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International Journal of Environment
   [5 followers]  Follow    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 2091-2854
     Published by Nepal Journals Online Homepage  [61 journals]
  • The Effect of Plant Spacing on Some Quality Traits of Fodder Beet
           (Betavulgaris var. Crassa) Varieties

    • Authors: Entessar Al-Jbawi, Mohammad Bagdadr, Yousef Nemr
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted in the (2011/12) season to study the effect plant spacing on yields and its components of four fodder beet cultivars. The experiment was a randomized complete block design (RCBD) in split plots arrangement with three replicates, plant spacing (25X60, 20X60 and 25X50 cm) were assigned to the main plots and fodder beet cultivars (Jamon, Splendids, Starmon and Vermon) were allotted to the sub plots. Spacing had a significant effect on all the quality traits except protein content of shoot. Spacing and varieties exhibited highly significant (p<0.01) differences in all of the studied characteristics. Varieties affected dry matter content of root, and protein content of shoot and root significantly (p<0.05). Dry matter content of shoot, Ash content of shoot and root, and organic content of shoot and root were not significantly affected by varieties. Vermon sown at 25 cm apart and 60 cm between rows significantly (p<0.05) attained the highest quality traits.
      DOI : International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3) 2014: 286-293
      PubDate: 2014-09-14
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Morphogenesis and Morphometry of Alluvial Fans in the High Atlas Morocco:
           A Geomorphological Model of the Fans of the Wadi Beni Mhammed, Souss

    • Authors: Lahoucine Chakir, Ali Aït Hssaïne, David Bridgland
      Abstract: Morphosedimentary study of alluvial fans formed by the Wadi Beni Mhammed, on the southern piedmont of the western High-Atlas, has indicated three main generations of deposits. Their ages range from ancient (Plio-Pleistocene) to Holocene and recent formations. The first generation, comprising small boundary fans, was deposited prior to lateral migration and subsequent entrenchment of the drainage pattern (the combination of the Wadis Aït Mekhlouf and Ida Ou Merouane). The confluence of these powerful streams gave birth to the principal fan that extends to the Souss valley. The third generation of fans was constructed after the incision of the principal fan, by the re-activation of a high secondary fan that was formed from downstream progradation. The morphological characteristics of the fans, such as their area, shape and gradient, are determined from catchment data and, in particular, from the lithology of their provenance areas, which defines the nature of gravel material, sedimentation processes and, finally, the distribtion of constituent materials. Fan shape also depends on the available accommodation space on the piedmont. The Wadi Beni Mhammed fans are elongated, because they are constrained by the mega fans of Wadis Irguitene and Aoukourta.
      DOI : International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3) 2014: 293-311
      PubDate: 2014-09-14
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Diversity of Medicinal Plants in the Flora of Saudi Arabia 3: An inventory
           of 15 Plant Families and their Conservation Management

    • Authors: Mohammed Yusuf, Mai M Al-Oqail, Ebtesam S Al-Sheddr, Adnan Jathlan Al-Rehaily, M Atiqur Rahman
      Abstract: An inventory of medicinal species diversity in the flora of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has been made for 15 angiosperm families, viz., Boraginaceae, Convolvulaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae, Molluginaceae, Papavaraceae, Portulacaceae, Ranunculaceae, Rhamnaceae, Rutaceae, Tamaricaceae, Tiliaceae, Urticaceae, Verbenaceae and Vitaceae, and 61 species of medicinal plants are recognized. These families are represented in the flora by a total of 393 species of which 15.52% are medicinal. Among the families, the Fabaceae is found to be represented by 23 medicinal species which is highest and 37.70% of the total species. Of these 61 medicinal species, 72.13% exhibits herbaceous life form while remaining 13.11% and 14.75% exhibit shrubs and trees respectively. An enumeration of these medicinal species is presented, each with current nomenclature, Arabic name, English name, medicinal uses, pharmacological properties and status of occurrence in the flora. The communication is aimed at emphasizing the planning and implementation of national conservation strategies for sustainable management of the medicinal plants of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
      DOI : International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3) 2014: 312-320
      PubDate: 2014-09-14
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • The Use of Multi Sources Data for Mapping of Sensitive Areas to Hydrous
           Erosion in the Mountains of Tessala (Northern Algeria)

    • Authors: Salah Eddine Bachir Bouiadjra, Wael El Zerey
      Abstract: The Tessala mountains constitute a fragile ecosystem, they are confronted with several problems with knowing loss of the farmed lands, bad distribution and occupation of the soil, low organic matter, rough and unstable soil (the slope exceeds in some places the 25%). To understand the problem of hydrous erosion in the Tessala mountains, a model of approach using geographic information system was proposed. Geographic data were processed by mapping using specialized software. After treatment, we identified the areas where the susceptibility to erosion is significant. Over 80% of the land of our study area is susceptible to hydrous erosion at different degrees highly sensitive (32.5%), moderately sensitive (44%) insensitive (15%) and stability (7.5%).
      DOI : International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3) 2014: 321-331
      PubDate: 2014-09-14
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Rangelands Vegetation under Different Management Systems and Growth Stages
           in North Darfur State, Sudan (Range Attributes)

    • Authors: Mohamed AAMA Mohamed, Faisal Mohamed Ahmed El Hag, Ibrahim Ali Elnour
      Abstract: This study was conducted at Um Kaddada, North Darfur State, Sudan, at two sites (closed and open) for two consecutive seasons 2008 and 2009 during flowering and seed setting stages to evaluate range attributes at the locality. A split plot design was used to study vegetation attributes. Factors studied were management systems (closed and open) and growth stages (flowering and seed setting). Vegetation cover, plant density, carrying capacity, and biomass production were assessed. Chemical analyses were done for selected plants to determine their nutritive values. The results showed high significant differences in vegetation attributes (density, cover and biomass production) between closed and open areas. Closed areas had higher carrying capacity compared to open rangelands. Crude protein (CP) and ash contents of range vegetation were found to decrease while Crude fiber (CF) and Dry matter yield (DM) had increased with growth. The study concluded that closed rangelands are better than open rangelands because it fenced and protected. Erosion index and vegetation degradation rate were very high. Future research work is needed to assess rangelands characteristics and habitat condition across different ecological zones in North Darfur State, Sudan.
      DOI : International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3) 2014: 332-343
      PubDate: 2014-09-14
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Impact of Livestock Grazing on the Floristic Composition: A Case Study of
           the Mount of Tessala, Western Algeria

    • Authors: Cherifi Kouider, Zoheir Mehdadi, Ali Latreche, Zouaoui Hazem, Wael El Zerey
      Abstract: The present work focuses on evaluating the impact of livestock grazing on the floristic composition in the mount of Tessala (Western Algeria). Phytoecological surveys were carried out at seven stations around north and south slopes of the mount. The obtained results through Principal Components Analysis (PCA) indicated the impact of man and herd on the floristic composition of sampling stations. Indeed, stations where grazing is low, have greater species richness marked by the strong presence of palatable species, unlike stations under permanent grazing, characterized in particular by the appearance of non-palatable species. Moreover, we note the dominance of therophytes at all stations not only due to grazing pressures but also to drought in the study area.
      DOI : International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3) 2014: 186-200
      PubDate: 2014-09-13
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Assessment of Pesticide Use, Practice and Risk in Gedeo and Borena Zones;

    • Authors: Beniam Tilahun, Ahmed Hussen
      Abstract: This research attempts to assess pesticide use, practice and risk in Gedeo and Borena Zones. Three sample districts have been selected purposively from these zones and four sub districts from each district. Primary data was collected through in depth interview and group discussion. Results show that people in the sample area use pesticides for crop production and ectoparasites. Malathion, DDT, Karate and 2-4D are chemicals frequently used to control pests. Majority of the respondents used these pesticides by their own decision for the intended purpose and purchase pesticides from private shops, local market and government offices. Farmers mostly spray by themselves; however all of them spray pesticides without proper protection. Pesticide containers are usually thrown anywhere after use and in some cases used for home consumption. All of the respondents took no training about pesticide use, many do not read labels including expiry date when they buy or use pesticides and doesn’t know recommended dose for application. There were pesticide poisoning incidents recorded such as poisoned-recovered, illness/injury and death incidents; mainly due to poor storage, careless disposal, unsafe application and suicidal behaviour. It can be concluded that there is a wrong pesticide use and practice in the sample area and risk is observed to be high. Universally prohibited pesticides like DDT were found in use for crop production and household pests. Therefore, proper training and awareness has to be created to the community. Moreover, government bodies should regularly educate as well as monitor, control and regulate pesticide trade, use and practice in the area.
      DOI : International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3) 2014: 201-209
      PubDate: 2014-09-13
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Conflict betwen Bankariya and other Stakeholders for the use of Forest

    • Authors: Ramesh Gautam, Ram Bahadur Karki
      Abstract: Socio-culturally and economically every rural community of Nepal are associated with forest for their livelihood and identity but simultaneously governmental policy for the protection of forest is not in the favor of people, which has been creating conflict between people and other stakeholder including governmental organization. This research tries to know the causes and consequences of conflict between Bankariya and other stakeholders. This research was carried out between the period May to December 2013. According to nature of the problem descriptive research design has been applied. Handikhola VDC of Makwanpur district has been selected as an universe purposively. Both primary and secondary sources of data were applied in this study. Case study, key informant interview and Focus Group Discussion (FGD) methods were applied for primary data collection. The findings shows that the living condition of Bankariya has changed after the government has provided them 6 hectors land for 40 years at Mushedhap. Still date forest based products are extremely beneficial for the enhancement of their livelihoods. The major problems faced by Bankariya community regarding to use of forest based resources are; not having their own permanent land for settlement and agriculture purpose, provision of present rules and regulation, and attitude of other elite persons/groups for dominating them. Forest resource based conflicts of Bankariya is mainly related with local people and other forest user group committee members as compared to Parsa Wild Life Reserve and District Forest Office of Makawanpur.
      DOI : International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3) 2014: 210-221
      PubDate: 2014-09-13
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Status and Role of Manganese in the Environment

    • Authors: RK Kamble, MG Thakare
      Abstract: Manganese is the second most abundant heavy metal, and in frequency list of elements it occupies 12th place. The Earth’s core contains about 1.5% manganese. According to Indian Standards for Drinking water (IS 10500:2012) manganese concentration in drinking water is 0.1 ppm (acceptable limit) and 0.3 ppm as permissible limit. An attempt has been made to record the presence of manganese in different environmental matrices such as air, water, soil, food, its effects on plants, animals including human beings.
      DOI : International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3) 2014: 222-234
      PubDate: 2014-09-13
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Analysis of Irrigation Water Quality at Kadawa Irrigation Project for
           Improved Productivity

    • Authors: AR Sanda, Jibrin Dibal
      Abstract: In the face of water scarcity and the several negative consequences, such as water wastage, flooding, water logging, soil losses and production losses, conserving the finite amount of fresh water is a must. The quality of irrigation water must therefore be ascertained. The chemical quality of three sources of irrigation water from canal and drainage water, namely drainage water, fresh irrigation water from canal, and drainage/irrigation water mixture, were analyzed from Kadawa irrigation Project for year 2013 and 2014 cropping seasons, with the view to evaluating the potential risks associated with their use in irrigation and hence their suitability or otherwise for irrigation purposes. The analysis revealed that the use of drainage water alone for irrigation may result in problems associated with salinity, while a blend of drainage/irrigation water in the ratio of 1:1 is a viable means of water conservation and a good means of crop production.
      DOI : International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3) 2014: 235-240
      PubDate: 2014-09-13
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Is Environmental Training Critical to Environmental Sustainability

    • Authors: OT Aladesanmi, IO Ogundari, OG Oladipo, OE Ilevbare, GA Ali
      Abstract: In the past few decades, concern for the environment has increased significantly with evidences of change in perception of people's values and attitudes towards the environment. This study presents the results of a survey carried out among postgraduate students undergoing training in environmental and non-environmental fields with the aim of comparing their environmental sustainable behaviour. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of environmental training on the postgraduate students? awareness, perceptions and behaviours with focus on the attitudes of the respondents towards environmental sustainability, and how these attitudes affect their behaviour. A purposive sampling method was used to obtain data using a semi-structured questionnaire. The respondents comprised of 50 and 47 postgraduate students undergoing training in environmental and non-environmental respectively. The data was subjected to statistical analysis using SPSS. The results of the study revealed that most of the students in environmental fields readily transferred the knowledge acquired in their training to a sustainable behaviour.
      DOI : International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3) 2014: 241-251
      PubDate: 2014-09-13
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Medicinal Plants of Ethiope West and Sapele Local Government Areas of
           Delta State, Nigeria

    • Authors: Taiye R Fasola, A Egunyomi, EO Odudu
      Abstract: Medicinal plants used by the Urhobo people of Ethiope West and Sapele local government areas of Delta State of Nigeria were documented. Fifty one plant species belonging to thirty one families are used for the treatment and management of diseases such as measles, diabetes, stroke, jaundice, malaria, typhoid, hypertension, gonorrhoea and rheumatism. The list provides useful information on medicinal plants and their uses. This may serve as a lead for further scientific studies aimed at ascertaining the veracity or otherwise the therapeutic claims ascribed to the plants by the indigenous people of the region. The need to conserve these medicinal plants in the region is hereby emphasized.
      DOI : International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3) 2014: 252-263
      PubDate: 2014-09-13
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Effect of Different Concentrations of Aqueous Leaf Extracts of Some Plants
           on the Germination and Seedling Growth of Maize, Z. mays L. and Wheat (T.
           aestivum L.)

    • Authors: Rizwan Ali Khan, Kaiser Iqbal, Aatif Hussain, Showkat Azeem
      Abstract: Allelopathic effect of aqueous leaf extract of three different species (eucalyptus, guava, and litchi) were used to investigate their effect on germination, shoot and root lengths of two food crops viz. Zea mays L. (Maize) and Triticum aestivum (Wheat). Mature fresh leaves of three species were crushed and soaked for 24h; the filtrates were diluted to make different concentrations (T1 = 0.5%, T2 = 1.0%, T3 = 1.5%, T4 = 2.0%, and T5 = 0.0%), and were used to investigate their effect on the tested crops. The aqueous leaf leachate of three species was found to have inhibitory effect on germination, shoot, and root elongation on the tested crops. Current study indicates that inhibitory effect was much more pronounced at higher concentrations, and the effect increased with the increase in concentration. Among trees, Eucalyptus has much more effect on the tested crops than other species.
      DOI : International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3) 2014: 264-274
      PubDate: 2014-09-13
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Status of Arsenic Contamination in Groundwater of Makar VDC of Nawalparasi
           District, Nepal

    • Authors: Shreejana Bhusal, Kabiraj Paudyal
      Abstract: Arsenic is one of the 92 natural elements found in Earth crust which is referred as" King of Poison". Arsenic contamination in groundwater has been recognized as a great threat to water supply and public health in many countries in the world (WHO 1993). Therefore this research work was done with the objectives to assess the concentration of arsenic in groundwater at Makar VDC of Nawalparasi district by both field kit test and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) test methods and assess the possible natural sources of arsenic mobilization in groundwater and further identify the safe and contaminated aquifers and their distribution below the ground. Based on the field and laboratory analysis it is concluded that the aquifer lying in between 30-70 feet is contaminated with arsenic in toxic level (>50 ppb) while the horizons of aquifers shallower or deeper than this depth are found safe. Present study also showed about 38%, 23%, 19% and 20 % of aquifers as safe tolerable, toxic and very toxic respectively. Study on the mineralogical composition of the soil and sediment showed that it is rich in arsenic bearing minerals like pyrite, biotitic, iron-coatings and opaque minerals. These minerals are considered potential sources of release of arsenic in groundwater under reducing environment. No adverse health effects are seen on people although the concentration is found in toxic level. This might be either due to hesitation of people to expose their infected organ in front of the research students or the researcher's inability to identify the symptoms, as it has no normal symptoms and need the experts from the medical field. Present study is able to pinpoint the depth of contaminated aquifer, which is useful for the safe drinking water development strategy.
      DOI : International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3) 2014: 275-285
      PubDate: 2014-09-13
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Response of Maize Crop to Spatial Arrangement and Staggered Interseeding
           of Haricot Bean

    • Authors: Tamiru Hirpa
      Abstract: Field studies conducted to determine the effects of intercrop row arrangements and staggered intercropping of haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) on the performances of maize (Zea mays L.) crop at Hallaba and Taba areas in 2013 cropping season, southern Ethiopia, revealed that there were significant effects of cropping patterns and staggered interseeding of the legume component on growth and yield components of maize crop. Significant interaction of row arrangement × intercropping time of haricot bean was observed with respect to leaf area index (LAI) of the maize crop. Increasing trends of LAI of maize crop were observed as interseeding of haricot bean was delayed for 3 weeks after maize (WAM) that stabilized during the 6 WAM interseeding time. Maize stover production was significantly high at 1:2 row ratio and delaying of the undersowing haricot bean in the already established maize crop for 6 weeks, 10.94 tha-1 and 11.39 t ha-1, respectively. Maize grain yield showed a significant variation with respect to the staggered sowing of haricot bean, whereby the highest (3.99 t ha-1) being recorded when haricot bean intercropping was delayed for 21 days after maize planting. The data of this study revealed that the larger maize plant canopy providing larger photosynthetic area, attained when haricot bean interseeding was delayed, probably resulted in higher grain yield of maize.
      DOI : International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3) 2014: 126-138
      PubDate: 2014-09-13
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Coliform and Vibrio cholerae Analysis of Drinking Water Collected from
           Cholera Outbreak Region of Bhaktapur Municipality

    • Authors: Upendra Thapa Shrestha, Hishila Sujakhu
      Abstract: Water borne infections in Nepal, especially in Kathmandu valley is one the major public health problems, causing thousands of deaths every year. Among three cities in the valley, the water borne infection including cholera is most predominant in Bhaktapur district. So the study was carried out to know the microbial drinking water quality in the city and to determine the prevalence of water borne infections in the specified region of the district in 2012. Altogether eighty (two samples from a single site at different interval-2/3 days) water samples were collected from Bhaktapur Municipality, one of the most vulnerable regions for water borne diseases, following standard methods as described by APHA, 2010. All samples were transferred to Microbiology laboratory of Khwopa College, Dekocha, Bhaktapur and preceded immediately for Microbial analysis. The coliform density in the water samples were determined by Most Probable Number (MPN) method followed by microscopy, colonial morphology and biochemical characterization. Subsequently, the presence of Vibrio cholerae, a causative agent of Cholera was analyzed in the same samples by enrichment in alkaline peptone water followed by culture on Thiosulphate citrate bile-salt sucrose (TCBS) agar, a selective media for Vibrio spp. The biochemical tests were then performed to identify V. cholerae. Among eighty water samples, 87.5 percent water samples contained coliforms and half of which (45%) contained feacal coliforms, Escherichia coli and remaining 12.5 percent water samples contained no coliforms. Vibrio cholerae were isolated from four water samples (5%). The drinking water quality in the region was found to be very poor. Therefore, the people in the region were suggested to treat the drinking water by using any of physical or chemical disinfection methods prior to drinking.
      DOI : International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3) 2014: 139-145
      PubDate: 2014-09-13
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Improvised Media for In Vitro Pollen Germination of some Species of

    • Authors: Reshmi Chatterjee, Satadip Sarkar, GM Narasimha Rao
      Abstract: Pollen germination forms one of the most important stage post pollination prior to fertilization. This is essential for proper seed setting and seed development. In vitro pollen germination test is the most reliable way of assessing the pollen viability. In the present study pollen grains of seven genera under Apocynaceae family namely, Allamanda, Alstonia, Catharanthus, Nerium, Plumeria, Thevetia and Tabernaemontana were tested in some basic cultural media, such as Brewbaker’s media, 6% Glucose solution, 4% Calcium Nitrate solution and 3% Boron solution. Alstonia pollen grains exhibited highest percentage of germination rate in all the cultural media. Glucose and Brewbaker’s media is found to be highly suitable for efficient pollen germination in all the genera. Boron solution is effective for germination of pollen grains of tree species. In vitro pollen germination can be easily carried out in laboratories. These results can be utilised in plant breeding programmes to improve cultivar and varieties.
      DOI : International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3) 2014: 146-153
      PubDate: 2014-09-13
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Performance of Different Pearl Millet Genotypes under Irrigated Conditions

    • Authors: Jamal Ishaq, Silvestro Meseka
      Abstract: Thirty four genotypes of pearl millet( Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br) were evaluated at Sudan. Including two released varieties, Ugandi and Ashana at Gezira Research Farm (GRF) and Rahad Research Farm(RRS) in the autumn of 2009. The experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design with three replications. Grain yield and some yield components including number of productive tillers and panicle length, varied significantly among the thirty four genotypes. Mean of grain yield for all genotypes across sites was 1.3 t/ ha-1. Sadag Togo had the highest grain yield (1.7 ha-1) followed by Okashana-3 (1.6 t/ha-1), while IP 19745 had lowest grain yield (0.8 t/ha-1) across tow site.Okashana-3 out yielded the best than check (Ashana). The combined Result for Genotypic coefficient of variability and broad sense heritability estimates grain yield and head weight varied significantly among the thirty four genotypes.
      DOI : International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3) 2014: 154-163
      PubDate: 2014-09-13
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Assessment of Heavy Metals in the Water of Sahastradhara Hill Stream at
           Dehradun, India

    • Authors: Pawan Kumar Bharti, Pawan Kumar Tyagi, Vijender Singh
      Abstract: A study on heavy metals assessment in the water of Sahastradhara hill-stream was conducted with different five sites at significant differences. The present paper deals with the water quality status of Sahastradhara stream by the assessment of heavy metals. Heavy Metals were found in fluctuated trend from first upstream to last downstream. The values of almost all Heavy Metals were found in increasing manner especially after the fourth sampling site. After the third sampling station, a solid waste dumping site was found. So, there may be a relation between heavy metals in stream water and solid waste dumping site. Concentrations of all Heavy Metals at fourth and fifth sampling site were found very high.
      DOI : International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3) 2014: 164-172
      PubDate: 2014-09-13
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • In Vitro Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity and Datura Innoxia Extracts

    • Authors: Adam IY Shama, YM Abd-Kreem, AA Fadowa, RM Samar, MK Sabahelkhier
      Abstract: The aim of this study was evaluated the Antimicrobial Activity of extraction of Datura innoxia (Seeds, leaves and roots). Datura innoxia Seeds, leaves and roots were collected to examine their antimicrobial activity. Extracts of different parts of the plant were tested against standard microorganisms by using the agar- well diffusion method. Extracts of methanol, and aqueous of seeds, leaves and roots were prepared and tested against four types of bacteria namely: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris and two types of fungi namely: Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. The methanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves showed high activities against fungi (A. niger) and less effect on the all bacteria. The methanolic extracts of seeds showed high activities against all organisms except fungi (C. albicanas), while the aqueous extracts of seeds showed no activity on the bacteria. All organisms were examined against known standard antibiotics and then compare the results of plant extracts with standard antibiotics. The results indicated that the antibacterial drug is less active than the plant extracts, while the antifungal drugs are more active than the plant extracts.
      DOI : International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3) 2014: 173-185
      PubDate: 2014-09-13
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • An Evaluation of Short Term Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Soil and
           Atmosphere Exchange in Response to Controlling Edaphic Factgors of
           Eucalyptus Plantation, Gujarat, India

    • Authors: Nirmal Kumar, JI Meghabarot, Priyakanchini Gupta, Kanti Patel
      Abstract: A considerable amount of atmospheric GHG is produced and consumed through soil processes. Soils provide the largest terrestrial store for carbon (C) as well as the largest atmospheric CO2 sources through autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms. Soils are also the greatest source (∼60%) of CH4 and N2O through microbially mediated processes of methanogensis, nitrification and denitrification. Short term CO2, CH4 and N2O gas fluxes from soil under a Eucalyptus plantation in central Gujarat, Western India were measured for three month duration (February to April, 2013) at fifteen days interval using closed static chamber technique and gas chromatography method. Simultaneously soils were analyzed at 0.0-10, 10-20, and 20-30 cm depth for pH, conductivity, organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphate, sulphate to correlate with gas emissions. The results showed that the soil in our study was a sink of atmospheric CO2, CH4 and N2O which the flux varied from -65.27 to 14.6, -0.005 to 0.07 and -0.03 to 0.33 mg m-2 h-1respectively. CO2 emissions were found maximum as compared to other two gases. Variations in soil N2O emissions could be primarily explained by litter C:N ratio and soil total N stock. Differences in soil CH4 uptake could be mostly attributed to the soil CO2 flux and water filled pore space (WFPS). Soil C:N ratio could largely account for variations in soil CO2 emissions. A strong positive relationship existed between CH4 flux and soil temperature. The N2O flux correlated with WFPS and the global warming potential of N2O is highest compared to other two principal gases.
      DOI : International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3) 2014: 59-77
      PubDate: 2014-09-12
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Computational Mining of Microsatellites in the Chloroplast Genome of
           Ptilidium pulcherrimum, a Liverwort

    • Authors: Asheesh Shanker
      Abstract: Microsatellites also known as simple sequence repeats (SSRs) are found in DNA sequences. These repeats consist of short motifs of 1-6 bp and play important role in population genetics, phylogenetics and also in the development of molecular markers. In this study chloroplastic SSRs (cpSSRs) in the chloroplast genome of Ptilidium pulcherrimum, downloaded from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), were detected. The chloroplast genome sequence of P. pulcherrimum was mined with the help of a Perl script named MISA. A total of 23 perfect cpSSRs were detected in 119.007 kb sequence mined showing density of 1 SSR/5.17 kb. Depending on the repeat units, the length of SSRs found to be 12 bp for mono and tri, 12 to “22 bp for di, 12 to 16 bp for tetra nucleotide repeats. Penta and hexanucleotide repeats were completely absent in chloroplast genome of P. pulcherrimum. Dinucleotide repeats were the most frequent repeat type (47.83%) followed by tri (21.74%) and tetranucleotide (21.74%) repeats. Out of 23 SSRs detected, PCR primers were successfully designed for 22 (95.65%) cpSSRs.
      DOI : International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3) 2014: 50-58
      PubDate: 2014-09-12
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Energy Audit of Sardar Patel College, Chandrapur, Central India

    • Authors: Prashik P Kamble, Rahul K Kamble
      Abstract: Energy audit of Sardar Patel College was carried out in 2012-2013. Energy audit of the college revealed that annual electricity consumption was 93,984 units at a total cost of Rs 8,28,248/- (US$ 15059) with an average of Rs 8.66 (US$ 0.15) per unit. The per capita energy expenditure on a student comes out to be Rs 127.42/- (US$ 2.31) per annum, while including teaching and non-teaching faculty members it was Rs 121.80/- (US$ 2.21) per annum. To reduce the electricity consumption in the college various measures were suggested such as use of energy efficient appliances, task lighting, peak shaving and good housekeeping measures.
      DOI : International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3) 2014: 36-49
      PubDate: 2014-09-12
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Effects of Moringa oleifera LAM, Leguminous Plants and NPK Fertilizer
           Comparatively on Orange Fleshed Sweet Potato in Alley Cropping System

    • Authors: IN Abdullahi, PO Anyaegbu, D Aliagbor
      Abstract: The research work conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of University of Abuja was aimed at assessing the effect of Moringa oleifera, selected leguminous plants and inorganic fertilizer on the performance of orange fleshed sweet potato in Alley Cropping System. Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) using five treatments with three replications was applied. Data collected include: percentage survival of sweet potato, length per vine (cm), number of leaves per vine, leaf area of sweet potato, weed dry matter (g/m2), yield of sweet potato roots. Highest number of leaves (28) per plant was recorded in the control plot while the plots with NPK fertilizer had the highest length per vine (94.55cm) though not significantly (p>0.05) different from others. Higher percent survival (88%) of sweet potato was recorded from control plots. Stands grown in Arachis hypogeae plots produced the highest leaf area (0.202m2) while plots in which NPK fertilizer was applied experienced highest weed dry matter (4.083g/m2) although highest root yield (1.2t/ha) was recorded from the plots with NPK fertilizer.
      DOI : International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3) 2014: 24-35
      PubDate: 2014-09-12
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Genetic Variation of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Genotypes in
           Semi-Arid Zone Sudan

    • Authors: Salih AI Sabiel, Mohamed I Ismail, Elgailani Abdalla, Khalid A Osman
      Abstract: Twelve genotypes of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) were executed under rain-fed conditions in a semi-arid zone at the Research farm of El Fasher Research Station, Sudan for two consecutive seasons 2006 and 2007. Genotypic and phenotypic variability, heritability in a broad sense and genetic advance were estimated in a randomized complete block design with four replications. High heritability estimate (above 95 %) was recorded by hay yield (kg/ha) in both seasons and 100- seed weight in season 2006. Moreover, the high genetic advance was recorded for hay yield (kg/ha) and pod yield (kg/ha) in both seasons. However, a day to 50% flowering was expressed low genotypic coefficient of variation with low genetic advances in both seasons. Highly significant different among genotypes were found for days to 50% flowering, hay yield (kg/ha), shelling (%), while pod yield (kg/ha) and 100- seed weight were observed non-significant. The high yielding genotype was ICGV93260 with a pod yield of 1389.1 kg/ha. Pod yield (kg/ha) was highly significantly and positively correlated with hay yield (kg/ha), shelling (%) and 100- seed weight, while non-significant and negative correlated with days to 50% flowering. Based on the results the characters hay yield (kg/ha), shelling (%), 100- seed weight and days to 50% flowering to be the important characters which would be used in selection for groundnut improvement. The promising genotype identified in this study could provide valuable sources of resistance to climate-change-related stresses and for other consequent breeding activities in groundnut improvement.
      DOI : International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3) 2014: 16-23
      PubDate: 2014-09-12
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Helping Hands for the International Journal of Environment

    • Authors: Govinda Bhandari
      DOI : International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3) 2014: i-ii
      PubDate: 2014-09-12
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Multi-Criteria Evaluation of Quality of Exisiting Urban Parks in Dhaka
           City - Towards Achieving Livable City

    • Authors: MN Neema, MR Hossain, AM Haque, MHM Farhan
      Abstract: Qualitative and quantitative assessment of the quality of major parks in mega city Dhaka have been conducted. Four incommensurate factors: environment, safety and security, landscape and aesthetic value have been considered to qualitatively and quantitatively assesses the quality of the parks. From qualitative analysis it is found that, some parks (located in highly classified residential area of the city) are superior in safety and security and landscape design whereas other parks (located remote from residential area) are inferior in safety and security and environmental factor. It is necessary to address factors of each park lacking behind to ensure better quality of parks. To quantitatively assess the quality of parks, we formulated a new index value calculation to rank all parks in terms of all factors. It is found that the quality of all the parks are dispersed. In addition, investigation of universal accessibility of the parks and direct park user’s opinion has been accumulated to supports findings of this analysis. Based on the major findings of this study a number of recommendations have been provided for the improvement of the quality of parks in Dhaka city such as involvement of local community and establishment of office for the park authority inside the park can be helpful in the quality maintenance of the parks. The findings of this paper can enhance the existing knowledge of city planners a step forward with a-priori knowledge to ensure quality of parks in further city planning.
      DOI : International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3) 2014: 1-15
      PubDate: 2014-09-12
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • The Reality of Economic Growth towards Green Environment: A Study of
           Selected OECD Countries 1990-2010

    • Authors: Shilpi Gupta
      Abstract: Economic growth and green environment has a direct relation with health, habitat and well being of our society which depends largely on the natural environment. But on the other side the society is neglecting and often ignoring the benefits that nature provides for economic prosperity. This paper studies the role of environment in economic growth, the role of environmental policy in achieving improved environmental results, closely examine the evidence of decoupling production from environmental damages and discuss decoupling in the context of global economy. In order to study these aspects, we explored our comparative research with special reference to selected eight OECD nations namely-France, Germany, Ireland, Japan, Portugal, Turkey, UK and USA with coverage period of 1990-2010. The selection of the countries is based on their prominence in industrialised world and their close economic bounding with each other over a considerable period. The coverage period in the study is 20 years because some of the emission data are available till 2013 and some only up to 2010. In order to do a comparative research on various dimensions we take in to our study period between1990-2010.
      DOI : International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3) 2014: 78-88
      PubDate: 2014-09-12
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Prevalence of Pathogenic Bacteria Isolated from Surgical Site and Wound
           Infection among Patients Admitted in some selected Hospitals in Sokoto
           Metropolis, Nigeria

    • Authors: UK Muhammad, TM Adamu, Z Binji, MA Isa
      Abstract: Surgical and open wounds are commonly encountered in clinical practice. This study was aim to determine the prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in surgical and open wound infection among patients admitted in some selected hospitals in Sokoto metropolis. A total of one hundred and fifty one (151) isolates were obtained from two hundred (200) surgical site and wound samples collected from patients in this study. The result showed that Usmanu Danfodiyo Teaching Hospital Sokoto (UDUTH) had the highest number of clinical isolates with 64 gram positive and gram negative bacteria followed by Specialist Hospital Sokoto (S.H.S) with 57 gram positive and gram negative bacteria and then Maryam Abacha Women and Children Hospital (MAWCH) with 30 gram positive and gram negative bacteria. Gram positive cocci 108 (71.5%) were more predominant pathogen isolated in the hospitals than gram negative bacilli 43 (28.5%). Staphylococcus aureus had the highest number of occurrence with 54(35.76%) followed by Coagulate negative Staphylococci with 47(31.1%) while Citrobacter freundii had the lowest number of occurrence with 2(1.32%) isolates. Also, the susceptibility of the isolates to antimicrobial agents were carried out using Amoxacillin, Ampicillin, Erythromycin, Chloramphenicol, Ampiclox, Ciprofloxacin, Gentamycin, Tetracycline, Pefloxacin and Cotrimoxazole. The mean zone of inhibition recorded against Staphlococcus aureus by using Amoxacillin antibiotic is 2.20mm while with Citrobacter freundii is 1.00.
      DOI : International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3) 2014: 89-103
      PubDate: 2014-09-12
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Prevalence of &beta;-Lactamase Production among Pathogenic Bacteria
           Isolated from Surgical Site and Wound Infection amoung Patients Admitted
           in some selected Hospitals in Sokoto Metropolis, Nigeria

    • Authors: UK Muhammad, TM Adamu, Z Binji, MA Isa
      Abstract: Antimicrobial resistance among pathogenic bacteria is increasing worldwide especially against ß-lactam drugs, due to the production of ß-lactamase enzymes which destroy the ß-lactam ring of these antibiotics, thus preventing the action of penicillin binding proteins (PBPs). The prevalence of β-lactamase producing bacteria among patients admitted in three different hospitals were carried out in this study. The results of this study shows that out of one hundred and fifty one isolates obtained in three different hospitals in Sokoto metropolis, only 82 (54.0%) were resistant to the antibiotics tested. These include 42 (51.2%) were isolated in Usmanu Danfodiyo Teaching Hospital (UDUT), 26 (31.7%) were isolated from Specialist Hospital Sokoto (S.H.S) and 14 (17.1%) were isolated from Maryam Abatcha Women and Children Hospital (MAWCH) which has the least number of occurrence of the resistant isolates. β-lactamase test was carried out on the resistant isolates show s that out of the 82 isolates found resistant to the antibiotics tested, about 60 (73.2%) were β- lactamase positive and the remaining 22 (26.8%) were β-lactamase negative. Staphylococcus aureus has the highest resistant bacteria producing β-lactamase enzyme with 22 isolates, followed by Proteus mirabilis with 10 isolates.
      DOI : International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3) 2014: 89-112
      PubDate: 2014-09-12
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • The Effect of Seed Priming and Soaking Durations with Di Ammonium
           Phosphate (DAP) on Seedling Emergence and Morphological Traits in Okra
           (Hibiscus esculentus L.)

    • Authors: Gohar Shafi, Neelam Ara, Fahim Ullah Khan
      Abstract: The experiment was conducted at Ornamental Horticulture Nursery of the University of Agriculture, Peshawar in July 2008 to study the effect of okra seed priming with different phosphorus concentrations (DAP) at various durations on seedling emergence and some related traits. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design in split plot arrangement, with three replications. Four DAP concentrations i.e. 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%with difference soaking durations from 0 to 48 hours with 4 hours interval. Germination percentage (%), survival percentage (%), number of days to emergence, number of days to first flowering, plant height (cm), were significantly affected by concentrations and soaking durations. Mean values showed that maximum germination percentage (70.49 %), maximum plant height (150.33 cm) was observed in plot in which seeds were soaked in 0.5% phosphate solution. It is concluded that phosphorus concentration of 0.5 % and soaking for 32hour are recommended for seed priming in okra.
      DOI : International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3) 2014: 113-125
      PubDate: 2014-09-12
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
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