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Sabaragamuwa University Journal
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 1391-3166
     Published by Sri Lanka Journals Online Homepage  [41 journals]
  • Bonding to bridging: networking patterns of up-country Tamil businesses in
           Sri Lanka

    • Authors: Sarath Ananda
      Abstract: The entrepreneurial role of Up-country Tamils is significant among the other Tamil groups as representative of “entrepreneurial little tradition” in the Sri Lankan commercial sector. Since they commit three-fold characteristics of ethnic-entrepreneurship, which are being members of a marginal, minority and immigrant group, the study is intended to contribute to the construction of a broader discourse on the particular characteristics of Up-country Tamil entrepreneurship in Sri Lanka. Multiple factors such as historical protocol, politico-economic background and cultural causes are responsible for construction of their entrepreneurial identity. The caste and kinship-based networking pattern and excessive self exploitation help them to construct the initial social capital. However, when the entrepreneur either seeks to widen the entrepreneurial capacity or when the entrepreneur is unsatisfied with the basic form of networking, he/she is required to shift from privet spaces to public spaces. In one hand it is a geographical movement from the estate sector to a public location such as a town or a bazaar. On the other hand it tends to be a modernization of traditional norms and values of the Tamil community. Therefore, this study may be a source of general understanding of a marginal social group overcomes its socio-cultural barriers in terms of entrepreneurship development; it also attempts to reveal the cultural structure of the Up-country Tamil community, their everyday needs, and the interrelations between members to achieve goals. Within this ground, this study attempts to describe significant entrepreneurial patterns of Up-country Tamil community by field research conducted in three major plantation areas in Sri Lanka.
      DOI : Sabaragamuwa University Journal 2012; V. 11 No. 1 pp 109-138
      PubDate: 2013-08-23
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2013)
  • Impact of individual factors on the business performance of women
           entrepreneurs in Sri Lanka

    • Authors: K L B G Dharmaratne
      Abstract: Sri Lankan women have only recently taken an active role in the business sector of the country. However, they are seemed competing on an equal footing with the men, in the business field. This empirical investigation attempted to understand the impact of personal and industrial factors on the business performance of women entrepreneurs in Sri Lanka. This empirical study examined the applicability of five theoretical perspectives derived from studies in USA and Israel. These five theoretical perspectives include Motivation and Goals, Social Learning Theory, Network Affiliation Human Capital and industrial factors. Each of these variables was ope-rationalized using 4 or 5 dimensions and sub dimensions. This study sheds light on the explanatory power of these five perspectives in the Sri Lankan context. Six hypotheses and six major research questions were developed and tested. A survey was conducted to gather primary data by selecting 100 small business women from Galle, Colombo and Ratnapura districts and that data was analyzed using multiple linear regression analysis and Pearson’s correlation analysis. The reliability was tested using Chronbatch’s Alfa value method and all the variables carried equal or above 0.65. The best fit model of the multiple linear regression includes only three variables such as Motivation & Goals, Human Capital and Industrial factors and excludes the Social Learning Theory and Network Affiliation because their ability to predict the Business Performance is negligible. The correlation analysis too showed strong positive correlations between Business Performance of Sri Lankan women entrepreneurs and Motivation & Goals and Human Capital. Social Learning Theory and Network Affiliation showed positive correlations with Business Performance. But the relationships were not much vivid. There is a very strong positive correlation between Business Performance of small business women and Industrial factors with a 0.721 of coefficient of correlation at a 99% significant level. Overall, this research suggests that theories regarding women entrepreneurship in particular, derived from researches in developed countries need to be carefully examined and tested before being used in developing or non-developed country contexts like Sri Lanka. But in special cases those theories can be applied with slight modifications so that many benefits can be gained from them.
      DOI : Sabaragamuwa University Journal 2012; V. 11 No. 1 pp 139-165
      PubDate: 2013-08-23
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2013)
  • Market window analysis: a case of tobacco, paddy and big oinon farmers in
           Galewela, Sri Lanka

    • Authors: M.T.C.P. Thennakoon, D. A. M. De Silva
      Abstract: The study was carried out to determine profitable market existence for tobacco, paddy and big onion cultivations. The research was conducted in Galewela DS division in Matale district. Tobacco, paddy and big onion were considered major cultivating crops in the area during the Yala season. The market existence for each crops were evaluated using market window analysis. “Market window” refers to a period of time when the prices received by producers for selected crops were greater than the production costs. Profitability and economic efficiency of each crop was measured in order to identify most suitable crop for the season. Cost of production and budget for each crop was prepared using primary data obtained from the field survey in Galewela DS division. Historical prices were collected from economic centers of Dambulla, Meegoda and Ceylon Tobacco Company. Results revealed that profitable market exists for each crop. There was no market existing for tobacco green leaf before 2009 and the profitable market was emerged for paddy after year 2007. Market for big onion cultivators was profitable during studied time period (2003 – 2009) but volatile in its pricing pattern. Highest profitability and the economic efficiency were observed for big onion cultivation. Study revealed that most economic crop for Yala season was the big onion.
      DOI : University Journal 2012; V. 11 No. 1 pp 95-108
      PubDate: 2013-07-31
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2013)
  • Pricing ecological beauty under Dichotomous choice framework: the case of
           Taman Negara national park in Malaysia

    • Authors: A. Aruna Shantha, B.G.H Asan Ali
      Abstract: Taman Negara is Malaysia’s premier national park and the largest in the country covering over 4343 square kilometers (434,300 hectares) of primary forest, spans across three states Kelantan, Terengganu and Pahang - and is situated in the center of the Peninsula Malaysia. It is home to much wildlife and is a popular tourist attraction to both local and foreign tourists. This study attempts to determine the economic value of Taman Negara National Park by eliciting visitors’ willingness to pay (WTP) using contingent valuation method followed by single bounded dichotomous choices. A stepwise backward binary multivariate logistic regression model was used to measure WTP and to determine the factors that influence the variation in WTP. Primary data were obtained from 368 local and foreign visitors who have been interviewed in TN Park. The study found that both local and foreign visitors were willing to pay more than the current charges for entrance permit and nature based activities provided by TN Park. On average visitors are willing to pay for entrance permit RM 16.71 ($ 5.4) per person. The existing rate is RM 1 ($ 0.32) per person. Beside, WTP for all other activities such as fishing license, camera license, camping fee, canopy walkway and hide fee is much higher than the existing rates. The optimum pricing strategy should be a combination of policy objectives and information gathered from local and foreign visitors on WTP. In conclusion, this study can be used as a tool for revising pricing policies on TN national park in Malaysia.
      DOI : University Journal 2012; V. 11 No. 1 pp 75-93
      PubDate: 2013-07-30
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2013)
  • Sensitivity of stock prices to economic events: econometric evidence from
           Sri Lankan stock market and US stock market

    • Authors: D.A.I. Dayarathne, Rajith Lakshman
      Abstract: This paper attempts to examine the sensitivity of stock prices to economic events in an emerging market and in a developed market. Historically several studies have been undertaken on the stock market sensitivity on important economic events in several markets. The sensitivity of stock prices to major economic events is measured by using the volatility test of Inclan and Tiao which objectively differentiates the volatile period from the weekly data series of both markets. The All Share Price Index (ASPI) and New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) Composite Index are used for the volatility test of Inclan and Tiao (1994). Then, the major economic events are matched with the volatility periods of the prices. It is found that the stock prices in both markets are highly sensitive to the major economic events. The findings of this study consistent with Bailey and Chung (1995) who find that important political events tend to be associated with sudden change in volatility. Thus this suggests that portfolio managers should be cautious in advising their clients in dynamic situations in the markets in this nature.
      DOI : University Journal 2012; V. 11 No. 1 pp 21-32
      PubDate: 2013-07-29
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2013)
  • A nihilistic delirium to catharsis the fantasy for a better world: a
           historical and literary re-contextualization of the musical role of velvet

    • Authors: Mahesh Hapugoda
      Abstract: Velvet Underground (referred as Velvets from here on in this essay) is one of the most authentic, influential but least talked rock bands in the history of rock music, whose contribution is greatly forgotten in presence of the high popularity of the commercial form of rock. Started in 1966, the Velvets successfully articulated the avant-garde movement in 1950s and the European eliticism to create an independent, nihilistic and subversive form of rock which was later known as punk. Their style was the most self-expressive and pessimistic rock structure to go in between the hippie psychedelia influenced by existentialism and German expressionism; the two most influential ideological reactions which dominated the intellectual and literary tradition for decades in the post-war Europe. Without identifying with both hegemonic strands, the Velvets pertinently invented their own independent way to express the most profound and authentic feelings of their generation. They were later celebrated for their intellectual and artistic use of rock with great amount of experiments along side avant-gardism. In their poignantly arranged, de-aesthetic songs, though inspired by the use of heroin, have shown an imagination for the need of a better world. This paper will research how their self-expressive, nihilistic and notorious dreams which actually meant to get rid of the era’s desperation can be literary re-articulated to vision a futuristic better world. Though this situation of nihilism and futuristic hope is paradoxical, it is the very dilemma of the era and of modernity. The visualization of Velvet’s fantasy is, if psychoanalytically contextualized, in the form of a nihilistic delirium made through drugs and, resulted as, in Freudian terms, a catharsis to release the masculine libido; the sexual energy in the Id and sometimes as thanatos; the death instinct: both the animal within us. Their death instinct is also illumi...
      PubDate: 2013-07-29
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2013)
  • Reliable detection of viable Salmonella enterica from inoculated chicken
           samples by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with vivification step

    • Authors: R M.U.S.K. Rathnayaka, Sudip Kumar Rakshit
      Abstract: Inspection of food for the presence of Salmonella is a major concern in food industry. Many rapid, reliable and sensitive novel methods have been developed to detect Salmonella from food samples. However a method to detect live bacterial cells separately from dead cells yet to be developed. Although fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) has been identified as promising method in this regards, the viable count could be overestimated by FISH technique due to dead cells with some amount of non degraded rRNA. Some times it could be underestimated because of inactive but viable cells which not produce detectable amount of rRNA. The possibility of using antibiotic treatment step in FISH technique to overcome this problem was studied. Chicken samples inoculated by differently prepared mixtures of live and heat killed Salmonella enterica cultures were used to isolate bacterial cells with and without antibiotic treatment (Nalidixic acid 10μg/ml and Ciprofloxacin 1μg/ml for 2h at 370C). FISH was performed with Salmonella specific 23S rRNA probe Sal3, 5’-AATCACTTCACCTACGTG-3’ labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) at 5’ end. Cells observed with high intensity under fluorescent microscope were identified as live cells. Results of statistical analysis for antibiotic treated and untreated samples indicated that the introduction of antibiotic treatment step in FISH technique permitted a successful application to over come the problem associated with viable Salmonella enterica detection and quantification.
      DOI : Sabaragamuwa University Journal 2012; V. 11 No. 1 pp 13-19 
      PubDate: 2013-07-25
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2013)
  • Farmers’ perception of performance performed by extension field
           workers/facilitators during integrated pest management farmer field school
           training programme in Sindh province of Pakistan

    • Authors: A A Siddiqui, M Siddiqui
      Abstract: In connection to environment friendly farming, potential stakeholders took efforts and launched FAO-EU-ADB funded National Integrated Pest Management (Nat-IPM) Programme for Cotton in Pakistan during the years 2001 to 2004 and introduced new extension training methodology called Farmer Field School (FFS). The basic principle of  FFS training was to enable farmers to be self sufficient, using IPM practices that are agro-ecosystem friendly. This study examined the performance performed by agriculture extension field workers/facilitators (EFW/F)in the implementation of IPM-FFS trainings with special reference to cotton crop in selected districts of Sindh province of Pakistan. A survey study was carried out in four districts of Sindh province (Hyderabad, Tando Allahyar, Matiari and Mirpurkhas). The total sample size comprised of 144 farmers who were involved in the series of IPM-FFS training sessions. Farmers’ perceived that EFW/F played an effective role and performed positively in IPM-FFS activities during training programme. Further, results of present study a confirmation of the adoption and a validation of  IPM-FFS as a successful extension approach in Sindh province of Pakistan.
      DOI : University Journal 2012; V. 11 No. 1 pp 1-12
      PubDate: 2013-07-25
      Issue No: Vol. 11 (2013)
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