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International Journal of Environment
   [5 followers]  Follow    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 2091-2854
     Published by Nepal Journals Online Homepage  [60 journals]
  • Floristic richness in catchment areas of Papagini River – a
           tributary of River Pennar, Andhra Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Rajendra Kumar
      Abstract: A floristic inventory study was carried out in Papagini river basin of Andhra Pradesh during January - December, 2008. Species richness showed 545 species. The family, genera and lifeform dominance were determined by dry climatic conditions of this region, thus makes the dominance of Poaceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Acanthaceae and Asteraceae as family level and Acacia, Euphorbia, Cassia, Commelina and Ficus as genera level. The order of lifeforms dominance was herbs, shrubs, trees, grasses and climbers. Further, the ecosystem functions were inspected and predictions were made on future existence of river ecosystems based on present human interventions. There were possibilities of loss of native vegetation, which impede the river functions and destabilization of ecosystem. Hence, to restore/preserve river basin, the Natural Resources Conservation methods were recommended.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i1.9953 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(1) 2014: 177-204
      PubDate: 2014-02-28
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Assessment of surface water quality in relation to water quality index of
           tropical lentic environment, Central Gujarat, India

    • Authors: Hiren B Soni, Sheju Thomas
      Abstract: The present study involved the determination of surface water quality index of tropical sacred wetland viz. Dakor Pilgrimage Wetland (DPW), Central Gujarat, India. The main aim of the study was to evaluate various water quality parameters to draw-out the water quality index for an assessment of a tropical aquatic body. The monthly values of pH, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Total alkalinity (TA), Total Hardness (TH), Calcium Hardness (Ca), Magnesium Hardness (Mg), Chloride, Sulphate, Phosphate, Sodium, and Potassium, were analyzed to compute water quality index (WQI). The results manifest that WQI at site 1 (D1) was maximum (161.74), followed by D2 (159.96), and minimum at site 3 (D3) (157.19). The values clearly depicts that quality of water is completely unfit for human consumption unless and until strict and mandatory steps are taken to rejuvenate it. The suggestive measures to improve the overall health of an aquatic body is also discussed herewith alongwith conservation measures and management strategies.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i1.9952 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(1) 2014: 168-176
      PubDate: 2014-02-28
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Nutrient composition and physicochemical characteristics in the
           destination sites of migratory water birds: a case study at the selected
           locations of seashores and lakes in southern India

    • Authors: Cyril Augustine, James Baben George, Neethu Cyril, MC Mary
      Abstract: The biodiversity in aquatic systems are indirectly controlled by their nutrient dynamics. The abundance of phytoplanktons and zooplanktons depends on the availability of nutrients such as nitrates, phosphates and silicates since these are the building blocks for their further growth. The phytoplanktons act as prey for the next higher trophic level including various fishes and other small organisms. One of the factors that enchant the migratory birds at some particular locations is the availability of the species of organisms that they prey on. In this paper a preliminary analysis is done to explore the nutrient dynamics of selected tropical aquatic systems in order to correlate the arrival of migratory birds at those locations. Water samples are collected from coastal region of Aleppey, Purakkad and Koonthankulam Bird Sancturay. The latter two sites are the important destination of many migratory water birds including Pallus Gull, Heuglins Gull, Bar-headed goose, Comb Duck and Spot Billed Pelican. The samples are analyzed chemically to trace the nutrient compositions and the related chemical parameters such as temperature, pH, conductivity, primary productivity, chloride, salinity, turbidity, nitrate, phosphate, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand. Remarkable differences are observed mainly in the composition of phosphate, organic matter content and salinity. Finally, an attempt has been done to correlate the biodiversity of these locations with the chemical parameters and the prevailing nutrient compositions.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i1.9943 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(1) 2014: 68-77
      PubDate: 2014-02-28
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Biological assessment of the effects of toxic metals on plant biomass
           production

    • Authors: Patrick S Michael
      Abstract: A significant environmental problem is the disturbance of acid sulfate soils which contain high amounts of sulfuric acid or have the potential to form it, resulting in pollution of the environment due to mobilization of toxic metals into soil and water systems. Reported in this study are two bioassay experiments carried out using wheat plants (Triticum sp.) to investigate the potential causes of a significant environmental problem experienced in a farmland. The results obtained show that availability of excessive amounts of Fe in the rhizosphere and formation of Fe-complex plagues, either acted as barriers to nutrient uptake or enhanced uptake of potentially toxic metals in excessive amounts; coupled with the presence of toxic levels of Al killed the vegetation on the farmland.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i1.9942 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(1) 2014: 56-67
      PubDate: 2014-02-28
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Fluoranthene induced changes in photosynthetic pigments, biochemical
           compounds and enzymatic activities in two microalgal species: Chlorella
           vulgaris Beijerinck and Desmodesmus subspicatus Chodat

    • Authors: Miral Patel, JI Nirmal Kumar, KK Tiwari
      Abstract: The photosynthetic pigments, biochemical and enzymatic activities in two freshwater microalgal species, Chlorella vulgaris and Desmodesmus subspicatus at different fluoranthene concentrations were compared with the control conditions. During 16-days of incubation period when treated with fluoranthene, both microalgal species exhibited variable amount of photosynthetic pigment, biochemical compounds and enzymatic activities. The addition of fluoranthene at concentrations ranged from 1.5 mg l-1; to 10 mg l-1; to microalgal cultures led to changes in all different metabolites but the patterns varied from species to species. Among the two species tested, pigment, biochemical and enzymatic contents were remarkably declined from 7 % to 95% in C. vulgaris. Moreover, all metabolites in D. subspicatus also diminishing significantly by 3% to 88% of fluoranthene doses (10ppm). These results suggest that fluoranthene-induced changes of pigments, biochemical and enzymatic variations in test microalgae, D. subspicatus and C. vulgaris, might reveal its resistance and ability to metabolize PAHs. At the same time, the PAH impact changes on different metabolic activities were higher at 12 and 16 days than at 4 and 8 days in treated microalgae.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i1.9941 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(1) 2014: 41-55
      PubDate: 2014-02-28
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Allelopathic interaction of pepper (Capsicum annuum) and pearl millet
           (Pennisetum glaucum) intercropped

    • Authors: Leila Radouane, Thouraya Rhim
      Abstract: Intercropping is common practice in many regions of Tunisia, particularly in Cap-Bon where different crops such as tomato, pepper, cucumber, peanut, corn, pearl millet and sorghum are grown together in the same field and at the same time for self-sufficiency. A number of these crops and vegetables are known for their allelopathic activities. The interaction between plants could be within the individuals of the same species (intraspecific interaction or autotoxicity) or between different species (interspecific interaction or teletotoxicity). Little is known about allelopathic interaction of some of these intercropped plants in mixed farming systems in our local conditions. Therefore, the objectives of the present investigation are to evaluate, under laboratory condition, the allelopathic effect of mixed crops, which interacted positively or negatively when cultivated together in the same field. Two plant species were used to study the effects of their aqueous extract on germination and growth of each other (pepper and pearl millet). The results suggested that aqueous extracts from shoots and roots significantly inhibited germination and seedling growth and the inhibitory effects were increased proportionally with the extract concentration. The shoot and root aqueous extract also exhibited intraspecific and interspecific allelopathy. Generally, it was observed that roots were more toxic than shoots. For root extract, the highest inhibition percentage was gained from the effect of pearl millet on pepper (40%) and highest autotoxicity was observed from pearl millet (36%). The effect of shoot extract on germination indicated that the highest reduction (55%) was obtained from pepper shoot extract on pearl millet and highest autotoxicity was observed from pepper which reached (45%). In most cases autotoxicity appeared to be more severe than teletotoxicity, on seed germination of the two intercropped plant species.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i1.9940 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(1) 2014: 32-40
      PubDate: 2014-02-28
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Fertilizer use among cocoa farmers in Ghana: the case of Sefwi Wiawso
           District

    • Authors: Isaac Nunoo, Benedicta Nsiah Frimpong, Frederick Kwabena Frimpong
      Abstract: This study analyses factors that influence fertilizer use among cocoa farmers in the Sefwi Wiawso District in the Western Region, Ghana. Primary data were obtained from 200 cocoa farmers in the district. Descriptive statistics and ordinary least square regression analysis were used to analyse data collected. The results revealed that majority of the cocoa farmers were males and are getting old. Also farm size and price of fertilizer were significant factors affecting fertilizer use among cocoa farmers in the Sefwi Wiawso District in the Western Region. Moreover 74.5 percent farmers do not use fertilizer whereas 25.5 percent use fertilizer on their cocoa farms. The study recommends that Ghana government should further subsidise the price of fertilizer to make fertilizer more affordable to small holder cocoa farmers and also adopt strategies that hedge against price risk. In addition, illiterate farmers should be encouraged to undergo adult literacy programmes. Rural development policies should think about the importance of improving small-scale farmers' access to credit market. Furthermore, the extension unit of the Ghana Cocoa board and Ministry of Agriculture should be strengthened to educate cocoa farmers more on fertilizer usage.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i1.9939 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(1) 2014: 22-31
      PubDate: 2014-02-28
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Flood forecasting in Blue Nile basin using a process-based hydrological
           model

    • Authors: Osama R Abdel-Aziz
      Abstract: Predictions of variations in global and regional hydrological cycles and their response to changes in climate and the environment are key problems for future human life. Therefore, basin-scale hydrological forecasts, along with predictions regarding future climate change, are needed in areas with high flood potential. This study forecasts hydrological process scenarios in Blue Nile basin using a distributed hydrological model (DHM) and predicted scenarios of precipitation from two general circulation models, CCSM3 model and Miroc3.2-hires. Firstly, river discharge was simulated by the DHM using the observed rainfall from 1976 to 1979 and then, simulating future precipitations from 2011 to 2040, discharge scenarios were predicted.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i1.9938 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(1) 2014: 10-21
      PubDate: 2014-02-28
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Eccentric observation of total hardness in Lohara Village, Chandrapur
           District, Central India

    • Authors: RK Kamble
      Abstract: The potability of water is judged by its physical, chemical and biological analysis. While analysing the water quality of Chandrapur district for winter 2012, summer 2013 and post-monsoon 2013 an eccentric observation was observed for total hardness estimation from the groundwater sample of Lohara village. While performing total hardness of groundwater sample by EDTA complexomertirc titration, after addition of buffer and inhibitor solution followed by Eriochrome Black T indicator a blue colour was formed instead of wine red colour. This observation was reported from all three sampling seasons. Perhaps, this may be the first time that such an observation was reported in the scientific literature. However, calcium hardness was found to be 84 ppm as CaCO3 in all three sampling season.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i1.9950 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(1) 2014: 134-140
      PubDate: 2014-02-28
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Inventory of threatened plants of Bangladesh and their conservation
           management

    • Authors: M Harun-ur-Rashid, M Enamur Rashid, M Atiqur Rahman
      Abstract: The study aimed at inventorying of threatened plant species of Bangladesh to determine their status of occurrence for emphasizing the setting-up of national conservation strategies and sustainable management. Complete inventory of two families, the Apocynaceae and Vitaceae, has been made and recognized 28 threatened species facing environmental threats, and need sustainable conservation management. The study was based on long-term field investigation, survey of relevant floristic literature and examination of herbarium specimens. An enumeration of threatened taxa is prepared with updated field data on conservation status to include into Red Data Book of Bangladesh.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i1.9951 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(1) 2014: 141-167
      PubDate: 2014-02-28
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Occurrence of zooplanktons at Sacred Palustrine Habitat, Central Gujarat,
           India, with conservation and management strategies

    • Authors: Hiren B Soni, Sheju Thomas
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to represent the zooplankton composition of Sacred Palustrine Habitat (SPH), Anand District, Central Gujarat, India. Collections of zooplanktons were carried out at three permanent sampling stations at fortnight intervals over one year period covering three consecutive seasons from June 2012 to May 2013. The zooplankton population was represented by a total of 29 genera and 31 species bestowed by 12 species of Ciliophora, followed by Rhizopoda (6), Zooflagellata (5), Rotifera (4), Cladocera (2), Copepoda and Ostracoda (1) each. Of the total 31 species of zooplanktons, nine species were abundant, 11 were common, and 12 were rare. The present paper discusses the population profile of zooplanktons in waters of SPH with suggested conservation and management strategies.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i1.9948 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(1) 2014: 111-121
      PubDate: 2014-02-28
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Tree resources Of Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary, Uttar Pradesh, India
           with especial emphasis on conservation status, phenology and economic
           values

    • Authors: Lal Babu Chaudhary, Anoop Kumar, Ashish K Mishra, Nayan Sahu, Jitendra Pandey, Soumit K Behera, Omesh Bajpai
      Abstract: Uttar Pradesh, one of the most populated states of India along international border of Nepal, contributes only about 3% of total forest & tree cover of the country as the major parts of the area is covered by agriculture lands and human populations. The forests are quite fragmented and facing severe anthropogenic pressure in many parts. To protect the existing biodiversity, several forest covers have been declared as National Parks and Wildlife Sanctuaries. In the present study, Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary (KWS) has been selected to assess tree diversity, their phenology and economic values as the trees are the major constituent of any forest and more fascinating among all plant groups. The sanctuary consists of tropical moist deciduous type of vegetation and situated along the Indo-Nepal boarder in Bahraich district of Uttar Pradesh, India. After, thorough assessment of the area, a list of 141 tree species belonging to 101 genera and 38 families have been prepared. The family Fabaceae exhibits highest generic and species diversity with 14 genera and 23 species. The genus Ficus of Moraceae has been found the largest with 11 species. Maximum trees with about 51 species have been found to flower in post winter season (February to March) in the forest. About 62 trees are used as medicinal for various purposes, 50 as ornamental & avenue trees, 37 as timber wood, 36 as edible, 16 as fire wood and 12 as fodder. Since the sanctuary area has been surrounded by several villages and facing anthropogenic pressure, the public awareness program related with biodiversity conservation and sustainable uses is highly needed to protect the forest covers.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i1.9949 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(1) 2014: 122-133
      PubDate: 2014-02-28
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Modulation of antioxidant defence system for detoxification of oxidative
           stress caused by tannery effluent in Eichhornia crassipes

    • Authors: Kiran Gupta
      Abstract: A study was performed to evaluate capability of aquatic macrophyte Eichhornia crassipes plants to combat oxidative stress caused by tannery effluent treatment. For this purpose, tannery effluent was collected from “Up flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket” (UASB) Jajmau, Kanpur. Plants of Eichhornia crassipes were exposed to various concentrations of tannery effluent (0.0, 25, 50, 75 and 100%) for 2 and 7 days durations. Plants accumulated significant (p<0.01) amount of Cr (a major constituent of tannery effluent) in a concentration duration dependent manner; which was more in roots (220 mg g-1 dw) than in leaves (83 mg g-1 dw). Tannery effluent induced oxidative stress was evident by increased level of MDA content. To combat oxidative stress plants showed alleviated level of antioxidants as its defense mechanism. Among enzymatic antioxidants, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activity increased over to control upto 2nd days of treatment however on exposure of long duration i.e. 7 days these antioxidants declined in correspond to various treatments. Similarly non enzymatic antioxidants (carotenoid and ascorbic acid content) which scavenged free radicals efficiently also showing elevation at all concentrations up to 2 days exposure over unstressed plants, thereafter responded in decreasing manner due to ill effects of treatments. Therefore it can be concluded, E. crassipes can be utilized as a biomonitoring as well as phytoremedial tool using aforesaid biomarkers for pollution caused by tannery effluent.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i1.9947 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(1) 2014: 101-110
      PubDate: 2014-02-28
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Water management in mountainous Jardhar Village, Chamba Block,
           Uttarakhand, India

    • Authors: RK Kamble
      Abstract: An attempt has been carried out to assess water management practices adopted by Jardhar villagers in Chamba block of Uttrakhand. The rain water during rainy season got collected in chahals (mountainous tanks) on top of mountains. The rain water which got collected in these structures percolates through mountains and forms number of small streams which were perennial in nature. The water from these streams were received in a small metal tank at the end of stream in the mountain and through a steel pipe this collected water was diverted and collected into a cement tank at an elevated location at the entrance of the village. From this elevated water reservoir water was distributed at various locations in the village through public stand posts. The sustainable utilization of water in this mountainous area paved way for availability of water throughout the year and thus can sustain the population in such a topographic region. This traditional water management in Jardhar village has set an example of water management which can be adopted in such terrains throughout the world.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i1.9946 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(1) 2014: 93-100
      PubDate: 2014-02-28
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Growth and chlorophyll fluorescence under salinity stress in sugar beet
           (Beta vulgaris L.)

    • Authors: Fadi Abbas, Entessar Al-Jbawi, Mohammed Ibrahim
      Abstract: This study was carried out in the General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Syria, at Der EzZour Agricultural Research Center, from 2008-2010, to examine the effect of salt conditions on some growth attributes and chlorophyll fluorescence in 10 Sugar Beet (Beta vulgaris L.) genotypes under salinity stress. Sugar beet plants were irrigated with saline water, having electrical conductivity ranged from 8.6-10 dS.m-1during first year and 8.4-10.4 dS.m-1 during second year. A randomized completely block design with three replicates was used. The results showed that all studied growth attributes, leaf area, leaf number, relative growth rate, and net assimilation rate were decreased in salinity stress conditions compared to the controlled state. The findings indicated that salinity caused a decrement of light utilizing through increased values of fluorescence origin (fo), decreased values of fluorescence maximum (fm), and maximum yield of quantum in photosystem-II (fv/fm). Genotypes differed significantly in all studied attributes except in leaf number. Under salt conditions, Brigitta (monogerm) achieved an increase in net assimilation rate, while Kawimera (multigerm) achieved the lowest decrement in quantum yield in photosystem-II. Further studies are necessary to correlate the yield with yield components under similar conditions to determine the most tolerant genotype. International Journal of Environment Vol.3(1) 2014: 1-9
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i1.9937
      PubDate: 2014-02-28
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Three new records of Jungermannia species (Hepaticae, Jungermanniales)
           from Nepal

    • Authors: Nirmala Pradhan
      Abstract: Jungermanniaceae is the largest family of the Order Jungermanniales, which includes three subfamilies viz Jamesonielloideae, Mylioideae and Jungermannideae representing 18 genera and 71 species in Nepal. This paper deals with three new records viz. Jungermannia exertifolia Steph., J. infusca (Mitt.) Steph. and J. pumila With., which were recorded in the year 2010 and 2011 at different elevations (150 to 1300 m) in Chitwan district of central Nepal. These species were observed mostly in the mesic habitats of Sal (Shorea robusta) forest with other tree species like Dalbergia sisoo and Acacia catechue. Jungermannia pumila was recorded in broad leaved deciduous forest at 1275 m of elevation.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i1.9945 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(1) 2014: 85-92
      PubDate: 2014-02-28
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Identification of potential wetlands in Tiruchirappalli District, Tamil
           Nadu, India

    • Authors: A Job Martin Durai, S Kalavathy, V Gokula, A Muthukrishnan
      Abstract: Wetland maps are prerequisites for wetland inventory, development, planning, management, protection, and restoration, for conservation of wetland-dependent flora, fauna and humans. It is estimated that 15.26 million hectares exists as wetlands in India according to Space Application Centre (SAC), pertaining to wetlands having more than 56 hectares area. Past research on wetland conservation in the country has shown that micro-wetlands (satellite wetlands) around a bigger wetland act as constellation of habitat mosaic for resident and migratory waterfowls. Often, the size of these micro-wetlands is much smaller than 50 hectares. Therefore, there is a great need to map such wetlands (smaller than 50 hectares). The Tiruchirappalli district, situated in the state of Tamil Nadu, India, is selected for the present investigation to identify the potential wetlands through geo-spatial technology (GIS & RS). All the wetlands within the Tiruchirappalli district have been demarcated from 1973 applying temporal remote sensing data. A total of 2399 wetlands of various size categories have been identified in the Tiruchirappalli District, Tamil Nadu, India.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i1.9944 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(1) 2014: 78-84
      PubDate: 2014-02-28
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Effect of rainfall on the yield of major cereals in Darchula District of
           Nepal

    • Authors: Govinda Bhandari
      Abstract: Rainfall is one of the most important factors for the growth of cereals. Inadequate water results poor growth and reduced yield. This study is aimed to explore the relationship between rainfall and yield of major cereals in Darchula district of Nepal. The yield of individual cereals is correlated with the seasonal rainfall data using MS Excel to identify the effect of rainfall on yield of cereals. The amount of rainfall in the years 1974, 1977, 1980, 1985, 1986, 1987, 1991, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1997, 1999 and 2000 was reduced which has greatly affected the yield of rice, wheat and maize in 1986 and 1987. In the years 1976, 1977, 1999 and 2000, the decrease in the amount of rainfall has reduced the yield of all major cereals in Darchula district of Nepal.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i1.9954 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(1) 2014: 205-213
      PubDate: 2014-02-28
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
 
 
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