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Sabaragamuwa University Journal
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 1391-3166
     Published by Sri Lanka Journals Online Homepage  [44 journals]
  • A study on Ludwig Wittgenstein’s concept of language games and the
           private language argument

    • Authors: R. A. D. Priyanka Weerasekara
      Abstract: The intent of this paper is to examine at what Wittgenstein’s says about language as a use in the term of language games and the private language argument. The major argument of Wittgenstein on the language is the rules of the use of ordinary language is neither right nor wrong, neither true nor false, the language is merely useful for the particular applications in which they are applied . On Wittgenstein’s view, Language is defined not as a system of representation but as a system of devices for engaging in various sorts of social activity, hence ‘the meaning of the word is its use in the language’. Wittgenstein gave us considerable help in understanding what he means by ‘the meaning of the words is its use in the language’ in the term of Language Games and the Private Language Argument. There are various misunderstandings of Wittgenstein’s philosophical ideas by professionals and ordinary readers. They have stemmed largely from a failure to grasp, or come to terms with this aspect of his thought. Thus the major objective of this study is to examine comprehensively what Wittgenstein says about the concept of Language game and the private language argument. The study is based on empirical research methodology. Primary data will be collected by used empirical experiments. Secondary data will be collected by published documents.
      DOI : Sabaragamuwa University Journal 2013; V. 12 No. 1 pp 83-95
      PubDate: 2014-06-13
      Issue No: Vol. 12 (2014)
  • The Goa-Ceylon religious connection: a review of the ‘The Indian
           Cry’ of Alvares Mar Julius, Archbishop of Ceylon, Goa and India

    • Authors: Pratima P. Kamat
      Abstract: Goa, a former Portuguese colony and, at present, a state of the Republic of India, located on the west coast of the subcontinent, has an interesting history of commercial and cultural contacts with Ceylon that were nurtured through the maritime route, especially during the colonial period. Portuguese Goa enjoyed thriving trade relations with the Ilha de Ceilão. It also participated in the Christianisation of this island both under the Portuguese and later, in the seventeenth century, when the Goan priest, Fr. Joseph Vaz, and other Oratorians, made a bid to revive Roman Catholicism there. In 1885, Msgr. Sebastião Rodolfo Dalgado was deputed to Ceylon as its Vicar-General. He served there for two years and with the surrender of their mission of Ceylon by the Portuguese, he returned to Goa in 1887. And in the very same year, 1887, another Goan priest, Padre Alvares, journeyed to Ceylon to contribute to its religious history: initially, to rally the Goan clergy posted there in their fight against the Concordat of 1886, and later to perform his episcopal duties as the Archbishop of Ceylon, Goa and India. Alvares Mar Julius, also known as Padre Alvares, was an editor, writer, founder of educational and social institutions, patriot and, above all, a dedicated social worker. In the pursuit of the spiritual and socio-political uplift of his people, Padre Alvares was branded seditious by the colonial Government of Goa, ex-communicated by the Roman Catholic Church, and elevated to episcopal stature by the Syrian Orthodox Church in the last quarter of the nineteenth century. The present article focuses on the socio-political contributions of Alvares Mar Julius both before he joined the Syrian Orthodox Church and after. It examines the ideology of economic nationalism espoused by Padre Alvares, the “swadeshi” (nationalist) ideology, and attempts to situate this revolutionary priest in the context of local resistance to colonial hegemony in nineteenth century Goa. Further, it reviews the contributions of Alvares Mar Julius to the Syrian Orthodox Church which have been many-fold, with a special focus on his activities in Ceylon in the context of The Padroado Defence Association, the Independent Catholic Mission, and as his mission-field. “I have fought the Good Fight
      I have finished the race
      I have kept the faith.”
      2 Timothy 4:7-8
      DOI : Sabaragamuwa University Journal 2013; V. 12 No. 1 pp 61-82
      PubDate: 2014-06-12
      Issue No: Vol. 12 (2014)
  • How can terrorism be prevented': special reference to
           “Kotiyagala village” in Monaragala district of Sri
           –Lanka from 1995 - 2009

    • Authors: H. Ranjith, Ravindra Chandrasiri Palliyaguruge
      Abstract: This paper is going to examine what the effective method of terrorism prevention. Identification of terrorism and role of the civil society in the counter terrorist measures were the objectives of this research. The research was based on primary data gathered from 150 interviewees using structured questionnaires. Random Sampling Method was used to collect primary data. In addition to using a structured questionnaire, the officers such as Army, Police, teachers, lecturers, farmers were interviewed. Except lecturers, the other interviewees were selected from “kotiyagala village” at “siyabalanduwa” additional secretariat in Monaragala District. Kotiyagala is a village which has been victimized since 1983 by the LTTE. Our research was referenced the “KOTIYAGALA VILLAGE” in the Monaragala district in Sri – Lanka. It is not a land which had to born terrorism or so called “Border Village”. But intimidation of terrorism had been on there. The villagers have been victimized three times since 1995. Even thou terrorist suppression methods that have been succeed in other areas; they could not suitable for KOTIYAGALA. The villages insisted on the necessary of armed weapons to face terrorist, armed training for both male and female. They said that if they could organize as small groups with arms, they can guard their village. In this sense they implied that the necessity of volunteer armed groups for each village. The research explore that even thou terrorism had been defeated it would not be able to prevent without the active participate of civil societies. Terrorism emerges on the base of factors that had been created by the society through its injustice societal activities. According to the study, root causes which will be led to the emergence of terrorism want to be eradicated to prevent terrorism. There is an active participation of civil society, the terrorism prevention would be fruitful.
      DOI : Sabaragamuwa University Journal 2013; V. 12 No. 1 pp 53-60
      PubDate: 2014-06-10
      Issue No: Vol. 12 (2014)
  • Awareness and participation of farmers in extension activities of
           agricultural media resources and extension centre in Ogun state

    • Authors: O. P. Fawole, S. A. Tijani
      Abstract: This study assessed the extension activities of Agricultural Media Resources and Extension Centre (AMREC) of University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Ogun State. Five villages that were in active collaboration with the centre were targeted. Ten percent (10%) of registered farmers were selected from each village given the sample size of 170 respondents. Data based on respondents awareness and participation in the extension activities of AMREC were collected through structured questionnaire and analysis was done using both descriptive and inferential statistics. The study revealed that 69.6% of the respondents were between 31-50years of age, 68.3% were males, 88.8% were married and 62.7% of the respondents have one form of education or the other. Majority (82.6%) were full time farmers with 44.7% cultivating 1-2hectares while 95.0% had technical background before the inception of AMREC in the area. Greater percentage (59.0%) of the respondents had been having contacts with extension agents once in 2 weeks. All the respondents were aware of AMREC research activities but 95% had more awareness on market research. Respondents were aware of extension services of AMREC more than research activities and almost all the respondents were aware of input supply services of AMREC. Meanwhile, participation of respondents in research activities of AMREC was occasional while that of extension and input supply activities was regular. There is significant relationship between gender, marital status, level of education and level of participation in AMREC activities (χ2 = 20.31, p<0.05; χ2 = 6.92, p<0.05 and χ2 = 21.58, p< 0.05). Positive relationship exists between respondents’ awareness of all AMREC activities and participation in the extension activities. It can be concluded that most of the participants in AMREC activities were small scale farmers and their awareness and participation in AMREC extension and input supply activities were more than research activities. More female farmers and farmers with large hectares of land should be involved. Also, AMREC should ensure that their research work is disseminated to all farmers within their coverage areas irrespective of the specific target audience.
      DOI : Sabaragamuwa University Journal 2013; V. 12 No. 1 pp 41-51
      PubDate: 2014-06-10
      Issue No: Vol. 12 (2014)
  • Enjoying elephant watching: a study on social carrying capacity of
           Kawdulla National Park in Sri Lanka

    • Authors: R. M. W. Rathnayake, U. A. D. P. Gunawardena
      Abstract: The goal of this study was to investigate the social carrying capacity (SCC) of Kawdulla National Park (KNP) in terms of vehicle crowding. Crowding was considered as the social norm to estimate the standards for SCC. The normative theory approach was applied in this study and a social norm curve was prepared. Based on the hypothesis visitor acceptability or tolerance influenced by vehicle crowding, images with different number of vehicles were generated. The crowding standard for SCC was estimated as 9 vehicles within 25 m radius by asking each respondent whether the presented scenarios were acceptable or not. Statistically, it was proven that socio economic status of visitors mainly affect on the acceptability of vehicle crowding. The average visitor acceptability for enjoying elephant watching has decreased with the increasing number of vehicles (crowding). Therefore the results of the present study could be applied in decision making to diversify the tourism activities in order to maintain the visitor satisfaction on enjoying elephant watching.
      DOI : Sabaragamuwa University Journal 2013; V. 12 No. 1 pp 23-39
      PubDate: 2014-06-09
      Issue No: Vol. 12 (2014)
  • Critical constructivist teaching in good sportsmanship through Olympism
           education: an action based teacher education program conducted in Sri

    • Authors: Samantha Nanayakkara
      Abstract: This article explores how action research practice is used to empower teachers in critical constructivist teaching in Sri Lanka. The study that informs the article aimed to provide a broader understanding of how to empower teachers by providing opportunities to create their own teaching methods, and to disseminate the findings of teaching good sportsmanship through Olympism education. This study combined the Year Five primary teacher and the physical education teacher in the same school for the purpose of teaching good sportsmanship through Olympism for primary students. The study population comprised a representative sample of five primary and five physical education teachers. The intervention was carried out for a six-month period. Three action cycles were planned throughout the program and later modified with various strategies, according to teachers’ self and interaction assessments. Data were collected through a base line survey, teachers’ reflective diaries, and focus group discussions. Results revealed that once the action based Olympism education teacher training was introduced, there was a dramatic increase in the outcome of teachers’ knowledge, attitudes and skills required for teaching good sportsmanship through the concept of Olympism at primary schools. Teachers were also able to reflect on their own practice and come up with useful strategies to overcome their problems. This research concluded that strategically designed and carefully managed action research programs are useful for developing and enhancing competencies in teachers in order to teach concepts of Olympism effectively.
      DOI : Sabaragamuwa University Journal 2013; V. 12 No. 1 pp 1-22
      PubDate: 2014-06-09
      Issue No: Vol. 12 (2014)
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