showed significant negative correlations between armed political violence and income, education, and behavioral change, and a positive correlation between armed political violence and rigidity. No significant correlation was found with regard to age, number of children, family size, or birth order. The overall multiple correlation coefficient revealed that 77% of the variance in armed political violence could be explained significantly by rigidity alone. Additionally, those who showed positive change in their behavior had scored significantly less armed political violence compared with those who showed no change. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings were discussed.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Motivations, opportunities, and controls of environmental crime: an
           empirical test of Kramer and Michalowski’s integrated theoretical model
           of state-corporate crime
    • Abstract: Environmental issues have increasingly been examined as criminal in recent decades. The current study builds on this criminological momentum by investigating water pollution using a state-corporate crime perspective. Although Kramer and Michalowski’s [1] integrated theoretical model of state-corporate crime has mostly been employed as a categorization tool, using a dataset measuring Environmental Protection Agency water violations in several industries (i.e., pulp mills, paper mills, petroleum refining, steel works, blast furnaces, and rolling), the current study offers a rare quantitative test of the logical propositions of Kramer and Michalowski’s model. Following this model, the impact of motivation for, opportunity for, and control of water violations were investigated using Poisson regression. Motivation was the only of these three factors to demonstrate a significant effect on water violations. Overall, it appears that the current study has provided support that motivation to commit crime may be more important than opportunities to commit crime or crime control. Due to the data’s age, the results of this study should be taken with reservations when informing potential policies to reduce environmental crime, specifically water pollution. Future research should continue to explore how motivation, opportunity, and control impact corporate/state crime in relation with one another using a multitude of methods.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Does local corruption punish national parties votes'
    • Abstract: Since 1978, an important process of decentralization in terms of regional competences has been taking place in Spain. In consequence, the behaviour of the regional and local administration has obtained an increasing relevant role. This process has a direct impact on the performance of politicians both at local and regional level, and on the results of elections. Recent data on elections show that national parties have lost the voting race at local elections. Moreover, at the same time as the economic boom in this country in the 2000s, there was also a boom in political corruption at the local level. Using a database that includes municipal data from 2004 to 2011 in Spain, this paper evaluates whether national parties lose votes at national elections due to the wrongdoing of their local candidates. Moreover, we focus on partisan effects, splitting the analysis according to the two main political parties in Spain. Our study resembles an experimental design, which yields two main conclusions. First, local corruption affects significantly the parties’ votes at national level, being the magnitude of the effect around one percentage point in absolute values. Second and interestingly, the sign of the results also depends on whether the corruption is on the right or the left wing.
      PubDate: 2019-09-01
  • Recent trends in money laundering
    • Abstract: This paper illustrates how criminals currently launder money in Germany, Liechtenstein, and Switzerland. Semi-structured expert interviews were conducted with 50 money launderers and 50 compliance and prevention experts, whose responses were subjected to qualitative content analysis. Based on the findings therefrom, a quantitative survey of 200 compliance officers was conducted. Together, these two methods revealed the concrete techniques currently used to launder money in Europe. Contrary to popular belief, money laundering is found not to be associated with high costs, and can even generate significant profits. As the findings of the qualitative study are based on semi-standardised interviews, they are limited to the 100 participants’ perspectives. By identifying concrete methods of money laundering, this study’s findings provide compliance officers, law enforcement agencies, and legislators with valuable insights into how criminals act. Whereas prior literature primarily focuses on organisations and mechanisms aimed at fighting money laundering, this article instead describes how criminals avoid detection by analysing the perspectives of prevention experts and the criminals themselves. Acting on this information should enhance the effectiveness of combating and preventing money laundering.
      PubDate: 2019-08-31
  • Misrecognising the victim of state violence: denial, ‘deep’
           imperialism and defending ‘our boys’
    • Abstract: This article critically examines public responses to attempts at holding former British soldiers accountable for historic human rights violations committed during conflicts fought overseas. Using the case of British Army veterans who served in the North of Ireland and Iraq as an empirical basis, it posits that such responses are defined by a moral myopia that distinguishes between state violence ‘here’ and ‘there’ and ‘now’ and ‘then’. This moral myopia, it is submitted, is a form of identity politics forged through a marriage between deep imperialism and the strategies of denial used by the state. This essentially misrecognises the victim of state violence and ultimately leads to public sympathy favouring those who stand accused of human rights abuse over and above those actually subjected to it. Ultimately, the article concludes, this means that public opinion is channelled in a way that calls for such violations not to be punished rather than for them to be punished.
      PubDate: 2019-08-29
  • Deciphering the crime-terror Nexus: an empirical analysis of the
           structural characteristics of terrorists in Narco-terror networks
    • Abstract: By using Social Network Analysis (SNA) technique, this study analyzes the structural characteristics of five PKK related narco-terror networks. It examines the roles and positions occupied by PKK members to uncover the nature of the terrorist nexus itself and analyzes structural characteristics to identify these networks’ prioritization between security and efficiency. This study finds that terrorists have key roles in narco-terror networks, i.e., leaders, managers, or drug suppliers. They take powerful and central positions in either controlling central hubs (exerting authority) or bridging separate subgroups (acting as a gateway) constituting the core parts of networks. Further, this study finds that despite terrorists’ dominating role and positions in control and coordination of information and resources, narco-terror networks reveal more reliance on efficiency than security. In general, these networks tend to be clustered into dense subgroups that are attached to networks’ cores, reflecting relatively denser and centralized structures with short average paths. Yet, networks have core(s) whereby key players act predominantly in these cores rather than on peripheries. Notwithstanding the dominance of terrorist members, narco-terror networks seem to focus more on efficiency, and the terrorist nexus in such networks does not appear to make these networks more security-driven. This study asserts that the nature of activity (i.e., crime for material incentive) determines how offenders behave and how covert networks are structured.
      PubDate: 2019-08-24
  • Corruption and anti-corruption: a folklore problem'
    • Abstract: The Charbonneau Inquiry in Quebec, Canada, uncovered a complex nexus of collusion and corruption in the awarding of public works construction contracts. The aim of this article is to better illustrate and understand how corruption was perceived and collectively understood in the public works sector prior to the revelations of the Charbonneau Inquiry. This article argues that a ‘folklore’ of corruption was prevalent through which civil servants perceived the criminal phenomenon. This is achieved through a narrative analysis of two witness testimonies of civil engineers, who recounted their implication in the corrupt and collusive nexus in the city of Montreal during the commission’s hearings. This article makes a case for the importance of narratives in the study of corruption.
      PubDate: 2019-08-13
  • Anti-immigration sentiment and public opinion on human trafficking
    • Abstract: Prior research shows that anti-immigration sentiment affects public opinion about criminal justice problems and solutions. However, we know little about how these sentiments affect public opinion about human trafficking. This paper attempts to fill this gap by examining the role of anti-immigration sentiment in shaping public support for anti-trafficking efforts in the United States. Specifically, this research examines the effect of anti-immigration sentiment on the public’s understanding about vulnerabilities for human trafficking among migrant populations and corresponding support for policies directed at the protection of migrant trafficked persons. This is particularly important because public policies that safeguard migrant trafficked persons have been among the most difficult to pass despite strong support for the governmental prioritization of anti-trafficking efforts overall. Utilizing public opinion data from an original, nationally representative survey experiment of 2000 Americans, this study finds that anti-immigration sentiment (1) is associated with greater recognition of the vulnerability of immigrants to human trafficking victimization; (2) does not impact public support for a general governmental prioritization of human trafficking policies; yet (3) creates less public support for victim services for non-citizen trafficked persons; and (4) stems from differences in political views impacting support for services for immigrant victims. These findings contribute to an understanding of the role of anti-immigration sentiment in public opinion about crime and have implications for policies aimed at improving the identification of and outcomes for migrant trafficked persons.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
  • Female offenders of human trafficking and sexual exploitation
    • Abstract: Female offenders are seldom studied by criminological scholars. This is certainly the case regarding offenses like human trafficking and sexual exploitation. However, the number of women suspected of being a perpetrator of human trafficking should not be underestimated. In this paper we present the results of a study on female perpetrators of human trafficking. We have analyzed the court-files of 150 women who have been convicted for human trafficking. We present results on the prevalence of female offenders of human trafficking and the forms of exploitation they have been convicted for. After this we present the sanctions that were imposed on the women and the offender, offense and victim characteristics. This paper concludes by discussing implications for criminal justice authorities, policy and research.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
  • Trafficking of Myanmar women for forced marriage in China
    • Abstract: Trafficking of foreign women into China for forced marriage, once unheard of in China, has ceased to surprise the general public with frequent news stories about women from Vietnam, Myanmar, and North Korea being deceived and sold as brides into the interior of China. Using data extracted from official sources in the Chinese judicial system, we analyzed a total of 73 court cases involving 184 Myanmar women who were trafficked into China, spanning a period of 13 years (2003 through 2016). We found people of diverse backgrounds participated in the trafficking business, most were of low education and unemployed or underemployed. Little formal organizational structures appeared to be needed in these trafficking activities. The vast majority of traffickers were Chinese nationals, who seemed well-connected with the cross-border trade as well as traditional matchmaking business. Most trafficking occurred under the guise of employment opportunities, in which Myanmar women were offered jobs in interior China. The majority of victims appeared to have been recruited from inside Myanmar, and wound up being trafficked to three Chinese provinces (Henan, Anhui, and Shandong). Policy implications as well as Data limitations are also discussed.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
  • Human trafficking for sex, labour and domestic servitude: how do key
           trafficking types compare and what are their predictors'
    • Abstract: Combatting trafficking in human beings is a well-established social policy and crime prevention priority for the twenty-first Century. Human trafficking, as defined in international law, can occur for diverse exploitative purposes. Yet, different forms of trafficking are routinely conflated in research, policy and interventions. Most of the attention to date has been on sex trafficking of women and girls, leaving male victims and other trafficking types comparatively overlooked. In this study, we disentangle differences between key trafficking types using rare individual-level data from the United Kingdom’s central system for identifying trafficking victims. For a sample of 2630 confirmed victims, we compare those trafficked for sex, domestic servitude and other labour across variables relating to victim demographics, the trafficking process and official responses. Having established significant and substantial differences at bivariate level, we use multinomial logistic regression to identify predictors of trafficking type. Overall, our results underline the complexity and diversity of human trafficking and warn against conflating different types. Within a holistic counter-trafficking framework, a more disaggregated and nuanced approach to analysis and intervention is vital in ensuring more finely-targeted responses. This original study has clear lessons for research, policy and practice.
      PubDate: 2019-08-01
  • Innovations in empirical research into human trafficking: introduction to
           the special edition
    • PubDate: 2019-07-25
  • Labour exploitation as corporate crime and harm: outsourcing
           responsibility in food production and cleaning services supply chains
    • Abstract: The exploitation of workers can be understood on a spectrum of ‘less severe’ to ‘severe’ acts or omissions, where less severe exploitation can create conditions for severe exploitation to develop. Exploitation is not an isolated phenomenon perpetrated solely by ‘criminals’, but is closely related to developments in the economy, labour markets and society at large. Exploitation is enabled through otherwise legitimate business practices that disadvantageously affect vulnerable workers in product and labour supply chains. In this article, labour exploitation - and ultimately human trafficking - is framed as a form of corporate crime due to the significant role that businesses and supply chains have in facilitating exploitation. This corporate crime lens therefore argues that labour exploitation is driven by common market factors and business processes, which are closely associated with inadequate regulatory oversight of exploitation in local supply chains. The article draws on qualitative, semi-structured interviews conducted with workers and supply chain stakeholders in the UK agri-food industry, as well as the Finnish cleaning industry. Through thematic analysis, the dynamics of industry, labour subcontracting, and a lack of regulatory oversight are discussed, which are framed as key factors that enable exploitation to occur. Ultimately the corporate crime lens emphasises the economic, political and societal context in which exploitation takes place, and by doing so, uncovers the structural nature of such crimes.
      PubDate: 2019-05-21
  • Identifying trafficked migrants and refugees along the Balkan route.
           Exploring the boundaries of exploitation, vulnerability and risk
    • Abstract: This article explores what we can learn about the identification of and assistance to trafficked persons from practitioners in Serbia on the front line of Europe’s so-called “refugee crisis”. Questions arise as to whether and to what extent the anti-trafficking framework is effective in offering protection to trafficked migrants/refugees in a mass migration setting, but also what is lost if the specific perspective of the anti-trafficking framework is set aside or given lower priority. It is important to discuss who is included and who is excluded; whether protection and assistance meet people’s needs; and whether or how the existing framework can be used to greater effect. While it was challenging to operationalise the anti-trafficking framework, both conceptually and practically, during the “refugee crisis” in the Balkans, it remains an important approach that should have been mobilised to a greater extent, both to secure individual protections and rights and to gather information about human trafficking in conflict and crisis, which, in turn, increases the ability to respond effectively.
      PubDate: 2019-05-18
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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