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Journal Cover   International Journal of Environment
  [3 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2091-2854
   Published by Nepal Journals Online Homepage  [62 journals]
  • Editor’s Message Vol.4(3)

    • Authors: Govinda Bhandari
      Abstract: Not available.International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page: I-I
      PubDate: 2015-08-24
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2015)
       
  • GUEST EDITORIAL MESSAGE TODAY: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT

    • Authors: Anil Kumar Shankhwar
      Abstract: Not available.International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page: II-III
      PubDate: 2015-08-24
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2015)
       
  • FOREST RESOURCE INCOME VARIATION IN MID-HILLS OF NEPAL: A CASE STUDY FROM
           TWO CFUGS OF PARBAT DISTRICT, NEPAL

    • Authors: Ganesh Paudel
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract:  Inequality persists in Nepali society and various source of income including forest resource contributes to it. This study was conducted in two CFUGs of the Parbat district, Nepal and examines the variability in the forest resource income at the household level. Focus group discussion, Key informants survey and Household survey methods were employed to collect the primary data and random sample of 120 respondents were surveyed. Along with simple mathematical calculations statistical test ANOVA was performed for data analysis. Rich categories of users derive significantly more income from the CF than the middle and poor categories of users although being the larger share of CF income to the total forest income for poor users. The CF income also varies with the sex of the household head and caste of the users in absolute terms but not significant. The Gini coefficient of the income distribution is found 0.48, 0.34 and 0.31 for CF income, Private trees income and total forest income respectively. It is recommended to the CFUGs that the benefit sharing should be in the equitable basis for the sustainable use of the resources. International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page: 1-10
      PubDate: 2015-08-24
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2015)
       
  • ADAPTATION STRATEGIES OF FOOD SECURITY FOR CLIMATE CHANGE

    • Authors: Sajani Shrestha
      Pages: 11 - 19
      Abstract:  The Rupa lake area in Lekhnath Municipality of Kaski district, at Rupa Lake basin areas of Nepal was selected to explore the impacts of climate change on livelihoods in term of food security. 20% of the wetland dependent communities constituted of sample household (HHs). Semi-structured questionnaire was taken for focused group consultations. It was found that majority of population (87%) of lake basin is dependent on agriculture for food security. There is a year-round food security for 50% of sample HHs, with 22% of this having surplus food. About 5% of HHs has food security for less than three months where as 19% HHs have food security for more than six months. Within this scenario, over 90% HHs responded to climate change in the form of rise in temperature (74%); unpredictable rainfall (77%); shift in rainfall (64%); and phonological changes (51%). About 74% of households are aware about the effect of climate change and had adopted different strategies to resist against the effect of climate change. Out of the 74% of HHs, more than 50% of the household use chemical fertilizers and agricultural inputs and other means to cope small shop (business), service, labor and remittance against the climate change.International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page: 11-19
      PubDate: 2015-08-24
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2015)
       
  • FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS ON INDUSTRIAL SYMBIOSIS BETWEEN CEMENT INDUSTRY AND
           TEA INDUSTRY

    • Authors: Shailendra Kumar Yadav, R Kalaiyarasi
      Pages: 20 - 34
      Abstract: The project aims at analyzing the feasibility of utilizing cement kiln dust (CKD) in treating wastewater from tea industry with the concept of industrial symbiosis. CKD is the dust collected at the air pollution control device(s) associated with a kiln system from cement industry. A very less percent of CKD is recycled and the rest is land filled /stockpiled; disrupts groundwater through leaching of minerals. Cement Kiln Dust (CKD), rich in CaO, SiO2, behaves as a neutralizing as well as stabilizing agent for tea effluent treatment. The ability of CKD to reduce the BOD, COD, TSS, and phosphates in tea effluent was analyzed and the optimum dosage is determined. The effect of different dosages of Cement Kiln Dust ranging from (1-3) gm/l has been discussed on the bench scale tests. The results show that, for different CKD concentrations, high removal efficiencies of 94.4 and 99.0, 58.9 for BOD, TSS, phosphates and a lower efficiency for COD with 9.09 are achieved for 2.5gm/l. The persistent presence of color providing proteins theaflavins (TF) and the arubigins (TR) from the leftover tea leaves in the effluent imparts the low removal efficiencies of COD. However, the COD value is within the dischargeable limits (CPCB standards). Moreover, a considerable removal efficiency and high SVI of 0.181 makes CKD a feasible coagulant in treating tea effluent with optimum dosage of 2.5g/l. The objective of developing industrial symbiosis network was thus achieved using the CKD to treat wastewater from tea industries.   International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page: 20-34
      PubDate: 2015-08-24
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2015)
       
  • EVALUATION OF ECOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE OF MYSIDS AS A FOOD ITEM IN THE DIET
           OF FISH, NEW ZEALAND

    • Authors: N. N. Punchihewa
      Pages: 35 - 41
      Abstract: The main objective of this study is to determine the ecological importance of mysids as a food item of selected fish species using C and N isotopes (stable isotopic study) and gut content analysis of fish. Fish samples (Galaxias maculates and Athrinidae sp.) and mysid samples (Tenagomysis chiltoni and T. novaezealandiae) were collected from Kakamatua Stream situated on the west coast of Auckland region in late January 2009 (summer). All the collected samples were oven-dried, and then ground to obtain a homogeneous powder. Three replicates of each sample were prepared. Samples were processed by the Waikato Stable Isotope Unit (Scientific/20). For gut content analysis, ten specimens of each fish species, G. maculates and Athrinidae sp. were collected and were fixed in 5% formalin immediately. These fish specimens were dissected out and the stomach contents were mixed in a beaker with 10 ml water. After mixing, the contents were examined under the light microscope fitted with an eye piece micrometer. It is evident from both methods that two mysid species T. chiltoni and T. novaezealandiae form a substantial component of the diet of commercially important G. maculates, at Kakamatua stream. Changes in the diet, during the ontogenetic development, in relation to body size have shown a significant enrichment of ?15N values and ?13C values of T. chiltoni and G. maculates.International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page: 35-41
      PubDate: 2015-08-24
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2015)
       
  • EFFECTS OF ALKALINE SANDY LOAM ON SULFURIC SOIL ACIDITY AND SULFIDIC SOIL
           OXIDATION

    • Authors: Patrick S. Michael
      Pages: 42 - 54
      Abstract:  In poor soils, addition of alkaline sandy loam containing an adequate proportion of sand, silt and clay would add value by improving the texture, structure and organic matter (OM) for general use of the soils. In acid sulfate soils (ASS), addition of alkaline sandy would improve the texture and leach out salts as well as add a sufficient proportion of OM for vegetation establishment. In this study, addition of alkaline sandy loam into sulfuric soil effectively increased the pH, lowered the redox and reduced the sulfate content, the magnitude of the effects dependent on moisture content. Addition of alkaline sandy loam in combination with OM was highly effective than the effects of the lone alkaline sandy loam. When alkaline sandy was added alone or in combination with OM into sulfidic soil, the effects on pH and the redox were similar as in the sulfuric soil but the effect on sulfate content was variable. The effects under aerobic conditions were higher than under anaerobic conditions. The findings of this study have important implications for the general management of ASS where lime availability is a concern and its application is limited.International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page: 42-54
      PubDate: 2015-08-24
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2015)
       
  • ASSESSMENT OF RIVER WATER QUALITY USING MACRO-INVERTEBRATES AS INDICATORS:
           A CASE STUDY OF BHALU KHOLA TRIBUTARY, BUDHIGANDAKI RIVER, GORKHA, NEPAL

    • Authors: Anju Rana, Jeevan Chhetri
      Pages: 55 - 68
      Abstract:  Macroinvertebrates are widely considered as indicators of water quality. The present research work was conducted in Bhalu khola, a tributary of Budhigandaki River, Nepal, to identify water quality using macro invertebrates with Nepalese Biotic Score (NEPBIOS), and examine its applicability by comparing with Water Quality Index (WQI).The diversity of macro invertebrates in the studied river was high as depicted by Shannon Wiener Diversity Index. Altogether, 103 macro invertebrates were identified from 11 families and five orders. There were no dominant species, and most of the species were in clumped distribution. According to NEPBIOS index, river water was found to comply with the characteristics of WQ class I-II that means water quality of the river was good. Other indices such as Hilsenhoff and Lincoln quality index (LQI) index also supported this result. Similarly, water quality index (WQI) also showed similarity with NEPBIOS index, indicating water appropriate for drinking purpose. Thus, it is concluded that the macro invertebrates can be used as economic tools for determining water quality of streams and rivers as efficient water quality indicators.International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page: 55-68
      PubDate: 2015-08-24
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2015)
       
  • VEGETATION STRUCTURE AND REGENERATION OF VAN PANCHAYAT FORESTS IN KUMAUN
           HIMALAYA, UTTARAKHAND

    • Authors: Jyoti Pandey, L. S. Lodhiyal
      Pages: 69 - 80
      Abstract: Study deals with the vegetation structure and regeneration in Van Panchayat forests in Nainital of Kumaun Himalaya. The analysis of forest was done in three sites i.e. hill top, hill slope and hill base forest site. Tree density in Jungalia and Soangaon Van Panchayats ranged from 80-2070and 50-5270 individual ha-1 respectively. Importance value index was8.11-137.29in Jungalia gaon Van Panchayat while15.65-143.04in Soangaon Van Panchayat. Species diversity ranged from 0.09-1.97 in Jungalia gaon and 0.17-0.44 in Soangaon Van Panchayat. The occurrence of higher number of seedlings in both the Van Panchayat showed good regeneration potential of tree species. International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page: 69-80
      PubDate: 2015-08-24
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2015)
       
  • AN ASSESSMENT OF SEVERITY OF ENVIRONMENTAL AEROSOL PARTICLES DURING
           PRECIPITATION

    • Authors: T. S. Verma, K. S. Madhava Rao, Shibu K. John
      Pages: 81 - 95
      Abstract: Africa is one of the sources of biomass burning emissions. It is estimated that about 6 million tons of fuel per day is consumed in the southern hemisphere. Biomass burning has an important contribution on aerosol particle concentrations in the atmosphere. Efforts have been made to conduct research in Gaborone to monitor the concentration of atmospheric aerosols in atmosphere. These studies were mainly confined to measurement of concentration of aerosols and establishing a relation with determinants such as carbon dioxide concentration, biomass burning, and precipitation among others. However, very little seems to have been done in relating the empirical data to a mathematical model or to study quantitatively the impact of precipitation on the concentration of aerosols larger than 0.3?m in the atmosphere. In this paper we provide an objective criterion for classifying measurements on concentration of atmospheric aerosol particles and build a mathematical model that helps us to understand variations in weekly aerosol concentrations in terms of their severity. We also construct an index of severity which when applied to different seasons under the study period indicates that precipitation significantly scavenges atmospheric aerosols.International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page: 81-95
      PubDate: 2015-08-24
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2015)
       
  • DUST FALL RATE AND ITS COMPOSITION IN CHANDRAPUR INDUSTRIAL CLUSTER,
           CENTRAL INDIA

    • Authors: R. K. Kamble
      Pages: 96 - 110
      Abstract:   Dust is one of the significant air pollutants in ambient air of Chandrapur industrial cluster. A study was carried out to ascertain the dust fall rate in four sampling locations in the Chandrapur industrial cluster of Chandrapur district, central India. The sampling was carried out by dust fall jar method in winter season (2014-2015) and dust fall rate was estimated gravimetrically. Maximum dust fall rate was recorded in Nakoda 246.67 MT sq km-1 month-1 (industrial area, downwind direction), followed by CSTPS colony 171.77 MT sq km-1 month-1 (industrial area, downwind direction) whereas minimum concentration was found in Babupeath 55.54 MT sq km-1 month-1 (residential area, downwind direction) for December-January. Whereas, during sampling period of February-March maximum dust fall rate was observed to be 278.14 MT sq km-1 month-1 at Babupeath (residential area, upwind direction) and minimum dust fall rate was observed at Ballarpur 173.74 MT sq km-1 month-1 (industrial, upwind direction). The results indicated that dust fall rate for the sampling period of December-January in industrial cluster region was higher as compared with residential region. It has been also observed that upwind direction sampling locations had lesser dust fall rate as compared with downwind direction. The composition of dust fall from study area was dominated by water soluble components. Water insoluble components were comprised of inorganic insoluble and volatile matter. Total inorganic component per cent by weight was maximum in dust.International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page: 96-110
      PubDate: 2015-08-24
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2015)
       
  • GENERATION MEAN ANALYSIS FOR YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN SESAME
           (Sesamumindicum L.)

    • Authors: Khalafalla A. Ali
      Pages: 111 - 120
      Abstract:  Two parents with contrasting characters were used, viz; Gd2002SPSN.29 and Ziraa-9 described as (P1) and (P2) respectively. They were selected from the sesame breeding program, Gedarif Research Station, ARC, Sudan. In season 2004 the two parents were crossed to produce F1 hybrid. In season 2005 parents and their F1 were grown. Part of the F1 was selfed to produce F2 and the other part was back crossed to both parents to produce Bc1 and Bc2 progenies. In season 2006 the parents (P1, P2), and their F1and F2 and back crosses (Bc1, Bc2) populations were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. A wide range of variability was exhibited for most of the characters. The highest seed yield was obtained by the BC2 (714 Kg.ha-1), while the lowest was obtained by the BC1 (286 Kg.ha-1). Considering the nature and magnitude of gene action, improvement of days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height, number of branches plant-1, height to first branch, height to first capsule, capsule length and 1000-seed weight could be achieved through simple pedigree method while hybrid breeding would be most effective for seed yield plant-1 and seed yield.ha-1International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page: 111-120
      PubDate: 2015-08-24
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2015)
       
  • THE PRODUCTIVITY OF FOUR FODDER BEET CULTIVARS (BETA VULGARIS VAR. CRASSA)
           AFFECTED BY AUTUMN AND WINTER SOWING

    • Authors: Entessar Al-Jbawi, Mohamad Bagdadi, Yousef Nemr
      Pages: 121 - 129
      Abstract:  There is renewed interest in fodder beet (Beta vulgaris L.) production in Syria. However, recommended agronomic practices for maximizing productivity are limited. A field experiment was conducted in season 2011-2012 to study the effect of autumn and winter sowing on yields and its components of four fodder beet cultivars. The experiment was a randomized complete block design (RCBD) in split plots arrangement with three replicates, sowing dates were assigned to the main plots and fodder beet cultivars (Jamon, Splendids, Starmon and Vermon) were allotted to the sub plots. The results of T-Test exhibited the superiority of autumn date as compared with winter date, but in a small percentage. Sowing dates and varieties exhibited highly significant (p?0.05) differences in most of the studied characteristics (shoot weight.plant-1, root/shoot ratio, root and shoot yield (t.ha-1). Varieties affected all of the production traits significantly (p?0.05). Vermon surpassed the other cultivars in terms of the production studied traits. The conclusion is to sow fodder beet in autumn time in Al Raqqa, Syria, to attain the highest yield and yield components traits. Also The study recommends further trials identify optimum agronomic practices especially harvesting date, soil type, land preparation, fertilization and spacing in the other sites in Syria.International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page: 121-129
      PubDate: 2015-08-24
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2015)
       
  • ELEVATIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF TREE DIVERSITY IN LOWER HIMALAYA: A CASE STUDY
           OF PHULCHOKI HILL, NEPAL

    • Authors: Ruska Kattel, Bimala Devkota, Laxman K.C.
      Pages: 130 - 139
      Abstract:  Changes in tree species composition with elevation have been studied at three distinct altitudinal ranges on the basis of dominance, in sub-tropical and temperate forests on south slopes of Phulchoki hill, central part of lower Himalaya, Nepal. The greatest number of tree species was found in the low altitude (1600 m), followed by intermediate altitude (1950 m). The highest altitude (2650 m) contained only one distinct tree species (Oak). Site I has higher species diversity (Shannon Index: 2.1863, Evenness Index: 0.852) and density (5575 individual per hectare) dominated by Castonopsis indica, Quercus glauca, Myrica esculenta and myrsine capitellate. Site II has average species diversity (Shannon Index: 1.759, Evenness Index: 0.9) and an average density (2150 individual per hectare) dominated by Rhododendron arboretum, Castanopsis tribuloides and Quercus incana. At site III the forest is entirely dominated by Quercus semicarpifolia, a high altitude Oak. A linear trend of decreasing tree species diversity and density along with elevations was seen which might be because of intense afforestation by communities at lower elevation as site I and II under community managed forest and lower altitudinal ecozone with clear zonation of elevational vegetation types.International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page: 130-139
      PubDate: 2015-08-24
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2015)
       
  • FIELD BASED ASSESSMENT OF FOLIAR BLIGHTS DISEASE OF WHEAT (Triticum
           aestivum L.)

    • Authors: Roshan Basnet, Shesh Raman Upadhyay, Nutan Raj Gautam, Ramesh Raj Puri, Deepak Pandey
      Pages: 140 - 150
      Abstract:   Wheat, the third major staple crop of Nepal has been suffered from many diseases. Various diseases are the major limiting factors of considerable wheat production, one of them is Spot blotch. Spot blotch caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana is a major disease of wheat in warm and humid regions of the Nepal. The fungus has a worldwide distribution but as a pathogen it is the most aggressive under the conditions of high relative humidity and temperature associated with the low fertility of soils in South Asia, South America, Africa, and Australia. The yield loss due to the disease is very significant Nepal. This experiment was conducted to identify the genotypes (crossing) having good level of resistance against spot blotch. The experiment set was received from CIMMYT comprises 52 entries and arranged in alpha lattice design with two replication in 2012/13 at NWRP, Bhairahawa condition. Three times diseases scoring were done in double digit method and calculated the Area under disease progress curve (AUDPC). Heading days, days to maturity, plant height and test weight were found highly significant but the grain yield and AUDPC were not significant among the entries. However, the grain yield and test weight (50.5 gm) were found higher where the AUDPC was lower recorded in genotype 6719 (4046 kg/ha and AUDPC 488.33) followed by genotype 6737 (3765 Kg/ha and AUDPC 576.9) and genotype 6718 (3550 kg/ha and AUDPC 596.33). International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page: 140-150
      PubDate: 2015-08-24
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2015)
       
  • EFFECT OF CLIMATE CHANGE AND ASSOCIATED FACTORS ON THE PRODUCTION AND
           PRODUCTIVITY OF WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.) OVER LAST 25 YEARS IN THE
           TERAI REGION OF NEPAL

    • Authors: Khet Raj Dahal, Ramesh Raj Puri, Arun Kumar Joshi
      Pages: 151 - 165
      Abstract:  A study on the effect of climate change and associated factors on the production and productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) over last 25 years in the Terai region of Nepal was conducted. Three major wheat growing districts of Nepal (Kanchanpur, Rupandehi and Dhanusha) were focused. Climate and wheat management data were deployed. Farmers' feedback was taken through a set of semi-structured questionnaire followed by one day workshop cum seminar. Focus Group Discussion (FGD) was also conducted in the field. Comparison over 25 years showed that rainfall during wheat season declined significantly while maximum temperature increased by over 10C. Mean minimum temperature showed slight decline. Farmers' interaction indicated that growth period of wheat appeared to reduce over years, while new diseases/races and weeds have emerged. This led to increase in use of chemical pesticides. Use of inputs such as chemical fertilizers increased significantly leading to increased production cost by many folds. Despite limitations, wheat farming area and production has increased significantly in the past 25 years. The major issues for farmers were found to be a deficit of inorganic fertilizers, insufficient supply of quality seeds and an unsystematic market. The coping mechanism for climate change in wheat farming in all the three districts was not applied due to lack of knowledge, facilities and access to improved technologies. The farmers expected advanced technological know-how along with other facilities for climate resilient wheat farming.International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page:
      PubDate: 2015-08-24
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2015)
       
  • SECONDARY SUCCESSION IN ABANDONED CROP FALLOWS: A REVIEW

    • Authors: Hom N Pathak
      Pages: 166 - 176
      Abstract:  The succession in areas once vegetated before the disturbance to a forest as climax community is called secondary succession. Secondary succession is influenced by soil type and the vegetation that invades the community. During the literature survey we found that the cropping areas are abandoned in different parts of the world and the fallows left are under secondary succession. There the socio-economy of the people has been found to affect the succession. Species diversity, species richness, rate of replacement and the soil type etc. have been studied by succession researchers. Succession study has also been carried out by using the tools like remote sensing, geographical information system etc.International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page: 166-176
      PubDate: 2015-08-24
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2015)
       
  • IMPACTS OF WETLAND DEGRADATION IN NIGER DELTA NIGERIA AND ITS SIGNIFICANCE
           IN FLOOD CONTROL

    • Authors: Enwere Chidimma Loveline
      Pages: 177 - 184
      Abstract:  Wetlands perform a wide variety of functions that include flood control, ground water recharge, shore line stabilization, storm protection and climate moderation. However, despite these huge wetland functions, it has witnessed poor appreciation and dreadful conditions. Niger Delta has witnessed constant coastal erosion and rising sea level, this has led to large portions of the landmass being eroded. This paper aims to review some environmental effects of flooding in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria to provide the desired knowledge of role that wetlands play in reducing flood impacts. However, having witnessed the flood, the experience opened my eyes to the environmental challenges facing Niger Delta with respect to Wetlands degradation, poor perception of wetland values and functions, poor environmental practices and non-implementation of environmental regulations. This memorable experience rekindled the desire and motivation to seek a solution to wetland degradation with the aim of recognizing significance of wetlands at the centre of achieving both livelihood and biodiversity improvements to address coastal flooding problem.The study therefore concludes that wetlands are very significant in flood control and thus the conservation and restoration of wetlands, should put in place measures to reduce wetland destruction.International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page: 177-184
      PubDate: 2015-08-24
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2015)
       
  • Polyporus spp. (POLYPORACEAE, BASIDIOMYCOTA): RARE RECORD FROM ECOSYSTEM
           OF FALLUJAH, IRAQ

    • Authors: Mowafaq M. Muslat, Mustafa N. Owaid
      Pages: 185 - 189
      Abstract: Based on morphological examination, genus of mushroom Polyporus sp. was identified, which constitutes the first record of this fungus in Iraq. It is necessary to study ecology of the rare species of polypores then conservation of their habitats. Because most of polypores live on the substrate of fallen trunks and rotten wood, it is very important to keep such substrate in the ecosystem. Polypors fungus was identified as genus level only which appeared on September 2013 in Fallujah city. The aim of this study to collect and identify of wild mushroom that grow naturally in different orchards and gardens.International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-3, June-August 2015Page: 185-189
      PubDate: 2015-08-24
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2015)
       
 
 
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