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Journal Cover Sabaragamuwa University Journal
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1391-3166
   Published by Sri Lanka Journals Online Homepage  [48 journals]
  • Editorial

    • Abstract: No abstract available Published on 2016-12-01 00:00:00
       
  • Implications of Policies and Procedures in Sustainable Rural Tourism
           Development (SRTD): A Case Study of Sri Lanka

    • Abstract: Developing tourism in rural areas is found as a panacea for many developing countries to alleviate poverty and overcome many other developmental challenges. Although tourism, a non-traditional developmental intervention accrue some economic benefits for local settings, negative impacts of tourism exacerbates the positive impacts. On the one hand Tourism is politically sound development strategy in recapturing and regenerating the development in rural areas on the other hand it challenges the sustainability in the rural development process. This study intended to appraise the role of policies and procedures in Sustainable Rural Tourism Development (SRTD) with the naturalistic evidences from tourism development in rural Sri Lanka. It employed critical qualitative research design to bring forth the interpretations from natural setting through personal interviews, direct observation and field notes in addition to a wide documental review. Documental reviews illuminate a number of ideals of SRTD in supporting local community empowerment, regenerating rural livelihoods, preserving and conserving socio-culture and environment. However, in reality socially constructed world of rural Sri Lanka reveals that the sustainable rural tourism development is curtailed by the inappropriate and unsteady policy formulation and implementation. Weaken policy formulation and implementation in real world of rural tourism development averts the ideals of SRTD.

      Published on 2016-12-01 00:00:00
       
  • Theorizing Violence as an Essential By-product of the Paradox of
           Modernity: Reading Inglourious Basterds

    • Abstract: This paper argues that the animosity and violence theorized in the movie Inglorious Basterds (Tarantino 2009) can be interpreted as a paradoxical by-product of the Enlightened humanity. If the world is a carefully calculated phenomenon of the enlightened man and the reason is the fundamental driving force, it is paradoxical how evil becomes a by-product in modern post-enlightenment humanity. The bourgeois humanity of the Enlightenment project, therefore, carries the characteristic that educated, cultured, mannered and charming men are fully capable of metamorphosing into monstrous beasts and the ‘dialectic totality’ of both good and evil is the ‘true history’ of the modern world. To exemplify that dual existence, the above movie can be considered as an example, where the aestheticized violence portrayed in the movie displays how the ‘decent’ political space has been taken over by the ‘diabolic evil’ of obscene underground. The paper also investigates how the people who immerse in ‘cultivated academic environments’ are capable of justifying violence over fellow human beings, despite whatever said about their conscience.  

      Published on 2016-12-01 00:00:00
       
  • Critics on Feminist Influence for the New Bhikkhunī Revival Debate in Sri
           Lanka: Ethnographical Inquiry

    • Abstract: Feminist academia and activists are the pioneers of revival of bhikkhunī order in Sri Lanka. These International and local proponents are being criticized for their very attempt. Thus, the main objective of this study is to recognize dasasilmātās’ responses towards this intermediation of feminist activism, as dasasilmātās are the oldest alternative form of female renunciant group, who highly affected by the new status of bhikkhunī-hood. This ethnographical study has conducted using observation and interview methods, employing ten executive members of Silmata Jathika Mandalaya (SMJMEC), five dasasilmātās in western province, four bhikkhunīs and one government officer under purposive sampling method. According to ethnographical findings, most of dasasilmātās do not accept International bhikkhunī higher ordination ceremonies and contribution made to them by local and international feminist (female) activists. But, they do not mention about bhikkhu activists as feminist activists. However while criticizing, they highlight the Western feminist influence. Therefore, they hardly identify the high profile of Asian feminist involvement in revival of bhikkhunī order in Sri Lanka. For instances, in reality there were multiple transnational bhikkhunī advocacy projects. Dasasilmātās not only equates feminism with the West, but also with elite class status. Further, inner disagreements or fractions among local feminists and activists in the early period of the bhikkhunī revival movement are important concerns.

      Published on 2016-12-01 00:00:00
       
  • Tourism Under Military: A Critique on Land Utilization and Tourism in
           Postwar Sri Lanka

    • Abstract: This critique argues that the intervention of military in land utilization and recreational tourism in the Northern and Eastern provinces of Sri Lanka was instigated by marker-driven geo-political negligence. It discovers that the nature of the introduction of post-catastrophic
      tourism (Zizek, 2014) has been affected by profound non-articulation of political significance to the traumatic historical memory of the inhabitants who were affected, which has resulted in generating a degree of dark tourism in the area concerned. The southern invasions in the form of usual pilgrims which ‘combined battlefield and leisure tourism practices’ (Pieris, 2014: 266) has characterized ‘the presentation and the consumption of real and commoditized death and disaster area’ (Foley and Lennon, 1996: 198) which has originated in consequences of a long term conflict. Correspondingly, the apparent mass tourism promotion by the government between 2009 and 2014 too has significantly disregarded the definitive symbolic principle of ‘the visitation to places where tragedies or historically noteworthy death has occurred and that continue to impact our lives’ (Tarlow, 2005: 48) before obvious profit motives. The study observes that serious memories and sensitivities of the thirty years of the war-affected community have not been paid attention to and has caused dangerous humanitarian negligence in a wider political sense. While the function of tourism at present as an agent of development in improving the living condition of the community seems evidently true in this context, the trivialization of the symbolic significance of a historical memory and ownership of a community, which has turned ‘the suffering into a leisure experience for contemporary tourists’ (Smith et al., 2010: 38) cannot also be easily overlooked. Published on 2016-12-01 00:00:00
       
  • Balancing the Conflict between Right to Information and Right to Privacy
           under Sri Lankan Fundamental Rights Perspective

    • Abstract: Protecting the peace and human wellbeing of a particular society is the main purpose of existing a law. However, it is problematic to say exactly whether the real purpose of law can be achieved through the established law enforcement approaches like legislations, judgments, standing orders, circulars, regulations etc. Thus, to create a most effective legal system, finding an answer to that issue is very essential, because if the real purpose of law cannot be achieved properly from these approaches, other solutions should be found out to protect peace and human wellbeing of society.
      Human rights are the universally accepted rights which should be granted to each and every person to color-up their public and private lives. Right to information and right to privacy takes a vast attention nowadays though they make a continuous conflict with the development of the modern communication technology, because when right to information attempts to provide maximum public information to get an extensive knowledge on the public sphere, right to privacy attempts to conceal one’s personal information like family life, relationships, physical and mental integrity, etc. from others. It points out that both rights are very essential to properly arrange people’s public and private lives.
      Although Sri Lankan current legal system shows a satisfactory movement in protecting right to information, such a movement cannot be seen to protect people’s privacy rights. Sure enough, in spite of having vast numbers of black and white written laws, an effective practical enforcement of those laws also cannot be seen. Thus, enforcing the protection of both right to information and right to privacy effectively and striking a balance between these two conflicting rights to prevent overlapping is essential to establish the real purpose of existing a law in Sri Lanka.

      Published on 2016-12-01 00:00:00
       
  • An Investigation into the Efficacy of Applying the Principle of Rasa in
           Formulating Television Advertisements

    • Abstract: Rasa element in turn consists of ten parts, namely, Srungaarö, Karuna, Wiirö, Biibathsö, Shaanthö, Haasyö, Raudrö, Bhayanakö, Athbhuthö and vatsalyö. Objectives were to find whether or not ‘Rasa’ in Indian poetics can be used as an effective audio visual tool in the selected advertisement samples from Sri Lankan television and to make commercials more interesting by mixing existing Indian poetic theory with better understanding of the aesthetic sentiment known as ‘Rasa’. For the purpose of this research, specific advertisements have been selected from Sri Lankan television with special attention given to the ten elements of ‘Rasa’. Out of the ten elements of ‘Rasa’ Karuna and Shaanthö have not been found. There yet remains scope for improvement in the field of audio visuals with a better knowledge of Indian poetics and in conclusion it can be stated that any future studies done in relation to aesthetic sentiment or ‘Rasa’ will not be limited to benefitting the field of advertizing but would additionally benefit film making and the creation of videos for social awareness as well. Published on 2016-05-01 00:00:00
       
  • An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of An Olympism Education Programme to
           Resolve Conflicts Between Primary School Students in Sri Lanka

    • Abstract: This paper reports and discusses the findings of an experimental method study that investigated how Olympism education could strengthen competencies on conflict resolution, through delivery of socio-cultural values educating young students in ethnically divided societies in Sri-Lanka.The research examined the initiatives first by investigating the impact of education in promoting peace in Sri Lanka. Secondly, the study provided an explanation for the potential nature of Olympism in conflict resolution and promoting peace in Sri Lanka. The study has introduced an integrated model of Olympism values and conflict resolution strategies and has been tested among primary students who represent the two main Sri Lankan ethnic groups; Singhalese and Tamils. Considering the effects of the intervention, the most notable finding of this study was that conflict resolution and Olympism Education integrated curriculum intervention significantly improved experimental group students’ conflict resolution competencies regardless of their gender or ethnicity. This research concluded that strategically designed and carefully managed Olympism lessons can help students to develop and enhance competencies of conflict resolution. In order to achieve significant outcomes in young children’s ability to learn to resolve their conflicts when they were exposed to physical education lessons, it is needed to employ experiential learning opportunities through a well balanced theoretical basement and sporting activities. Published on 2016-05-01 00:00:00
       
  • Failures in Decolonization and ‘the Return to the Past’:
           Reading V.S. Naipaul

    • Abstract: This study examines the failures in decolonization and its political outcomes leading to a phenomenon called ‘totalitarianism’ in a transitional post-colonial context, as characterized in the works of V.S. Naipaul. It attempts to articulate how the post-colonial nations, once ‘abandoned’ by their Colonial Masters and then taken over by unsuccessful indigenous rulers, have encountered symptomatic political development within themselves ‘as finite limitations of their existence’ as they have emerged and are ideologically embedded in a historically affected consciousness (Gadamer 2006). To escape from the humiliation, dislocation, anxiety, jealousies and alienation generated by modern secularism and rationalism transmitted through colonialism itself, they seem to ‘return’ (Amin 2014: 81) to an ideology largely borrowed from history and tradition as ‘retrogressive nostalgia’ for today’s and tomorrow’s problems, which ultimately results in nothing but violent totalitarianism. In such transitional contexts where societies still struggle to come to terms with modernity, though the material conditions of life improved, the shift in mentality (Miao 2000) from one condition to a completely unprepared and unexpected phase remains crucial. The destructive energy that is often used against the universal civilizing force is seen here as a ‘compensation for the pain suffered through the disintegration of traditional forms of live’ (Habermas 2007: 102). This study, with the support of contemporary philosophical, political, literary and psychoanalytical interventions, dialectically examines how such symptomatic developments are empirically explored in the fictional and biographical works by V.S. Naipaul. Published on 2016-05-01 00:00:00
       
  • Adsorptive Behavior of Arsenic(III) Ions from Aqueous Solution onto
           Forestry and Agricultural Waste Biochar Pyrolyzed at 400°C

    • Abstract: Sorption capacity of two different biochar (saw dust and rice straw) was evaluated in the recovery of arsenic from aqueous solutions. Biochar from rice straw and saw dust were obtained from pyrolysis of biomass at 400°C. The optimum sorption conditions were studied for different concentrated monometallic system. Sorption studies were performed at different pH, contracting time and different initial metal ion concentration in the batch mode. The optimum pH was 3 for recovery of As(III) and kinetic studies yielded an optimum equilibrium time of 50-60 minutes with an adsorbent dose of 1 g/L and initial concentration ∼20 mg/L for As(III) ions. As(III) ions in aqueous solution were transported to biochar surface through adsorption and intra-particle diffusion process. Experimental data for As(III) ions was fitted a Langmuir model with R2 value for As(III) 0.969, 0.879 for saw dust and rice straw respectively. The Freundlich constant, KF values for removal of As(III) ions by saw dust and rice straw were 0.9127, 0.8951 respectively. The 1/n value for arsenic ions obtained from saw dust and rice straw were 0.209, 028 and indicate the normal sorption of As(III). The values indicated the affinity of the sorbent towards the uptake of As(III) ions were favorable and rice straw and saw dust biomass can be used to remove Arsenic(III) ions from aqueous phase. Published on 2015-12-01 00:00:00
       
 
 
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