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ISRN Biomedical Imaging    Follow    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Online) 2314-5412
     Published by ISRN International Scholarly Research Network Homepage  [96 journals]
  • Measurement of Optical Scattering Coefficient of the Individual Layers of
           the Human Urinary Bladder Using Optical Coherence Tomography
    • Abstract: The author reports measurement of the optical attenuation of the urinary bladder using Optical Coherence Tomography. This method uses the exponential relationship that exists between the intensity of the back-scattered infrared light and the penetration depth. The method is applied to Optical Coherence Tomography images of the human urinary bladder and the scattering coefficients of the top three layers (urothelium, lamina propria, and muscle layers, resp.) are extracted. An optical attenuation ratio of 1 : 6.2 : 4.2 for the three layers is reported.
      PubDate: Sun, 16 Feb 2014 14:07:51 +000
  • Segmentation of Scarred Myocardium in Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Images
    • Abstract: The segmentation of scarred and nonscarred myocardium in Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) is obtained using different features and feature combinations in a Bayes classifier. The used features are found as a local average of intensity values and the underlying texture information in scarred and nonscarred myocardium. The segmentation classifier was trained and tested with different experimental setups and parameter combinations and was cross validated due to limited data. The experimental results show that the intensity variations are indeed an important feature for good segmentation, and the average area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, that is, the AUC, is 91.58 ± 3.2%. The segmentation using texture features also gives good segmentation with average AUC values at 85.89 ± 5.8%, that is, lower than the direct current (DC) feature. However, the texture feature gives robust performance compared to a local mean (DC) feature in a test set simulated from the original CMR data. The segmentation of scarred myocardium is comparable to manual segmentation in all the cross validation cases.
      PubDate: Tue, 31 Dec 2013 17:50:59 +000
  • Application of Linear Prediction for Phase and Magnitude Correction in
           Partially Acquired MRI
    • Abstract: Using the boxcar representation in the spatial domain and a signal-space representation of its frequency-weighted -space, an iterative prediction method is developed to derive an improved low-resolution phase approximation for phase correction. Compared to the homodyne filter, the proposed predictor is found to be more efficient due to its capability of exhibiting an equivalent degree of performance using a lower number of fractional lines. The phase correction performance is illustrated using partially acquired susceptibility weighted images (SWI). An extension of the predictor into higher frequency regions of phase-encodes in conjunction with a signal-space projection in the frequency-weighted partial k-space is shown to provide restoration of fine structural details of sparse magnitude images. The application of subspace projection filtering is demonstrated using magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA).
      PubDate: Tue, 05 Nov 2013 14:14:24 +000
  • Study of the Effects of Changing Physiological Conditions on Dielectric
           Properties of Breast Tissues
    • Abstract: This paper addresses the changes in the physical characteristics (temperature and water/blood content) of breast tissue under different physiological conditions. We examined ex vivo specimens of breast tissue excised at the time of surgery to study the effects of physiological conditions on dielectric properties. We observed that the dielectric properties strongly depend on tissue physiological state. When the biological tissues undergo physiological changes, such as those due to disease or those induced by external changes such as variations in the environmental temperature, the microscopic processes deviate from their normal state and impact the overall dielectric properties. This suggests that microwave imaging might be used to monitor the physiological conditions of the body.
      PubDate: Wed, 31 Jul 2013 07:59:28 +000
  • Evaluation of Image Quality Improvements When Adding Patient Outline
           Constraints into a Generalized Scatter PET Reconstruction Algorithm
    • Abstract: Scattered coincidences degrade image contrast and compromise quantitative accuracy in positron emission tomography (PET). A number of approaches to estimating and correcting scattered coincidences have been proposed, but most of them are based on estimating and subtracting a scatter sinogram from the measured data. We have previously shown that both true and scattered coincidences can be treated similarly by using Compton scattering kinematics to define a locus of scattering which may in turn be used to reconstruct the activity distribution using a generalized scatter maximum-likelihood expectation maximization (GS-MLEM) algorithm. The annihilation position can be further confined by taking advantage of the patient outline (or a geometrical shape that encompasses the patient outline). The proposed method was tested on a phantom generated using GATE. The results have shown that for scatter fractions of 10–60% this algorithm improves the contrast recovery coefficients (CRC) by 4 to 28.6% for a source and 5.1 to 40% for a cold source while the relative standard deviation (RSD) was reduced. Including scattered photons directly into the reconstruction eliminates the need for (often empirical) scatter corrections, and further improvements in the contrast and noise properties of the reconstructed images can be made by including the patient outline in the reconstruction algorithm as a constraint.
      PubDate: Thu, 02 May 2013 09:53:07 +000
  • Automated Brain Tissue Classification by Multisignal Wavelet Decomposition
           and Independent Component Analysis
    • Abstract: Multispectral analysis is a potential approach in simultaneous analysis of brain MRI sequences. However, conventional classification methods often fail to yield consistent accuracy in tissue classification and abnormality extraction. Feature extraction methods like Independent Component Analysis (ICA) have been effectively used in recent studies to improve the results. However, these methods were inefficient in identifying less frequently occurred features like small lesions. A new method, Multisignal Wavelet Independent Component Analysis (MW-ICA), is proposed in this work to resolve this issue. First, we applied a multisignal wavelet analysis on input multispectral data. Then, reconstructed signals from detail coefficients were used in conjunction with original input signals to do ICA. Finally, Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) clustering was performed on generated results for visual and quantitative analysis. Reproducibility and accuracy of the classification results from proposed method were evaluated by synthetic and clinical abnormal data. To ensure the positive effect of the new method in classification, we carried out a detailed comparative analysis of reproduced tissues with those from conventional ICA. Reproduced small abnormalities were observed to give good accuracy/Tanimoto Index values, 98.69%/0.89, in clinical analysis. Experimental results recommend MW-ICA as a promising method for improved brain tissue classification.
      PubDate: Mon, 22 Apr 2013 13:38:54 +000
  • Postnatal Development of the Retina in Rats Exposed to Hyperoxia: A
           Fractal Analysis
    • Abstract: Purpose. The aim of this study was to investigate and quantify changes in the newborn rats retinal layers during the hyperoxia (80% O2) exposure using fractal analysis. Materials and Methods. This study was conducted on two groups of 20 newborn rats: a control (normal) group (10 rats) and an experimental group (10 rats). The control group was composed of 10 newborn rats, which were placed at 12 hours after birth, in a pediatric incubator, together with their mother, in conditions of normoxia for 21 days. The experimental group consisted of 10 newborn rats, which were placed at 12 hours after birth, in a pediatric incubator with their mother, in conditions of normoxia for 7 days, then 7 days of hyperoxia (80% O2) for 22.5 hours/day, and then 7 days in conditions of normoxia. Slaughtering of the rats was performed on day 21 and the eye globes were harvested in order to perform histopathological examinations. The fractal analyses of the retinal digital images were performed using the fractal analysis software Image J, and the fractal dimensions were calculated using the standard box-counting method. Results. Microscopic examination revealed a normal development of the retina in the control group. In the experimental group, all the animals exposed to hyperoxia revealed both structural and vascular abnormalities on entire retina. Conclusions. The results showed that the fractal analysis is a valuable tool to quantify histoarchitectural changes in the newborn rats retinal layers during the hyperoxia (80% O2).
      PubDate: Mon, 15 Apr 2013 15:56:01 +000
  • Automatic Valve-Rejection Algorithm for Cardiac Doppler Ultrasound Systems
    • Abstract: In recent years, blood flow diagnosis using Doppler ultrasound systems has become popular. Using these systems, the peak velocity of blood flow is automatically traced. However, because valve signals are mixed with the blood flow signals in a heart chamber, automatic measurements of blood flow are not correctly recorded. To solve this problem, we developed a novel method that adopted system identification. We applied a mathematical model with an electrocardiographic waveform as the input and a trace waveform of the peak velocity as the output. Several mathematical models with different structures and orders were compared to select the optimal model. Using this model, we developed a system that could automatically eliminate the valve signal. We also evaluated our valve-rejection algorithm using simulations based on actual clinical data.
      PubDate: Sun, 24 Mar 2013 10:54:15 +000
  • Evaluation of the Feasibility and Quantitative Accuracy of a Generalized
           Scatter 2D PET Reconstruction Method
    • Abstract: Scatter degrades the contrast and quantitative accuracy of positron emission tomography (PET) images, and most methods for estimating and correcting scattered coincidences in PET subtract scattered events from the measured data. Compton scattering kinematics can be used to map out the locus of possible scattering locations. These curved lines (2D) or surfaces (3D), which connect the coincidence detectors, encompass the surface (2D) or volume (3D) where the decay occurs. In the limiting case where the scattering angle approaches zero, the scattered coincidence approaches the true coincidence. Therefore, both true and scattered coincidences can be considered similarly in a generalized scatter maximum-likelihood expectation-maximization reconstruction algorithm. The proposed method was tested using list-mode data obtained from a GATE simulation of a Jaszczak-type phantom. For scatter fractions from 10% to 60%, this approach reduces noise and improves the contrast recovery coefficients by 0.5–3.0% compared with reconstructions using true coincidences and by 3.0–24.5% with conventional reconstruction methods. The results demonstrate that this algorithm is capable of producing images entirely from scattered photons, eliminates the need for scatter corrections, increases image contrast, and reduces noise. This could be used to improve diagnostic quality and/or to reduce patient dose and radiopharmaceutical cost.
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Feb 2013 11:20:49 +000
  • Optical Coherence Tomography in the Diagnosis and Monitoring of Retinal
    • Abstract: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) allows the visualization of the retinal microarchitecture as cross-sectional or tomographic volumetric data. The usefulness of OCT in the management of various retinal diseases is validated by the possibility to allow early diagnosis and to help in the decision-making process. OCT is applied by two main methods: time domain (TD-OCT) and spectral domain (SD-OCT). The advantages of SD-OCT over TD-OCT are significant improvement of the image axial resolution, decreased acquisition times, reduction of motion artifacts, increased area of retinal sampling, and the possibility to create topographic maps by the three-dimensional evaluation of tissues. OCT is the most precise method to measure the central macular thickness (which is the most important practical parameter) in vivo. It has been demonstrated that there are differences in the retinal thickness measurements between OCT models, explained by the higher axial and transverse resolutions of the newer devices. Further research has led to significant improvements in OCT technology represented by ultrahigh resolution OCT (UHR-OCT), swept source OCT (SS-OCT), enhanced depth imaging OCT (EDI-OCT), and adaptive optics. Technological progress in OCT imaging offered new perspectives for better understanding the retinal diseases, opening new avenues for the fundamental and clinical research. This is a review of the data in the literature concerning the evolution of OCT technology in the field of retinal imaging.
      PubDate: Tue, 26 Feb 2013 14:19:38 +000
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