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Journal Cover   International Journal of Environment
  [3 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2091-2854
   Published by Nepal Journals Online Homepage  [62 journals]
  • Retention efficiencies of halogenated and non-halogenated hydrocarbons in
           selected wetland ecosystem in Lake Victoria Basin

    • Authors: Shadrack Mule, Charles Nguta, Geoffrey Kamau, Gilbert Ongera, Phanice Wangila, Joyce Kiplimo, Dennis Chirchir
      Abstract: The determination of retention efficiencies of halogenated and non-halogenated hydrocarbon in selected wetland ecosystems in Lake Victoria basin was carried out. Qualitative and quantitative determination of the presence of residual hydrocarbons in Kigwal/Kimondi, Nyando and Nzoia wetland ecosystems using Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) instrument indicated the presence of residual organochlorines, organophosphorus, carbamates and synthetic pyrethroid hydrocarbons in water, sediment and plant materials. In order to compare the retention efficiencies of the wetlands, the wetland ecosystems were divided into three different sections, namely: inlet, mid and outlet. Calculations of mass balances of residual halogenated and non-halogenated hydrocarbons at the respective sections was done taking into account the partition of the studied compounds in samples of water, sediments and papyrus reed plant materials and analyzed using validated Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS) method. From the analysis, several residual hydrocarbons namely: bendiocarb, benzene hexachloride (BHC), carbaryl, cypermethrin, decis, deltamethrin, diazinon, dieldrin, DDT, DDD, DDE, malathion, propoxur, sumithion, 5-phenylrhodanine, 1,3,5-trichlorobenzene, 1-(2-phenoxybenzyl)hydrazine were detected and quantified. The levels of the selected residual hydrocarbons in water samples were used to calculate the retention efficiencies of a specific hydrocarbon and the values recorded. Generally, River Nyando wetland recorded mean percentage retention efficiencies of 76 and 94% for dry and rainy seasons respectively; Kigwal/Kimondi wetland had seasonal mean percentage retention efficiencies of 63 to 78%. River Nzoia also had calculated seasonal mean percentage retention efficiencies of between 56 to 88%. Dry season had lower mean percentages retention efficiencies as compared to rainy season in the three wetlands of interest during the period of study. The study observed that retention efficiencies of tropical wetland ecosystems is greatly affected by its concentration within the wetland tank systems, anthropogenic activities, physical properties of the hydrocarbon, and environmental conditions among others. There are several anthropogenic activities which contributed to the presence of hydrocarbons in the wetlands and they included: agricultural, municipal, industrial and public health activities.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12623 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2) 2015: 38-52
      PubDate: 2015-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Assessing grazing intensity plant frequency in Kordofan Region

    • Authors: Yousif Mohamed Zainelabdeen Hamed, Abdelrahman A Khatir, MAM Mohamed, Khalid H Mohamed, Ahmed IA Eltome
      Abstract: This study was conducted in Um "Nabag" (15km north of "Bara"), "Dilling" (160km south of "Elobeid") and "Eldemiokya" (30km east of "Elobeid"). The main objective of this study is to assess the effect of grazing on growth performance of natural rangelands in Kordofan region. The specific objectives: To assess the effect of grazing level on vegetation frequency. The results showed different levels of grazing intensity at different sites as indicated by plants frequency and biomass. Intensive grazing levels were found at Bara in the north, early and late in the rainy season but in Dilling it was not found in the late in the rainy season for both seasons (2008 and 2009) which indicated longer stay of herders in "Bara" area as a rainy season residences. Frequency of the species between non- grazed and grazed areas showed a decrease for the two seasons especially for preferred species at the different sites as in the case of Eragrostis termula and Cenchrus biflorus in (2008 ),Similar results were observed in (2009) with Fimbirsty dichotomo and Cenchrus biflorus. The study recommended that grazing level can be used as practical mean to assess utilization level as expressed by growth performance indicators including frequency. Level (II) is expected to result in negative impact on rangeland plants growth performance.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12622 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2) 2015: 27-37
      PubDate: 2015-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Detection of lead (pb) and aluminum (Al) metal as contaminant in food
           prepared by using locally manufactured cooked pots (Hala) in Kosti City,
           Sudan

    • Authors: EI Salah, TEM Eltayebb, MK Sabahelkhier, HM Abuseif
      Abstract: The objectives of this study are to assess the quantities of Aluminu m; lead released into the food from locally manufactured cooked pots (Aluminium pots) in Kosti market. Seven types of pots (Pistons, Cartels, Kettles, Kettles + trays, Pepsi cans, Atmonia and Steel) which is locally manufactured cooked pots (Hala) were used. Amount of Al and Pb that leaked into the food from locally manufactured cooked pots were assessed by using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. The results were indicated that highly significance amount of Aluminum and lead which were leaked into the food that prepared by locally manufactured cooked pots (Hala).The analysis of urine for 10 selected randomly individuals that used locally manufactured cooked pots (Hala) for preparation their food were indicated highly amount of Aluminum and Lead in their urine.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12621 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2) 2015: 19-26
      PubDate: 2015-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • The use of ethnobotanicals in the management of inflammation in Nigeria: a
           review

    • Authors: TR Fasola, PC Iyamah
      Abstract: Inflammation, one of the leading health issues in recent times call for concern. Many plants used in the management and treatment of inflammation in various parts of Nigeria have not been properly harnessed hence this review. The result of this review revealed that plants commonly used for the treatment of inflammation include: Zingiber officinale, Alstonia boonei, Plumbago zeylanica, Ocimum basilicum, Parquetina nigrescens, Peperomia pellucida, Abrus precatorius, Tetrapleura tetraptera, Alchornea cordifolia, Terminalia ivorensis, Aspilia africana, Ageratum conyzoides and Hymenocardia acida. Altogether 74 plant species are ethnobotanicals used in the management and treatment of inflammation. The plants were enumerated with their family names, common and local names, possible chemical constituents, part(s) used, route of administration and subsequent references where available.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12620 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2) 2015: 1-18
      PubDate: 2015-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Farmers' perceptions towards agroforestry systems in North and South
           Kordofanstates, Sudan

    • Authors: Kamal Eldin Mohammed Fadl, Salah E Mahmoud, Zainab M Hamad
      Abstract: This study was conducted during 2010 and 2011 in North and South Kordofan States with objectives of to identify and assess the most important agroforestry systems, to characterize major tree species in different agroforestry system, to prioritize major constraints on agroforestry systems in the region, and to study the current status of gum Arabic trees and their contribution on farmers livelihood. Data were collected through community meeting, individual interviews and direct field observation. The common agroforestry systems in the region are scatter trees on farm land, followed by wind breaks and boundary planting. The important trees in the study area are Acacia senegal83%, followed by Fadherbia albida 46%, Ziziphus spina- christia43% and Balanites aegyptiaca 41%. The most important field crops that cultivated in agroforestry system are groundnuts, millet, sorghum, sesame and roselle. The environmental benefits of trees in farm which was identified by the respondents include protection of farm against wind erosion, improvement of the soil properties, improvement of the micro-climate and providing a source for income which was indicated by the majority of respondents. Across all sites 93% of respondents showed that gum Arabic have a significant contribution to their family income. The study recommended that a multi-purpose tree species such as Acacia senegal should be maintained for amelioration of soils fertility and increase crop productivity in the fragile ecosystems such as that of the study sites.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12624 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2) 2015: 53-67
      PubDate: 2015-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Biosorption of lead (II) ion from aqueous solution using dum palm kernel

    • Authors: Babagana Gutti, Habu Mohammed Iyodo, Umar Abdullahi Isah
      Abstract: Biosorption of the lead ions from aqueous solutions using dum palm kernel was studied, the lead ion removal depends on the contact time, pH and adsorbent dosage. The optimum contact time, pH and adsorbent mass with in the experimental limit of this work were 100 minutes, 6-7, and 2.5g/L respectively. The maximum percentage of lead ions removed was 87%. The data fitted well with Temkin and Langmuir models, the regression correlation were obtained to be 0.9660 and 0.8667, respectively. The biosorbent may be economical if developed further for industrial wastewater and natural contaminated water treatment.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12625 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2) 2015: 68-75
      PubDate: 2015-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Study on biochemical functions in two mosses Physcomitrium pyriforme
           (Hedw) Hampe. and Octoblepharum albidum (Hedw) and estimation of some
           heavy metals

    • Authors: Manjul Misra, PK Tandon
      Abstract: Some outskirts and highway areas of Lucknow were surveyed and two Moss Physcomitrium pyriforme and Octoblepharum albidum (Hedw.) samples were collected from some selected areas. Samples were collected from soils and moist brick walls and heavy metals Pb, Cu, and Co analyzed for the main cause of variation in biochemical functions such as chlorophyll content, Protein and catalase. Samples collected from Garden and Monument areas were treated as Control. Samples collected from outskirts and highways areas showed higher level of heavy metals in comparison to the samples collected from Garden and Monument sites. However variable results were obtained with regard to variation in biochemical functions such as chlorophyll content, protein and catalase.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12627 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2) 2015: 76-86
      PubDate: 2015-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Metabolic effects of pesticide effluents on Nicotiana tabacum and Vigna
           radiata plants

    • Authors: Kumkum Mishra, Eera Sanwal, PK Tandon, Kiran Gupta
      Abstract: Some important metabolic parameters were investigated in relation to various doses of pesticide effluents in two economically plants viz. Nicotiana and Vigna plants. Increasing doses of pesticide effluents caused decrease in both sugar and protein concentration almost similarly in both plants. However, activities of enzymes, catalase, peroxidase and MDA content were found to be stimulated by higher doses of pesticide factory effluents in both the plants. Protein and sugar content decreased at all doses in Nicotiana tabacum however there were increase in enzymatic activity like catalase and peroxidase. MDA content was also increased in same plant. On the other hand Vigna radiata showed inducing nature of protein content at lower concentration (25%) and thereafter inhibit at all doses while sugar content decreased at all concentrations. Enzymatic activity viz. catalase and peroxidase showed promoting nature at all concentrations. MDA content also increased at all concentrations. Thus it can be concluded that but for small differences in almost all the metabolic parameters towards their response towards pesticide industry effluent both the studied plants i.e. Nicotiana and Vigna were found to be quite susceptible towards pesticide effluents.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12628 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2) 2015: 87-94
      PubDate: 2015-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Influence of pesticide effluent on Allium cepa L. (onion) plants

    • Authors: Kumkum Mishra, Eera Sanwal, PK Tandon, Kiran Gupta
      Abstract: An investigation was made to find out the effect of different doses (25, 50, 75 and 100%) of pesticide effluents (Indian Pesticide Ltd) on plant growth and certain metabolic parameters (height, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, protein and sugar contents, MDA content, catalase and peroxidase activity ) in Allium cepa L. plants. Plant growth in terms of its height, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, protein and sugar contents were found to be decreased at increasing doses of pesticide effluents. However, other activities of two antioxidative iron viz. catalase and peroxidase also the MDA (Malondialdehyde) content were found to be progressively stimulated at increasing doses of the effluent.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12629 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2) 2015: 95-105
      PubDate: 2015-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Genetic potential and heritability estimates of yield traits in F3
           segregating populations of bread wheat

    • Authors: Soshma Jan, Fida Mohammad, Fahim Ullah Khan
      Abstract: An experiment comprising of 24 wheat genotypes was undertaken during 2011-12, at New Developmental Research Farm, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, to elucidate information on the nature and magnitude of genetic variability, index of transmissibility and assessing the level of genetic improvement of the quantitative characters. The experimental material comprising 19 F3 populations along with their 5 parents of bread wheat were evaluated in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Analysis of variance exhibited highly significant (P ≤ 0.01) differences among genotypes for all the traits studied. F3 population Ghaznavi-98 x Pirsabak-05 showed maximum mean value for 1000-grain weight (47.3 g) and biological yield (11474.9 kg ha-1), whereas, maximum values for grain yield (4027.3 kg ha-1), and harvest index (48.1%) were observed for Pirsabak-05 x AUP-4006. Moreover, maximum spike length (11 cm) was recorded for cross combination Pirsabak-05 x Pirsabak-04 and Janbaz x Pirsabak-05, respectively. In addition, Pirsabak-04 showed maximum value for number of grains spike-1 (55.0). Genetic variances were of greater magnitude than environmental variances for all the traits except for spike length and 1000-grain weight. Heritability estimates were of higher magnitude ranged from 0.64 to 0.92 for harvest index, biological yield, grain yield, and grains spike-1. Moderate to low heritability (0.40-0.46) was observed for 1000-grain weight, and spike length, respectively. Genetic gain was for spike length (0.48 cm), grains spike-1 (8.57), 1000-grain weight (2.93 g), grain yield (639.87 kg ha-1), biological yield (1790.03 kg ha-1), and harvest index (5.32 %). From high values of heritability and genetic advance, it could be concluded that selection for traits like grains spike-1 suggested good selection criteria and could be effective for future breeding programs.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12630 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2) 2015: 106-115
      PubDate: 2015-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Studies of haematological parameters of Oreochromis niloticus exposed to
           Cadmium Chloride (CdCl2, 2H2O)

    • Authors: Hetalben M Parekh, Shantilal K Tank
      Abstract: The effects of Cadmium Chloride on the specimen Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were examined for evaluation as acute toxicity for 96 hours. From the recorded information using Probit Analysis-Finney Method [Log-normal Distribution] the results revealed the mean 96 hour LC50 value to be 3.5095 mg/L indicating very high potential toxicity. Also derived value for mean NOEC=0.9062 mg/L defined safe limits of cadmium. In order to assess the effect of prolonged exposure of low concentration of cadmium haematological assessment was made after 24 hour, 7 days and 15 days of exposure. The study of haematological parameters demonstrated significant reduction in Red Blood Cell count, Haemoglobin, Haematocrit and Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) and Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin (MCH); while elevation was reported in Mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV). Leading to conclusion that mature RBCs are destructed and the erythrocyte production is inhibited due to reduction of haemesynthesis. Stimulation of erythropoiesis is considered as one of the reasons for decrement in values of Haemoglobin, Haematocrit and RBC count.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12631 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2) 2015: 116-127
      PubDate: 2015-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Use of displacement method with STFT wavelet transformation for
           groundwater recharges prediction

    • Authors: Rajib Maharjan
      Abstract: The main aspiration behind this study was to calculate groundwater recession parameter using recently developed method and to apply calculated parameter for calculation of groundwater recharge. The equation for the hydrograph recession curve can be utilized to predict groundwater recharge during each recession period. The steps involved during recession curve analysis include selection of analytical expression, derivation of recession characteristic and optimization of the parameters. Each segment shows the outflow process which creates short-term or seasonal influence. The variations recession rate causes problems for derivation of recession characteristics. To avoid variations in recession parameters Short Time Fourier Transformation (STFT) was used. While applying STFT in real runoff data recession segments were chosen by user. The selected segments were further used for calculation of groundwater recharge assuming a linear hydrological model. The runoff hydrograph represents consist of three components: surface flow, intermediate flow and base flow. The applications of wavelet transformation can differential those flow components into were short, intermediate and long wavelet periods. The displacement method was used to obtain further information from wavelet transformation and to verify its practical application in groundwater studies.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12632 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2) 2015: 128-135
      PubDate: 2015-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Farmers’ perceptions towards agroforestry systems in Babanosa Area,
           West Kordofan State

    • Authors: Kamal Eldin Mohammed Fadl, Ali Elamin Abdallah Ahmed
      Abstract: This study was conducted in Eltemada, Boli and Umghoghai villages at Babanosa area in El-salam locality, South Kordofan State during 2012 and 2013. The objectives were to (1) identify and assess the most important agroforestry systems, (2) to investigate the main factors that affecting the sustainability of the systems, (3) to determine the important field crops that cultivated with trees and (4) to evaluate the effect of the agroforestry systems on the yield of the traditional field crops. For accomplishment of these study 80 questioners was designed and distributed in the selected villages. After the data collection data was analyzed by using descriptive statistic. The results showed that the most important agroforestry systems in the study area are parkland cropping system (58%), boundary planting (26%), wind-breaks (13%) and alley cropping (3%).The most important forest trees in the study area are Acacia senegal (32%), Ziziphus spina- christia (28%), Balanites aegeyptiaca (26%), Sclerocary birrea and Guera senegalensis (3%). The main field crops in the study area are groundnut (44%), sorghum (35%) and roselle (21%). The results showed that yield of groundnut and sorghum is higher under agroforestry systems compared with the mono-cropping system. The results showed that the majority of respondents (70%) prefer to cultivate field crops in agroforestry system, while (30%) prefer to cultivate the field crops in a mono-cropping system. The cultivation methods used in the study area include shifting cultivation (52%), mono-cropping (36%) and intercropping (12%).The majority of respondents (94%) showed that trees improve soil fertility in their farm land. The benefits from trees in farm land include improvement of soil properties (36%), protecting the farm land from wind erosion (28%), improvement of micro-climate (24%) and source of income which was indicated by (12%) of the respondents. The study recommended that modern agroforestry system such as improved fallow system and alley cropping should be introduced in the study area and multi-purpose trees such as Acacia senegal, Fedherbia albida and Sclerocarya birrea that improve soil fertility and diversify farmers income should be maintained.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12633 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2) 2015: 136-146
      PubDate: 2015-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Growth and yield response of hybrid maize (Zea mays L.) to phosphorus
           levels in sandy loam soil of Chitwan Valley, Nepal

    • Authors: Bandhu Raj Baral, Parbati Adhikari, Jiban Shrestha
      Abstract: To evaluate the phosphorus response on winter hybrid maize, a field experiment was conducted at farm land of National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal on 2012 and 2013. Seven levels of Phosphorus i.e. 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 kg P2O5 ha-1 were applied along with 160:40 kg N:K2O ha-1. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. Hybrid maize RML 32 × RML 17 was used for this study. Analysis of variance showed that plant height (cm), dry matter accumulation (g), number of kernels per row, 1000 grain weight (g) and grain yield (ton ha-1) were significantly affected with Phosphorus level. The results showed that the trend of increment was positive for grain yield with increased P level from 0 to 80 kg P2O5 ha-1. The highest grain yield (10.77 ton ha-1) was measured when 120 kg P2O5 ha-1 is applied. It is concluded that 80 kg P2O5 ha-1 can be applied in winter season for hybrid maize RML-32 × RML-17 in Chitwan valley low land irrigated condition. Further studies are necessary on different soil types, seasons, management system and varieties to get more information about the most proper addition of P on maize.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12634 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2) 2015: 147-156
      PubDate: 2015-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Susceptibility analysis of landslide in Chittagong City Corporation Area,
           Bangladesh

    • Authors: Sourav Das, Debasish Roy Raja
      Abstract: In Chittagong city, landslide phenomena is the most burning issue which causes great problems to the life and properties and it is increasing day by day and becoming one of the main problems of city life. On 11 June 2007, a massive landslide happened in Chittagong City Corporation (CCC) area, a large number of foothill settlements and slums were demolished; more than 90 people died and huge resource destruction took place. It is therefore essential to analyze the landslide susceptibility for CCC area to prepare mitigation strategies as well as assessing the impacts of climate change. To assess community susceptibility of landslide hazard, a landslide susceptibility index map has been prepared using analytical hierarchy process (AHP) model based on geographic information system (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) and its susceptibility is analyzed through community vulnerability assessment tool (CVAT). The major findings of the research are 27% of total CCC area which is susceptible to landslide hazard and whereas 6.5 sq.km areas are found very highly susceptible. The landslide susceptible areas of CCC have also been analyzed in respect of physical, social, economic, environmental and critical facilities and it is found that the overall CCC area is highly susceptible to landslide hazard. So the findings of the research can be utilized to prioritize risk mitigation investments, measures to strengthen the emergency preparedness and response mechanisms for reducing the losses and damages due to future landslide events.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12635 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2) 2015: 157-181
      PubDate: 2015-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Physico-chemical characteristics of ground water samples from different
           areas of Thrissur District, Kerala State, India

    • Authors: Mity Thambi, Tom Cherian, Anju Therese Jose, Sunaina Jamal
      Abstract: The analysis of groundwater quality of important town areas of Thrissur district was carried out during the pre-monsoon period of 2014. The Physicochemical and biological parameters such as temperature, turbidity, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solid, pH, alkalinity, chloride, salinity, total harness, calcium, magnesium, iron, phosphate, sulphate, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, total coliform count and E. coli were determined. Most of the physicochemical parameters were observed above the desirable limit but below the permissible limit of drinking water standards of World Health Organization (WHO). Total coliform bacteria count values of different samples are within the permissible limit. The studies reveal that samples from Thrissur town (T), Guruvayoor (G) and Laloor (L) shows the presence of E.coli bacteria. All other samples were negative for E.coli bacteria. Dumping of wastes near road sides, flood due to heavy rains, improper waste management in hospitals, markets, flats etc increases the pollution of ground water. The results were compared with WHO guidelines, 2006 and Bureau of Indian Standards (IS: 10500, 1991) desirable limits for drinking water.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12636 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2) 2015: 182-192
      PubDate: 2015-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Estimation of genetic parameters of yield and yield traits in wheat
           genotypes under rainfed conditions

    • Authors: Imran Khan, Fida Mohammad, Fahim Ullah Khan
      Abstract: Development of superior crop varieties is the prime objectives of all plant breeding programs. To determine genetic variability, heritability and genetic advance, 24 elite bread wheat lines were planted in randomized complete block design with three replications at the University of Agriculture, Peshawar under rainfed conditions. Data were recorded on days to heading, days to maturity, plant height (cm), flag leaf area (cm-2), spike length (cm), grain yield (kg ha-1), biological yield (kg ha-1), 1000 grain weight (g), grains spike-1, grain weight spike-1(g), and harvest index (%). Analysis of variance revealed significant differences among genotypes for all the traits studied. Broad sense heritability was high for days to heading (0.89), grain weight spike-1(0.61g), spike length (0.70 cm), 1000-grain weight (0.62g), grain yield (0.78 kg ha-1) and harvest index (0.62%); and was moderate for days to maturity (0.52), plant height (0.38 cm), and grains spike-1 (0.49), while low heritability was estimated for spike weight (0.25g), flag leaf area (0.28 cm-2) and biological yield (0.25 kg ha-1). The values of genetic advance for days to heading, days to maturity, plant height, spike length, grains spike-1, grain weight spike-1, 1000-grain weight, grain yield, biological yield, flag leaf area, and harvest index were; 5.47, 1.88, 4.01, 6.42, 0.16, 5.02, 0.71, 418.83, 379.64, 2.89 and 3.92, respectively. Genotype PR 105 surpassed all other genotypes in grain yield (3144.33 kg ha-1) and hence it can be recommended for rainfed area.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12637 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2) 2015: 193-205
      PubDate: 2015-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Efficacy of organic matter and some bio-inoculants for the management of
           root-knot nematode infesting tomato

    • Authors: Neha Khan, Dr Safiuddin, Rose Rizvi, Rizwan Ali Ansari, Irshad Mahmood, Aisha Sumbul, Sartaj A Tiyagi
      Abstract: Efficiency of an organic matter like Tagetes erecta and bioinoculants Azotobacter chroococcum and Glomus fasciculatum was investigated in tomato cultivar ‘Pusa Ruby’ when inoculated individually as well as concomitantly for the management of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita in terms of growth parameters such as plant length, fresh and dry weights, chlorophyll content, per cent pollen fertility and mycorrhization. Greatest reduction in the numbers of second-stage juveniles in soil, number of root-galls, egg-masses and nematode multiplication was recorded with combined application of T. erecta and bio-inoculants A. chroococcum and G. fasciculatum as compared to untreated control and other treatments. Similarly, the greatest improvement in the plant growth and biomass of tomato was noted in the same treatments. However, individual inoculation of these bio-inoculants and organic fertilizers also showed significant enhancement but was less as compared to combined treatment. A. chroococcum was found most effective against disease incidence followed by G. fasciculatum and T. erecta. Parameters like NP and K contents were significantly enhanced in those plants which received combined treatments of organic matter and bio-inoculants. Azotobacter was found more efficacious against nematodes than Glomus fasciculatum. Organic matter also influenced the activity of bio-inoculants, more with the Azotobacter than G. fasciculatum.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12643 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2) 2015: 206-220
      PubDate: 2015-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Household solid waste generation rate and physical composition analysis:
           case of Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis in the western region, Ghana

    • Authors: Eugene Atta Nyankson, Bernard Fei-Baffoe, John Gorkeh-Miah
      Abstract: Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis, one of the rapidly expanding cities of Ghana has been facing serious problems with solid waste management. This is mainly due to the lack of available information about the types and quantity of solid waste generation in the area. Hence, the objective of this study was to determine the rate of household solid waste generation and its composition in the aforesaid city. The methodology and procedures for this study were derived from the Standard Test Method for Determination of the Composition of Unprocessed MSW (ASTM D 5231-92). All samples were hand sorted into 6 waste categories (paper, plastic, organics, metals, glass, and other waste). The study revealed that by weight, organic wastes constitutes the largest proportion of household solid waste (38%) followed by 19% plastics, 7% papers, 4% metals, 4% glass and 28% other wastes (comprising of sand, stones, ash, inert substances). The rate of daily waste generation per capita in the low, middle and high income households were 0.27±0.19, 0.4±0.19 and 0.58±0.24 kg/cap/day, respectively. The study revealed that there is no waste treatment or recovery facility established within the metropolis hence no significant waste recovery and reuse activities exist. The study showed that more than 38 % of the waste generated in Sekondi-Takoradi Metropolis is decomposable organic matter that can be re-used through composting as well as 34% of the waste having recycling potential thereby considerably mitigating the solid waste problem.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12644 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2) 2015: 221-235
      PubDate: 2015-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Bacteriological quality of sliced fruits sold at road site in Maiduguri,
           Borno State

    • Authors: IA Allamin, MB Borkoma, M Ibu Abbas, MA Wazin
      Abstract: The study was conducted to assess the bacteriological quality of sliced fruits, Fresh cut fruits collected from different stationary vendors in Maiduguri metropolis and were analysed to determine their bacteriological quality. All samples examined were contaminated with bacteria load. The Total aerobic plate count (TAPC) range from 1.8x105 – 3.4x105 for pawpaw, 1.9x105- 6.8x105 for pineapple and 1.5x105- 5.1x105 for watermelon, Likewise Total coliforms count range from 1.0x104 – 2.0x104 for pawpaw, 1.0x104- 3.8x104 for pineapple and 1.0x105- 4.6x104 for watermelon. The bacterial isolate were identified as Staphylococcus aureus, E.coli, Pseudomonas, Shigella sp. and Salmonella sp. The results obtained shows that sliced fruits sold in Maiduguri metropolis are habited by pathogenic bacteria. Therefore educating our fruit vendors on food hygiene, adequate packaging/covering of fruits on display for sale and washing of fruits before consumption is recommended.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12645 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2) 2015: 236-242
      PubDate: 2015-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Preliminary checklist of marine mollusks from Beyt Dwarka, Gulf Of Kutch
           (eco-sensitive zone), Gujarat, India

    • Authors: Biren B Soni, Kavita Thakur
      Abstract: The preliminary investigation of marine mollusks of Beyt Dwarka was carried out to prepare a checklist at the island of Beyt Dwarka, Gulf of Kachchh (Eco-sensitive Zone), Okhamandal Taluka, Jamnagar District, Gujarat, India. The rapid ecological assessment revealed the occurrence of 82 species of mollusks, belonging to 61 genera, 32 families, 9 orders, and 3 classes (including uncommon / rare species). Of the reported species, Class Bivalvia was represented by 5 orders, 8 families, and 20 species, followed by 4 orders of Gastropoda distributed in 23 families and 60 species, and only 1 order (Scaphopoda) with 1 family and 2 species. Of 82 species, 67 species were common throughout the study period (October 2013 to February 2014), whereas 15 species were designated as uncommon or rare therein. The overall ratio of Order, Family and Species of recorded molluscan taxa was found to be 3.00: 3.56: 2.56. From the present survey, it was observed that the study area (Beyt Dwarka) is endowed with rich diversity of marine mollusks prevailed therein. Therefore, it should be declared as “Sanctum sanctorum” by employing grassroots efforts involving local inhabitants with the help of forest officials suggesting site-specific conservation and management strategies.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12646 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2) 2015: 243-255
      PubDate: 2015-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Effect of sowing date and plant density on bolting of four sugar beet
           (Beta vulgaris L.) varieties

    • Authors: Entessar Al-Jbawi, Waeel Sabsabi, Gharibo Gharibo, Abd El-Muhsien Al-Sayed Omar
      Abstract: This experiment was conducted in Homs Agricultural Research Station, Homs, Syria during 2007/2008 and 2008/2009 seasons to study the effect of sowing date and plant density on bolting for four sugar beet varieties, tow are monogerm varieties i.e. Parade and Etna, while the other are multigerm varieties i.e. Nadir and Mammoth. Three sowing dates were applied, began from 15/9 to 15/10, the interval between the sowing dates was 15 days. Three plant densities were executed (133 000, 100 000 and 80 000 plantha-1). Split plot design was used with three replicates. The combined analysis exhibited the significant effect of varieties (V), sowing dates (S), and plant densities (D) on all types of bolting (Early, medium, late and total). Least significant test (L.S.D 0.05) clarified that early autumn sowing (15/9 and 1/10) increased total bolting percent 74.86 and 44.88 % respectively, as compared with date (15/10) 15.57% (control). The plant density (133 000 plant ha-1) decreased total bolting percent 43.56% as compared with the other plant densities (80 000 and 100 000 plant ha-1) 46.35 and 45.40% respectively. The results showed that the monogerm varieties were superior and more resistant to bolting as compared with the multigerm ones.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12647 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2) 2015: 256-270
      PubDate: 2015-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Phytodiversity and conservation of Nithypooja Kona Sacred Grove of
           Nallamala Hill Range, Eastern Ghats, Andhra Pradesh

    • Authors: SKM Basha, M John Paul, P Siva Kumar Reddy
      Abstract: Sacred groves are climax forests and are the only representatives of natural or near-natural vegetation. These are dedicated to deities or ancestral spirits worshipped by local tribes along with surrounding plants and trees. These are ecosystems by themselves and perform all the ecological functions. Phytodiversity constitute a large segment of the flora which provides raw materials for use by numerous Pharmaceutical industries. The present study will be useful for researchers in the field of Ethan botany, Ethnomedicine, Taxonomy, and Pharmacology for further studies. Nithyapoojakona Sacred grove is one of the important sacred groves in Kadapa district. The present paper deals with the phyto-diversity of the above grove used by local tribes. This paper deals with the 181 species of probable medicinal potential belonging to 138 genera and 71 families. Significant flora are Cycas beddomei, Pterocarpus santalinus, Drosera burmaptonni, Orabanche cernua, Neptunia oleracea, Hugonia mystax, Caralluma adsendens , Gloriosa superba, Limnophila spp, Centella sasiatica etc. Word famous Red sanders population of the study area is being destroyed unethically and it is to be protected.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12648 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2) 2015: 271-288
      PubDate: 2015-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Performance analysis of spring wheat genotypes under rain-fed conditions
           in warm humid environment of Nepal

    • Authors: Ramesh Raj Puri, Nutan Raj Gautam
      Abstract: Around 25% of total wheat area in Terai of Nepal falls under rain-fed and partially irrigated condition. A Coordinated varietal trial (CVT) was conducted during two consecutive crop cycles (2011-12 and 2012-13) under timely sown rain-fed conditions of Terai. The trial was conducted in Alpha Lattice design with two replications at Nepal Agricultural Research Council, National Wheat Research Program, Bhairahawa and Nepal Agricultural Research Council, Regional Agriculture Research Station, Nepalgunj. Observations were recorded for yield and yield traits and analyzed using statistical software Cropstat 7.2.The combined analysis of coordinated varietal trial showed that BL 3978 possessed the highest yield (2469.2 Kg ha-1) followed by NL 1097 (2373.2 Kg ha-1) and NL 1094 (2334.06 Kg ha-1). Genotype x Environment interaction for grain yield was significant (p<0.05) over locations and years. BL 3978 with early maturity (111 days) escaped the heat stress environment. Among the top three genotypes, BL 3978 was consistently higher in both favorable and unfavorable conditions. Earliness was one of the major traits for heat tolerant genotypes. The three identified genotypes will be further evaluated in participatory varietal selection or coordinated farmers field trial followed by small plot seed multiplication (seed increase) and release in the future for timely sown rain-fed conditions. These lines also appear suitable for inclusion in crossing program targeted for water stress tolerance variety development.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12649 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2) 2015: 289-295
      PubDate: 2015-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Sheep and goat production practice in agroforestry systems of Gedio Zone,
           Ethiopia

    • Authors: Selamawit Debele, Matiwos Habta
      Abstract: The study was conducted to describe sheep and goat production practice in three Agro-ecological Woredas of Gedio zone, southern Ethiopia. A set of semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information from 120 sheep and goat owners based on single-visit-interviews. 32.6% of them participate in crop production, 56.5% of them involved in both animal and crop production and 5% of them involved in crop production, animal production and off farm activity. Sheep flock in the study sites were significantly different; and were 5.63, 6.97 and 3.4 in Wenago, Dilla and Kochera sites, respectively. Major feed resources were grazing (33.5%). The highest mortality rate occurred in suckling flock (16.24% lambs; 16.3% kids), young flock (9.64% lambs; 13.24% kids) and breeding females (ewes 12.06% and does 14.1%) in all study sites. Sheep and goat production in the studied areas was constrained by different problems; where the major ones are availability and cost of feeds, limitation of land for the expansion of production and poor extension services. Sheep and goats are very important smallholder producers due to their biological factors such as short generation interval, twinning, have short growth periods and do not require much space.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12658 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2) 2015: 296-307
      PubDate: 2015-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Plant diversity and carbon stock in sacred groves of semi-arid areas of
           Cameroon: case study of Mandara Mountains

    • Authors: VA Kemeuze, PM Mapongmetsem, DJ Sonwa, E Fongnzossie, BA Nkongmeneck
      Abstract: The Mandara Mountain eco-region is one of the most important mountain areas of Cameroon. It is often considered as a refuge for several plant and wildlife species. This area is fragile and vulnerable, and faces severe threats from land use change, unsustainable exploitation of natural resources, desertification and climate change. Recent studies in sacred groves portrayed these land use types as indigenous strategies which can help to address these environmental problems. Understanding the plant diversity and carbon storage of these land use types in Mandara Mountain can be a good step towards their sustainable management for the delivery of diverse ecosystem services. In this perspective, we established a total of 10 nested circular plots of 1257 m2 each, in the sacred grove of the Mouhour village in Mandara Mountain, and all trees and shrubs with average diameter at breast height (dbh) ≥ 2.5 cm were counted. Tree biomass was estimated on the basis of DBH and understory biomass using destructive method. A total of 182 woody plants were measured, belonging to 21 species, 18 genera and 12 families. The richest family is Combretaceae with 5 species, followed by Caesalpiniaceae and Mimosaceae (3 species each). The analysis of species diversity indexes shows a relative important biodiversity and the vegetation structure showed a high occurrence of small-diameter of plant species. Mean aboveground carbon stock of 31.13 ± 10.8 tC/ha was obtained in the study area. Isoberlinia doka showed the greatest carbon stock (5.7 tC/ha) followed by Boswellia dalzielii (3.9 tC/ha), Acacia senegal (3.5 tC/ha), Anogeissus leiocarpus (3.3 tC/ha) and Terminalia laxiflora (3.1 tC/ha). These results suggest that the sacred groves of Cameroon dry lands need to be taken into account in national environment protection policies as an alternative to respond to international agreements related to biodiversity conservation, combatting desertification and climate change.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12659 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2) 2015: 308-318
      PubDate: 2015-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Selection of inorganic-based fertilizers in forward osmosis for water
           desalination

    • Authors: Tripti Mishra, RK Srivastava
      Abstract: The current study aims at the selection of an appropriate draw solute for forward osmosis process. Separation and recovery of the draw solute are the major criteria for the selection of draw solute for forward osmosis process. Therefore in this investigation six inorganic fertilizers draws solute were selected. The selections of inorganic fertilizers as draw solute eliminate the need of removal and recovery of draw solute from the final product. The final product water of forward osmosis process has direct application in agricultural as nutrient rich water for irrigation. These inorganic fertilizers were tested based on their water extraction (water flux) capacity. This experimental water flux was compared with the observed water flux. It was noted that the observed water flux is much higher than the attained experimental water flux. The difference of these two fluxes was used to calculate the performance ratio of each selected fertilizer. Highest performance ratio was shown by low molecular weight compound ammonium nitrate (22.73) and potassium chloride (21.03) at 1 M concentration, whereas diammonium phosphate (DAP) which has highest molecular weight among all the selected fertilizer show the lowest performance ratio (10.02) at 2 M concentration.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12660 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2) 2015: 319-329
      PubDate: 2015-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Genetic potential and heritability estimates of yield and yield associated
           traits in rape seed Brassica napus L

    • Authors: Sadia Shaukat, Dr Raziuddin, Fahim Ullah Khan, Ibni Amin Khalil
      Abstract: To investigate genetic variability and heritability, eight Brassica napus genotypes were evaluated at New Developmental Research Farm, Faculty of Agriculture. Peshawar University, during 2010-11. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences (P≤0.01) among Brassica napus genotypes for all the studied characters. Mean values showed that maximum primary branches plant-1 (15) was observed for genotype PGRI-8, plant height (220.66 cm) for genotype CH-6 and PGRI-8, pods main raceme-1 (96.33) for genotype CH-1, pods plant-1 (994) for genotype PGRI- 8, pod length (8.3 cm) for genotype PGRI- 7, seeds pod-1 (27) for genotype CH-1, 1000-seed weight (3.97 g) for genotype CH-2, and seed yield plant-1 (91.1 g) for genotype PGRI-8. In t terms of heritability values, high broad sense heritability estimates were observed for primary branches plant-1 (0.83), plant height (0.78), pods main raceme-1 (0.65), seeds pod-1 (0.61), 1000-seed weight (0.61), while moderate heritability values were recorded for pod length (0.57), pods plant-1 (0.55), and seed yield plant-1 (0.50). In conclusion, the significant differences among Brassica napus genotypes showed that there is sufficient variability for effective selection. The trend of heritability (moderate to high) in the present study indicates that there is more genetic control and selection should lead to quick improvement. Furthermore genotype PGRI-8 surpassed all other genotypes in yield and yield component and could be used in future breeding programs.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12661 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2) 2015: 330-340
      PubDate: 2015-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Biogas production from renewable lignocellulosic biomass

    • Authors: Venkatachalam Sundaresan Gnanambal, Krishnaswamy Swaminathan
      Abstract: Effect of raw and biologically treated lignocellulosic biomass using cow dung slurry for biogas production is reported. Biomass is an energy source. Water containing biomass such as sewage sludge, cow dung slurry and lignocellulosic waste, has several important advantages and one of the key feature is renewability. Cow dung slurry has the potential to produce large amounts of biogas. Four categories of bacteria viz., hydrolytic, fermentative, fermentative acidogenic and acidogenic-methanogenic bacteria are involved in the production of biogas. The different characteristics of the cow dung slurry were determined according to standard methods. Hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin content of the lignocellulosic waste were also determined in our earlier studies. The substrates were digested under anaerobic condition for 5 days. The total biogas and methane produced during anaerobic digestion were estimated on 5th day. The total biogas produced during digestion was estimated by water displacement method. Biological methane production was estimated by using Saccharometer.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12662 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2) 2015: 341-347
      PubDate: 2015-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Impact of Lantana camara in the Indian society

    • Authors: Reshmi Chatterjee
      Abstract: Lantana camara, an introduced species by the British has turned itself in to a noxious weed, which has expanded itself in almost all the possible habitats of India. It is a major threat to the ecosystem, including plants and animals. Attempt to combat the further spread of this nuisance species has been of little help. Therefore, in the present discussion an attempt on its impact, toxicity, uses and therapeutic properties have been discussed. A carefully knitted plan should be framed emphasizing on exploiting this species economically as well as on taming the present threat so that the Indian society can be benefitted by properly utilizing the plant and thereby also conserve the ecosystem with its bio resources. The present review paper focuses on the various benefitting sides of the Lantana that would create better livelihood opportunities.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12663 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2) 2015: 348-354
      PubDate: 2015-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Tourism and climate change: socioeconomic implications, mitigation and
           adaptation measures

    • Authors: Utsab Bhattarai
      Abstract: The relationship between tourism and changing climate has been discussed and studied for a relatively long time in tourism research. Over the past 15 years, more focused studies have begun to appear, and especially recently, the issue of adaptation and mitigation has been emphasized as an urgent research need in tourism and climate change studies. This paper is based on the review of selected articles which discuss the several forms of tourism and climate change and provide recommendations for mitigation and adaptation measures. This review paper assesses the impacts of climate change on the popular forms of tourism such as; mountain tourism, wildlife tourism, adventure tourism, sun/sand tourism; last chance tourism, and describes the extent of tourism vulnerabilities and their implications. The paper concludes that the appropriate adaptation and mitigation measures have to be followed to minimize the risk of climate change while trying to save all forms of tourism. The initiative of this article is to present an overview of the existing literature on the relationship between tourism and climate change in order to establish the current state of corporate and institutional responses within the tourism industry and to set out an agenda for future research. The currency of the review is evident given the recent surge in popular discussion on climate change and its effects on tourism, and the appearance of a broad and disparate array of studies on this topic.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12664 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2) 2015: 355-373
      PubDate: 2015-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Advances in environmental science: a review of IJE papers (Vol. 3, Iss. 1
           & 2)

    • Authors: Naveen Punati, Ajith Rao
      Abstract:
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12665 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2) 2015: 374-393
      PubDate: 2015-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • A review of IJE papers: (Vol. 3, Iss. 3 & 4)

    • Authors: Ajith Rao, Naveen Punati
      Abstract:
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12666 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2) 2015: 394-412
      PubDate: 2015-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Mineral analysis of phosphate rock as Iraqi raw fertilizer

    • Authors: Mustafa N Owaid, Idham A Abed
      Abstract: This paper was assessed the mineral elements level (Co, Pb, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Mn) in raw phosphate rock (PRock) that obtained from State Company For Phosphate in Anbar province. This work was achieved to add new data of microelements toward this raw local fertilizer. PRock become important as natural fertilizer to plant and mushroom due to many trace minerals.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12667 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2) 2015: 413-415
      PubDate: 2015-06-03
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • International Journal of Environment: One of the fast growing journals of
           NepJOL

    • Authors: Govinda Bhandari
      Abstract:
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i2.12668 International Journal of Environment Vol.4(2) 2015: i-ii
      PubDate: 2015-06-02
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
 
 
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