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Annals of Applied Sport Science
Number of Followers: 11  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2322-4479
Published by ISRG Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Exercise Training, Neuregulin 4 and Obesity

    • Authors: Abbas Ghanbari-Niaki
      Abstract: "Exercise Training, Neuregulin 4 and Obesity" is an "Editorial Article" and hasn't abstract.
  • Heart Rate Variability in an Elite Female Alpine Skier: a Case Study

    • Authors: Patricia Doyle-Baker
      Abstract: Objectives. The purpose of this study was to assess the heart rate variability (HRV) during off-snow and on-snow training in an elite female alpine ski racer.
      Methods. Using a case study design, a single elite female alpine ski racer (25 years old; 175.6 cm; 69.9 kg) was recruited from the Canadian Alpine Ski Team. Training load was obtained using the sessional rating of perceived exertion method (sRPE), and a weekly sum was calculated using all training loads in a calendar week. Resting heart rate was recorded upon waking using a heart rate monitor. HRV was calculated using the natural logarithms of the root mean square of the successive differences of R-R intervals (lnRMSSD), and the coefficient of variation of lnRMSSD (lnRMSSDCV) with smallest worthwhile change (SWC). Compliance was 19.53%.
      Results. An inverse relationship was identified between the extreme values for lnRMSSD and sRPE. Daily lnRMSSDCV found two time-points that were significantly greater than SWC. The regression analysis of daily lnRMSSDCV over time had a positive slope of 0.001 (R = 0.0029). Three major depressions in lnRMSSD were observed over the recording period and two coincided with peak sRPE. The largest depression occurred on the same day the subject sustained a shoulder dislocation during a routine strength training session. The subject maintained training status over the training period but it was not predictive of future performance.
      Conclusion. In this case study, the low compliance limited the ability to identify possible relationships; however periods of functional overreach were identifiable.
  • Effect of Resistance Training with Two Different Volumes on Serum
           Myonectin Levels in Rats Fed with Sucrose Solution

    • Authors: Alireza Safarzade
      Abstract: Background. Moyenctin, is a new identified myokine and belongs to the CTRPs family which plays role in lipid and glucose metabolism. There is limited information available regarding the effects of exercise training on serum myonectin levels.
      Objectives. he aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sucrose solution intake and resistance training (RT) with two different volumes on serum myonectin levels and HOMA-IR in rats.
      Methods. Forty-eight male Wistar rats (10-12 weeks old) were randomly divided into six groups; Control (C), Low volume RT (L), High Volume RT (H), Sucrose Control (SC), Sucrose Low volume RT (SL) and Sucrose High volume RT (SH). The RT groups were subjected to a resistance training program with the use of a ladder (3 days/week, for 8 weeks). Body weight and serum levels of myonectin, insulin, glucose, and HOMA-IR were measured.
      Results. The results two way ANOVA showed that interaction between RT and sucrose solution significantly increased serum levels of insulin (P=0.007) and HOMAL-IR (P=0.002). Consumption of sucrose solution, significantly reduced serum myonectin (P=0.0001) and increased serum glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR (P=0.0001). Also RT significantly reduced serum myonectin, insulin and HOMA-IR (P=0.0001). No correlation was found between serum myonectin and insulin resistance in groups fed with normal foods (P=0.456), but in the groups fed with sucrose solution there was positive and significant correlation (P=0.0001).
      Conclusion. This data indicated that resistance training regardless of volume of training can reduce serum myonectin levels as well as insulin resistance in rats fed with sucrose solution or normal diet groups.
  • Effect of Vitamin C Supplementation on Lipid Peroxidation and Lactate
           Levels in Individuals Performing Exhaustion Exercise

    • Authors: Süleyman Patlar
      Abstract: Background. Exercise has significant affects on free radical production.
      Objective. The objective of the present study was to explore the effect of vitamin C supplementation on lipid peroxidation and lactate levels in sedentary individuals who performed exhaustion exercised.
      Methods. 10 healthy sedentary male athletes participated to study. They were supplemented with 300 mg oral vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid, Ester-C Plus 500 mg, Solgar-USA) and subjected to acute exhaustion exercise by fatigue developed one time a week for 4 weeks. Exhaustion exercises were carried out until exhaustion developed according to Bruce protocol once a week for 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected from the subjects four times, at the beginning and at the end of the supplementation and before and after exercise, over the 4-weeks study period. The samples were used to analyze MDA, GSH, GSH-Px, CAT, SOD and NO levels by using ELISA colorimetric method and plasma lactate levels by an autoanalyzer device.
      Results. Exhaustion MDA, GSH, GSH-Px, CAT, SOD and NO levels measured both before and after supplementation were higher than resting levels (p<0.05). MDA, NO and lactate levels that were elevated in exhaustion before supplementation decreased significantly after vitamin C supplementation (p<0.05).
      Conclusion. The results of our study indicate that the increase in free radical production and lactate levels due to by 4-week exhaustion exercise were offset by vitamin C supplementation. It can be argued in conclusion that supplementation of physiologic doses of vitamin C may be useful for athlete health and performance.
  • Effect of Eight-Week High Intensity Interval Training on Omentin-1 Gene
           Expression and Insulin-Resistance in Diabetic Male Rats

    • Authors: Mahdieh Alizadeh
      Abstract: Background. Omentin-1, a novel adipokine expressed in visceral adipose tissue, is negatively correlated with insulin-resistance and obesity. Objective(s). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks of high-intensity interval training on omentin-1 gene expression in visceral adipose tissue and insulin-resistance in male wistar rats. Methods. A total of 26 male Wistar rats (mean weight = 110±10 gr) were purchased from Pasteur Institute in Iran. At first, six rats were separated as base control group and, after eight weeks of feeding with normal diet, were dissected and their visceral adipose tissues were sampled. The remaining rats were given a high-fat diet for eight weeks. After this, seven rats were separated into the non-diabetic fat group (obese HIIT). Then, diabetes was induced on the remaining animals After eight weeks, diabetic rats were divided into two groups—diabetic control group (n=6) and diabetic HIIT exercise group (n=7). The exercise group ran on treadmill for eight weeks—five days a week with a speed of 29–36 m/min and intensity of 90% of VO2Max. The activity was repeated five times in the first week, which increased to 12 times in the last week. A total of 48 hours after last session, fasting blood glucose and insulin were measured. Omentin gene expression was measured from visceral adipose tissue. Results. Results showed that omentin-1 gene expression was increased significantly after eight weeks of HIIT. Blood glucose and insulin-resistance decreased significantly in training groups (p=0.001).Conclusion. It can be concluded that eight weeks of HIIT induce high omentin-1 gene expression and reduce fasting glucose level and insulin-resistance in diabetic male wistar rats.
  • Intra-Positional and Inter-Positional Differences in Somatotype Components
           and Proportions of Particular Somatotype Categories in Youth Volleyball

    • Authors: Luca Paolo Ardigò
      Abstract: Objective(s). Main aim of this cross-sectional study was to analyse intra-positional, inter-positional differences in proportions of particular somatotype categories in youth volleyball players.
      Methods. Heath-Carter method was used to determine somatotype characteristics of 181 young female volleyball players (age 14.05±0.93, height 170.03±7.61 cm, mass 57.80±8.59 kg, body mass index 19.99±2.37 kg/m2, somatotype 4.33-2.79-3.73±1.02-1.02-1.25). Dependent variables were playing position, player efficacy. Only 7 somatotype categories (of possible 13) were obtained.
      Results. By analysing intra-positional differences, a significantly higher frequency of somatotype categories dominated by the ectomorph component was established in a subsample of more successful players, and a significantly higher frequency of somatotype categories dominated by the endomorph component was found in a subsample of less efficient players. The most frequent somatotype category in all player positions in a sample of more efficient volleyball players is the balanced ectomorph. The smallest number of somatotype categories (only three) was obtained in the subsample of more efficient middle hitters. It indirectly indicates that the most stringent requirements for selection according to the body build are for that position. Similar small inter-positional differences were obtained in both subsamples. Ectomorph somatotype component was most pronounced in young middle-hitters, and endomorph in liberos. Small inter-positional differences in both subsamples are probably consequences of previous selection processes within the clubs.
      Conclusion. Results obtained in this study provide a clearer insight into inter-positional, intra-positional differences in somatotype categories of young female volleyball players.
  • The Effects of Resistance and Endurance Training on the Liver Tissue FNDC5
           mRNA Gene Expression in Male Rats

    • Authors: Amir Rashidlamir
      Abstract: Background. The accumulation of excess triglyceride in the liver and a decrease in brown adipose tissue is related to the fatty liver disease. Regular physical activity can take part in regulating fat oxidation and inhibiting fat accumulation by creating and releasing some myokines. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of each training method in this regard is still not certain.
      Objective(s). This study aims at comparing the effects of resistance and endurance training on FNDC5 (the precursor of irisin myokine) gene expression in male rat liver tissues..
      Methods. Fifteen Wistar male rats (aged 10-12 weeks with an average weight of 331.8 ±63.09 gr) were used. After being taken to the animals’ laboratory, the subjects were randomly assigned to three equal groups viz: control (N=5), endurance (N=5) and resistance (N=5). For the purpose of tissue sampling, all these subjects were anesthetized 72 hours after the experiment had been completed. The liver tissue was immediately removed and then quickly frozen in liquid nitrogen and kept at a temperature of -80o C until RNA extraction. FNDC5 relative gene expression was identified by Real-time PCR method.
      Results. Data analysis revealed a significant difference in FNDC5 gene expression among the groups (P=0.008, Chi Square=31.791). No significant difference was observed between the resistance training and endurance training groups in FNDC5 gene expression, though (P=0.959).
      Conclusion. It can be established that both resistance and endurance training can similarly affect the production and secretion of exercise-induced myokines, including FNDC5 irisin, which can in turn protect against obesity and its impacts on the liver tissue by stimulating the process of browning of white fat.
  • An Initial Study on the Coordination of Rod and Line Hauling Movements in
           Distance Fly Casting

    • Authors: Ulrik Röijezon
      Abstract: Background. The double haul is a unique feature of single-handed fly casting and is used in both fly fishing and fly casting competition. The movement behaviour during the double haul has not been investigated in previous research. Objectives. Describe the coordination of the rod and line hauling movements during distance fly casting. Methods. Elite fly casters performed distance casting with four different fly rod and fly line set-ups used in fly fishing and fly casting competition. Rod and hauling movements were measured with a 3D motion analysis system. Results. The rod and line hauling movements were coordinated in an order whereby peak translational speed of the rod occurs prior to the peak speed of the angular rotation of the rod, and the peak speed of the angular rotation of the rod occurs prior to the peak speed of the line haul. This was consistent for all cast sequences, i.e., the back and forward false casts and the delivery cast, and for all four equipment set-ups, i.e., a shooting-head line cast with a relatively stiff fly rod and a long-belly line cast with three different fly rods with different stiffness and action curves. Results also showed differences in movement coordination between cast sequences and rod and line set-ups. Conclusion. Among elite casters, single-handed fly casting with double haul is coordinated in an order of events whereby the peak speed occurs first for the translation of the rod, then for the rotation of the rod and finally for the line haul.
  • The Effect of a Combined Practice Course of Mental and Physical Practice
           with Systematic Increase in Contextual Interference on Learning a Kata

    • Authors: Robabeh Rostami
      Abstract: Background. Although some research showed the benefits of a systematic increase in contextual interference (CI), it is not completely proved in young children and novices.
      Objectives. On the other hand, considering the recommendation of researchers about the advantages and the use of the mental practice, the aim of the present study was to combine mental practice with CI to improve motor performance in a kata skill. This study investigates the simultaneous effects of these two types of practice.
      Methods. One school in Shiraz city was chosen randomly. Among the entire group of students in this school, 36 sixth-grade elementary school students of age 12 were chosen randomly to participate in this study. After filling out MIQ questionnaire, participants took part in initial instruction sessions and then participated in the pretest. In the next stage, they were randomly placed in three groups: blocked physical practice (B), physical practice with a systematic increase in CI and mental practice + physical practice with a systematic increase in CI (M-CI). The participants practised for five sessions and five trials in each session. In the last training session, an acquisition test, a subsequent retention test (48 hours later), and transfer test in a completion condition were conducted.
      Results. The results showed a significant difference in the acquisition test in the CI and B contexts, and in the retention test and transfer tests, in the CI and M-CI contexts.
      Conclusion. Considering the results, it can be deduced that the systematic increase in the CI has the highest effectiveness. After that, the combined practice (M-CI) has long-term positive effects on performance and learning a kata skill.
  • Effects of Voluntary Exercise on Motor Function in Parkinson's disease
           Model of Rats

    • Authors: Mehdi Shabazi
      Abstract: Background. Previous surveys have shown that motor deficits precede the classical motor symptoms seen in Parkinson’s disease (PD) and that physical exercise may have beneficial effects on PD.
      Objectives. Here, we evaluated the potential of voluntary exercise to improve motor deficit in experimentally-induced Parkinson’s disease (6-OHDA) rats.
      Methods. Forty adult Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: (1) untrained-vehicle (2) untrained-Parkinson’s (3) running wheel (RW)-vehicle and (4) RW-Parkinson’s. Exercise groups were given free nocturnal access for over four weeks. The motor function, balance and strength were respectively measured by Rotarod and hanging test.
      Results. The data showed that voluntary exercise groups had a significant increase in balance (p<0.05) and strength (p<0.05), when compared to control groups. Running wheel improved motor function in animals induced by 6-OHDA.
      Conclusion. Thus, our results reinforce the potential of voluntary exercise as a useful tool for reducing motor symptoms associated with Parkinson’s disease.
  • Factors Affecting the Development of the Electronic Marketing Capacity of
           Professional Sports Federations

    • Authors: Rasoul Tarighi
      Abstract: Background. Information and communication Technology, allows institutions and organizations that doing their business activities and exchanges, with high speed and flexibility. In fact, electronic-commerce has created a massive revolution in Business style and global trading.
      Objectives. The goal of this study was identifying of Effective Factors on Development of the Electronic Marketing Capacity of Professional Sport Federations of Iran.
      Methods. Methodology of This study is mixed. A questionnaire, which made by the researcher, based on Likert 5 option scale, and its validity is confirmed by professionals and professors; moreover, its reliability is examined by Cronbach’s alpha test (0.843). Statistics sample consist, which involve Faculty members of Marketing Management field (20 peoples) and Faculty members of Sport Management (60 people) field. Sampling method is non-random, available and purposeful. Partial least squares regression test and Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process for factors Ranking are used in inferential statistics.
      Results. The Results Showed that factor’s include, Management Factors, knowledge Management, Customer Relationship Management, Strategies, Environmental and Competitive Factors, Website features, Organizational Culture, Supply Chain Management, Brand Factors and resources, with significant Priorities respectively, were effective factor’s on Electronic marketing capability of Professional Sport Iran. Also, The Results of Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process Showed that factor’s include, Management Factors, resources, knowledge Management, Environmental and Competitive Factors, Organizational Culture, Strategies, Supply Chain Management, Customer Relationship Management, Brand Factors and Website features were In the first place to tenth.
      Conclusion. According to the results, from Interview with experts in the field of study, It seems that managers of professional sports federations should Pay more attention to identified factors of electronic marketing development that Which ranked respectively had the highest impact factor (Such as management factors, resources and knowledge management).
  • Measuring Corporate Social Responsibility in Sport Industry: Development
           and Validation of Measurement Scale

    • Authors: Mahdi Talebpour
      Abstract: Background. While more and more sport organizations broadly acknowledge their ability at delivering social values, corporate social responsibility (CSR) is rapidly growing at a significant rate across the professional sport industry and its related organizations. Despite the growing body of research in this area, measuring CSR is still problematic.
      Objectives. Therefore, the aim of this study is to provide an efficient, valid, and reliable measure of CSR reflecting the responsibilities of sport industry.
      Methods. Based on a proposed conceptual framework of CSR, a scale was developed via a standard procedure for developing instrument measures. In this study, to determine and assess the underlying factorial structure, convergent and discriminate validity of measurement scale, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was performed. Data was collected from 640 sport fans in Iran’s Football Premier League.
      Results. The results of the analysis provided a five-dimensional structure of CSR in sport, such as economic, philanthropic, ethical, legal, and environmental issues. These dimensions explained 50.827% of the total variance. In addition, the KMO measure was computed and the results indicated an index of 0.927. Moreover, the values of Cronbach’s alpha obtained for five factors ranged from 0.848 to 0.967. The results show the reliability and validity of this new scale in sport industry.
      Conclusion. This study implies that from a consumer’s perspective, CSR is perceived as a set of attributes; therefore, it is important for a professional sports team’s management to understand fans’ interest in social issues and fans’ responses to various CSR programs.
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