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International Journal of Environment
   Journal TOC RSS feeds Export to Zotero [5 followers]  Follow    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 2091-2854
     Published by Nepal Journals Online Homepage  [60 journals]
  • Plant taxonomy and biodiversity researches in Bangladesh: trends and

    • Authors: M Atiqur Rahman
      Abstract: The progress, problems and prospects of biodiversity and plant taxonomic researches conducted in Bangladesh during the last two decades have been analyzed. The inventory of the flora, threatened taxa and family wise itemization in all groups of plants are progressing at a very slow rate. Only 11.6% of the estimated species (c.5000) were inventoried and only 6.2% of the threatened taxa were listed for conservation management. National Conservation Strategies could not be framed and implemented duly for environmental management. Results of the survey of floristic diversity, inventory of threatened taxa for Red Data Book and discovery of new taxa are discussed and up to date data are presented.
      DOI : International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2) 2014: 324-344
      PubDate: 2014-06-21
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • An academic review of the first two volumes of the International Journal
           of Environment (IJE)

    • Authors: Mehraz Boolaky, Surya P Sunkavalli
      DOI : International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2) 2014: 345-353
      PubDate: 2014-06-21
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Genetic engineering, a hope for sustainable biofuel production: review

    • Authors: Sudip Paudel, Michael A Menze
      Abstract: The use of recently developed genetic engineering tools in combination with organisms that have the potential to produce precursors for the production of biodiesel, promises a sustainable and environment friendly energy source. Enhanced lipid production in wild type and/or genetically engineered organisms can offer sufficient raw material for industrial transesterification of plant-based triglycerides. Bio-diesel, produced with the help of genetically modified organisms, might be one of the best alternatives to fossil fuels and to mitigate various environmental hazards.
      DOI : International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2) 2014: 311-323
      PubDate: 2014-06-21
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Mixing height observations over Nagothane Village, Raigad District,
           Western India

    • Authors: RK Kamble
      Abstract: Mixing height observations were recorded in Nagothane village of Raigad district of Western India by using minisonde technique in winter season (December 2003-February 2004) at an interval of 3 hours so as to have a clear idea of diurnal variation of mixing heights. The results depicts that maximum mixing height from the study area was 903 m above ground level in afternoon (2.30 pm), while diurnal variation indicated ground based inversions up to a height of about 500 m above ground level, that is nil mixing height during late night (11.30 pm and 2.30 am) and early morning (5.30 am) hours. The diurnal variation of mixing height was in accordance with incoming solar radiation, as the day progresses so the mixing height and vice versa. The maximum mixing height of 903 m above ground level indicated the volume available for dilution, dispersion and transportation of air pollutants in the troposphere which are being emitted by anthropogenic and industrial activities, thus reducing the chances of air pollution episodes in the study area.
      DOI : International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2) 2014: 302-310
      PubDate: 2014-06-21
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Correlating bark thickness and girth of some medicinal trees

    • Authors: Taiye R Fasola, BO Olagunju, ABC Robert
      Abstract: Tree barks are continually used and sold for medicinal purposes in Nigerian markets. Incessant debarking of trees, particularly the young trees by bark harvesters poses danger on the growth and survival of the plants. As it cannot be ascertained if the harvested tree barks marketed in large numbers are from older or younger trees, the study aimed at providing solution to this problem. As Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) usually reflects the age of a tree, correlation between bark thickness and DBH was attempted with their various uses. Measurements of bark thickness at breast height and DBH of 69 medicinal tree species belonging to nineteen different families were carried out in various locations in the University of Ibadan campus, Ibadan, Nigeria. The findings subjected to correlation analysis had a positive correlation between the thickness of tree barks and tree girth at breast height. The confirmed knowledge of a positive correlation between tree bark thickness and girth of tree plant is necessary to determine if the barks sold in major markets for ethnomedicinal purposes are harvested from older or younger trees. The medicinal values of the tree barks as antimarial, purgative, haematinic and antimicrobial among other uses were discussed.
      DOI : International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2) 2014: 287-301
      PubDate: 2014-06-21
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Morphotaxonomy of three rare Terricolous taxa of Jungermanniales occurring
           in Nilgiri hills (Western Ghats) India

    • Authors: Afroz Alam
      Abstract: Nilgiri hills being a part of biodiversity hot spot, is a home of colossal life forms including bryophytes. Bryophytes have a great diversity in Nilgiri hills which includes both terricolous and corticolous forms. This study deals with morphotaxonomy of three extremely infrequent terricolous taxa of order Jungermanniales, viz., Gottschelia schizopleura (Spruce) Grolle, Lethocolea javanica (Schiffn.) Grolle and Jackiella javanica var. cordifolia Schiffn, occurring in Nilgiri hills. These taxa were located to a few restricted pockets and facing high risk of habitat loss which need urgent/immediate conservation management.
      DOI : International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2) 2014: 263-275
      PubDate: 2014-06-21
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Evaluate of head loss, sediment value and copper removal in sand media
           (rapid sand filter)

    • Authors: Daneshi Navab, Banejad Hossein, Pirtag Hamedany Reza, Daneshi Vahab, Farokhi Maedeh
      Abstract: Along with the technology development and increasing consumption of water resources, we are experiencing low qualities in the mentioned resources. Copper brings about serious environment al pollution, threatening human health and ecosystem. This metal found variously in water resources and industrial activities. Therefore, it needs to treat the water resources from these excessive amounts. Different methods have used for this reason but the most used method during recent years has been the absorption by economic absorbers such as sand. Rapid sand filters usually used in water and wastewater treatment plants for water clarification. In this research, a single layer gravity rapid sand filter has used to reduce different concentrations of copper. sediment value and head loss arising in filter media is simulated by using combination of Carman-Kozeny, Rose and Gregory models in different discharges of rapid sand filter. Results have shown that with increasing in discharge and decreasing in input copper concentration, arriving time to given head loss, is increasing. In addition, results demonstrated that with increasing in copper concentration in influent, removal efficiency is decreasing somewhat. Results of this research can applied in an appropriate design of rapid sand filter to copper removal, a prediction of rapid sand filter ability to copper removal and an estimation of arising head loss during filter work thus evaluating of time interval backwash.
      DOI : International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2) 2014: 276-286
      PubDate: 2014-06-21
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Toxicological effects of a herbicide – Pendinmethalin: a case study
           of Kenana Sugar Industry, White Nile Province, Sudan

    • Authors: Muawia IA Abdelgadir, Murwan K Sabahelkhier, Mohamed A Adris, Omer F Idris, Shama IY Adam, HN Sulafa
      Abstract: The aim of this experiment is to know the toxicity of high uses of pendimethalin as herbicide used in Kenana Sugar Industry, period of experiment is 30 days. The results were reveal that there was significantly effect of high doses of pendimethalin on the liver of Wistar rats, because increase in the dose of the pendimethalin reflected by increasing the alkaline phosphatase enzyme during increase the period of time. In addition there were histopathological medical in cells of the liver of Wistar rats, which lead to impaired function of the liver, so it is very clear observed in water collected from Kenana Sugar Industry plate two, and 375 and 750 (plate three and four) compared with plate one( free from pendimethalin treatment. This experiment indicated that high dose of pendimethalin causes toxicity.
      DOI : International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2) 2014: 258-262
      PubDate: 2014-06-21
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Some aspects of the ecology of freshwater algae in the Densu River and two
           tributaries in Southern Ghana

    • Authors: Ted Y Annang, RD Yirenya-Tawiah, GC Clerk, Thomas Smith
      Abstract: Studies on the composition and abundance of the phytoplankton in River Densu and two of its tributaries, Rivers Adeiso and Nsakir were carried out at ten sampling sites, including seven from different regions of the river basin namely Afuaman, Akwadum, Densuso, Manhean, Machigeni, Nsawam and Weija, as well as Adeisoand Pokuase. Sampling was done monthly at each sampling site from January to December, 2006. Physical and chemical parameters of river water were studied. The parameters of the river water varied with the sampling sites and the time of the year. Water samples for phytoplankton identification and enumeration were collected at each sampling site. Physico-chemical conditions of the river were assessed during sample collection or in the laboratory. Correlation analysis showed that there was a positive correlation between algal genera and the measured physical and chemical parameters of the river water.
      DOI : International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2) 2014: 246-257
      PubDate: 2014-06-19
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Effect of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) as growth regulator along with
           chelated zinc and iron on the availability of manganese, zinc, copper and
           iron in Mentha piperita Linn cultivar Kukrail

    • Authors: FM Prasad, Veeru Prakash, AA Jilani, S Prasad, MR Thomas, R Arnold, KS Robert, VK Prasad
      Abstract: A field experiment was displayed at the research plot of chemistry Department of Allahabad Agricultural Institute Deemed University, Allahabad to study the effect of NAA along with chelated Zinc and Iron on the availability of micronutrients of Mentha piperrita cultivar Kukrail during winter season. It is quite obvious that Mn was influenced significantly by application of NAA and Zn/Fe EDTA through foliar spray. The concentration of Mn increased with increasing levels of NAA with or without application of Zn/Fe EDTA and markedly higher in Mentha plants at 60 ppm NAA with 10ppm Zn/Fe EDTA. The higher concentration of NAA suppressed the uptake of nutrients above 60 ppm. However, the intake of Mn, Zn and Cu was much higher in second year trial with NAA and Zn while Fe obtained higher uptake in first year than that of second year experiment. The application of NAA was found to increase the Cu uptake with increasing doses till 60ppm with or without the incorporation of Zn/Fe and then gradually a fall at higher concentrations. The second cutting value in second year trial was higher than the corresponding year cutting affected by NAA with Zn. The result was found significant over control due to foliar application of NAA and Fe separately in second year experiment. Fe uptake in mint plants grown with different doses of NAA and Fe in second year trial was greater than first year trial. The Fe uptake in menta piperita plants in both trials were found higher over control. But the Fe uptake in mint plants narrowed down above 60ppm of NAA application with or without Zn/Fe EDTA spray.
      DOI : International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2) 2014: 238-245
      PubDate: 2014-06-19
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Regularities of La distribution in humic psammozem profile of
           Transbaikalia and soil-root layer microzones of maize during the
           vegetation period

    • Authors: Larisa Afanasyeva, Nina Kozhevnikova
      Abstract: In Transbaikalia information about accumulation, distribution of rare earth elements (REEs) in soils, their transportation from soil to plants is very rare. The aim of this study was to assess the migration of lanthanum in a soil profile and soil-root layer microzones of maize during the vegetation period. The study is based on a field approach in non-polluted natural sites. Concentration of total content La and its mobile form (acid-soluble, exchangeable and water-soluble) in the soil and soil root layer of maize was determined using method of selective extraction Gobran and Glegg. Maximum concentration total La was founded in the upper part of the soil (0 to 15 cm depth). The content of the La mobile forms is 6.9-11.2% from the total amount. The distribution of the element mobile forms within the profile is relatively even. Results indicated that concentration La mobile forms changed in accordance with the phase of maize development. The higher concentration of mobile forms (17-120% from germination period) was founded in soil-root layer microzones in the blossom period.
      DOI : International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2) 2014: 213-220
      PubDate: 2014-06-09
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Breeding biology of domesticated Eurasian Collared Dove (Columbidae)
           Streptopelia decaocto Frivaldszky 1838 in Saidpur, Bangladesh

    • Authors: M Ashraful Kabir
      Abstract: Two pairs of domesticated Eurasian Collared Dove Streptopelia decaocto reared at eighteen months for its breeding performance in intensive system. One pair was homozygous albino al//al x al//al and another pair was one wild type +//al and another albino al//al. Another experimented four pairs of doves were produced from these two pairs. Out of six pairs total 114 squabs were produced during the research period. Total three albino pairs produced 100% albino squab and different coloured male and female produced different colours which were 50% each. Sex ratio of male and female were observed 1:1. Experimental doves were reared in cages measures 23x20x16 and 25x22x18 inches and feed were supplied all day long with wheat, corn, mustard, broken rice and burnt soil. Intake feed were 15 gram per dove in a day. During the time of this observation only hypervitaminosis and worm infestations were observed and the mortality rate was few. Only in one pair (rosy ' x wild type ') produced 11 male (46%) and 13 female (54%) out of 24 squabs; this was slightly exceptional. In total 114 squabs from six pairs only one rosy male and pied rosy female were found. Breeding record of this research suggests that the colour patterns are first wild type then rosy and finally albino gradually.
      DOI : International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2) 2014: 48-54
      PubDate: 2014-06-09
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Energy efficient refuse derived fuel (RDF) from municipal solid waste
           rejects: a case for Coimbatore

    • Authors: Offor N Kimambo, P Subramanian
      Abstract: In this paper production of energy efficient Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) from municipal solid waste rejects was carried out during August 2012 – April 2013 in Coimbatore City India. Municipal Solid wastes rejects (paper, plastics with exception of polyvinyl chloride, textiles) were collected from waste dump yard of Coimbatore City. Sawdust, coir dust, water hyacinth and rice husk were mixed with the collected wastes at a fixed amount of 20 percent. After grinding, cassava starch was used as a binder to produce RDF briquettes with the help of uniaxial piston briquettes making machine. Physical, chemical and thermal characteristics of the RDF were studied to assess their potential use as energy efficient material. The analyses were divided into three categories namely, physical, proximate and ultimate analyses. Results indicated that, under physical and proximate analyses; impact resistance index (IRI) for all the RDF samples were 200, density were less than 1 kg cm-3, moisture were less than 10 % wt, ash content varied from 2.8 to 9.2 % wt, whilst volatile mater had mean value of 83.1 % wt and fixed carbon which is by subtraction ranged from 1.4 to 9.2 % wt. With respect to Ultimate analysis, Oxygen, carbon, hydrogen varied from 27.01 to 39.78 % wt, 44.8 to59.7 % wt, 5.9 to 8.1 % wt respectively. On the other hand nitrogen, sulfur and chlorine ranged from 0.18 to 0.87 % wt, 0.27 to 0.71 % wt and 0.339 to0.521 % wt respectively. Calorific values (high heating values) ranged from 5085 to 6474.9 kcal kg-1. The results were compared with Energy research Centre for the Netherland database and noted that with exception to moisture, fixed carbon and hydrogen other parameters had a significant lower or higher differences. From the study, RDF from municipal solid wastes rejects along with the additives produced high energy efficient materials.
      DOI : International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2) 2014: 205-215
      PubDate: 2014-05-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Opportunity cost, willingness to pay and cost benefit analysis of a
           community forest of Nepal

    • Authors: Anup KC, Ganesh Raj Joshi, Suman Aryal
      Abstract: One of the major policies in response to global climate change is reduction of green house gases emission. Community forests of Nepal are acting as major sources and sink of green house gases, in spite of providing socio-economic benefits to the user groups. There is a lack of information on whether community forests address the socio-economic disparity of user groups, and how it affects opportunity cost and willingness to pay to the forest users groups. Focusing on how the socio-economic conditions of forest users affect forest management, opportunity cost and willingness to pay; and effect of carbon trading mechanism and discounting on the cost benefit ratio, this study was carried out in one CF in western Nepal. The data collection methods included carbon stock measurement, household survey, focus group discussion and key informant interview. Study has shown that most of the forest users are in medium and poor economic classes and female involvement in forest conservation and management was remarkable. Poor people had high dependency on forest product and are most likely affected in terms of opportunity cost. Rich people were willing to pay more to sustain forest ecosystem services. Benefit cost ratio measured directly with and without discounting was 3.91 and 2.97, respectively. The findings of the present study indicate that the community forests users groups are benefitted from the current state of management.
      DOI : International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2) 2014: 108-124
      PubDate: 2014-05-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Assessment of potential health impacts on surface water sources in
           Northern Nigeria

    • Authors: ZD Umar, A Bashir
      Abstract: Northern Nigeria represents the most populous region in Nigeria and adequate water supply and sanitation typically leaves a lot to be desired in the region in order to prevent water related diseases to the vulnerable communities of the region. This research work was carried out in Kano state with specific emphasis on Tomas dam which is one of the largest dams established for multipurpose use in Nigeria. The research was aimed at evaluating Physico-chemical and Bacteriological quality of Tomas Dam in Kano State. 240 water samples from 5 sampling stations within eight months were analyzed for bacteriological and physico-chemical quality. The physico-chemical parameters indicated Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Water Current Speed results were not significantly different (P>0.05), while other physico-chemical parameters analyzed varied significantly (P<0.05). The study also revealed that Dissolved Oxygen (DO), BOD, Turbidity, and Nitrates recorded higher values than WHO and Federal Environmental Protection Agency, Nigeria (FEPA) limits. Total aerobic bacterial counts (TBC) and total coliform counts (TCC) were determined using pour plate and Most Probable Number (MPN) techniques. TBC and TCC were high and exceeded acceptable limits. Faecal coliforms, faecal Streptococciand Klebsiella species constituted 25% of the indicator organisms identified.The observed parameters indicated the Dam was contaminated with pathogenic bacteria. Variations in the weather conditions, animal and anthropogenic interferences were all directly or indirectly related to faecal contamination in the dam. Preventing indiscriminate faecal discharge close to the Dam and sufficient water treatment before consumption are of prime importance to public health as the dam was established for agricultural purposes.
      DOI : International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2) 2014: 125-136
      PubDate: 2014-05-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • People’s perception and behaviour towards reuse of wastewater in
           Dhulikhel, Nepal

    • Authors: Padam Kanta Dahal
      Abstract: Wastewater may be chemically polluted and / or biologically contaminated. Haphazard disposal of untreated from households as well as institutions and industry is causing severe deterioration of water bodies in many urban areas in the developing world. Most cities do not have adequate systems for the collection and treatment of and this is usually not considered to be a priority for investment. Wastewater treatment and its proper utilization is one of the main targets of the latest context. The main objective of the study was to assess the perception and behavior of the farmer towards use of treated water, in their farmlands, from the Dhulikhel Hospital wastewater treatment plant. This was a cross sectional descriptive study. The people residing on the peripheral site of the treatment plant were purposively taken as the sample population. Considering the confounding and allowable error, the sample size was calculated by using the formula n = Z2PQ/E2. In order to gather the information, semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview the total 107 respondents. The collected data were coded and entered in EPI-Info, edited in excel and analyzed in SPSS software version 16. Three villages (Chaukot, Kharpur and Vendole) of the Dhulikhel Municipality were selected purposively for the study. Among 107 respondents, 47.6% were from the Chaukot, 35.50% from Kharpur and 16.80% from Vendole. The mean age of the respondents was 44 years. Among the respondent 27% were literate and 73% illiterate. Most of the respondents were Hindu. Along with the water from the treatment plant other sources such as supply line (92.5%), ponds (6.5%) were used by the respondents and remaining 1% purchases it. People’s perception regarding the reuse of water was not found satisfactory as they consider that the water from treatment plant was detrimental to health and also believe that it decreases the agricultural production. Skin disease and typhoid fever were the most prevalent water related problem faced by the respondents.
      DOI : International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2) 2014: 137-142
      PubDate: 2014-05-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Recycling edible vegetable oils by using various types of alkali with
           alcohol to produce biodiesel and study its optical and physical properties

    • Authors: AA Elbadawi, SA Suliman, HM Elkhair, HH Abuelhassan, MK Sabahelkhier
      Abstract: In the present study, recycling edible oils which have been used in frying purposes of taamia, fish, potatoes, etc. are used to produce biodiesel in order to help in solving the fuel shortages and to share in the energy conservation efforts. Four types of biodiesels were prepared by treated the waste edible oil, firstly NaOH with methanol, secondly NaOH with ethanol, thirdly KOH with methanol, and fourthly KOH with ethanol. One liter of the cheapest and available used vegetable oils, 4gm of Alkali and 250ml of Alcohol was used for producing biodiesel. Optical tests for their absorption, density, viscosity and refractive index of the four produced biodiesels were compared with the fossil diesel (control biodiesel). The findings were showed that the properties of the prepared biodiesel samples are similar to the fossil diesel.
      DOI : International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2) 2014: 143-149
      PubDate: 2014-05-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Environmental conditions of Borra Cave, Visakhapattanam, India

    • Authors: Haraprasad Bairagya
      Abstract: Caving is an art which can be best experienced in the mystic Borra of Eastern Ghats and ranked as the second largest cave of India just after Belum Caves situated in the same state Andhrapradesh, India. This Cave is fast becoming a hot tourist's destination offering great adventurous opportunity to the tourists in the Eastern Ghats. The cave is located in the Ananthagiri hills of the Eastern Ghats region near Visakhapattanam and is made of limestone. The emotion of thrill heightens after entering the cave. The entrance has a narrow vertical opening and is well lit. Due to its location in the sub-equatorial region, dripping of water from the cave roofs occurs almost throughout the year. The formation of stalactites and stalagmites create wonderful phenomena specially found in this cave. The conspicuous pillars formed due to the joining of the roof and the floors are an awe-inspiring creativity of the creator of this world. Various viruses and bacteria are in the cave interior along with different other creatures. The Borra cave helps the Govt. of Andhra Pradesh, India, to earn huge economic benefits for the sake of tourism industry.
      DOI : International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2) 2014: 150-166
      PubDate: 2014-05-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Associative dependence among plankton and macrophytes as pollution markers
           at tropical lentic environ, Gujarat, India

    • Authors: Hiren B Soni, Sheju Thomas
      Abstract: The present research was undertaken at three sampling stations of Gomti catchment, Central Gujarat, India, to study dominance, interaction, and interdependence among biotic components (phytoplankton, zooplankton and aquatic macrophytes). The phytoplankton population was represented by 39 genera and 48 species belongs to family Bacillariophyceae (21 species), followed by Cyanophyceae (7), Cholorophyceae (18), and Euglenophyceae (2). In total, seven classes of zooplankton were represented by 36 genera and 39 species. Zooplankton dominance was reflected by class Ciliophora (16 species), followed by Zooflagellata, Rhizopoda and Rotifera (6 each), and Cladocera (3),and least by Copepoda and Ostracoda (1 species each). Of 16 species of aquatic macrophytes, 3 (18.75%) were abundant, 4 (25%) common, and 9 (56.25%) were rare. The indices (Palmer, Nygaard’s, and Macrophyte index) were determined to delineate the interdependent relationship among studied biotic components. Strong association was observed between Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae, Ostracods and Ciliophorans, and Cladocerans and Bacillariophyceans. The detailed results of indices and interdependent associations among biotic components are discussed. The information provided herewith makes an insight for better understanding of the environmental aspects to be addressed effectively for the better protection, conservation, and management of Gomti reservoir, Gujarat, India.
      DOI : International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2) 2014: 175-191
      PubDate: 2014-05-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Effects of agricultural credit facility on the agricultural production and
           rural development

    • Authors: GE Ekwere, ID Edem
      Abstract: Lack of capital has been identified as one of the constraints that faced by small scale farmers. The aim of this research was to examine the effect of agricultural credit on the agriculture production, and calculate the inputs and outputs among small scale farmers. Structured questionnaires were distributed to 136 farmers, who had been selected using the stratified random sampling technique, and the data obtained were summarized into percentages. Regression analysis was adopted to assess the impacts of socio-economic factors on loan size among farmers, while Cobb-Douglas Production Function Analysis (CDPFA) was used to test the relationship between key independent variables such as loan amount, farm size, inputs and farm output as dependent variable. The analysis revealed a significantly high value of coefficient of determination (R2= 0.922) that reflected a high relationship between the dependent variable and the independent variables; gender, age, education, family size, farm size, farming experience. The Adjusted (R2) coefficient (R2 = 0.918) revealed that 91.8 % of variation in loam size explained by the changes in variables. The results showed a significance in F-test in size of loan. The hypothesis two, exhibited that the independent variables; loan size, farm size, and inputs explained the variation in the total value of farmers output. The study therefore showed that to achieve the positive agricultural credit impacts on agricultural production, The Government and the private sector should regularly and timely facilitate the credit to the small scale farmers.
      DOI : International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2) 2014: 192-204
      PubDate: 2014-05-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Study on bacteriological quality of Kunun aya (Tigernut juice) sold at
           Umaru Musa Yar’adua University (UMYU) campus, Katsina

    • Authors: ZD Umar, A Bashir, SA Raubilu
      Abstract: The study was aimed at determining the Bacteriological quality of Kunun aya (Tigernut juice) which is one of the most regularly non-alcoholic drinks consumed within Umaru Musa Yar’adua University campus. Samples were collected and analyzed from different places at the University for the Enumeration of bacteria. Serial dilutions were carried out from the collected samples where a dilution factor of 10-5 was obtained for each sample. Total aerobic bacterial counts, total coliform counts and Salmonella-Shigella counts were determined from the samples using Pour Plate Technique. The results obtained shows high bacterial load as the total aerobic bacterial counts had a range of 2.2x104 - 1.4x106 cfu/ml. Total coliform counts had 8.2 x 102 - 6.1 x 104 cfu/ml while Salmonella-Shigella counts had 1.1 x 102 - 8.7 x 104 cfu/ml. The result shows high bacterial contamination of Kunun aya, which may be obtained from the poor hygienic preparation process. This could be the reason for its quick spoilage. Preserving the drink in very low temperature may reduce the chances for its early spoilage.
      DOI : International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2) 2014: 87-97
      PubDate: 2014-05-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Morphological variation in maize inbred lines

    • Authors: Jiban Shrestha
      Abstract: In order to identify morphological variation in maize inbred lines, one hundred five inbred lines were planted under randomized complete block design with two replications at research field of National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal during summer season (March to June), 2010. Descriptive statistics and cluster analysis were done. The results revealed a wide range of morphological variation among the tested inbred lines. The inbred lines grouped in cluster 4 namely PUTU-13, L-9, RL-105, RL-197, RL-103, RML-9, RML-41, RL-165, RL-36, RL-76, RL-125, RL-30-3, L-6, RL-107, RL-174, RL-41, L-13, RML-76 and L-5 had 0.833 days anthesis-silking interval and earlier in flowering (tasseling in 54.50 days and silking in 55.33 days). Moreover they consisted of 1.16 plant aspect, 1.25 ear aspect, 33.08 cm tassel length and 13.5 tassel branch number. Among tested lines, the above inbred lines had better morphological traits, so it was concluded that they were good candidates for development of hybrids and synthetic varieties.
      DOI : International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2) 2014: 98-107
      PubDate: 2014-05-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Leaching characteristics of poultry litter in first phase of multistage
           anaerobic digestion

    • Authors: Surya P Sunkavalli, A Gangagni Rao, P Swapnalata, M Zaheer
      Abstract: Poultry litter is highly biodegradable in nature. Therefore, it could be subjected to biomethanation to produce valuable biogas and bio-manure as byproducts. Some studies have been conducted along these lines in India by utilizing the poultry litter as a substrate in batch type dung digesters of KVIC and DENABANDHU models. However, these reactors have the drawbacks of high residence time (30 – 35 days), scum formation problems etc. Moreover, these batch type plants are not suitable for the treatment of large quantities of solid waste. Multistage anaerobic digestion has the potential to overcome some of the aforesaid issues. Anaerobic leaching experiments were conducted at different total solids concentration and pH using poultry litter in order to evaluate the leachate quality for a period of 7 days. The increase in Total solids (TS) % from 15 to 20% show inverse effect on VFA and Alkalinity. The change in pH from 8.5 to 5.5 didn’t show much impact on VFA but there is a small impact on alkalinity. It was also observed that the leaching of the organic matter in the solid to the liquid phase is very fast and it is taking place approximately in three to four days and subsequently leachate getting saturated. Therefore, reactor set up was made in the last phase to regularly remove the water from the reactor so that higher driving force is available for leaching. The study resulted in leaching of maximum organic content in the solid to liquid within three days.
      DOI : International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2) 2014: 76-82
      PubDate: 2014-05-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Bacteriological analysis of date palm fruits sold in Katsina metropolis

    • Authors: ZD Umar, A Bilkisu, A Bashir
      Abstract: Date palm is widely cultivated, distributed and consumed by various individuals. Most of the date palm fruits sold in Nigeria are either damaged or has insufficient quality for human consumption. This study was carried out to determine the bacterial load of date fruits in Katsina metropolis. Enumeration of bacteria was determined using pour plate technique. Serial dilution was carried out, where 10g of date fruits was homogenized in 90ml of diluents and used as stock solution. The bacterial counts were determined using colony forming unit per gram of the date fruit samples (cfu/g). The results obtained revealed high bacterial load in all the samples analyzed, which indicates the fruits contamination with bacteria. This may be due to unhygienic handling of the fruits from the local sellers and the nutritional contents of the fruit that may serve as good source of nutrients to bacteria. Date fruits should be packed and processed in a very hygienic condition for public health importance
      DOI : International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2) 2014: 83-86
      PubDate: 2014-05-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Biodegradation of spent engine oil by bacteria isolated from the
           rhizosphere of legumes grown in contaminated soil

    • Authors: HY Ismail, UJJ Ijah, ML Riskuwa, II Allamin
      Abstract: Biodegradation of spent engine oil (SEO) by bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere of Cajan cajan and Lablab purpureus was investigated. It was with a view to determining most efficient bacterial species that could degrade SEO in phytoremediation studies. Hydrocarbon degrading bacteria were isolated and identified by enrichment culture technique using oil agar supplemented with 0.1% v/v SEO. Total heterotrophic and oil utilizing bacterial count showed the occurrence of large number of bacteria predominantly in the rhizosphere soil, ranging between 54×108 - 144×108 CFU/g and 4×108- 96×108 CFU/g respectively. Percentage of oil utilizing bacteria ranged between 0% (uncontaminated non rhizosphere soil) to 76% (contaminated rhizosphere). Turbidimetrically, five bacterial species namely Pseudomonas putrefacience CR33, Klebsiella pneumonia CR23, Pseudomonas alcaligenes LR14, Klebsiella aerogenes CR21, and Bacillus coagulans CR31 were shown to grow maximally and degraded the oil at the rate of 68%, 62%, 59%, 58%and 45% respectively. Chromatographic analysis using GC-MS showed the presence of lower molecular weight hydrocarbons in the residual oil (indicating degradation) after 21 days, whereas the undegraded oil (control) had higher molecular weight hydrocarbons after the same period. The species isolated were shown to have high ability of SEO biodegradation and therefore could be important tools in ameliorating SEO contaminated soil.
      DOI : International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2) 2014: 63-75
      PubDate: 2014-05-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Remediation of cadmium by Indian mustard (Brassica juncea L.) from cadmium
           contaminated soil: a phytoextraction study

    • Authors: Rajeev Kumar Bhadkariya, VK Jain, GPS Chak, SK Gupta
      Abstract: Cadmium is a toxic metal for living organisms and an environmental contaminant. Soils in many parts of the world are slightly too moderately contaminated by Cd due to long term use and disposal of Cd-contaminated wastes. Cost effective technologies are needed to remove cadmium from the contaminated sites. Soil phytoextraction is engineering based, low cost and socially accepted developing technology that uses plants to clean up contaminants in soils. This technology can be adopted as a remediation of cadmium from Cd-contaminated soils with the help of Brassica juncea plant. The objective of this work was to evaluate the cadmium (Cd) accumulate and the tolerance of Brassica juncea. The Cd accumulates in all parts of plants (roots, stems and leaves). It was found that accumulating efficiency increased with the increase in the concentration of applied cadmium metal solution. Maximum accumulation of cadmium was found in roots than stem and leaves. Phytoextraction coefficient and translocation factor were highest to show the validity of the Brassica juncea species for hyperaccumulation of the Cd metal. These results suggested that Brassica juncea has a high ability to tolerate and accumulate Cd, so it might be a promising plant to be used for phytoextraction of Cd contaminated soil.
      DOI : International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2) 2014: 229-237
      PubDate: 2014-05-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Histopathological alterations in small intestine of rabbit fish (Siganus
           rivulatus) infected by helminth parasite (Sclerocollum sp.), Red Sea
           Coast, Sudan

    • Authors: YMH Salah Eldeen, Omer F Idris, Murwan K Sabahelkhier, Mohamed I Abdelhaleem
      Abstract: Wild rabbit fish(Siganus rivulatus)Forsskål (Teleostei, Siganidae), a herbivorous fish were caught from Suakin near Sudanese Red Sea during February 2010 - January 2011, which were examined for histo-pathological alterations in small intestine infected by a helminthes parasite (Sclerocollum sp.). Sclerocollum sp. was reported for the first time from Suakin near Sudanese Red Sea. Effect of a parasite included: abundance of lymphocytes cell, eosinphils, red blood cells and goblet cells in parasitized intestine; which were significantly more than intestine devoid of infection. The histopathologicaly study indebted that the worms damaged the architecture of intestinal tissues besides hemorrhage, hyperplasia in mucosa and submucosa, melanomacrophage aggregation and necrosis of mucosa and sub-mucosal layer. The 237 fishes (Siganus rivulatus) caught for investigation the helminthes parasite. The condition factor of healthy fishes was 2.94±0.03, which was highly significantly different value (p< 0.02) compared to helminthes fish (2.81±0.04). The prevalence of infection was observed in 38% of fishes. A direct damage by Sclerocollum sp in the form of destruction of villi, hemorrhage, fibrotic capsule round proboscis, erosion of submucosa along parasites capsule, and separation of submucosa from mucosa, was observed.
      DOI : International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2) 2014: 216-228
      PubDate: 2014-05-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Occurrence of hydrocarbon degrading bacteria in soil in Kukawa, Borno

    • Authors: IA Allamin, UJJ Ijah, HY Ismail, ML Riskuwa
      Abstract: Soil samples were collected from five sites covering petroleum exploration station in Kukawa, Kukawa Local Government Area of Borno State, Nigeria between October, 2012 and February, 2013 at two different depths (0-10cm and 10-20cm) to enumerate and identify hydrocarbon degrading bacteria in the soil. Total aerobic heterotrophic bacteria (TAHB) were enumerated on Nutrient agar (NA), and Hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria (HUB) enumerated on Oil agar (OA). The bacterial isolates were identified using morphological and biochemical tests. It was observed that the microorganisms (TAHB, and HUB) were more densely populated at 10cm depth. (TAHB: 5.3×108 - 11.4×108cfu/g, and HUB: 2.4×105 - 5.3×105 cfu/g, than at 20 cm depth (TAHB: 3.0×108 - 5.7×108 cfu/g, and HUB: 2.1×105 - 4.8×105 cfu/g). The HUB was identified as species of Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Lactobacillus, Micrococcus, Corynebacterium, and Actinomyces. Bacillus, and Pseudomonas species were more constantly isolated than other isolates and they constitute 100% of total bacterial isolates. The potential of hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria isolated to degrade hydrocarbon was studied. Nineteen (19) bacterial species was screened, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Micrococcus leteus,and Lactobacillus casei, utilized and degrade crude oil at considerably high rates after 21 days of incubation. The degradation efficiency was confirmed by GC-MS analysis, which indicated that the bacterial isolates utilized most of the crude oil components particularly straight chain alkanes and cycloalkanes
      DOI : International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2) 2014: 36-47
      PubDate: 2014-05-29
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Study of Myrsine capitellata wall in forest areas of Paiyunpata Village,
           Baglung, Nepal

    • Authors: Hom Nath Pathak
      Abstract: Present study focuses on ecology of Myrsine capitellata Wall. and its rapid decline due to over-exploitation in forests of Paiyunpata Village, Baglung district. Ecological parameters like importance value, species diversity, etc. have been studied. Besides, soil characters and causes and consequences of its deforestation have been discussed. The Myrsine capitellata Wall. is important forest component of the study area. Community diversity is less in North facing slope than in south facing slope. Soil is acidic, with high WHC value, low moisture content and sandy type of texture. After this study, it is recommended to begin for the extensive plantation and other conservation efforts of Myrsine before being extinct.
      DOI : International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2) 2014: 55-62
      PubDate: 2014-05-29
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Seasonal variations in water quality and major threats to Nellore Cheruvu
           (tank), Nellore district, India

    • Authors: K Sreenivasulu, Kaizar Hossain, T Damodharam
      Abstract: Water is the most vital resource for the living beings to survive. India has a vast and varied inland water resource which is considered to be richest in world’s nature lakes. The physico-chemical characteristic of Nellore tank has been studied for monsoon, pre-monsoon, post-monsoon in the year. From the results water body was found to be well in the permissible limit of BIS (1998, except pH, DO, BOD and turbidity in some seasons, which may be due to anthropogenic activities in the area, and input of nutrients and other organic and inorganic substances through runoff water from agricultural fields.
      DOI : International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2) 2014: 28-35
      PubDate: 2014-05-29
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Physico-chemical characteristics of the ground water table after monsoon:
           a case study at central Travancore in Kerala

    • Authors: Sankar S Vishnu, George Prince, Thomas Mohan
      Abstract: Water quality plays an important role in maintaining plant and animal life. Lack of good quality drinking water and water for sanitation cause health problems. Water quality characteristics arise from a group of physical, chemical and biological factors. The dynamic balance of the aquatic system can be destroyed by human activities resulting in water pollution.Well water has traditionally considered as a safe resource of water for consumption without treatment and extensively used for individual water supply in rural and many urban areas.In this paper a preliminary analysis is done to explore the water quality of selected wells in order to correlate the effect of pollution on water quality at these locations. Water samples are collected from different regions of Vazhappally area located on central travancore of Kerala. These sites are important because people depend only on well water for drinking purpose. The samples are collected from ten locations and analyzed for chemical parameters such as pH, conductivity, salinity, turbidity, acidity, alkainity, hardness, total phosphates, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, total dissolved solids and Iron content. Samples are also analysed for coliform bacteria which cause pathogenic diseases. Remarkable differences are observed mainly in biological oxygen demand, acidity and hardness. Finally, an attempt has been done to correlate the observed chemical parameters and the waterquality standards.
      DOI : International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2) 2014: 20-27
      PubDate: 2014-05-29
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Biomonitoring of lead (Pb) toxicity through aquatic macrophyte Eichhornia

    • Authors: Kiran Gupta
      Abstract: A study was performed for biomonitoring the toxicity of lead (Pb) in water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes). To assess phytotoxic response of the plant against Pb chlorophyll content, protein content and NR activity has been observed while genotoxiocity was analyzed by study of mitotic index and micronuclei (MNCs) as genotoxic end point. For this purpose, Plants of Eichhornia crassipes were exposed to various concentrations of Pb (0.0, 1, 2, 4 and 8 ppm) for 2 and 7 days durations. Pb induced phytotoxicity was evident by reduction in chlorophyll content, protein content and nitrate reductase activity (NR activity). All aforesaid parameters decreased in dose-duration dependent manner. Pb treatment also led to dose-duration dependent inhibition of mitotic index (MI) and induction of micronuclei in root meristematic cells of E. crassipes. Decline in MI reflects cytotoxicity that directly affects root growth and elongation. Pb may cause cell death, which may appear as decline in MI. Micronucleus induction involving the mitotic spindle and consequent production of laggard chromosomes during anaphase and loss of a complete chromosome. The present investigations revealed that E. crassipes exposed to Pb experienced phyto-genotoxicity, therefore it can be utilized as biomonitoring tool for toxicity of Pb assessment.
      DOI : International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2) 2014: 12-19
      PubDate: 2014-05-29
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Editorial Vol.3(2)

    • Authors: Govinda Bhandari
      DOI : International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2) 2014: i-ii
      PubDate: 2014-05-29
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Use of the Universal Soil-Loss Equation to determine water erosion with
           the semi-circular bund water-harvesting technique in the Syrian Steppe

    • Authors: Hamdan Al Mahmoud, Khouri Al Issam, Arslan Awadis
      Abstract: This research was conducted through the rain season 2009 -2010, in Mehasseh Research Center at (Al Qaryatein), The area is characterized by a hot and dry climate in summer and cold in winter with an annual average rainfall of 114 mm. Three slopes (8%, 6%, 4%) were used in semicircular bunds water -harvesting techniques with bunds parallel to the contours lines at flow distance of 18, 12 and 6 m. The bunds were planted with Atriplex Halimus seedlings. Graded metal rulers were planted inside the bunds to determine soil loss and sedimentation associated with the surface runoff, and metallic tanks were placed at the end of the flow paths to determine agricultural soil loss from water runoff. A rain intensity gauge was placed near the experiment site to determine the rainfall intensity that produced runoff. The treatments were done in three replications. The amount of soil erosion (in tons per hectare per year) increased with increasing of the slope, the highest recorded value was 38.66 at slope of 8% and the lowest 0.05 at 4% slope. The amount of soil erosion also increased with increasing of water run distance, which was 38.66 T.ha-1.yr-1 at 18 m and 0.05 T.ha-1.yr-1 at 6 m . Bunds with different diameter of water harvesting reduced soil erosion by about 65% at slope of 8%, 55% at 6%, and 46% at 4%. The input parameters of Universal soil-loss equation were found to be suitable for determining soil erosion in this arid and semi-arid region.
      DOI : International Journal of the Environment Vol.3(2) 2014: 1-11
      PubDate: 2014-05-29
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
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