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El Mednifico Journal
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 2307-7301
     Published by Mednifico Publishers Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Phage therapy: The new old antibacterial therapy

    • Authors: Omar Anwar Elkadi
      Abstract: Phage therapy is a microbial based therapy that utilizes the lytic life cycle of bacteriophage to treat pathogenic bacterial infections. It is the earliest antibacterial therapy in modern history. The early success of phage therapy lost its luster after the development of the less controversial antibiotic chemotherapies. However, in the context of the advanced microbiology and biotechnology, phage therapy is reviving as an alternative for antibiotics chemotherapy, especially against multidrug resistant bacterial infections.
      PubDate: 2014-07-26
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Oral health and pregnancy

    • Authors: Nida Zahid, Anna Ali
      Abstract: The progressive physiological changes that occur during pregnancy due to hormonal changes are necessary to support and safeguard the developing fetus and also to prepare the mother for parturition. But these systematic changes can also affect the female’s oral health causing deleterious effects on the quality of life of a female during pregnancy. Dental diseases such as deep dental caries, dental erosion, and periodontal infections can exacerbate during pregnancy. Moreover change in diet, nausea and vomiting during pregnancy deteriorates oral health and increases the chances of dental erosion and dental caries. Furthermore during labor and delivery, dislodged tooth and prostheses can cause complications. 
      PubDate: 2014-07-26
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Integrated teaching in medical curriculum in India

    • Authors: Mohammed Abdul Hannan Hazari
      Abstract: The present medical curriculum utilizes a large part of the allotted time frame in the form of didactic theoretical lectures while little time is available for practical, clinical and behavioral skills acquisition which is required of a basic doctor. Curricular reforms and shift from traditional subject-based theoretical approach in a class room teaching to skill, competence and problem-based learning require appropriate mindset and capability on part of the teachers. Teachers need to adapt to the reforms for which appropriate training to be imparted to them.
      PubDate: 2014-07-26
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Scope of the nutritional assessment in community and clinical settings

    • Authors: Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava, Jegadeesh Ramasamy
      Abstract: The nutritional status of an individual is usually the result of multiple factors which interact with each other in different proportions. Acknowledging the role of diet in the onset of many diseases, assessment of the nutritional status of an individual/family/community is of extreme public health importance. The nutritional assessment is done with an aim to obtain specific information about the prevalence and geographic distribution of nutritional disorders in a given community/a specified population group, to identify nutritionally vulnerable high risk groups and to assess the role of different epidemiological factors in the natural history of the nutritional deficiency disorders. To conclude, the comprehensive nutritional assessment is an effective tool to assess the prevalence of nutritional disorders, to plan corrective measures and simultaneously evaluate the effectiveness of the implemented strategies.
      PubDate: 2014-07-26
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • What if the patient says “No!” in the ambulance: An ethical
           perspective for assessment of capacity in the prehospital emergency

    • Authors: Hasan Erbay
      Abstract: Is it a crucial problem for an emergency team that when a patient to whom an ambulance is called refuses emergency medical aid' In life-threatening situations, it is not only a realistic matter of life and death, but also an ethical challenge for prehospital emergency carers. It is impossible to contemplate and make recommendations in advance, for every possible situation that might arise in prehospital settings. Thinking about the ethical challenges that may be encountered, ahead of time is necessary to provide appropriate attitude.
      PubDate: 2014-07-26
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Spatial information processing by the human visual system

    • Authors: Azadeh A Rikani, Zia Choudhry, Adnan Maqsood Choudhry, Nasir Rizvi, Huma Ikram
      Abstract: Ungerleider and Mishkin suggested the existence of two partly independent visual streams in mammalian visual system. According to their original account, a ventral stream originating from striate cortex and finally terminating in infer temporal region is responsible for identification of objects and, a dorsal stream also coming from striate cortex and projection to posterior parietal cortex plays an important role in localization of those same objects. “What versus Where” hypothesis has been center of investigators’ argument for years. In this review, considering extensive behavioral and neurophysiologic studies, some new ideas about processing of spatial information in mammalian visual system are briefly discussed.
      PubDate: 2014-07-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Microinflammation as a candidate for diabetic nephropathy

    • Authors: Amal Abd El Hafez
      Abstract: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of mortality in patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes throughout the world. This review draws attention to the important role of microinflammation and the complex pathways implicated in the development and progression of DN. These pathways include the collaboration of metabolic, hemodynamic and hormonal factors with oxidative stress in patients with genetic susceptibility to create an inflammatory milieu. The key role of inflammatory cells in the kidney, particularly infiltrating macrophages and T-lymphocytes is highlighted. The major inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, receptors, adhesion molecules as well as transcription factors and transduction pathways involved in the pathogenesis of DN are also discussed. Understanding of these inflammatory pathways guides important therapeutic appliances and improves the discovery of new therapeutic targets that can be translated into clinical treatments for DN.
      PubDate: 2014-07-24
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Antibiotic susceptibility pattern of Serratia marcescens isolates from
           wound infections in a tertiary health institution in Calabar, Nigeria

    • Authors: Ofonime Mark Ogba, Baki Idasa Mandor, Helena Martin Omang
      Abstract: Background: Serratia marcescens, a ubiquitous rod-shaped gram-negative bacterium is an opportunistic pathogen causing a plethora of nosocomial infections in humans including wound infections. They are identified in their ecological niches by their red pigment, prodigiosin. Information concerning these organisms in association with wound infections are sparse in our locality. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of Serratia marcescens in wound infections and their antimicrobial susceptibility profile.Findings: Wound swabs and pus were collected from the patients after receiving informed consent from them. Samples were inoculated on appropriate media and cultures were incubated at 37°C aerobically. Cultures were examined macroscopically and bacterial isolates were gram stained and microscopically examined. Pathogens were identified by their red pigment and other biochemical tests. The Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method was used for antibiotic susceptibility testing. Out of the 251 wound samples collected during the study period, 25 (9.9%) were Serratia marcescens. Males [18 (72.0%)] were more susceptible than females [7 (28.0%)], but there was no influence of gender on the rates of infection (p=0.3). The susceptibility profile of the isolates to antibiotics tested ranged between 4% and 76%. The most sensitive antibiotic was levofloxacin [19 (76%)] followed by gentamicin [17 (68%)]. All the isolates were absolutely resistant to ampicillin.Conclusion: Fluoroquinolones have shown a good activity against Serratia marcescens and should be considered as a first line antibiotic against these infections in our locality. To stay ahead in the fight against these infections, effective infection control should be practiced, antibiotic usage should be optimized and empirical treatment reduced.
      PubDate: 2014-07-23
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Dislodged feeding tubes: Should bedside x-rays be abandoned for advanced

    • Authors: Rachel G Eisenstadt, Rachel L Sensenig, Daniel N Holena, Carrie Sims, Benjamin Braslow, Jose L Pascual
      Abstract: Background: Feeding tube dislodgement is common and timely detection is important to prevent peritoneal contamination. It is unknown which imaging modality is preferable when tube dislodgement is suspected. We hypothesized that a bedside abdominal radiograph with contrast via the feeding tube (TS) would be inferior to non-bedside imaging.Methods: Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) codes involving repair/replacement of feeding tubes were queried at a tertiary care hospital from 2005-12. Demographics, laboratory results and operative records were queried to obtain case details. Radiological studies (TS, computed tomography [CT], fluoroscopy [FL]) obtained prior to laparotomy and time to surgery was evaluated.Results: Of 1451 emergency surgical operative cases during the study period, 37 were identified to be operations for dislodged tubes where 18 had tube removals only, two repairs, and 17 tube removals and replacements at an alternate site. Ten patients had no imaging prior to laparotomy. The remainder underwent TS (6), CT (18) and FL (3) as first line imaging. First line imaging with TS was associated with less subsequent operative contamination and a greater ability to maintain feeding access (p<0.05). Imaging correctly identified need for surgery in 71%, 90% and 66% for TS, CT and FL respectively.Conclusion: When feeding tube dislodgement is suspected, a bedside contrast tube study may not cause undue delays to the operating room or lead to worsened peritoneal contamination. CT as a first line test is not more expeditious and may be associated with worsened outcomes. Bedside tube studies are useful and often sufficient to lead directly to laparotomy.
      PubDate: 2014-07-22
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Phytochemical screening and high performance thin layer chromatography
           finger printing analysis of green hull of Juglans regia (walnut)

    • Authors: Pardeep Sharma, Duraisamy Gomathi, Ganesan Ravikumar, Manokaran Kalaiselvi, Uma Chandrasekaran
      Abstract: Background: Medicinal plants are the richest bio-resource of drugs of traditional systems of medicine, modern medicines, nutraceuticals, food supplements, folk medicines, pharmaceutical intermediates and chemical entities for synthetic drugs. Therefore, researchers today are emphasizing on evaluation and characterization of various plants and plant constituents against a number of diseases. The aim of the study was to investigate the secondary metabolites and high performance thin layer chromatographic (HPTLC) finger printing of different extracts of Juglone regia.Methods: The secondary metabolites were analyzed for various extracts by using standard techniques and HPTLC method has also been established to study the presence of various flavonoids and phenolic compounds for different extracts of Juglone regia.Results: A preliminary phytochemical study confirmed the presence of active chemical constituents in the plant extract and the result showed a positive report for the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids and cardiac glycosides.Conclusion: These substances are known components of medicinal plants and may explain the use of the preparations of the herbs under study for managing a number of common ailments including dysentery, diabetes, hypertension and some microbial infections.
      PubDate: 2014-07-13
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Audit of orthopedic trauma theatre usage: Observation from a secondary
           regional referral hospital in Oman

    • Authors: Dinesh Dhar
      Abstract: Background: Trauma is the leading cause of admission to our hospital and its unpredictability along with mismatch in demand and supply requires more use of resources and system streamlining. The operation theatre is described as the engine room of the hospital. There is no audit from Gulf region on the orthopedic operation theatre usage. The present study was undertaken to assess theatre utilization in our hospital and identify areas where improvement could be done which in turn can be applied to other surgical specialties in our hospital and beyond.Findings: This prospective audit was carried out in 303 bedded regional referral Nizwa hospital in the Department of Orthopedics. A total of 853 cases were electively operated upon during 12 months period from 1st January 2011 to 31st December 2011 in orthopedic operation theatre which was run for 261 days electively during that period. Cases performed on public holidays or during weekend and after 1400 hrs were excluded and classified as emergency procedures. The data was recorded from the time the patient entered the operation theatre (Enter OT) to the time he left (Exit OT). The data was recorded for surgery, anesthesia, changeover, total operating time respectively and calculations made for other variables. 632 cases (74%) started later than scheduled time with average of 22.8 min late start time. Delay in starting the list was due to late arrival of surgeons (22.2%) or anesthetist (28%) in 50.2% cases. Delay due to late or incomplete preparation of the patient or transportation of patient accounted for 44.4% cases. Other causes of delay such as physician or anesthesia review prior to surgery accounted for 5.4% of the delay.Conclusion: Operation theatre, being an area of maximum and complex activity in any hospital, needs multipronged strategy to improve its utilization continuously with regular theatre committee meetings to discuss and anticipate problems and chalk out new ideas and strategies.
      PubDate: 2014-04-03
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
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Heriot-Watt University
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