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  International Journal of Environment
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2091-2854
   Published by Nepal Journals Online Homepage  [61 journals]
  • Morphotaxonomy of Genus Targionia L. (Marchantiales) From Nilgiri Hills
           (India)

    • Authors: Afroz Alam
      Abstract: Studies on the order Marchantiales of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve (NBR), Western Ghats, India, have revealed the occurrence of three taxa of genus Targionia L., namely Targionia hypophylla L., Targionia lorbeeriana K. Müll., and Targionia indica Udar et A. Gupta, belonging to the family Targioniaceae (Hepaticopsida). Due to rapid habitat loss the genus is under threat of extinction, like the previously known species, Targionia indica. Now only two species are found to be scattered in a few localities of NBR, as terrestrial form. Hence, the present paper provides the complete morphotaxonomic account of these two existing species along with SEM details of spores. This would be helpful for proper identification of these taxa in future.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12178International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, Page: 58-67  
      PubDate: 2015-02-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Physiochemical and Bacteriological Analysis of Selected Sachet Water in
           Jere and Maiduguri, Borno State Nigeria

    • Authors: Mohammed Modu Aji, Shettima Abba Kyar, Mustapha Hussaini
      Abstract:  The study involved the determination of some physiochemical and bacteriological properties in sachet-water samples taken within selected geopolitical wards in Jere and Maiduguri Metropolis. The purpose was to ascertain the quality of sachet water sold for consumption within the area. Ten samples were drawn, five from each study area. The samples were analysed for temperature, colour, turbidity, pH, conductivity, iron, total alkalinity and total dissolved solid. Bacteriological analysis was also carried out using multiple tube (most probable number) technique for enumeration of both total coli form count and differential Escherichia coli count. Other physical examination like volume, National Agency for Food and Drugs Administration and Control (NAFDAC) registration number, batch number, production date and expiry date were also examined. The results obtained were compared with World Health Organization (WHO), NAFDAC and Nigeria Standard of Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ). Variations were observed among the entire samples in comparison with the standard. Some of the parameters conform to the standard like the Tempreture, pH, colour, odour, iron content and NAFDAC registration number while others like TDS, total alkalinity and volumetric quantity fell below the standard. The bacteriological analysis also showed that 80% of the samples studied revealed the presence of coliforms. Hence, there is need for regulatory agencies like NAFDAC and Standard Organisation of Nigeria (SON) to intensify effort in the routine monitoring of quality of sachet water marketed for consumption.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12177 International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, page: 48-57  
      PubDate: 2015-02-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Sacred Grove of Punyagiri Hill, Vizianagaram District, AP, India:
           Ecological And Sociological Study

    • Authors: D. Srinivasa Rao, G.M. Narasimha Rao
      Abstract:  Sacred groves are important repositories of rare endangered endemic plants and floral diversity that have been conserved by the local people or communities in a sustainable manner. Sri Umakotilingeswara Swami Temple is a famous Siva Kshetra located in Vizianagaram district of the Andhra Pradesh, India. This holy shrine is situated in the Punyagiri hills, 4 kms away from the Srungavarapu Kota and 62 kms away from the Visakhapatnam (a coastal city of Andhra Pradesh). Two study sites were selected, one was in the sacred grove region another was in forest region. Line transects were used for collection of data on species richness and diversity of the flora. Density and basal area were more in the sacred grove region than the nearby forest region. Some important medicinal and valuable plants were reported in this region, plants such as Saraca asoca (Roxb.), Diospyros peregryna (L.), Sterculia urens (Roxb.), Cleistanthus collinus (Roxb.), Ficus relisiosa (L.), Strublus aspera (L.), Chloroxylon swietenia (L.), Firmiana colorata (Roxb.), Albizia odoratissima (L.), Dalbergia paniculata (Roxb.), Dalbergia sisso (Roxb.), Azadiricta indica A. Juss., Diospyros chloroxylon (L.), Holoptelea integrifolia (Roxb.), Mangifera indica (L.), Eucalyptus globulesv(Labelle), Bombax ceieba (L.), Aegle marmelos, Ailanthus excelsa and some important pteridophytes and Bryophytes were reported in the sacred forest of the Punyagiri hills. Extension of the temple buildings and other developmental activities may be threat to the sacred groves. Invasion by the exotic weeds may further degrade the structure and composition of the sacred forests as a whole.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12176 International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, page: 30-47

      PubDate: 2015-02-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • PCBs Contamination among Distribution Transformers in the Kathmandu Valley

    • Authors: Ruska Kattel, Bhupendra Devkota
      Abstract: Transformer is the crucial part in any electrical system, however there are many risks associated with its use. Thus this study was focused on assessing the status of PCBs contamination and distribution of transformers in Distribution Centre-North of the Kathmandu valley along with PCBs contamination in them. Each transformer within the study area was closely observed to obtain information about all transformers. The dielectric oil samples from the transformers were collected, safely stored and analyzed in Test Kits (L2000DX Chloride Analyzer System, recommended by UNEP). Among 111 samples of transformer oil analyzed, 4 transformers were found PCBs contaminated and they were manufactured before 1990s. The total amount of PCBs contaminated transformer oil in these transformers was 479.6 Kg. Seven transformers were found leaking, four transformers located at residential area were found emitting a low frequency tonal noise, two transformers were located within school compound, nine transformers were located near water body and around 1.44 square meters of soil surface was found contaminated by transformer oil. Though there is no way to eliminate all the risk and consequences of operating oil filled transformers, scientific distribution and proper handling could be the reasonable approaches to reduce the risks.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12175International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, Page: 16-29

      PubDate: 2015-02-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Study of Root-Knot Problems in Ajiwa Dam Area, Katsina State, Nigeria

    • Authors: A. K. Dalhatu, A. A. Khan, Z. D. Umar
      Abstract: The present study was undertaken to observe the root-knot problems in Ajiwa dam area, Katsina state. Surveys were done to determine the level of infestation, incidence, intensity and frequency of root-knot disease and to identify the root-knot nematodes associated with vegetables. The study showed that root-knot disease incidence in the area was fairly very high. Of the fields visited, about 42% fields were infested. Incidence of the disease in different fields and on different vegetables showed wide variation. Short pepper and tomato were most affected crops followed by onion, lettuce and carrot. Spinach was less affected. Two species M. incognita and M. javanica of root-knot nematodes were identified. M. incognita showed highest frequency (71.4%) and was dominant species in the studied area. M. javanica has lowest frequency (28.5%).
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12189International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, Page: 204-209  
      PubDate: 2015-02-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Tractor Effects on Soil Properties and the Consequences on Cassava
           (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Yield in Ultisol

    • Authors: I. D. Edem, U. C. Udoinyang, P. I. Udounang
      Abstract: Physical degradation of the soil could be said to mean the loss of soil’s structural quality. It is observed both on the surface where thin crust may be seen and also below th e surface in or below the ploughed horizon where compacted layers may be formed, particularly in conditions of excess moisture. The experiment assessed the influence of the weight of tractor passage on soil failure and compaction. The study of resistance to penetration is produced on three worked soils; unploughed, single ploughed and double ploughed at 0-30 and 30-60 cm depths. This study showed that the number of passage of the tractor affects resistance to penetration by 44 % compared to the initial state (passage 0) and the second pass makes accentuation of 11% relative to the first pass; which shows that the first pass performs compaction most important and most severe. Thus, after sometimes, it was noticed that there's a decrease compaction at 30-60cm depth which shows that the ground based of the ploughed soil experienced a decreasing compaction function..
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12190International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, Page: 210-223    
      PubDate: 2015-02-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Balanites Aegyptiaca (L.): A Multipurpose Fruit Tree in Savanna Zone Of
           Western Sudan

    • Authors: Kamal Eldin Mohammed Fadl
      Abstract: Underutilized fruit trees play a vital role in food security and economy of the rural population in a number of African countries. Beside the significant important of the underutilized fruit trees in food security and livelihood of the local population many applications can be summarized such as using of leaves for fodder, branches for fencing materials, fire wood and charcoal making, timber for furniture and constructing huts, controlling soil erosion and competing desert encroachments . In spite of their great potential little attention has been given to this species. Balanites aegyptiaca “soap berry tree; thorn tree, desert date” is an important multipurpose trees species in dry land Africa. The tree is a potential source of medicines, pesticides, edible oil, animal feed, nuts, soap, and fuel wood. The edible fruits are rich in saturated fatty acids which are used as cooking oil. The fruit also contains Stereoids (Saponins, Sapogenins, and Disogenins) which are used as row materials for industrial production of contraceptive pills and other sexual hormones. The excessive uses of the tree for fruit production and for other uses combined with scarcity of natural regeneration lead to drastic depletion of this species. The desert date tree is adapted to dry and hot climatic environment which are characterized by increasing of land and water resources. However, little information is available about propagation and domestication of this valuable tree species; therefore, studies are needed for sustainable use of underutilized fruit trees in general and for Balanites aegyptiaca in particular. This article aims at highlighting and summarizing information on different aspect of B. aegyptiaca to stimulate the scientist interest in this valuable tree species which is of economical importance for rural inhabitants of western Sudan and other African countries.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12188International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, Page: 197-203   
      PubDate: 2015-02-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Rhizofiltration of Heavy Metals (Cadmium, Lead and Zinc) From Fly Ash
           Leachates Using Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia Crassipes)

    • Authors: Amit Kumar Yadav, Bhawana Pathak, M. H. Fulekar
      Abstract: Fly ashes are usually contaminated with toxic heavy metals. These metals are leaching out aftercontact with water during wet disposal system, thus polluting the soil, surface and groundwater. In the present study, a hydroponics experiment was conducted to examine the removalof heavy metals Cd, Pb and Zn by Eichhornia crassipes grown at various concentration of fly ash ranging from 10, 20 and 40 percent over a period of 30 days.After 30 days, the plants were separately harvested, dried and weighedfor biomass of the roots and shoots. The uptake of each metalwas studied in the root and shoot separately, to determine the bioaccumulation of metals in Eichhornia crasspies.The translocation factor was calculated to study the efficiency of the plants forbioaccumulation of each metal in roots and shoot. The results showed that maximum uptake of metals Cd, Pb and Zn by plantwasfoundat the higher concentration (40%) of fly ash.The metals uptake found was 99.16, 166.52 and 741.04 μg g-1 tissues in the roots, respectively and 33.46, 41.33 and 255.90 μgg-1 tissues in the shoots, respectively and successfullyremoved up to 78% of Cd, 82% of Pb and 70% of Zn.The maximum removal efficiency by plant for Cd, Pb and Zn at lower concentration (10%) of fly ash was 84%, 86% and 75%, respectively.The heavy metals accumulated more in roots than in the shoots by Eichhornia crassipes. The maximum bioconcentration factor and translocation factor value of Eichhornia crappies for Cd, Pb and Zn were calculated as 705.55, 705.55 and 614.51 and 41.86, 47.18 and 34.53 respectively. The high removal efficiencies of heavy metals Cd, Pb and Zn was find without toxic effect by this aquatic macrophyte, thisplant can be recommended for the actual treatment of fly ash leachatesin ash pond to clean up the aquatic environment.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12187International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, page : 179-196   
      PubDate: 2015-02-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Assessment of Soil Organic Carbon Stock of Temperate Coniferous Forests in
           Northern Kashmir

    • Authors: Davood A. Dar, Bhawana Pathak, M. H. Fulekar
      Abstract:  Soil organic carbon (SOC) estimation in temperate forests of the Himalaya is important to estimate their contribution to regional, national and global carbon stocks. Physico chemical properties of soil were quantified to assess soil organic carbon density (SOC) and SOC CO2 mitigation density at two soil depths (0-10 and 10-20 cms) under temperate forest in the Northern region of Kashmir Himalayas India. The results indicate that conductance, moisture content, organic carbon and organic matter were significantly higher while as pH and bulk density were lower at Gulmarg forest site. SOC % was ranging from 2.31± 0.96 at Gulmarg meadow site to 2.31 ± 0.26 in Gulmarg forest site. SOC stocks in these temperate forests were from 36.39 ±15.40 to 50.09 ± 15.51 Mg C ha-1. The present study reveals that natural vegetation is the main contributor of soil quality as it maintained the soil organic carbon stock. In addition, organic matter is an important indicator of soil quality and environmental parameters such as soil moisture and soil biological activity change soil carbon sequestration potential in temperate forest ecosystems.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12186International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15; page: 161-178
      PubDate: 2015-02-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • People’s Perception on Impact of Climate Change in Paschim Amawa and
           Tikuligadh Village Development Committee (VDC) Of Rupandehi District,
           Nepal

    • Authors: Khet Raj Dahal, Manju Manandhar, Chhatra Mani Sharma
      Abstract: The issue of climate change is one of the global challenges and great concerns to humanity. Although Nepal has a negligible share in the global emissions of greenhouse gases, it is more vulnerable to climate change impact due to its fragile mountain ecosystems. A study was carried out to assess people?s understanding on climate change, identify its impacts on their communities and document how they are coping with those impacts. Descriptive and explorative research designs with purposive sampling method were used to collect data from the field. The study showed that more than 50% respondents were familiar with the concepts of climate change and remaining had no idea. Those who were familiar with climate change got knowledge about it from mass media. The result of this study showed that the climate change has several impacts on the study area such as decrease in agricultural production, loss in biodiversity, decrease in water resources and increase in health hazards. During field survey, people suggested that the Government of Nepal must have effective plan, policy and program for holistic approach and develop low cost technology for adaptation to climate change impact and improve livelihood.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12185International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, page: 141-160  
      PubDate: 2015-02-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Isolation and Characterization of Three and Four Ring Pahs Degrading
           Bacteria from Contaminated Sites, Ankleshwar, Gujarat, India

    • Authors: Jignasha G. Patel, J.I. Nirmal Kumar, Rita N Kumar, Shamiyan R. Khan
      Abstract: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacteria were isolated from prolong contaminated Amalakhadi sediment and crude oil polluted soil Telva, near Ankleshwar Gujarat India. Organisms were treated with two-model PAHs compound Anthracene (ANT), and Pyrene (PYR) as the sole source of carbon and energy. Identification of the isolates was carried out based on their morphological and partial 16S rRNA gene sequences, which revealed that the isolates belong to two main bacterial groups: gram-negative pseudomonas indoxyladons and gram-positive, spore-forming group, Bacillus benzoevorans. GC-MS based degradation study demonstrated that P. indoxyladons efficiently degrade 98% of ANT and PYR by 93.2 % when treated with 250 mg L-1. However, B. benzoevorans could tolerate to 200 mg L-1of PYR. Thus, the findings of the study provide novel bacterial sp. having different capacity to degrade model PAHs compounds and further could be utilized for the standardization of bioremediation protocols for ex situ and in situ studies in aquatic as well as terrestrial ecosystem.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12184International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, Page: 130-140  
      PubDate: 2015-02-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Identification of Landfill Site by Using Geospatial Technology and Multi
           Criteria Method- A Case Study of Kathmandu, Bhaktapur and Lalitpur
           District of Nepal

    • Authors: Deepa Basnet
      Abstract:  Landfill is a mode of municipal solid waste disposal. Thus, it is imperative to select relevant site for land filling in order to curtail environmental damage and harmful impacts on wellbeing of public. Through the decades, rummage around various places for landfill site has been going on concerning its distance from artery road, resident area and water surface in order to prevent serious health and environmental hazards. In case of Nepal, Sisdole landfill site at Okharpauwa VDC in Nuwakot is struggling to manage garbage produced by the Kathmandu valley. The valley alone mounds to 700 metric tons of garbage on a daily basis that would loosened carrying capacity of the place really soon. With the intention of uncovering suitable site for alternative to present disposal site, the Multi criteria method has been applied in GIS domain. Here, data layers of land use pattern, residential areas, urban areas, roads and water bodies of the Kathmandu, Lalitpur and Bhaktapur district were mainly considered. The buffer zones were created to those 5 layers assigning various decisive factors to determine area around them within a certain distance. Then, weightings were assigned to each criterion as per their relative importance and ratings. Furthermore, weights were integrated in GIS environment to generate suitable site. Lastly, comparative study of data layers suggested that next site for dumping refuse could be the Bhaktapur district.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12183International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, page : 121-129
      PubDate: 2015-02-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Bioethanol Production from Indigenous Algae

    • Authors: Madhuka Roy, Krishnendu Kundu, V. R. Dahake
      Abstract: Enhanced rate of fossil fuel extraction is likely to deplete limited natural resources over short period of time. So search for alternative fuel is only the way to overcome this problem of upcoming energy crisis. In this aspect biofuel is a sustainable option. Agricultural lands cannot be compromised for biofuel production due to the requirement of food for the increasing population. Certain species of algae can produce ethanol during anaerobic fermentation and thus serve as a direct source for bioethanol production. The high content of complex carbohydrates entrapped in the cell wall of the microalgae makes it essential to incorporate a pre-treatment stage to release and convert these complex carbohydrates into simple sugars prior to the fermentation process. There have been researches on production of bioethanol from a particular species of algae, but this work was an attempt to produce bioethanol from easily available indigenous algae. Acid hydrolysis was carried out as pre-treatment. Gas Chromatographic analysis showed that 5 days’ fermentation by baker’s yeast had yielded 93% pure bioethanol. The fuel characterization of the bioethanol with respect to gasoline showed comparable and quite satisfactory results for its use as an alternative fuel.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12182International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, page: 112-120  
      PubDate: 2015-02-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • A Contribution to the Seasonal Distribution and Biodiversity of Fresh
           Water Phytoplankton of Karagam Lake, Srikakulam, Andhra Pradesh, India

    • Authors: N. Jyotsna, G. Rangaiah Subba, Mohan G Narasimha Rao
      Abstract:  In the present study, Seasonality and Species diversity of Phytoplankton studies were made on the Karagam Lake of Srikakulam District, Andhra Pradesh from November 2006 to October 2008. The phytoplankton population was represented by a Total taxa of 64 genera were recorded in this study. This includes Chlorophyceae (26 genera- 74 species), Bacillariophyceae (18 genera-41species), Cyanophyceae (17 genera-39 species) and Euglenophyceae (3 genera-8species). The abundant algal forms belong to Volvocales (9 genera, 12 species), Chlorococcales (7 genera, 16 species), Conjugales (9 genera, 43 genera), Nostocales (9 genera, 18 species) in Karagam Lake.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12180International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, Page: 82-100    
      PubDate: 2015-02-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • From Green to REDD-Ready to Trade: Discussion On REDD In Nepal's
           Community Forestry

    • Authors: Pabitra Aryal
      Abstract: Carbon emission increases at an early stage of industrial expansion as a transition from overdependence on agriculture. Such industrial transformation is heavily dependent on energy-intensive technologies. Moreover, the degree of environmental awareness is very low in developing countries. According to the Environmental Performance Index 2012, Nepal is among the strongest performer. A new international carbon trade mechanism, called ‘Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation’ (REDD), has been proposed to curb global Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) emissions. Carbon trade entails the idea that industrialized countries pay developing countries to reduce deforestation and forest degradation. Nepal’s community forestry can reap benefits by participating in REDD, but it requires addressing a range of issues and challenges to mitigate underlying causes of deforestation and forest degradation. Ultimately this type of program would encourage local people for conservation and sustainable use of forest resources.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12181International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, page: 101-111  

      PubDate: 2015-02-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Assessment of Physicochemical and Biochemical Qualities of Tannery
           Effluents of Hazaribagh, Dhaka, and Comparison with Non-Tannery Water
           Samples

    • Authors: Laila N. Islam, Adua Rahman, Zimam Mahmud, A. H. M. Nurun Nabi
      Abstract:  In this study the physicochemical and biochemical qualities of the tannery effluents were analyzed to determine the pollution load of the openly released wastewaters in the environment and the findings were compared with the non-tannery waters. Fourteen samples of factory effluents were collected from the leather tanning industrial zone of Hazaribagh, Dhaka, and 13 non-tannery water samples were collected from different parts of Dhaka city. The effluents were mostly colored; their pH varied from highly acidic to basic values while densities were not much different from the non-tannery waters. The chromium contents of the effluents varied from less than 0.002 to 18.97 mg/L and the chemical oxygen demands (COD) varied from 90 to 6500 mg/L, which were significantly higher than those of non-tannery waters. There was a strong direct correlation between chromium content and COD (p<0.01) indicating that chromium was hugely responsible for pollution caused by tannery effluents. The tannery wastewaters were highly toxic to brine shrimp nauplii (lethality: about 82%), and chromium was responsible for biotoxicity of the effluents since a direct significant correlation (p<0.021) was found between chromium content and lethality. Storage of the wastewater samples for 2 to 8 months at room temperature showed rise in the pH values possibly due to microbial action that resulted in decrease of dissolved chromium content from a mean value of 7.94 to 5.09 mg/L. These findings demonstrated that the presence of high concentrations of chromium and other chemicals in the untreated tannery effluents were contributing adverse effects on the environment and ecosystem.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12179International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, page: 68-81  
      PubDate: 2015-02-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • International Journal of Environment: A Scientific Journal Increasing
           Strength To Strength

    • Authors: Govinda Bhandari
      Abstract: Not available. 
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12173 International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, Page: I-II 
      PubDate: 2015-02-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • GIS and Multi Criteria Decision Method Based Approach of Identifying
           Appropriate Landfill Sites for the City Of Chittagong

    • Authors: M. Ali Ashraf, Md. Rezuanul Islam, Sarfaraz Gani Adnan
      Abstract:  Urban solid waste management is a serious environmental issue confronting the cities in developing countries like Bangladesh. Apathy towards the problem, inadequacy of field level information and data, and resource constraints may be blamed for the dismal situation of solid waste management often visible in our cities. The most common problems associated with the absence of sustainable solid waste management practice include diseases transmission, odour nuisance, atmospheric and water pollution, visual blight, fire hazards and economic losses. In the three major cities of Bangladesh, Dhaka, Chittagong & Khulna, per capita production of solid waste is around 0.4kg /capita / day, but only a fraction of this waste is carried to the final disposal site. A recent study on Municipal Solid Waste Management found that waste generated in Chittagong was 0.352kg/cap/day. Considering per capita generation of solid waste as 0.352kg to 0.4kg per capita per day, for a population of 25, 92,459 distributed within the 41 wards of the city (BBS, 2011), total solid waste generated in Chittagong will be around 913 tons to 1037 tons per day in 2012. Currently, Chittagong City Corporation (CCC) has only two dumping yards: one at Ananda Bazar, Halishahar at the mid western part of the city and the other at Arefin Nagar, Pahartali at the northern tip of the city. None of these sites are sanitary landfill. Considering the city area of 168 sq. kms, only two dumping sites are not sufficient to cater to the requirement of the city. Long distances between the collection points and the disposal site are responsible for inefficient utilization of the CCC trucks and the resulting increase in the haulage time that eventually increases the costs of collection and disposal. This study utilized Geographic Information System (GIS) and Multi-Criteria Decision Method (MCDM) for the identification and selection of appropriate landfill sites within the city of Chittagong. Thirteen sites were identified initially. Out of these sites four were found to be most appropriate and suitable for use as landfill. 
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v4i1.12174International Journal of Environment Volume-4, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2014/15, page: 1-15  
      PubDate: 2015-02-22
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
 
 
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