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Journal Cover   International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
  [SJR: 0.162]   [H-I: 2]   [1 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1809-9777 - ISSN (Online) 1809-4864
   Published by Thieme Publishing Group Homepage  [173 journals]
  • Award-Winning Research in 2016
    • Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2016; 20: 093-093
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1582428

      Thieme Publicações Ltda Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

      Article in Thieme eJournals:
      Table of contents     open access Full text

      Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2016; 20: 093-0932016-04-18T00:00:00+01:00
      Issue No: Vol. 20, No. 02 (2016)
  • Auditory Speech Perception Development in Relation to Patient's Age with
           Cochlear Implant

    • Abstract: Introduction A cochlear implant in adolescent patients with pre-lingual deafness is still a debatable issue. Objective The objective of this study is to analyze and compare the development of auditory speech perception in children with pre-lingual auditory impairment submitted to cochlear implant, in different age groups in the first year after implantation. Method This is a retrospective study, documentary research, in which we analyzed 78 reports of children with severe bilateral sensorineural hearing loss, unilateral cochlear implant users of both sexes. They were divided into three groups: G1, 22 infants aged less than 42 months; G2, 28 infants aged between 43 to 83 months; and G3, 28 older than 84 months. We collected medical record data to characterize the patients, auditory thresholds with cochlear implants, assessment of speech perception, and auditory skills. Results There was no statistical difference in the association of the results among groups G1, G2, and G3 with sex, caregiver education level, city of residence, and speech perception level. There was a moderate correlation between age and hearing aid use time, age and cochlear implants use time. There was a strong correlation between age and the age cochlear implants was performed, hearing aid use time and age CI was performed. Conclusion There was no statistical difference in the speech perception in relation to the patient's age when cochlear implant was performed. There were statistically significant differences for the variables of auditory deprivation time between G3 - G1 and G2 - G1 and hearing aid use time between G3 - G2 and G3 - G1.
      Citation: Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; : -
      PubDate: 2016-07-20T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1584296
  • Methods of Hearing Preservation during Cochlear Implantation

    • Authors: Khater; Ahmed, El-Anwar, Mohammad Waheed
      Abstract: Introduction Recent advances in surgical techniques and electrode design have made residual hearing preservation during cochlear implantation (CI) possible, achievable, and desirable. Objectives The objective of this study was to review the literature regarding methods used for hearing preservation during CI surgery. Data Synthesis We performed a search in the LILACS, MEDLINE, SciELO, PubMed databases, and Cochrane Library, using the keywords CI, hearing preservation, CI electrode design, and CI soft surgery. We fully read about 15 studies that met the criteria described in “study selection”. The studies showed that several factors could contribute to possible cochlear damage during or after CI surgery and must be kept in mind; mechanical damage during electrode insertion, shock waves in the perilymph fluid due to implantation, acoustic trauma due to drilling, loss of perilymph and disruption of inner ear fluid homeostasis, potential bacterial infection, and secondary intracochlear fibrous tissue formation. The desire to preserve residual hearing has led to the development of the soft-surgery protocols with its various components; avoiding entry of blood into the cochlea and the use of hyaluronate seem to be reasonably supported, whereas the use of topical steroids is questionable. The site of entry into the cochlea, electrode design, and the depth of insertion are also important contributing factors. Conclusion Hearing preservation would be useful for CI patients to benefit from the residual low frequency, as well as for the children who could be candidate for future regenerative hair cell therapy.
      Citation: Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; : -
      PubDate: 2016-07-12T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1585094
  • Thyroid Carcinoma Pattern Presentation According to Age

    • Abstract: Introduction Patients with thyroid cancer in different age groups present with different prognosis. Objective The objective of this study is to analyze the clinicopathological pattern of thyroid carcinoma presentation according to age groups. Methods This is a retrospective study. From 2000 to 2010, 623 patients underwent thyroidectomy for cancer in our institution, with 596 enrolled. Patients were divided into groups of 10 years and then in four age subgroups (≤ 24, 25–44, 45–64, and ≥65 years) for statistical analysis. We compared age, gender, and histopathological characteristics between groups. Results Individuals belonging to the earlier age group presented with a highest prevalence of neuro-vascular invasion, capsular invasion and lymph node metastasis. Together with individuals of advanced age, that group also had larger tumor diameter and higher prevalence of extra-glandular disease. Even when analyzed only cases with well-differentiated carcinoma, younger individuals remain with a highest prevalence of lymph node metastasis, neuro-vascular invasion and larger tumor diameter. Conclusion We observed a distinct pattern of clinicopathological manifestation of thyroid cancer according to age. Individuals belonging to age extremes resemble in several pathological features, and young people usually present with more aggressive disease characteristics.
      Citation: Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; : -
      PubDate: 2016-07-12T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1585095
  • Longitudinal Comparison of Auditory Steady-State Evoked Potentials in
           Preterm and Term Infants: The Maturation Process

    • Abstract: Introduction Preterm neonates are at risk of changes in their auditory system development, which explains the need for auditory monitoring of this population. The Auditory Steady-State Response (ASSR) is an objective method that allows obtaining the electrophysiological thresholds with greater applicability in neonatal and pediatric population. Objective The purpose of this study is to compare the ASSR thresholds in preterm and term infants evaluated during two stages. Method The study included 63 normal hearing neonates: 33 preterm and 30 term. They underwent assessment of ASSR in both ears simultaneously through insert phones in the frequencies of 500 to 4000Hz with the amplitude modulated from 77 to 103Hz. We presented the intensity at a decreasing level to detect the minimum level of responses. At 18 months, 26 of 33 preterm infants returned for the new assessment for ASSR and were compared with 30 full-term infants. We compared between groups according to gestational age. Results Electrophysiological thresholds were higher in preterm than in full-term neonates (p  0.05) in all the variables described. Conclusion In the first evaluation preterm had higher thresholds in ASSR. There was no difference at 18 months of age, showing the auditory maturation of preterm infants throughout their development.
      Citation: Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; : -
      PubDate: 2016-07-01T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1584888
  • Is There A Systemıc Inflammatory Effect of Cholesteatoma'

    • Abstract: Introduction Inflammation causes squamous epithelial transformation of the mucosa in the middle ear cavity and plays a role in the onset, growth, spread, and recurrence of cholesteatoma. Objectives The objective of this study is to investigate the systemic inflammatory effect in chronic otitis with cholesteatoma. Methods The study included a total of 311 patients comprising 156 patients with a pathology diagnosis of cholesteatoma and a control group of 155 with no active inflammation. The Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) was calculated by dividing the neutrophil value by the lymphocyte value. Results The mean NLR was 1.94 ± 0.91 in the patients with cholesteatoma and 1.94 ± 0.85 in the control group. We determined no statistically significant difference between the groups in respect of NLR (p = 0.983). We calculated the NLR as 2.01 ± 1.00 in patients with ossicle erosion and 1.82 ± 0.69 in those without ossicle erosion, 1.86 ± 0.85 in patients with bone erosion and 1.98 ± 0.95 in those without bone erosion. We determined no statistical difference between these values (p = 0.175). Conclusion The results of this study showed that NLR had no predictive value in respect of bone erosions and associated complications in patients with cholesteatoma. The inflammatory effect of cholesteatoma is not systemic but remains more local.
      Citation: Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; : -
      PubDate: 2016-06-06T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1584363
  • Treatment Challenges of Group A Beta-hemolytic Streptococcal

    • Authors: Brook; Itzhak
      Abstract: Introduction Despite its in vitro efficacy, penicillin often fails to eradicate Group A β-hemolytic streptococci (GABHS) from patients with acute and relapsing pharyngo-tonsillitis (PT). Objective This review of the literature details the causes of penicillin failure to eradicate GABHS PT and the therapeutic modalities to reduce and overcome antimicrobial failure. Data Synthesis The causes of penicillin failure in eradicating GABHS PT include the presence of β lactamase producing bacteria (BLPB) that “protect” GABHS from any penicillin; the absence of bacteria that interfere with the growth of GABHS; co-aggregation between GABHS and Moraxella catarrhalis; and the poor penetration of penicillin into the tonsillar tissues and the tonsillo-pharyngeal cells, which allows intracellular GABHS and Staphylococcus aureus to survive. The inadequate intracellular penetration of penicillin can allow intracellular GABHS and S. aureus to persist. In the treatment of acute tonsillitis, the use of cephalosporin can overcome these interactions by eradicating aerobic BLPB (including M. catarrhalis), while preserving the potentially interfering organisms and eliminating GABHS. Conclusion In treatment of recurrent and chronic PT, the administration of clindamycin, or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, can eradicate both aerobic and anaerobic BLPB, as well as GABHS. The superior intracellular penetration of cephalosporin and clindamycin also enhances their efficacy against intracellular GABHS and S. aureus.
      Citation: Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; : -
      PubDate: 2016-06-03T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1584294
  • Frequency of Serous Otitis Media in Children without Otolaryngological

    • Authors: Kocyigit; Murat, Ortekin, Safiye Giran, Cakabay, Taliye, Ozkaya, Guven, Bezgin, Selin Ustun, Adali, Mustafa Kemal
      Abstract: Introduction Otitis media with effusion is the fluid in the middle ear with no signs or symptoms of acute ear infection. Objective This study aims to research the frequency of serous otitis media in patients referred to the pediatric clinic between 3–16 years of age without any active ear, nose, and throat complaints. Methods This study included 589 children patients (280 boys, 309 girls; mean age: 9.42; range 3–16) who were administered to the pediatric clinic without otolaryngologic complaints. Patients underwent examination with flexible nasopharyngoscopy for adenoid hypertrophy. An otorhinolaryngologist examined all children on both ears using an otoscope and tested with tympanometry. We used tympanometry results to diagnose SOM. Results The study included 589 patients that underwent fiber optic examination of the nasopharynx with an endoscope. Adenoid vegetation was present in 58 patients (9.8%) and was not detected in 531 patients (90.2%). We found serous otitis media in 94 (15.9%) patients. We obtained Type A tympanogram in 47 (81%) of 58 patients with adenoid vegetation, 6 (10.3%) Type B, and 5 (8.6%) Type C. When comparing 58 patients with adenoid vegetation with 538 patients without adenoid vegetation for serous otitis media, the frequency was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion We believe that in children without any ear, nose, and throat complaints, it is possible to detect serous otitis media with adenoid vegetation. Thus, pediatric patients should undergo screening at regular intervals.
      Citation: Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; : -
      PubDate: 2016-06-03T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1584362
  • Treatment and Prognosis of Facial Palsy on Ramsay Hunt Syndrome: Results
           Based on a Review of the Literature

    • Abstract: Introduction Ramsay Hunt syndrome is the second most common cause of facial palsy. Early and correct treatment should be performed to avoid complications, such as permanent facial nerve dysfunction. Objective The objective of this study is to review the prognosis of the facial palsy on Ramsay Hunt syndrome, considering the different treatments proposed in the literature. Data Synthesis We read the abstract of 78 studies; we selected 31 studies and read them in full. We selected 19 studies for appraisal. Among the 882 selected patients, 621 (70.4%) achieved a House-Brackmann score of I or II; 68% of the patients treated only with steroids achieved HB I or II, versus 70.5% when treated with steroids plus antiviral agents. Among patients with complete facial palsy (grades V or VI), 51.4% recovered to grades I or II. The rate of complete recovery varied considering the steroid associated with acyclovir: 81.3% for methylprednisolone, 69.2% for prednisone; 61.4% for prednisolone; and 76.3% for hydrocortisone. Conclusions Patients with Ramsay-hunt syndrome, when early diagnosed and treated, achieve high rates of complete recovery. The association of steroids and acyclovir is better than steroids used in monotherapy.
      Citation: Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; : -
      PubDate: 2016-05-30T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1584267
  • Parental Expectation from Children with Cochlear Implants in Indian
           Context: a Questionnaire Based Study

    • Authors: Kumar; Prawin, Sanju, Himanshu Kumar, Mishra, Rajkishor, Singh, Varun, Mohan, Priyanka
      Abstract: Introduction Parental support is important in the habilitation/rehabilitation of children using cochlear implant devices. Hence, it is important for families to know the realistic expectations regarding outcomes from CIs. Objective The objective of the present study is to know the parents' expectation from children using CIs. Methods For this study, we recruited 23 parents of children using CIs. We administered 15 questions translated in to Hindi related to communication abilities, social skills, academic achievement, change in future life, rehabilitation demand, and stress due to hearing impairment. Results The response of the questions (5-point rating scale) related to communication abilities showed that parents were expecting children using CIs to use the telephone (95%), to be able to detect soft sounds (99%), to listen in crowds (86%), to be able to easily understand others (76%), and to show improvement in communication skills (78%). Similarly, for questions related to social skills showed 90% of the parents expecting that their children with CIs should be able to easily make friends with normal hearing peers, and 80% of the parents were expecting the children to achieve high standards in their reading and writing skills. Questions related to change in future life showed 86% of the parents expecting their children with CIs to act like normal hearing children. Further, 78% parents showed positive response regarding importance of intensive training. However, 70% of the parents reported stress in the family due to the existence of the hearing impaired child. Conclusion Overall, the existing questionnaire-based study showed that parents have high expectations from their children with cochlear implant.
      Citation: Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; : -
      PubDate: 2016-05-30T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1584228
  • Use of an Osteoplastic Flap for the Prevention of Mastoidectomy
           Retroauricular Defects

    • Authors: Bento; Ricardo Ferreira, Tsuji, Robinson Koji, Fonseca, Anna Carolina de Oliveira, Alves, Ricardo Dourado
      Abstract: Introduction After mastoidectomy, patients usually complain of bone depressions in the retroauricular region in the surgical site, especially in procedures that require extensive cortical resections. This causes inconveniences such as difficulty wearing glasses, cleaning, and aesthetics complaints. Objective This study aims to describe a vascularized flap surgical technique that uses the mastoid cortical bone adhered to the periosteum, which is pedicled on the anterior portion and repositioned at the end of the surgery. This ensures the coverage of the mastoid cavity generated by surgery and prevents ear retraction into the cavity. This preliminary report describes the technique and intraoperative and immediate postoperative complications. Methods After retroauricular incision, periosteal exposure is performed. A U-shaped incision is required for the procedure and delimits a periosteum area appropriate to the size of the mastoidectomy. The cortical bone is opened using a 2.5 mm drill around the perimeter of the “U,” at a 3 mm depth. A chisel is introduced through the surface cells of the mastoid, and a hammer evolves into the anterior direction. The flap is lifted, leaving the periosteum adhered to it and forming a cap. The flap is anteriorly fixed to not hinder the surgery, and repositioned at the end. The periosteum is then sutured to the adjacent periosteum. Results The first 14 cases had no intraoperative complications and were firm and stable when digital pressure was applied during the intraoperative and immediate postoperative periods. Conclusion The osteoplastic flap pedicle is a safe and simple procedure, with good results in the immediate postoperative period.
      Citation: Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; : -
      PubDate: 2016-05-30T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1584266
  • Psychoacoustic Characteristics of Tinnitus versus Temporal Resolution in
           Subjects with Normal Hearing Sensitivity

    • Authors: Ibraheem; Ola Abdallah, Hassaan, Mohammad Ramadan
      Abstract: Introduction Cochlear or neural mechanisms of tinnitus generation may affect auditory temporal resolution in tinnitus patients even with normal audiometry. Thus, studying the correlation between tinnitus characteristics and auditory temporal resolution in subjects with tinnitus may help in proper modification of tinnitus management strategy. Objective This study aims to examine the relationship between the psychoacoustic measures of tinnitus and the auditory temporal resolution in subjects with normal audiometry. Methods Two normal hearing groups with ages ranging from 20 to 45 years were involved: control group of 15 adults (30 ears) without tinnitus and study group of 15 adults (24 ears) with tinnitus. Subjective scaling of annoyance and sleep disturbance caused by tinnitus, basic audiological evaluation, tinnitus psychoacoustic measures and Gaps in Noise test were performed. Data from both groups were compared using independent sample t-test. Psychoacoustic measures of tinnitus and Gaps in Noise test parameters of the tinnitus group were correlated with Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results Significantly higher hearing threshold, higher approximate threshold and lower correct Gaps in Noise scores were observed in tinnitus ears. There was no significant correlation between psychoacoustic measures of tinnitus and Gaps in Noise test parameters of the tinnitus group. Conclusion Auditory temporal resolution impairment was found in tinnitus patients, which could be attributed to cochlear impairment or altered neural firing within the auditory pathway. It is recommended to include temporal resolution testing in the tinnitus evaluation battery to provide a proper management planning.
      Citation: Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; : -
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1583526
  • Tonic Investigation Concept of Cervico-vestibular Muscle Afferents

    • Abstract: Introduction Interdisciplinary research has contributed greatly to an improved understanding of the vestibular system. To date, however, very little research has focused on the vestibular system's somatosensory afferents. To ensure the diagnostic quality of vestibular somatosensory afferent data, especially the extra cranial afferents, stimulation of the vestibular balance system has to be precluded. Objective Sophisticated movements require intra- and extra cranial vestibular receptors. The study's objective is to evaluate an investigation concept for cervico-vestibular afferents with respect to clinical feasibility. Methods A dedicated chair was constructed, permitting three-dimensional trunk excursions, during which the volunteer's head remains fixed. Whether or not a cervicotonic provocation nystagmus (c-PN) can be induced with static trunk excursion is to be evaluated and if this can be influenced by cervical monophasic transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (c-TENS) with a randomized test group. 3D-video-oculography (VOG) was used to record any change in cervico-ocular examination parameters. The occurring nystagmuses were evaluated visually due to the small caliber of nystagmus amplitudes in healthy volunteers. Results The results demonstrate: no influence of placebo-controlled c-TENS on the spontaneous nystagmus; a significant increase of the vertical nystagmus on the 3D-trunk-excursion chair in static trunk flexion with cervical provocation in all young healthy volunteers (n = 49); and a significant difference between vertical and horizontal nystagmuses during static trunk excursion after placebo-controlled c-TENS, except for the horizontal nystagmus during trunk torsion. Conclusion We hope this cervicotonic investigation concept on the 3D trunk-excursion chair will contribute to new diagnostic and therapeutic perspectives on cervical pathologies in vestibular head-to-trunk alignment.
      Citation: Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; : -
      PubDate: 2016-05-05T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1583759
  • Adaptation and Assessment of Reliability and Validity of the Greek Version
           of the Ohkuma Questionnaire for Dysphagia Screening

    • Authors: Papadopoulou; Soultana L., Exarchakos, Georgios, Christodoulou, Dimitrios, Theodorou, Stavroula, Beris, Alexandre, Ploumis, Avraam
      Abstract: Introduction The Ohkuma questionnaire is a validated screening tool originally used to detect dysphagia among patients hospitalized in Japanese nursing facilities. Objective The purpose of this study is to evaluate the reliability and validity of the adapted Greek version of the Ohkuma questionnaire. Methods Following the steps for cross-cultural adaptation, we delivered the validated Ohkuma questionnaire to 70 patients (53 men, 17 women) who were either suffering from dysphagia or not. All of them completed the questionnaire a second time within a month. For all of them, we performed a bedside and VFSS study of dysphagia and asked participants to undergo a second VFSS screening, with the exception of nine individuals. Statistical analysis included measurement of internal consistency with Cronbach's α coefficient, reliability with Cohen's Kappa, Pearson's correlation coefficient and construct validity with categorical components, and One-Way Anova test. Results According to Cronbach's α coefficient (0.976) for total score, there was high internal consistency for the Ohkuma Dysphagia questionnaire. Test-retest reliability (Cohen's Kappa) ranged from 0.586 to 1.00, exhibiting acceptable stability. We also estimated the Pearson's correlation coefficient for the test-retest total score, which reached high levels (0.952; p = 0.000). The One-Way Anova test in the two measurement times showed statistically significant correlation in both measurements (p = 0.02 and p = 0.016). Conclusion The adapted Greek version of the questionnaire is valid and reliable and can be used for the screening of dysphagia in the Greek-speaking patients.
      Citation: Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; : -
      PubDate: 2016-05-04T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1580613
  • Outcomes of Late Implantation in Usher Syndrome Patients

    • Abstract: Introduction Usher syndrome (US) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hearing loss and progressive visual impairment. Some deaf Usher syndrome patients learn to communicate using sign language. During adolescence, as they start losing vision, they are usually referred to cochlear implantation as a salvage for their new condition. Is a late implantation beneficial to these children' Objective The objective of this study is to describe the outcomes of US patients who received cochlear implants at a later age. Methods This is a retrospective study of ten patients diagnosed with US1. We collected pure-tone thresholds and speech perception tests from pre and one-year post implant. Results Average age at implantation was 18.9 years (5–49). Aided average thresholds were 103 dB HL and 35 dB HL pre and one-year post implant, respectively. Speech perception was only possible to be measured in four patients preoperatively, who scored 13.3; 26.67; 46% vowels and 56% 4-choice. All patients except one had some kind of communication. Two were bilingual. After one year of using the device, seven patients were able to perform the speech tests (from four-choice to close set sentences) and three patients abandoned the use of the implant. Conclusion We observed that detection of sounds can be achieved with late implantation, but speech recognition is only possible in patients with previous hearing stimulation, since it depends on the development of hearing skills and the maturation of the auditory pathways.
      Citation: Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; : -
      PubDate: 2016-05-04T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1583306
  • Evaluation of the Effects of Bismuth Subgallate on Wound Healing in Rats.
           Histological Findings

    • Abstract: Introduction Bismuth subgallate (BS) is a yellow and odorless powder that has hemostatic astringent properties. Some otorhinolaryngologists and dentists currently use this substance to enhance wound healing. Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of bismuth subgallate on wound healing, through the analysis of inflammatory process, collagen production, and angiogenesis. Method A standard wound was made on the back of 60 male Wistar rats, using a biopsy punch. We created two groups: the experimental group, which underwent daily application of 0.5mg BS over the entire wound, and the control group, which underwent daily application of sodium chloride 0.9%. We performed a qualitative evaluation of the tissue on the third, seventh, and fourteenth day. We assessed inflammatory markers using Hematoxylin and Eosin (HE) stain, used Picrosirius stain for collagen analysis, and immunohistochemistry was used for angiogenesis analysis through evaluation of smooth muscle proliferation. Results Statistically, we found no significant differences between groups regarding inflammatory response on the third (p = 1), seventh (p = 0.474), and fourteenth day (p = 0.303). Also, collagen type I and III production showed no statistical differences between groups on the third (p = 0.436), seventh (p = 0.853), and fourteenth day (p = 0.436) of analysis. Immunohistochemistry did not present differences on angiogenesis between experimental and control group on the third (p = 0.280), seventh (p = 0.971), and fourteenth day (p = 0.218). Conclusion BS does not promote significant changes in inflammatory response, collagen, and angiogenesis. Thus, it does not influence healing on skin wounds on rats.
      Citation: Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; : -
      PubDate: 2016-05-04T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1583760
  • Supra-auricular versus Sinusectomy Approaches for Preauricular Sinuses

    • Authors: El-Anwar; Mohammad Waheed, ElAassar, Ahmed Shaker
      Abstract: Introduction Several surgical techniques and modifications have been described to reduce the high recurrence rate after excision of preauricular sinus. Objectives The aim of this study is to review the literature regarding surgical approaches for preauricular sinus. Data Synthesis We performed searches in the LILACS, MEDLINE, SciELO, PubMed databases and Cochrane Library in September, 2015, and the key words used in the search were “preauricular sinus,” “sinusectomy,” “supra-auricular approach,” “methylene blue,” and/or “recurrence.” We revised the results of 17 studies, including 1270 preauricular sinuses that were surgically excised by sinusectomy in 937 ears and by supra-auricular approach in 333 ears. Recurrence with supra-auricular was 4 (1.3%) while sinusectomy was 76 (8.1%) with significant difference (p 
      Citation: Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; : -
      PubDate: 2016-04-26T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1583305
  • Test-Retest of Long Latency Auditory Evoked Potentials (P300) with Pure
           Tone and Speech Stimuli

    • Authors: Perez; Ana Paula, Ziliotto, Karin, Pereira, Liliane Desgualdo
      Abstract: Introduction Long latency auditory evoked potentials, especially P300, have been used for clinical evaluation of mental processing. Many factors can interfere with Auditory Evoked Potential - P300 results, suggesting large intra and inter-subject variations. Objective The objective of the study was to identify the reliability of P3 components (latency and amplitude) over 4–6 weeks and the most stable auditory stimulus with the best test-retest agreement. Methods Ten normal-hearing women participated in the study. Only subjects without auditory processing problems were included. To determine the P3 components, we elicited long latency auditory evoked potential (P300) by pure tone and speech stimuli, and retested after 4–6 weeks using the same parameters. We identified P300 latency and amplitude by waveform subtraction. Results We found lower coefficient of variation values in latency than in amplitude, with less variability analysis when speech stimulus was used. There was no significant correlation in latency measures between pure tone and speech stimuli, and sessions. There was a significant intrasubject correlation between measures of latency and amplitude. Conclusion These findings show that amplitude responses are more robust for the speech stimulus when compared with its pure tone counterpart. The P300 indicated stability for latency and amplitude measures when the test-retest was applied. Reliability was higher for amplitude than for latency, with better agreement when the pure tone stimulus was used. However, further research with speech stimulus is needed to clarify how these stimuli are processed by the nervous system.
      Citation: Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; : -
      PubDate: 2016-04-26T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1583527
  • Clinical Value of High Mobility Group Box 1 and the Receptor for Advanced
           Glycation End-products in Head and Neck Cancer: A Systematic Review

    • Authors: Nguyen; Austin, Bhavsar, Sheila, Riley, Erinn, Caponetti, Gabriel, Agrawal, Devendra
      Abstract: Introduction High mobility group box 1 is a versatile protein involved in gene transcription, extracellular signaling, and response to inflammation. Extracellularly, high mobility group box 1 binds to several receptors, notably the receptor for advanced glycation end-products. Expression of high mobility group box 1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products has been described in many cancers. Objectives To systematically review the available literature using PubMed and Web of Science to evaluate the clinical value of high mobility group box 1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Data synthesis A total of eleven studies were included in this review. High mobility group box 1 overexpression is associated with poor prognosis and many clinical and pathological characteristics of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas patients. Additionally, the receptor for advanced glycation end-products demonstrates potential value as a clinical indicator of tumor angiogenesis and advanced staging. In diagnosis, high mobility group box 1 demonstrates low sensitivity. Conclusion High mobility group box 1 and the receptor for advanced glycation end-products are associated with clinical and pathological characteristics of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas. Further investigation of the prognostic and diagnostic value of these molecules is warranted.
      Citation: Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; : -
      PubDate: 2016-04-19T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1583168
  • Tinnitus in Elderly Individuals: Discomfort and Impact in the Quality of

    • Abstract: Introduction Tinnitus is a symptom that affects mainly the elderly and can negatively influence their quality of life. Objective The objective of our study is to evaluate the existence of a relationship between the quality of life and the impact caused by tinnitus in elderly individuals, considering the age and gender variables. Method We conducted a cross-sectional study in elderly people of both genders who participate in the extension activities at the university. The evaluation was composed of anamnesis and WHOQOL-OLD instruments, to evaluate the quality of life, and Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) for the evaluation of the tinnitus impact. Result We evaluated 36 elderly individuals with an average age of 68.6 ± 6.8 years old, 72.2 % of them were women. We verified that most of the subjects classified their tinnitus as weak (44.4%) or medium (36.1%). The score average in the THI was 20 points, with predominant classification of tinnitus impact as negligible (41.7%) or mild (30.6%). In the WHOQOL-OLD, the average score was 15.6 ± 1.6 points (total score). The negative correlation between the THI score and the WHOQOL-OLD score was found in the sensory domain operation and total score. Conclusion The results obtained in the study prove that the quality of life of the elderly individuals evaluated is related to a discomfort caused by the tinnitus.
      Citation: Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; : -
      PubDate: 2016-04-13T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1572562
  • Cochlear Implantation through the Middle Fossa Approach: A Review of
           Related Temporal Bone Studies and Reported Cases

    • Authors: Lesser; Juan Carlos Cisneros, Brito Neto, Rubens Vuono de, Martins, Graziela de Souza Queiroz, Bento, Ricardo Ferreira
      Abstract: Introduction Middle fossa approach has been suggested as an alternative for patients in whom other routes of electrode insertion are contraindicated. Even though there are temporal bone studies about the feasibility of introducing the cochlear implant through the middle fossa, until now, very few studies have described results when cochlear implant surgery is done through this approach. Objective The objective of this study is to review a series of temporal bone studies related to cochlear implantation through the middle fossa and the results obtained by different surgical groups after cochlear implantation through this approach. Data Sources PubMed, MD consult and Ovid-SP databases. Data Synthesis A total of 8 human cadaveric temporal bone studies and 6 studies reporting cochlear implant surgery through the middle fossa approach met the inclusion criteria. Temporal bone studies show that it is feasible to perform cochlear implantation through this route. So far, only two surgical groups have performed cochlear implantation through the middle fossa with a total of 15 implanted patients. One group entered the cochlea in the most upper part of the basal turn, inserting the implant in the direction of the middle and apical turns; meanwhile, the other group inserted the implant in the apical turn directed in a retrograde fashion to the middle and basal turns. Results obtained in both groups were similar. Conclusions The middle fossa approach is a good alternative for cochlear implantation when other routes of electrode insertion are contraindicated.
      Citation: Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; : -
      PubDate: 2016-04-08T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1582266
  • Otoneurological Abnormalities in Patients with Friedreich's Ataxia

    • Abstract: Introduction Friedreich's ataxia is a neurodegenerative disease and progressive by nature. It has autosomal recessive inheritance and early onset in most cases. Nystagmus and hearing loss (in some cases) make up some of the common symptoms seen in this disorder. Objective The objective of this study is to examine vestibular disorders in patients with Friedreich ataxia. Methods We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study. We evaluated 30 patients with ages ranging from six to 72 years (mean age of 38.6 ( ±  14.7). The patients underwent the following procedures: anamnesis, ENT, and vestibular evaluations. Results Clinically, the patients commonly had symptoms of incoordination of movement (66.7%), gait disturbances (56.7%), and dizziness (50%). In vestibular testing, alterations were predominantly evident under caloric testing (73.4%), gaze nystagmus testing (50.1%), rotational chair testing (36.7%), and optokinetic nystagmus testing (33.4%). The presence of alterations occurred under examination in 90% of subjects, with the majority occurring in those with central vestibular dysfunction (70% of the examinations). Conclusion The most evident neurotological symptoms were incoordination of movement, gait disturbances, and dizziness. Alterations in vestibular examinations occurred in 90% of patients, mostly in the caloric test, with a predominance of deficient central vestibular system dysfunction.
      Citation: Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; : -
      PubDate: 2016-03-31T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1572529
  • Auditory Processing Assessment in Children with Attention Deficit
           Hyperactivity Disorder: An Open Study Examining Methylphenidate Effects

    • Authors: Lanzetta-Valdo; Bianca Pinheiro, Oliveira, Giselle Alves de, Ferreira, Jane Tagarro Correa, Palacios, Ester Miyuki Nakamura
      Abstract: Introduction Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder can present Auditory Processing (AP) Disorder. Objective The study examined the AP in ADHD children compared with non-ADHD children, and before and after 3 and 6 months of methylphenidate (MPH) treatment in ADHD children. Methods Drug-naive children diagnosed with ADHD combined subtype aging between 7 and 11 years, coming from public and private outpatient service or public and private school, and age-gender-matched non-ADHD children, participated in an open, non-randomized study from February 2013 to December 2013. They were submitted to a behavioral battery of AP tests comprising Speech with white Noise, Dichotic Digits (DD), and Pitch Pattern Sequence (PPS) and were compared with non-ADHD children. They were followed for 3 and 6 months of MPH treatment (0.5 mg/kg/day). Results ADHD children presented larger number of errors in DD (p 
      Citation: Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; : -
      PubDate: 2016-03-31T00:00:00+01:00
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1572526
  • Auditory Alterations in Children Infected by Human Immunodeficiency Virus
           Verified Through Auditory Processing Test

    • Abstract: Introduction The auditory system of HIV-positive children may have deficits at various levels, such as the high incidence of problems in the middle ear that can cause hearing loss. Objective The objective of this study is to characterize the development of children infected by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in the Simplified Auditory Processing Test (SAPT) and the Staggered Spondaic Word Test. Methods We performed behavioral tests composed of the Simplified Auditory Processing Test and the Portuguese version of the Staggered Spondaic Word Test (SSW). The participants were 15 children infected by HIV, all using antiretroviral medication. Results The children had abnormal auditory processing verified by Simplified Auditory Processing Test and the Portuguese version of SSW. In the Simplified Auditory Processing Test, 60% of the children presented hearing impairment. In the SAPT, the memory test for verbal sounds showed more errors (53.33%); whereas in SSW, 86.67% of the children showed deficiencies indicating deficit in figure-ground, attention, and memory auditory skills. Furthermore, there are more errors in conditions of background noise in both age groups, where most errors were in the left ear in the Group of 8-year-olds, with similar results for the group aged 9 years. Conclusion The high incidence of hearing loss in children with HIV and comorbidity with several biological and environmental factors indicate the need for: 1) familiar and professional awareness of the impact on auditory alteration on the developing and learning of the children with HIV, and 2) access to educational plans and follow-up with multidisciplinary teams as early as possible to minimize the damage caused by auditory deficits.
      Citation: Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; : -
      PubDate: 2016-03-14T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1580614
  • Satisfaction of Elderly Hearing Aid Users

    • Authors: Kozlowski; Lorena, Ribas, Angela, Almeida, Gleide, Luz, Idalina
      Abstract: Introduction The impact of auditory sensory deprivation in the life of an individual is enormous because it not only affects one's ability to properly understand auditory information, but also the way people relate to their environment and their culture. The monitoring of adult and elderly subjects with hearing loss is intended to minimize the difficulties and handicaps that occur as a consequence of this pathology. Objective To evaluate the level of user satisfaction with hearing aids. Methods A clinical and experimental study involving 91 elderly hearing aid users. We used the questionnaire Satisfaction with Amplification in Daily Life to determine the degree of the satisfaction provided by hearing aids. We evaluated mean global score, subscales, as well as the variables time to use, age, and degree of hearing loss. Results Mean global score was 4.73, the score for Positive Effects 5.45, Negative Factors 3.2, demonstrating that they were satisfied; Services and Costs 5.98: very satisfied ; 3.65 Personal Image: dissatisfied. We observed statistically significant difference for the time of hearing aid use, age, and degree of hearing loss. Conclusion The SADL is a tool, simple and easy to apply and in this study we can demonstrate the high degree of satisfaction with the hearing aids by the majority of the sample collected, increasing with time of use and a greater degree of hearing loss.
      Citation: Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; : -
      PubDate: 2016-03-09T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1579744
  • Curcumin Reduces the Noise-Exposed Cochlear Fibroblasts Apoptosis

    • Authors: Haryuna; Tengku Siti Hajar, Riawan, Wibi, Nasution, Ardyansyah, Ma'at, Suprapto, Harahap, Juliandi, Adriztina, Indri
      Abstract: Introduction The structural changes underlying permanent noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) include loss of the sensory hair cells, damage to their stereocilia, and supporting tissues within the cochlear lateral wall. Objective The objective of this study is to demonstrate curcumin as a safe and effective therapeutic agent in the prevention and treatment for fibroblasts damage within the cochlear supporting tissues and lateral wall through cell death pathway. Methods We divided 24 Rattus norvegicus into 4 groups, Group 1: control; Group 2: noise (+); Group 3: noise (+), 50 mg/day curcumin (+); Group 4: noise (+), 100 mg/day curcumin (+). We provided the noise exposure dose at 100 dB SPL for two hours over two weeks and administered the curcumin orally over two weeks. We examined all samples for the expressions of calcineurin, nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), and apoptotic index of cochlear fibroblasts. Results We found significant differences for the expressions of calcineurin (p 
      Citation: Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; : -
      PubDate: 2016-03-04T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1579742
  • Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Production and Tissue
           Eosinophilia in Chronic Rhinitis

    • Authors: Peric; Aleksandar, Spadijer-Mirkovic, Cveta, Matkovic-Jozin, Svjetlana, Jovancevic, Ljiljana, Vojvodic, Danilo
      Abstract: Introduction Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a strong proinflammatory cytokine that takes part in allergic nasal inflammation as an eosinophil colony-stimulating factor. However, the role of GM-CSF in non-allergic rhinitis has not been fully explored. Objectives The aim of this investigation was to assess the concentration of GM-CSF in nasal secretions of patients with non-allergic rhinitis with eosinophilia syndrome (NARES) in comparison to patients with perennial allergic rhinitis (PAR) and healthy subjects, as well as to assess the relationship with the degree of eosinophilic inflammation and clinical characteristics of the patients. Methods Fourteen patients with diagnosis of NARES, 14 PAR patients, and 14 healthy subjects were included in this cross-sectional study. All patients underwent symptom score assessment, nasal endoscopy, allergy testing, and cytological evaluation. The concentration of GM-CSF in nasal secretions of all participants was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results We found significantly higher levels of GM-CSF in patients with NARES than in the control group (p = 0.035). The percent of eosinophils in nasal mucosa was higher in NARES patients in comparison to patients with PAR (p 
      Citation: Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; : -
      PubDate: 2016-02-26T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1570746
  • Early and Delayed Effect of Functional Endoscopic Sinus Surgery on
           Intraocular Pressure

    • Authors: El-Anwar; Mohammad Waheed, Abdelhady, Mohammad, Amer, Hazem Saeed, Ghali, Manar A.
      Abstract: Introduction Due to the close anatomical relationship between the paranasal sinuses and the orbit, involvement or injury of the orbit from paranasal sinuses procedures may occur. Objectives We aimed to study the early and delayed effect of endoscopic sinus surgery on intraocular pressure (IOP). Methods We included in the study 38 patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), undergoing FESS. We performed FESS with the standard anterior to posterior approach. We measured IOP at the same time one day before surgery as well as day 1 and 6 weeks after surgery. Results One day after surgery, mean IOP in the right eye was 14.176 ± 1.91 mm Hg and in the left eye was 13.79 ± 2.42 mm Hg with statistically non-significant difference from preoperative values. Six weeks postoperative, the mean IOP in the right eye was 15.14 ± 2.28 mm Hg. The difference between the mean preoperative and postoperative IOP values was found to be statistically significant (p = 0.0012). While in the left eye, mean postoperative IOP was 15.14 + 2.23mm Hg. The difference between the mean preoperative and postoperative IOP values was also found to be highly statistically significant (p = 0.0005). Conclusion Delayed significant increase in IOP can occur after FESS, Thus, special measures must be taken to reduce IOP to protect the patient́s eye from the risk of increased IOP, especially in patients with glaucoma.
      Citation: Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; : -
      PubDate: 2016-02-26T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1579663
  • Residual Hearing Preservation with the Evo® Cochlear Implant
           Electrode Array: Preliminary Results

    • Abstract: Introduction The preservation of residual hearing is currently an important challenge for cochlear implant surgeries. Indeed, if patients exhibit functional hearing after cochlear implantation, they can benefit from the combination of acoustical stimulation, usually in the low-frequencies and electrical stimulation in the high-frequencies. This combined mode of stimulation has proven to be beneficial both in terms of speech perception and of sound quality. Finding the right procedures for conducting soft-surgeries and designing electrode arrays dedicated to hearing preservation is an open issue. Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate the combination of a soft-surgery procedure implicating round-window insertion and the use of dexamethasone and hyaluronic acid during surgery, with the use of a specifically designed straight soft electrode array, on hearing preservation in patients with functional hearing in the low frequencies. Methods This pre-clinical trial was conducted on seven patients with residual hearing in the low frequencies. The surgical method used employed a round window insertion and the use of topical dexamethasone. Results The soft-surgery protocol could be successfully followed in five patients. In this group, the average hearing threshold shift compared with pre-operative values was of 18.7 +/− 16.1 dB HL up to 500 Hz and 15.7 +/− 15.1 up to 1 kHz, demonstrating satisfying levels of hearing preservation. Conclusion We were able to demonstrate the possibility of preserving residual hearing in most of the patients using the EVO electrode. Significant residual hearing preservation levels were was obtained when a soft surgical approach involving round window insertion, dexamethasone and hyaluronic use during the surgery.
      Citation: Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; : -
      PubDate: 2016-02-16T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1572530
  • “Positive to Negative” Dix-Hallpike test and Benign Paroxysmal
           Positional Vertigo recurrence in elderly undergoing Canalith Repositioning
           Maneuver and Vestibular Rehabilitation

    • Abstract: Introduction Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo is the most common cause of dizziness in elderly people. Recent studies have shown that the elderly present higher Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo recurrence and that vertiginous symptomatology remission varies according to comorbidities and the therapeutic techniques applied. Objective To assess the short-term effectiveness of Vestibular Rehabilitation in addition to Canalith Repositioning Maneuver on positive to negative Dix-Hallpike test, on recurrence and number of maneuvers to achieve a negative test in elderly patients with chronic Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo. Methods In this randomized controlled trial, 7 older adults (median age: 69 years, range 65–78) underwent Canalith Repositioning Maneuver and Vestibular Rehabilitation for thirteen weeks. Seven older adults (median age: 73 years, range 65–76) in the control group received only Canalith Repositioning Maneuver. The participants were assessed at baseline (T0), one (T1), five (T5), nine (T9), and thirteen weeks (T13). We assessed the differences between the groups by Mann-Whitney and Fisher exact tests, and used the Friedman and Wilcoxon tests to determine the intragroup differences. Results No significant differences were found between groups for the positive to negative Dix-Hallpike test, recurrence, and number of maneuvers to achieve a negative test. The number of maneuvers to achieve negative Dix-Hallpike test was lower in intragroup comparisons in the experimental group. Conclusion The findings suggest that additional Vestibular Rehabilitation did not influence the positive to negative Dix-Hallpike test, recurrence, or number of maneuvers to achieve a negative test in elderly patients with chronic Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo.
      Citation: Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; : -
      PubDate: 2016-02-16T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1572528
  • The Influence of Tinnitus on the Audiometric Threshold of Sufferers

    • Authors: Ukaegbe; Onyinye, Ezeanolue, Basil, Orji, Foster
      Abstract: Introduction Tinnitus is a worldwide problem. Objective The objective of this study is to evaluate the audiometric hearing thresholds of adult patients with ongoing tinnitus as their only otological symptom. Methods We evaluated the hearing thresholds of 43 adult patients with ongoing tinnitus and no history of hearing loss from the otolaryngology department of a tertiary health institution at speech and high frequencies. A total of 56 tinnitus ears were compared against 30 contralateral normal ears as well as with the 100 ears of 50 healthy volunteers. Results The study group consisted of 11 (25.6%) males and 32 (74.4%) females with a mean age of 40.9 ± 11.7. The mean Pure Tone Average of the 56 tinnitus ears was 14.8 ± 9, while that of the 100 control ears was 11.2 ± 6 (U = 2078, p = 0.008). The mean pure tone average of the control was also significantly lower than that of the 30 contralateral normal ears of the tinnitus sufferers (U = 1136, p = 0.02). We observed mild to moderate hearing loss in 10 (23%) of the participants. We observed no hearing loss among the control group. Conclusion A proportion of tinnitus sufferers with self-professed normal hearing are likely to have mildly elevated pure tone audiometric thresholds. In patients with unilateral tinnitus, such elevated pure tone hearing thresholds are likely to be in the tinnitus ear and the contralateral non-tinnitus ear.
      Citation: Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; : -
      PubDate: 2016-02-15T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1571271
  • Workplace Activity in Health Professionals Exposed to Chemotherapy Drugs:
           An Otoneurological Perspective

    • Abstract: Introduction The manipulation of antineoplastic drugs presents high risk for accidents and occupational diseases. Objective To evaluate the auditory and vestibular systems of workers who are exposed to chemotherapeutic treatment in the University Hospital of Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Brazil, and to identify the use of individual protection equipment, related to the obtained results. Methods This study is a cross-sectional study using a quantitative method. We evaluate 33 male and female workers, ranging from 21–60 years old, of the nursing and pharmacy sectors. The workers underwent conventional Audiologic Assessment; Transient Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions; and Computerized Vectoelectronystagmography. Results The majority of the sample was female (90.9%). Individual protection equipment was used by 90.9% of the workers. Complaints of dizziness were reported by 56.25% of nursing workers and 52.94% of pharmacy workers. Audiological and vestibular assessment results were within normal limits, 96.97% and 74.20%, respectively. However, audiometric configuration of notch type was identified in 75.75% of all workers. Audiometric notches (76%) and altered caloric test (100%) were often associated with decreased use of coal masks. Conclusion Among the workers evaluated, the vestibulocochlear system was within the normal limits. The presence of notch configuration indicates the need to use individual protection equipment.
      Citation: Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; : -
      PubDate: 2016-02-12T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0036-1572431
  • Pitch and Loudness Tinnitus in Individuals with Presbycusis

    • Authors: Seimetz; Bruna Macangnin, Teixeira, Adriane Ribeiro, Rosito, Leticia Petersen Schmidt, Flores, Leticia Sousa, Pappen, Carlos Henrique, Dall'igna, Celso
      Abstract: Introduction Tinnitus is a symptom that is often associated with presbycusis. Objective This study aims to analyze the existence of association among hearing thresholds, pitch, and loudness of tinnitus in individuals with presbycusis, considering the gender variable. Methods Cross-sectional, descriptive, and prospective study, whose sample consisted of individuals with tinnitus and diagnosis of presbycusis. For the evaluation, we performed anamnesis along with otoscopy, pure tone audiometry, and acuphenometry to analyze the psychoacoustic characteristics of tinnitus individuals. Results The sample consisted of 49 subjects, with a mean age of 69.57 ± 6.53 years, who presented unilateral and bilateral tinnitus, therefore, a sample of 80 ears. In analyzing the results, as for acuphenometry, the loudness of tinnitus was more present at 0dB and the pitch was 6HKz and 8HKz. Regarding the analysis of the association between the frequency of greater hearing threshold and tinnitus pitch, no statistical significance (p = 0.862) was found. As for the association between the intensity of greater hearing threshold and tinnitus loudness, no statistical significance (p = 0.115) was found. Conclusion There is no significant association between the hearing loss of patients with presbycusis and the pitch and loudness of tinnitus.
      Citation: Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; : -
      PubDate: 2016-02-01T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1570311
  • Auditory Temporal Resolution in Individuals with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

    • Authors: Mishra; Rajkishor, Sanju, Himanshu Kumar, Kumar, Prawin
      Abstract: Introduction “Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders characterized by elevated blood sugar and abnormalities in insulin secretion and action” (American Diabetes Association). Previous literature has reported connection between diabetes mellitus and hearing impairment. There is a dearth of literature on auditory temporal resolution ability in individuals with diabetes mellitus type 2. Objective The main objective of the present study was to assess auditory temporal resolution ability through GDT (Gap Detection Threshold) in individuals with diabetes mellitus type 2 with high frequency hearing loss. Methods Fifteen subjects with diabetes mellitus type 2 with high frequency hearing loss in the age range of 30 to 40 years participated in the study as the experimental group. Fifteen age-matched non-diabetic individuals with normal hearing served as the control group. We administered the Gap Detection Threshold (GDT) test to all participants to assess their temporal resolution ability. Result We used the independent t-test to compare between groups. Results showed that the diabetic group (experimental) performed significantly poorer compared with the non-diabetic group (control). Conclusion It is possible to conclude that widening of auditory filters and changes in the central auditory nervous system contributed to poorer performance for temporal resolution task (Gap Detection Threshold) in individuals with diabetes mellitus type 2. Findings of the present study revealed the deteriorating effect of diabetes mellitus type 2 at the central auditory processing level.
      Citation: Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; : -
      PubDate: 2016-02-01T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1571207
  • Temporal Resolution and Active Auditory Discrimination Skill in Vocal

    • Authors: Kumar; Prawin, Sanju, Himanshu Kumar, Nikhil, J.
      Abstract: Introduction Enhanced auditory perception in musicians is likely to result from auditory perceptual learning during several years of training and practice. Many studies have focused on biological processing of auditory stimuli among musicians. However, there is a lack of literature on temporal resolution and active auditory discrimination skills in vocal musicians. Objective The aim of the present study is to assess temporal resolution and active auditory discrimination skill in vocal musicians. Method The study participants included 15 vocal musicians with a minimum professional experience of 5 years of music exposure, within the age range of 20 to 30 years old, as the experimental group, while 15 age-matched non-musicians served as the control group. We used duration discrimination using pure-tones, pulse-train duration discrimination, and gap detection threshold tasks to assess temporal processing skills in both groups. Similarly, we assessed active auditory discrimination skill in both groups using Differential Limen of Frequency (DLF). All tasks were done using MATLab software installed in a personal computer at 40dBSL with maximum likelihood procedure. The collected data were analyzed using SPSS (version 17.0). Result Descriptive statistics showed better threshold for vocal musicians compared with non-musicians for all tasks. Further, independent t-test showed that vocal musicians performed significantly better compared with non-musicians on duration discrimination using pure tone, pulse train duration discrimination, gap detection threshold, and differential limen of frequency. Conclusion The present study showed enhanced temporal resolution ability and better (lower) active discrimination threshold in vocal musicians in comparison to non-musicians.
      Citation: Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; : -
      PubDate: 2015-12-17T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1570312
  • Relationship between Speech Perception and Level of Satisfaction of
           Hearing Aid Users

    • Abstract: Introduction Hearing difficulties can be minimized by the use of hearing aids. Objective The objective of this study is to assess the speech perception and satisfaction of hearing aids users before and after aid adaptation and to determine whether these measures are correlated. Methods The study was conducted on 65 individuals, 54% females and 46% males aged 63 years on average, after the systematic use of hearing aids for at least three months. We characterized subjectś personal identification data, the degree, and configuration of hearing loss, as well as aspects related to adaptation. We then applied a satisfaction questionnaire and a speech perception test (words and sentences), with and without the use of the hearing aids. Results Mean speech recognition with words and sentences was 69% and 79%, respectively, with hearing aids use; whereas, without hearing aids use the figures were 43% and 53%. Mean questionnaire score was 30.1 points. Regarding hearing loss characteristics, 78.5% of the subjects had a sensorineural loss, 20% a mixed loss, and 1.5% a conductive loss. Hearing loss of moderate degree was present in 60.5% of cases, loss of descending configuration in 47%, and plain loss in 37.5%. There was no correlation between individual satisfaction and the percentages of the speech perception tests applied. Conclusion Word and sentence recognition was significantly better with the use of the hearing aids. The users showed a high degree of satisfaction. In the present study, there was no correlation observed between the levels of speech perception and levels of user satisfaction measured with the questionnaire.
      Citation: Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; : -
      PubDate: 2015-12-17T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1570315
  • Comparison of Pre-Attentive Auditory Discrimination at Gross and Fine
           Difference between Auditory Stimuli

    • Authors: Sanju; Himanshu Kumar, Kumar, Prawin
      Abstract: Introduction Mismatch Negativity is a negative component of the event-related potential (ERP) elicited by any discriminable changes in auditory stimulation. Objective The present study aimed to assess pre-attentive auditory discrimination skill with fine and gross difference between auditory stimuli. Method Seventeen normal hearing individual participated in the study. To assess pre-attentive auditory discrimination skill with fine difference between auditory stimuli, we recorded mismatch negativity (MMN) with pair of stimuli (pure tones), using /1000 Hz/ and /1010 Hz/ with /1000 Hz/ as frequent stimulus and /1010 Hz/ as infrequent stimulus. Similarly, we used /1000 Hz/ and /1100 Hz/ with /1000 Hz/ as frequent stimulus and /1100 Hz/ as infrequent stimulus to assess pre-attentive auditory discrimination skill with gross difference between auditory stimuli. The study included 17 subjects with informed consent. We analyzed MMN for onset latency, offset latency, peak latency, peak amplitude, and area under the curve parameters. Result Results revealed that MMN was present only in 64% of the individuals in both conditions. Further Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) showed no significant difference in all measures of MMN (onset latency, offset latency, peak latency, peak amplitude, and area under the curve) in both conditions. Conclusion The present study showed similar pre-attentive skills for both conditions: fine (1000 Hz and 1010 Hz) and gross (1000 Hz and 1100 Hz) difference in auditory stimuli at a higher level (endogenous) of the auditory system.
      Citation: Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; : -
      PubDate: 2015-12-08T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1570071
  • Newborn Hearing Screening in a Public Maternity Ward in Curitiba, Brazil:
           Determining Factors for Not Retesting

    • Authors: Luz; Idalina, Ribas, Angela, Kozlowski, Lorena, Willig, Mariluci, Berberian, Ana Paula
      Abstract: Introduction Law 12.303/10 requires hearing screening in newborns before hospital discharge to detect possible hearing problems within the first three months after birth. If the newborn fails the test or presents signs of risk for hearing loss, it must undergo a retest and monitoring during the first year of life. In practice, this often does not happen. Objective To identify, in a group of mothers of children with risk factors for hearing loss, the determining reasons for non-compliance with the auditory retest. Method This is a cross-sectional quantitative study. For data collection, we handed a semi-structured questionnaire to 60 mothers of babies at risk for hearing loss who did not attend the hearing retest after hospital discharge. The questionnaire investigated their age, education, marital status, level of knowledge about the hearing screening, and reasons for non-compliance with the retest. We compared and analyzed data using the Chi-square test at a significance level of 0.05%. Results Our study found that 63% of the respondents were unaware of the hearing screening and most did not receive guidance on testing during prenatal care; 30% of participants stated forgetting as the reason for not attending the retest. There was no significant relationship between age, education, and marital status regarding knowledge about the test and the non-compliance with the retest. Conclusion Identified as the most significant determining factors for non-compliance with the newborn hearing screening retest were the surveyed mothers' forgetting the date, and their ignorance as to the importance of retesting.
      Citation: Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; : -
      PubDate: 2015-11-16T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1567866
  • Influence of Hormonal Changes on Audiologic Examination in Normal Ovarian
           Cycle Females: An Analytic Study

    • Authors: Adriztina; Indri, Adnan, Adlin, Adenin, Ichwanul, Haryuna, Siti Hajar, Sarumpaet, Sorimuda
      Abstract: Introduction There is only limited information from previous studies that suggest that auditory function may be influenced by hormones. Recent advances in the field have exposed the potential role of hormones in modulating the auditory system. Objective This study aims to investigate the relationship between menstrual cycle and outer hair cell function with audiological examination. Methods This is an analytic study with a cross-sectional design. The sampling was a systematic random sampling. We found 49 women with normal menstrual cycle and collected their data through interviews, physical examination, and examination of the ear, with otoscopic and other routine otorhinolaryngology examinations. We evaluated Tympanometry, distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE), and pure tone audiometry. Results We found the audiometric threshold worse in the follicular phase than other phases at 4000 Hz of the right ear, and in the ovulation was found best than any other phases at 1000 Hz of the left ear with significant difference. We found significant difference of DPOAE between ovulation time and follicular phase at 3000 Hz and 1000 Hz in the left ear and between ovulation and luteal phased at 2000 Hz, 3000 Hz and 5000 Hz in the right ear and at 1000 Hz in the left ear with p 
      Citation: Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol ; : -
      PubDate: 2015-10-29T00:00:00+0100
      DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1566305
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