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International Journal of Environment    [5 followers]  Follow    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 2091-2854
     Published by Nepal Journals Online Homepage  [58 journals]
  • The Antifungal Activity Of Aqueous And Ethanol Extracts Of Jatropha Curcas
           L. Against Aspergillus Niger (Van Tieghem) That Cause Black Mould Rot Of
           Onion Bulbs In Sokoto, Nigeria
    • Authors: LU Bashir, IB Gashua, MA Isa, A Ali
      Abstract: The antifungal activity of aqueous and ethanol extracts obtained from seed and leaf of Jatropha curcas were investigated using agar incorporation method in vitro against Aspergillus niger, a microbe known to be resistant to some chemical agents. Pathogenicity test revealed that A. niger was the pathogenic fungus that cause black mould rot of onion bulbs. The growth of A. niger was markedly suppressed by aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaf and seed, 65.7 and 57.0% at 160 mg/ml. The extracts at low concentration did not show considerable activity against the fungus except leaf ethanol extract 53.3% at 40 mg/ml.The in vivo study showed that aqueous extracts of seed and leaf reduced rot development, 59.4 and 54.4 % in onion bulbs. Highest rot inhibition 66.3 was obtained at 160 mg/ml seed extract.The result of the study suggest the potentials of J. curcas extracts as fungicidal agent that could be useful in management of black mould rot of onion bulbs caused by Aspergillus niger. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 83-90
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9211
      PubDate: 2013-12-02
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Trends In Seasonal Precipitation And Temperature – A Review In Doti
           And Surkhet Districts Of Nepal
    • Authors: Govinda Bhandari
      Abstract: Rainfall and temperature are the crucial factors for affecting the yield of cereals. The annual mean temperature in Surkhet and Doti district is 21.47°C and 22.84°C respectively. The annual total rainfall in Doti and Surkhet district is 1145 mm and 1609 mm respectively. The average seasonal rainfall in (July-November) in Doti and Surkhet is 670.7 mm and 1109 mm. The average seasonal rainfall in (November-March) in Doti and Surkhet is 168 mm and 135 mm. The average seasonal rainfall in (March-June) in Doti and Surkhet is 352 mm and 389 mm. The average seasonal mean temperature in (July-November) in Doti and Surkhet is 25.76°C and 23.7°C. The average seasonal mean temperature in (November-March) in Doti and Surkhet is 16.67°C and 15.48°C. The average seasonal mean temperature in (March-June) in Doti and Surkhet is 25.5°C and 24.69°C. The analysis of meteorological data indicated that the temperature of both districts is on a rising trend. It has been observed no any trend in total seasonal rainfall during wheat and barley growing season (November-March) in Surkhet. Also, the seasonal total rainfall during maize growing period (March-June) has not shown any trend in Doti. Besides, decreasing trend of annual rainfall has been observed in Doti whereas increasing trend of annual rainfall is observed in Surkhet. The temperature in 1985 in Doti and Surkhet has increased and the rainfall in the same year and same districts has decreased that has negatively affected the yield of all the major cereals except wheat. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 269-279
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9227
      PubDate: 2013-12-02
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Phytochemical And Antibacterial Activityof Leave Extracts Of Guiera
           Senegalensis Lam On Selected Species Of Gram Positive And Gram Negative
           Bacteria
    • Authors: IA Mamman, MA Isa
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to determine the preliminary phytochemical component and antibacterial activity of the leaves extract of Guiera senegalensis lam (Combretaceae) against three clinical isolates (Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli and Klebsiella species) using standard method of analysis. The test for phytochemical component revealed the presence of alkaloid, anthraquinolones, tannin and phlobatanins. The result of antibacterial activity showed that the ethanolic extract exhibit higher zone of inhibition against all the clinical isolates, with E. coli and Klebsiella species showed zone of inhibition of 35mm followed Staphylococcus aureus 30mm. Similarly, both aqueous and methanolic extract were sensitive to all the clinical isolate except Klebsiella species which showed resistance to the methanolic extract of the leaves. The results obtained in this research imply that the leaves extract of Guiera senegalensis lam could be useful in the treatment of infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli and Klebsiella species. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 262-268
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9226
      PubDate: 2013-12-02
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Assessing Tourism Potential In Bhaktapur Durbar Square, Nepal
    • Authors: Ramesh Neupane, Anup KC, Ramesh Raj Pant
      Abstract: Tourism is one of the most promising driver and contributor of the world economy having significant role in sustainable development, economic upliftment and social benefits. It has the potential to contribute towards environmental protection and poverty reduction. Prior to investment in tourism, concerned authorities must know the condition of respective tourist resources, their attractiveness and levels of touristic demand. Very few studies in Nepal have made an effort to quantify the tourism potential in cultural, historical and religious sites such as Bhaktapur Durbar Square. With an objective to assess the tourism potential of Bhaktapur Durbar Square using Weighted Sum Method, this study was carried out from start of June to the end of July in 2013. For this purpose, questionnaire survey with tourists, private businesses and public sector institutions; focus group discussion and key informant interview with tourism enterpreneur and local government officer was carried out. The tourism potential was found to be high with a strength of exceptionally rich cultural, historical and religious heritage, favourable geographical situation, positive image of local Newari food products and friendly and welcoming local people. The areas of weaknesses were lack of tourism infrastructures and services, lack of tourist information and weak management of tourist area. Hence, to utilise the tourism potential of Bhaktapur Durbar Square to the fullest for the economic upliftment of its inhabitants, promotional activities such as tourism fairs, festivals, cultural dances and events should be conducted at regular intervals with prompt security services. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 250-261
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9225
      PubDate: 2013-12-02
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Status Of Endemic Plants Of Bangladesh And Conservation Management
           Strategies
    • Authors: M Atiqur Rahman, M Enamur Rashid
      Abstract: The present study was aimed at recognizing the status of 28 endemic plants of Bangladesh and determining their conservation management strategies. These endemics belong to 17 angiosperm families and constitute about 0.78% of the total species of the country. Of these endemics, 2 species were least concern, 10 rare and 7 endangered, and need to give immediate conservation priority. Another 9 endemics were assessed to be extinct since no report of collection for more than 100 years was available and could not be traced in the wild. An enumeration of these endemics is presented, each cited with updated nomenclature, bangla names, type, habit, ecology, potential values, places and status of occurrence, threats to the species, conservation status for sustainable management strategies. List of examined specimens of these endemics, wherever available, is also provided. Photographs of 24 endemics are also presented. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 231-249
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9224
      PubDate: 2013-12-02
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Effects Of Land Use On The Nature And Population Of Microorganisms In The
           Semi-Arid Region Of Norht-Eastern Nigeria
    • Authors: HS Bello, T Isa, MA Isa, K Akinmuisere
      Abstract: This study was aim to investigate the effects of land use on the nature and population of microorganisms in soil from five different farms within University of Maiduguri, Borno State. A total of ten composite samples were obtained and analyzed in the laboratory. The total microbial population was consistently higher in the grazing reserved land with mean of 105x104CFU/g than in cultivated farms with means of 84.5x104CFU/g, 66x104CFU/g and 66x104CFU/g, for cereal (sorghum), beans and tomato farms respectively. The site with the least microbial population was gum-Arabic plantation with the mean of 29x104CFU/g. Bacteria were the most dominant species at all sites regardless of depths. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 224-230
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9223
      PubDate: 2013-12-02
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Preliminary Assessment Of Surface Water Quality Of Tropical Pilgrimage
           Wetland Of Central Gujarat, India
    • Authors: Hiren B Soni, Sheju Thomas
      Abstract: The present paper highlights the preliminary investigation of physico-chemical characteristics of tropical pilgrimage wetland viz. Dakor Sacred Wetland (DSW), Anand District, Central Gujarat, India. As the existing water body is contaminated with domestic sewage influenced by anthropogenic interventions, an urgent need was felt to evaluate physico-chemical parameters such as Temperature, pH, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Total Solids (TS), Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), Free CO2, Phenolphthalein Alkalinity (PA), Total Alkalinity (TA), Carbonates, Bicarbonates, Total Hardness, Calcium Hardness, Magnesium Hardness, Chloride, Salinity, Sulphate, Phosphate, Nitrate, Sodium, and Potassium. The obtained data were correlated statistically to draw a conclusion about the surface water quality of tropical pilgrimage wetland. Moreover, the results manifested the need and prime necessity to restore the physical, chemical and biological integrity with viable and rigorous restoration and management strategies in order to maintain, preserve, conserve and to avert the ecological imbalance and disturbance in hydro-geo-chemical and hydro-biological cycles, which adversely affect the food chain and food web of the significant pond ecosystem. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 202-223
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9222
      PubDate: 2013-12-02
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Prevalence Of Traditional Medications Through Native Floral Elements Among
           Tribal Communities Of Kachchh Arid Ecosystem, Gujarat, India
    • Authors: Ekta B Joshi, BK Jain, Pankaj N Joshi, Hiren B Soni
      Abstract: This communication deals with the documentation of 38 medicinal plant species used for indigenous medications by local villagers such as pastoralists (Maldharis) and farmers of Tapkeshwari Hill Range (THR), Bhuj Taluka, Kachchh District, Gujarat, India. Traditional knowledge on medicinally important plant species has been recorded from tribal communities through semi-questionnaire survey using an open-ended questionnaire datasheets. The response from the people interviewed clearly indicated that most of the villagers were fully or partially dependent on the forest produce for their primary healthcare requirements as well as for curing chronic or acute disorders and ailments. Plant parts such as bark, flowers, fruits, gum, latex, leaves, roots, seeds, and spadix, were found to be used for the cure of bronchitis, cold, cough, diabetes, diarrhea, dropsy, dysentery, earache, fever, fistula, gastric troubles, hypothermia, indigestion, piles, skin diseases, snake-bites, toothache, and ulcer. The most predominantly used 10 plant species in the area are Asparagus racemosus, Balanites aegyptiaca, Capparis cartilaginea, Cassia auriculata, Commiphora wightii, Enicostema axillare, Fagonia schweienfurthii, Maytenus emerginata, Tinospora cordifolia, and Tribulus terrestris. An enumeration of these 38 medicinal plant species is presented; each species is cited with correct scientific names, vernacular names, ailments treated for, mode of preparation and dosages. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 184-201
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9221
      PubDate: 2013-12-02
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Chronic Toxicity Of High Molecular Weight Polynuclear Aromatic
           
    • Authors: Jignasha G Patel, JI Nirmal Kumar, Rita N Kumar, Shamiyan R Khan
      Abstract: The aim of this work was to determine the consequences of Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon – Pyrene in response to growth, pigments and metabolic study on Anabaena fertilissima Rao. Test organisms were treated at different doses and encountered LC50 (Lethal concentration at which 50% growth reduction occur) concentration separately at 1.5 mg/l, 3.0 mg/l and 6.0 mg/l respectively for Anabaena fertilissima Rao. The influence of Pyrene on growth, pigments, release of metabolites such as carbohydrates, protein, amino acid, phenols was carried out. The test doses caused a concentration dependent decrease in pigments like carotenoids and phycobilliproteins and showed more sensitivity to pyrene. Depletion of carbohydrate by 13% to 81% and proteins by 47% to 93% was encountered with rise in pyrene concentrations after 16th day of exposure. However, phenols were found to rise by 27% to 50% with increased pyrene concentrations on the contrary, amino acids were reported to decline by 79% to 92%. This study therefore suggests high molecular weight pyrene that decreases in metabolite content and enzyme activity can be used as a signal of PAHs toxicity in cyanobacteria. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 175-183
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9220
      PubDate: 2013-12-02
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • An Assessment Of Physicochemical Properties, Heavy Metal Enrichment And
           Fungal Characterization Of Refined Kerosene Impacted Soil In Anand,
           Gujarat, India
    • Authors: Shamiyan R Khan, JI Nirmal Kumar, Rita N Kumar, Jignasha G Patel
      Abstract: The present study was carried out to assess the physico-chemical properties, heavy metal enrichment and fungal isolation and characterization of the top soil samples collected in-situ from aged refined kerosene contaminated as well as uncontaminated garden soil sites in Anand, Gujarat, India. The total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) concentrations were 17,510 mg/kg in kerosene contaminated soil against 142.65 mg/kg for uncontaminated soils. The contamination increased the soil organic carbon, nitrogen and clay to 2.95 %, 0.612 %, 36.22 % as compared to 1.5%, 0.153%, 32.4% respectively in the uncontaminated soil. Increased concentration of heavy metals like Cobalt, Copper, Iron, Zinc and Lead against the uncontaminated soil was encountered. Ten native fungal speciesbelonging to a total of five genera include Aspergillus (A. terreus, A. versicolor, A. niger); Fusarium oxysporum; Penicilliumjanthinellum from the uncontaminated garden soil, whereas the contaminated soil included Aspergillus (A. terreus, A. versicolor , A. niger) Candida tropicalis,Cladosporiumbruhnei and Fusarium oxysporum, identified based on 18S rRNA and the nucleotide sequences were submitted to the NCBI, GenBank database. The changes created by kerosene contamination resulted in variation in individual concentrations of physicochemical properties, soil conductivity, pH and soil fertility indices probably dwindle the growth of fungal strains causing a reduction in the fungal population in the kerosene contaminated soil. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 164-174
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9219
      PubDate: 2013-12-02
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Study Of Plant Regeneration Potential In Tropical Moist Deciduous Forest
           In Northern India
    • Authors: Ashish K Mishra, Omesh Bajpai, Nayan Sahu, Anoop Kumar, Soumit K Behera, RM Mishra, Lal Babu Chaudhary
      Abstract: Regeneration patterns of species population can address climate change by adaptive evolution or by migrating association to survive in their favorable climate and finally decided to particular forest future. In this paper we examined the status of regeneration potential of tree species in tropical moist deciduous forest at Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary, Northern India. To investigate tree, sapling and seedling population distribution, we examine regeneration status in 145 random plots in study area. Total 74 plant species of 60 genera belonging to 32 families out of which 71 species of trees, 56 of seedlings and 60 of saplings were found in the forest. On the basis of importance value index Mallotus philippensis, Tectona grandis, Shorea robusta, Syzygium cumini and Bombax ceiba have been found as dominant species in the study area. As far as the regeneration status is concerned, the maximum tree species (64%) have been found in good regeneration category. Significant variations in species richness and population density, between three life form (i. e. tree, sapling and seedling) have been found. In which only three new tree species Prosopis juliflora, Psidium guajava and Morus alba were added in sapling and seedling stage. It is major ecological concern that about 19 % economically important plant species like Madhuca longifolia, Terminalia elliptica, Buchanania cochinchinensis, some Ficus species etc. have been found in poor regeneration phage, whereas about 7% species found in no regeneration categories. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 153-163
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9218
      PubDate: 2013-12-02
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Antibacterial Activityof Aqueous And Ethanolic Leaf Extracts Of Vernonia
           Amygdalina On Selected Species Of Gram Positive And Gram Negative Bacteria
           
    • Authors: AM Bukar, MA Isa, HS Bello, AS Abdullahi
      Abstract: The phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity of ethanolic and Methanolic leaves extract of Vernonia amygdalina against five clinical isolates (Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Pseudomonas species, Salmonella species and Proteus species) was determined using standard method of analysis. The results of the antibacterial activity of ethanol, methanol and aqueous extract of leaves of V. amygdalina have diameters ranging between 0.4 to 10mm. The plant extracts from the plants had profound activities against gram-positive than gram negative bacteria. From the above studies, it has clearly indicated that V. amygdalina extract may represent new sources of antibacterial drug, if the phytoactive components are purified and proper dosage are determined for administration. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 147-152
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9217
      PubDate: 2013-12-02
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Diseases In The Aquarium Fishes: Challenges And Areas Of Concern: An
           Overview
    • Authors: M Vishwas Rao, TT Ajith Kumar, MA Badhul Haq
      Abstract: Progress over the past years has revealed much strength of the ornamental fish as an alternative model for the environmental sideline in the aquaculture both in fresh water and marine waters. These include low rearing costs, an earlier life stage. Aquarium fish are one of the largest groups of pets in the world. There is an increasing demand for the veterinary services that are related to the ornamental fish. Early clinical signs in many infectious and noninfectious diseases of fish are manifested by the skin. More diseases in fish have been described and have been associated with the research for the future has been discussed. This article also describes the more common environmental and pathogen related dermatologic diseases of the aquarium fishes. Disease prevention, control and various treatment methods also have been discussed. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 127-146
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9216
      PubDate: 2013-12-02
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Preliminary Observations On Phytoplankton At Sacred Palustrine Habitat,
           Central Gujarat, India
    • Authors: Hiren B Soni, Sheju Thomas
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to depict the phytoplankton composition of Sacred Palustrine Habitat (SPH), Anand District, Central Gujarat, India. Collections of phytoplankton were carried out at three permanent sampling stations on monthly basis for one year (June 2012 to May 2013). The phytoplankton population was represented by 39 genera and 48 species belongs to family Bacillariophyceae (21 species), followed by Cyanophyceae (7 species), Cholorophyceae (18 species), and Euglenophyceae (2 species). Species such as Ankistrodesmus convolutus Corda, Closteriopsis longissima Lemmermann, Oscillatoria perornata Skuja, Oscillatoria subbrevis Schmidle, Syndrea ulna (Nitzsch) Ehrenberg, were found abundant at all the study sites, while some species were rare 56.25% (n=27). International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 115-126
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9215
      PubDate: 2013-12-02
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Scenario Of Solid Waste Management In Hetauda Municipality, Nepal
    • Authors: Bigyan Neupane, Shuvee Neupane
      Abstract: The paper aims to enlighten the solid waste management of Hetauda Municipality in Makwanpur district of an area of 44.5 sq. km. The total human population of the municipality is 84,671 (CBS 2011). Out of 11 wards, 5 wards (1, 2, 3, 4 and 10) were selected for the present study. In total 50 households, 10 institutions and 10 commercial sectors were selected from studied wards from which samples of different types of wastes were collected, segregated and weighed. Weight was calculated using a digital spring balance and a bag 0.043 m3 was used for the estimation of volume. Organic wastes were found to be dominant in the household (51.73%) and commercial sectors (61.70%) whereas in institutions, plastic (50.36%) and papers (38.19%) were prevailing. The findings revealed that per capita 155.4 gm/person/day household waste was generated in Hetauda Municipality. The residents are also aware of the harmful effects of the wastes, and demand an effective solid waste management services. Though they are aware about the sustainable management of wastes, due to erratic collection of wastes, some of them throw the wastes in the open lands - The local people also participate in the awareness campaigns organized by local NGOs and municipal. Solid waste management strategies are timely need for an effective management of anthropogenic wastes. Regular waste collection, improvement of dumping sites and sufficient number of composting plants are recommended in the municipality. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 105-114
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9214
      PubDate: 2013-12-02
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Geospatial Modeling To Assess Geomorphological Risk For Relentless
           Shifting Cultivation In Garo Hills Of Meghalaya, North East India
    • Authors: Pramod Kumar Yadav, Kiranmay Sarma, Ashish Kumar Mishra
      Abstract: Due to shifting cultivation, the overall structure and composition of ecological condition is affected, hence landscape study becomes important for maintaining ecological diversity and appropriate scientific planning of any area. Garo hills region of northeast India is suffering from Geomorphological risk like sheet erosion, landslide etc. due to the age old tradition of shifting cultivation in the fragile hill slopes aided by other anthropogenic activities. The present study was conducted to examine the role of shifting cultivation for deforestation and degradation with variant of slope and elevation to relate vegetation cover with slope and elevation in the Garo Hills landscape of Meghalaya using temporal remote sensing data of 1991, 2001 and 2010. It revealed that there is decrease in dense forest and open forest during the 1st decade while areas under dense forest and non-forest increased in 2nd decade. This increased forest area is confined in the high slopes, which are inaccessible. The study shows increase in shifting cultivation near-about double fold in high slope and more than a double fold in the high altitudinal area in last decade, which is negative sign in terms of Geomorphological protection. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 91-104
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9212
      PubDate: 2013-12-02
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Ecosystem Approach To Flood Disaster Risk Reduction
    • Authors: RK Kamble, Abhinav Walia, MG Thakare
      Abstract: India is one of the ten worst disaster prone countries of the world. The country is prone to disasters due to number of factors; both natural and anthropogenic, including adverse geo-climatic conditions, topographical features, environmental degradation, population growth, urbanisation, industrlisation, non-scientific development practices etc. The factors either in original or by accelerating the intensity and frequency of disasters are responsible for heavy toll of human lives and disrupting the life support systems in the country. India has 40 million hectares of the flood-prone area, on an average, flood affect an area of around 7.5 million hectares per year. Knowledge of environmental systems and processes are key factors in the management of disasters, particularly the hydro-metrological ones. Management of flood risk and disaster is a multi-dimensional affair that calls for interdisciplinary approach. Ecosystem based disaster risk reduction builds on ecosystem management principles, strategies and tools in order to maximise ecosystem services for risk reduction. This perspective takes into account the integration of social and ecological systems, placing people at the centre of decision making. The present paper has been attempted to demonstrate how ecosystem-based approach can help in flood disaster risk reduction. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 70-82
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9209
      PubDate: 2013-12-01
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Human Threat On Phenological Cycle Of Selected Dry Deciduous Tree Species
           In North Gujarat Region (Ngr), Gujarat, India
    • Authors: Rajendra Kumar, S Kalavathy
      Abstract: Phenological observations were taken for 13 woody species for two years (Jan 2006 - Dec 2007) in dry deciduous forest of North Gujarat. The phenological behavior of most of the woody species was almost similar in two different years. Leaf initiation started in the month of March with peak April – May before pre-monsoon showers and leaf - fall began in October with a peak in November and December. Flowering in most of the woody species was observed in the month of February continued till May, fruit appearance for these species from March, with a peak of August. In July and August 69% of woody species appeared in fruit ripening stage. While monsoon begins same duration, that allow to the optimal germination of tree species. An observing human impact on selected species facing seasonal threats, more number of species faced cutting during leaf fall period or before on setting of flowers. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 60-69
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9208
      PubDate: 2013-12-01
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Conservation And Management Strategies For Threatened Plant Species Of
           Kachchh Desert Island, Gujarat, India
    • Authors: Pankaj N Joshi, Hiren B Soni, SF Wesley Sunderraj, Justus Joshua
      Abstract: Climatic variations and geo-morphological conditions of a particular geographic province determine the formation of different plant communities, and thereby form the different types of habitats. One of the indispensable prerequisites for conservation of a particular species is to understand different ecological parameters determine its population status and distribution pattern. The present study focuses on the status and distribution of threatened and medicinal plant species in various types of habitats and ecosystems of Kachchh Desert Island, Gujarat, India. Besides opportunistic observations of floral elements, conservation and management of some medicinal and threatened plant species is discussed. The study also depicts the understanding of role of environmental, ecological, economical, social and ethological factors which help to enhance the productive potential of a particular plant species alongwith its associated communities involving local people, tribal communities and local NGOs. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 45-59
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9207
      PubDate: 2013-12-01
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Prevalence Of Hepatitis B Virus Among Hiv Positive Patients Attending
           Specialist Hospital Sokoto, Nigeria
    • Authors: B Aliyu, B Manga, MA Isa
      Abstract: Prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection among HIV patients attending Sokoto specialist Hospital, Sokoto state, Nigeria was carried out between June and July, 2012, using Diaspot HbsAg kit (preliminary test) and Biorex Diagnostic ELISA kit (Confirmatory test). Demographic data, clinical characteristics and laboratory results (Questionnaire, CD4 counts and HBsAg) were analyzed. Out of 140 HIV patients tested for hepatitis B surface Antigen (HBsAg) only 19 individuals were found positive given the prevalence rate of 13.6% (19/140) among HIV patients. The statistical analysis has shown that there was no observable statistical significant difference between demographic data, clinical characteristics and risk factors with respect to HBV infection. Two of the 140 HIV patients were in the chronic stage of the infection giving a prevalence of 1.43% and two of the patients were at the acute stage of the infection with a percentage prevalence of 1.43% while the remaining fifteen patients were in the active stage of the infection. There was no statistically significant relationship between the mean CD4 counts (428cells/μl of blood) in HIV monoinfected patients and the mean CD4 counts (391.1579cells/μl of blood) in HBV/HIV co-infected individuals (t=22.1351,df=1,p-value=0.02874,95 percent confidence interval: 174.435 – 644.5648, mean=409.5). Therefore, HIV patients should be screened for HBV during their clinical visit in order to inform clinical management, also adequate care and support programs should be organized to help people living with both infections. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 37-44
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9206
      PubDate: 2013-12-01
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Traffic Related Aerosol Exposure And Their Risk Assessment Of Associated
           Metals In Delhi, India
    • Authors: Rajesh Kushwaha, Naba Hazarika, Arin Srivastava
      Abstract: A pilot study was carried out in New Delhi, India, to assess the level of traffic related aerosol exposure, individually and associated metals. These investigations also try to formulate their risk assessment using different modes of transport on a typical journey to work route and compared Bus, Auto-rickshaws and Bike (Two Wheelers) during the journey. The inhalable particulate matter monitored in winter period and also evaluated the potential health risk due to inhalation in the study. The exposure of Particulate matter was observed maximum in the Bike (502 ± 176.38 μgm-3) and minimum in the Auto-rickshaw (208.15 ± 61.38 μgm-3). In case of human exposure to metals (viz. Cu, Cd, Mn, Pb, Ni, Co, Cr, Fe, Zn), it was mostly exposed by Fe, Zn and Co and least exposed by Cd, Cr and Pb. Human health risk was estimated based on exposure and dosage response. The assessment of particulate-bound elements was calculated by assuming exposure of 6 h. The findings indicated that the exposure to particulate bound elements have relatively more adverse health effects. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 26-36
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9205
      PubDate: 2013-12-01
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis Of Oil Of Menthaarvensis
           Grown At Sites Varying With Vehicular Traffic Loads In Lucknow City, India
           
    • Authors: Nidhi Prakash, Mohhamad Yumus
      Abstract: The demand of the essential oil of mint species; widely used in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries, is growing throughout the world. Owing its significance, it was felt important to know the changes in chemical characteristics of the oil, if any, for economic value when the crop of Mentha is grown near highways, railway tracks or areas having heavy traffic loads. To assess the effect of vehicular emissions on menthol (mint oil), transfer experiment study was conducted. Firstly, within the municipal premises of Lucknow city, five sites (Road stretches) were identified based on survey of Lucknow city and the available data on air pollution loads. Sites were selected which were differing from each other significantly in terms of the number of vehicles (source of pollution) plying on them but were quite similar to each other in other eco-physiological factors. On the select sites equal number of potted Menthaarvensis plants of the same age, height and vigour of saccham variety obtained from CSIR-CIMAP was kept to get exposed to auto-exhaust pollutants for one year. Irrigation regime at all sites was kept uniform to avoid the influence of any other variable other than vehicular emissions. An analysis of hydro-distillated essential oil of Menthaarvensis variety Sascham under FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) revealed some qualitative changes in the organic-compounds of the oil from plants grown at sites of Lucknow city loaded with high vehicular load (auto-exhaust pollutants) over plants kept under relatively pollution free site. Several indicator bands that are pertained to functional groups represent chemical components or metabolic products. The quantity of the peppermint oil extracted from plants of site having highest traffic loads, in turn maximum ambient pollutants (NO2, SO2, O3, SPM & RSPM) was also found less as compared to plants grown in less polluted site. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 16-25
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9204
      PubDate: 2013-12-01
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Prevalence Of Urinary Tract Infection Among Primary School Children In
           Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria
    • Authors: MA Isa, HY Ismail, IA Allamin, A Shettima, A Mustapha
      Abstract: The prevalence of urinary tract infection (UTI) among children attending primary schools in Maiduguri was investigated in this study. The study was carried out between January and April 2011 among apparently healthy pupils. One hundred and twenty (120) clean-catch urine samples were obtained from the pupils using standard procedures. Microbial culture on Cystein Lactose Electrolyte Deficient (CLED) ager and subsequent Biochemical tests revealed 31.7% of the samples with significant bacterial growth (≥ 105 CFU/ml). Among the identified organisms Escherichia coli were more prevalent (8.3%) among the identified organisms, while Proteus and Klebsiella species were less prevalent (1.6% each). Other species that were identified include Staphylococcus aureus (6.7%), Streptococcus faecalis (4.2%), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (3.3%) and Corynebacterium species (5.8%). Urinalysis to detect haematuria as presumptive test for UTI was insignificant (P > 0.05). Only 2 (out of 5) samples showed bacteriuria in culture plates. Association of gender, previous history of UTI, bedwetting and presence of blood in urine related prevalence were tested, only sex was strongly associated with UTI (p < 0.05). The incidence of UTI in females (19.5%) was higher than males (12.5%). Therefore, government needs to increase efforts toward creating awareness among the people, for effective treatment, control and prevention of the disease. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 9-15
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9203
      PubDate: 2013-12-01
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
  • Influence Of Calcium On Water Relation Of Two Cultivars Of Wheat Under
           Salt Stress
    • Authors: Nahid Akhter, F Hossainn, A Karim
      Abstract: The purpose of the present investigation was to study the effects of Ca2+ on water relation of two wheat cultivars (Akbar and Kanchan) under salt stress. The two wheat cultivars were grown in pots with 0 and 150 mM NaCl salinity. Calcium was applied in the form of gypsum in 0.12, 0.24 and 0.36g pot-1 (that is 20, 40 and 60 kg ha-1) respectively. Salinity decreased RWC, WRC, exudation rate and ψleaf, while increased WSD and WUC. Application of increased levels of Ca improved the plant water status in both cultivars. The results obtained in the present study suggest that elevated Ca2+ increases salt tolerance by improving the plant water status. International Journal of Environment, Volume-2, Issue-1, Sep-Nov 2013, Pages 1-8
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v2i1.9202
      PubDate: 2013-12-01
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
       
 
 
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