Sri Lankan Journal of Infectious Diseases
Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2012-8169
Published by Sri Lanka Journals Online [45 journals]
Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2012-8169
Published by Sri Lanka Journals Online [45 journals]
- Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence among two selected
groups of women
Abstract: Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite able to cross the placental barrier and known to infect the foetal tissues leading to abortions and congenital deformities. This was a case control study conducted between April 2009 and 2010 that compared the seroprevalence of T. gondii and the frequency of association to known risk factors for infection between 100 healthy pregnant women within 28 weeks of pregnancy having no medical complications and 100 women having undergone a spontaneous miscarriage in the past 6 months attending the Antenatal and Gynaecology clinics of the Professorial Obstetrics & Gynaecology Unit of the De Soyza Maternity Hospital for Women in Colombo. Two milliliters of venous blood was collected and tested for T. gondii antibodies at the Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Medicine, Colombo, using OnSite Toxo IgG/IgM Rapid Test-Dip Strip®. Personal details and data regarding the known risk factors for the infection were obtained using an interviewer administered questionnaire. The participants were aged between 15 and 46 years (median 29); 38% of women in each group were primigravidae. All participants were sero-negative for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies. However, 22.5% (n=45) of all study subjects were sero-positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies, which included 62.2% (n=28) from the healthy group and 37.8% (n=17) from those with a recent past history of a spontaneous miscarriage. The difference in seropositivity for Toxoplasma gondii between the two selected groups was not statistically significant (X2=3.47; p=0.063). There were no significant associations between sero-positivity and known risk factors either (p>0.05). Although our study did not reveal any evidence for association between exposure to Toxoplasma gondii infection and spontaneous miscarriage, the presence of more than 75% non-immune women of child bearing age is a cause for concern considering the potential risks posed by this parasite, emphasizing the importance of an organized educational programme targeting this high risk group to prevent infection during pregnancy.
DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.4038/sljid.v1i1.3091 Sri Lankan Journal of Infectious Diseases Vol.1(1) 2011: 9-17 Published on None
- A Case of Diphtheria
Abstract: Diphtheria is a nearly eradicated disease in Sri Lanka. After introduction of EPI vaccination program in 1978 childhood diphtheria has been eradicated. However sporadic cases of adult diphtheria have been reported among the non-immunised adult population. Classical presentation of active severe exudative pharyngitis, and cervical adenitis associated with acute neurological deficit with clinical response to anti-diphtheria toxin makes adult diphtheria a probable clinical diagnosis in the patient. However, isolation of Corynebacterium diphtheriae from the throat of a patient is required for definitive diagnosis. The need for a prepared laboratory system is discussed.
DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.4038/sljid.v1i1.2952Sri Lankan Journal of Infectious Diseases Vol.1(1) 2011:27-31 Published on None
- An alternative technique of collecting nail specimens for mycological
Abstract: An alternative technique for collection of nail samples in the microscopic diagnosis of onychomycoses is discussed. 54 samples were collected using the conventional technique and the alternative method. 31 of the 54 samples were positive, 30 by the test method (96.8%), and 14 (48.4%) by the conventional method showing the usefulness of the proposed method.
DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.4038/sljid.v1i1.3186Sri Lankan Journal of Infectious Diseases Vol.1(1) 2011: 24-26 Published on None
- Pathogenesis of Dengue viral infections
Abstract: Dengue viral infections are one of the most important mosquito borne viral infections in the world. There are four dengue virus serotypes (DEN1-4) which are closely related. Initial infection with a particular serotype is known as primary infection, which is usually asymptomatic or results in mild disease manifestations. Although cross reactive T cells and cross reactive antibodies have been shown to contribute to disease pathogenesis, these mechanisms alone do not explain the immunopathological mechanisms leading to severe disease. However, studies have suggested that immunopathological, host genetic and viral factors all contribute to the occurrence of severe disease. Therefore, it is important to further investigate the quality of dengue specific immune responses in patients with acute severe and asymptomatic dengue infection, to determine the immune correlates of severe clinical disease and protection.
DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.4038/sljid.v1i1.2987 Sri Lankan Journal of Infectious Diseases Vol.1(1) 2011: 2-8 Published on None
- Welcome Editorial
DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.4038/sljid.v1i1.3216Sri Lankan Journal of Infectious Diseases Vol.1(1) 2011 Published on None
- An audit on the technique of collection of blood for culture at the
National Hospital of Sri Lanka
Abstract: The accuracy of blood culture results is highly dependent on proper technique. This audit sought to determine whether health care personnel are adhering to standard techniques for collection of blood for culture. Fifty episodes of blood culture collection were observed at the National Hospital of Sri Lanka between August and December 2008 using an observational check list to determine accuracy of technique. 44/50 of the cultures were drawn after commencement of antibiotics. 45/50 did not wash their hands prior to collection. Of the five who washed their hands only two used antiseptic soap. 37/50 wore sterile gloves. 16/50 used two antiseptics and 32/50 used one to disinfect the venepuncture site. 2 did not disinfect the entry site. Only 2 swabbed the site in a concentric manner. 11 touched the site after disinfection. Only 39 were able to collect blood with a single puncture. Almost all the participants (49/50) did not disinfect the lid of the culture bottle. Only 21/50 drew adequate blood for blood culture. Only two drew a second blood culture. Syringes used to collect blood should be discarded into a sharp bin without recapping. In our study 40 /50 participants recapped the syringe before disposal. However 45 /50 of the participants correctly disposed the sharps and gloves into the sharp bin and yellow bag respectively. Although written instructions have been given regarding collection of blood for culture a high percentage of health care workers do not adhere to these guidelines. This is an important quality assurance issue that needs to be addressed.
DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.4038/sljid.v1i1.3184Sri Lankan Journal of Infectious Diseases Vol.1(1) 2011: 18-23 Published on None
- Birth pangs of the Sri Lankan Society for Microbiology
Abstract: The Sri Lankan Society for Microbiology (SSM) was created to facilitate and enhance the exchange of ideas and share knowledge and laboratory resources relating to microbiology in Sri Lanka. The mission statement of SSM would be 'To promote an integrated multidisciplinary approach towards the study of basic and applied microbiology'.
DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.4038/sljid.v1i1.3217 Sri Lankan Journal of Infectious Diseases Vol.1(1) 2011: 34-35 Published on None
- Is Sri Lanka ready to deal with a potential diphtheria outbreak' A
possibility in countries with high immunization coverage
Abstract: The emergence of diphtheria in countries with high immunization coverage is possible. The need to boost immunity in the adult population, have laboratory facilities for diagnosis and stocks of anti-toxin for rapid treatment are discussed.
DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.4038/sljid.v1i1.3214Sri Lankan Journal of Infectious Diseases Vol.1(1) 2011: 32-33 Published on None
DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.4038/sljid.v2i1.4051 Sri Lankan Journal of Infectious Diseases Vol.2(1) 2012: 1 Published on None
- Melioidosis in Sri Lanka: an emerging infection
Abstract: Melioidosis, a pyogenic infection that presents acutely or as a chronic infection, is caused by the soil-associated bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei. Infection is acquired by inoculation or inhalation and is more common in patients with underlying chronic disease. It is endemic in the tropical belt. Although Sri Lanka is not considered as a country where melioidosis is endemic, an increasing number of cases have been reported recently. Definitive diagnosis requires the isolation of B. pseudomallei in culture from clinical specimens. However, the laboratory diagnosis of melioidosis in Sri Lanka and other under-resourced countries is limited by a lack of familiarity with the bacterium and a lack of facilities to accurately confirm the identity of the isolate. It is highly likely that melioidosis is under-diagnosed in this country. There is a need to increase awareness of this infection among clinicians and clinical microbiologists and improve laboratory facilities for the selective isolation and accurate identification of B.pseudomallei. In addition, studies are needed to determine the epidemiology of melioidosis in Sri Lanka.
DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.4038/sljid.v2i1.3801Sri Lankan Journal of Infectious Diseases Vol.2(1) 2012: 2-8
Published on None