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Journal Cover International Journal of Environment
  [3 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2091-2854
   Published by Nepal Journals Online Homepage  [69 journals]
  • Capacity building training in Nepal

    • Authors: Govinda Bhandari
      Abstract: Not available.International Journal of Environment Vol.4(4) 2015
      PubDate: 2015-12-11
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2015)
  • People and Environment in our Changing World

    • Authors: Peter J. Matthews
      Abstract: Not available.International Journal of Environment Vol.4(4) 2015
      PubDate: 2015-12-11
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2015)
  • Phytoalexins stimulation in the infected Sesamum indicum L. with fungus
           Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid (Rot Disease)

    • Authors: Sandhya Sharma, Vinay Sharma, Afroz Alam
      Pages: 1 - 18
      Abstract: Plants respond to a wide variety of pathogen attack. They show the local response in originally attacked plant organ and systemic response in unaffected plant parts with the de novo production of phytochemical compounds. Phenolics (polyphenols) play an important role in the defense mechanism of the plants. So, this study was carried out to analyze the metabolic modifications in Sesame plant after the infection with the pathogen (Macrophomina phaseolina) by estimating the levels of polyphenol in 7 days and 14 days old Sesame plants. The polyphenol contents in infected plants are considerably exceeded in contrast to control plants. This in vivo study of M. phaseolina infection reveals the differences of resistance levels in Sesame against the pathogen. The obtained results give important information concerning the plant-pathogen interactions, in the defense response for Sesame improvement programs seeking the adaptation to the diverse range of fungal attack along with adverse environmental factors.International Journal of Environment Vol.4(4) 2015: 1-18
      PubDate: 2015-12-11
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2015)
  • Comparing adsorption activity of raw Sepiolite and CTAB modified
           Sepiolite: kinetic and adsorption study for removal of Hg+

    • Pages: 19 - 31
      Abstract: In our study adsorption of Hg+2 ions from water solutions on Sepiolite (Sep) and Modified Sepiolite (MSep) with cationic surfactants namely cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide CTAB was investigated. Different parameters were used to investigate such as contact time, pH and adsorbent dosage. The adsorption capacity of MSep and Sep was examined. Both particles were characterized with FTIR spectrum. According to the our results the equilibrium adsorption data corresponded to the Langmuir isotherm and qmax was 54,7 mg/g and 104,1 mg/g for Sep and MSep respectively. Kinetic parameters showed that pseudo-second-order adsorption kinetic model was the best model than the pseudo-first-order. MSep is more active adsorbent than Sep and it can be the best alternative adsorbent for removing of heavy metal from industrial waste water. In addition MSep can be used as adsorbent for removal of nonpolar toxic organic molecules, because sepiolite surface can be converted from hydrophilic form to hydrophobic form by CTAB resulting in increased the adsorption capacity.International Journal of Environment Vol.4(4) 2015: 19-31
      PubDate: 2015-12-11
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2015)
  • Phenotypic characterization of wheat landraces from mid and far western
           districts of Nepal

    • Authors: Sangharash Raj Dangi, Ramesh Raj Puri, Nutan Raj Gautam
      Pages: 32 - 44
      Abstract: The study was conducted to evaluate phenotypic variation in one hundred and sixty six wheat landraces from mid and far western districts of Nepal. They were sown in randomized complete block design with two replications at National Wheat Research Program in 2014/15. The observed traits were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis using MINITAB v. 14. The results showed a wide range of phenotypic variability in observed parameters. The results also showed that the highest value of the standard deviation from mean (Sd) was for grain yield (±290.10) followed by plant height (±7.21). Among the traits the lowest deviation from mean (Sd) was for thousand grain weight TGW (±2.68). Wheat landraces grouped in four clusters depending on similarity of the studied traits. The results in this cluster, showed that days to maturity ranged from 97 to111 days, TGW ranged from 16 to17 gm, plant height ranged from 76 to 85 cm, and grain yield ranged from 2800 to 3000 Kg ha-1. Wheat landraces under study are grouped depending on specific traits useful for wheat improvement program. Results of this study can be supportive to detect wheat landraces within species with similar traits. In addition it can be useful for sampling in successive studies and parental selection in wheat breeding program.International Journal of Environment Vol.4(4) 2015: 32-44
      PubDate: 2015-12-11
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2015)
  • Weeds distribution and abundance in irrigated fields of White Nile State

    • Authors: Mohamed Elkhawad, Amna Abdalla, Abosofian Osman
      Pages: 45 - 61
      Abstract: Field survey was conducted during the summer season of 2011- 2012 to determine the weed flora and weed dominance at the irrigated sites of White Nile State. The State was divided into six irrigated sites from which a total of thirty- five fields were selected and ten quadrates (1m2) from each field were taken randomly. In each quadrate individual weed species were recorded. Field frequency, uniformity and mean field density were also determined for each weed. Fifty five weed species belonging to twenty- four families (three monocotyledonous and twenty- one dicotyledonous) were recorded. Brachiaria eruciformis, Brachiaria reptans, Thunbergia annua and Ipomoea cordofana were the most dominant weed species in most fields. The highest Abundance Index were recorded by Ipomoea cordofana at El Salam and El Dawium counties (208.16 and 116.35), Brachiaria eruciformis at Um Remta and El Gebalen counties (158.80 and 79.23), Brachiaria reptans at Kosti (116.54) and Momordica balsamina at Gezira Aba county (90.06). Brachiaria eruciformis showed the highest MFD and Uniformity at El Salam and Um Remta Counties (19.11 and 80.00), respectively, and highest frequency value was recorded by Ipomoea cordofana (142.86) at El Salam County. The AI which used as weed survey method is to evaluate the weed management strategies and the change of weed species in weed communities through years.International Journal of Environment Vol.4(4) 2015: 45-61
      PubDate: 2015-12-11
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2015)
  • Perception, trends and impacts of climate change in Kailali District, Far
           West Nepal

    • Authors: Lal Bahadur Thapa, Himanchal Thapa, Binala Gharti Magar
      Pages: 62 - 76
      Abstract: Perception and place-based studies give useful information on climate change in context of Nepal due to having its wide geographical, climatic, biological and cultural diversity. A household survey and focus group discussions were carried out in this study to document local people’s perceptions on climate change in Kailali district of Nepal. Most of respondents in the study area have perceived that temperature and fog are increased; and rainfall and hail are decreased with severe fluctuation. Trend of temperature supports local people’s perception. People have noticed impacts of these changes in vegetation, plant phenology and agriculture. Fundamentally, they have observed that certain plant species are decreasing, increasing and showing changes in flowering and fruiting time. This information could have significance for future research to identify climate change sensitive or indicator plants.International Journal of Environment Vol.4(4) 2015: 62-76
      PubDate: 2015-12-11
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2015)
  • Quality changes in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) roots during storage
           period in piles

    • Authors: Entessar Al-Jbawi, Sameer Al Geddawi, Gaidaa Alesha
      Pages: 77 - 85
      Abstract: Root transportation or remaining in fields or trucks for many days before manufacturing is considered one of the main problems that leads to the deterioration of root quality, and caused a great loss for the farmer and government. Because of the importance of this issue, a study was conducted during 2007 and 2008 seasons at winter time (15th of Jan) at Al Ghab Agriculture Research Center, General Commission for Scientific Agricultural Research (GCSAR), Syria, to determine the effect of some agricultural treatments (varieties), and environment conditions on the quality traits, water content of sugar beet during 1-10 days after harvest. Also to estimate correlation coefficient between post harvest period and the quality traits and water content. Four recommended sugar beet varieties were used, tow monogerm i.e. Rizor and Sherif, and tow multigerm i.e. Hospoly and Kronos. Randomized Completely Block Design (RCBD) was used with four replicates. The results showed that prolonging storage period of the harvested roots leads to high and gradual increment in the total soluble solids (brix %), from the first day to the last day of the studied storage period. The percent of increment for all varieties in brix% was 42.98%. Also the results clarified low sugar percent, and water content, which were 46 and 21.25 %, respectively. The reduction in juice purity % ranged from 76.08% in the first day to 67.23% in the last day for all varieties. The coefficient of correlation (r) exhibited a positive correlation between brix % and sucrose % , and a negative correlation between brix % and purity %, and also a negative correlation between water content and both brix and sucrose percentages.International Journal of Environment Vol.4(4) 2015: 77-85
      PubDate: 2015-12-11
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2015)
  • Genetic diversity of some apple cultivars in the south of Syria based on
           morphological characters

    • Authors: O. Al-Halabi, B. Muzher
      Pages: 86 - 99
      Abstract: This work was aimed to evaluate genetic diversity among five local and six introduced apple cultivars in the germplasm which located in the South of Syria based on 29 morphological characters of leaf and fruit. The analysis of variance showed significant differences at P < 0.05 for all measured parameters, however the mean values of Limb length and width, fruit weight, length, and width indicated to a wide range of diversity between local and introduced cultivars, that the introduced cultivars have mostly the highest mean value while the local cultivars have the lowest mean values, that clearly found in the local apple cultivar Ksairi (K) which revealed the lowest mean value of fruit weight (FW), fruit length (FL) and fruit diameter (FD) in the comparison with all studied cultivars. Likewise, principal component analysis (PCA) was used and the first 4 principal components accounted for 76.4% of the total variance, with eigen values 29.2%, 18.8%, 16.9% and 11.5% respectively. The main important characters in PC1 are correlated with the high mean value of width of stalk cavity (WP), fruit weight (FW), fruit diameter (FD), fruit length (FL), core length (CL), width of calyx cavity (WC), core width (CW), depth of stalk cavity (DP), stalk diameter (SD), seed width (SeW) and leaf margin (LM). PC2 discriminated among cultivars depending on Fruit shape (FS), leaf shape (LS), over color (OC), maturity time (MT), core shape (CS), limp length (LL) and leaf base (LB) which were able to differentiate between all studied cultivars . PC3 is correlated with the high mean value of Stalk length (SL), titratable acidity (TA), total sugar (TS), and total soluble solids (TSS). PC4 is correlated with the high mean value of depth of calyx cavity (DC), leaf apices (LA) and fruit cross section (FCS). Cluster analysis was also used that divided the studied cultivars into two clusters, the first cluster included all local apple cultivars, in addition to Leaz Golden (LG) cultivar, however AbouGhabra (AG) and Ksairi (K) cultivars revealed the highest similarity, which have the same fruit shape(FS), background color (BC), core shape (CS), fruit cross section (FCS), leaf shape (Ls) and leaf margin (LM). While the second cluster included all the other introduced cultivars.International Journal of Environment Vol.4(4) 2015: 86-99
      PubDate: 2015-12-11
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2015)
  • Submergence rice cultivation in southern Bangladesh: farmers opinion and
           adaptations practices

    • Authors: AKM Abdul Ahad Biswas, Md. Abdullah-Al Mamun, Md. Saifur Rahman, Md. Abdus Sattar, AKM Mostafa Zaman
      Pages: 100 - 113
      Abstract: Rice productivity in coastal Bangladesh is lower than the national average and total coastal area is considered to be submergence-prone and higher vulnerable in July to January cropping season. The selected study areas are Kalapara and Patuakhali Sadar Upazila that are too vulnerable to agriculture practices. Field survey was conducted during 01st June to 30th July, 2015 to investigate the impact of submergence on Aman rice cultivation (ARC), existing adopted local adaptation practices with impacts and options to address the submergence problem. Primary data was collected through Focus Group Discussion (FGD), Individual Interview and Key Informant Interview methods and secondary data was collected from different secondary sources. A well-structured pretested questionnaire schedule was developed keeping in mind the objectives and variables under this study. After cyclone SIDR and AILA devastation, the rate of traditional ARC is decreasing every year and in 2015 it was 26.51%. Recently farmers have adopted new cropping practices and strategies like modern ARC in Aman season as single crop; Boro-Aus-Aman season as triple crop and Aus-Aman season as double crop are practicing. Approximately all farmers have adopted to grow stress tolerant rice varieties (STRV); farmer’s curiosities to familiar with and to have the STRV are encouraging. Farmers were fully adopted BRRIdhan52 rice cultivation with positive perceptions of higher yield and lower production cost. Therefore it can be concluded that the intensity of adoption of adaptation and mitigation measures are significantly influenced positively by the STRV yield capability; farmer’s participation in intervention programs; livelihood diversification; frequency of extension personnel contact; submergence and inundation characteristics; tolerance attributes of STRV and availability of STRV cultivation information.International Journal of Environment Vol.4(4) 2015: 100-113
      PubDate: 2015-12-11
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2015)
  • A review on introduction and applications of starch and its biodegradable

    • Authors: Shanta Pokhrel
      Pages: 114 - 125
      Abstract: Biodegradable polymers play a very important role in plastic engineering by replacing non biodegradable, non renewable petrol based polymers. Starch is a renewable, biodegradable, low cost natural polymer with high availability. Natural polymers can be blended with synthetic polymers to improve their properties significantly. This article reviews advance in starch and starch based blends and presents their numerous potential applications. Therefore, this review helps to understand the importance and characteristics of starch and its biodegradable polymers (blends) by its various aspects such as structural properties and wide applications.International Journal of Environment Vol.4(4) 2015: 114-125
      PubDate: 2015-12-11
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2015)
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