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International Journal of Environment  
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2091-2854
   Published by Nepal Journals Online Homepage  [61 journals]
  • Estimating Vehicular Emission in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    • Authors: Krishna Prasad Ghimire, Shreejan Ram Shrestha
      Abstract: The study estimate, the vehicular emission load for CO, CO2 , HCs, NOX, SO2, Dioxin/Furans, Particulate Matters (PM10, PM2.5, Black carbon and Organic Carbon) by using emission factors and Global Warming Potentials (GWPs) of the pollutants (CO2, NOX, BC and OC). For this purpose, data were collected through the video tape record (in 30 sites), questionnaire survey, field visit, and literatures review. The total estimated emission of Kathmandu Valley (KV) was 7231053.12 ton/year. Of the total emission, CO2 emission was highest i.e., 91.01% followed by CO 5.03%, HC 0.96%, NOX 0.60%, PM10 0.18% and SO2 0.10%. Annually 529353.36 μg Toxic Equivalent (TEQ) of Dioxin/Furan produced and directly disperse to the ambient environment. The total estimated PM2.5, BC and OC emission were 9649.40 ton/year, 1640.4 ton/year and 2894.82 ton/year. The total carbon equivalence of the combined emissions (CO2, NOX and BC) for 100-years standard time horizon is 10579763.6 ton CO2-eq i.e., 2885390.07 ton carbon.CO2 alone will be responsible, for about 62% of the impacts for the next century from current emissions of CO2, NOX and BC. Of the total emission Heavy Duty Vehicles (HDV) emits 50%, Light Duty Vehicles (LDV) emits, 27%, 2-Wheelers emits 22% and 3-Wheeler (Tempo) emits 1%. The total emission of all pollutants combined per vehicle together was estimated to be 5.46 ton/year which was estimated as 23.63, 10.35, 1.83 and 5.58 ton/year for HDV, LDV, 2-Wheelers and 3-Wheeler respectively. 
      DOI :      International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-3, Issue-4, Sep-Nov 2014Page: 133-146 
      PubDate: 2014-12-15
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Aboveground Biomass and Carbon Stocks of an Undisturbed Regenerating Sal
           (Shorea Robusta Gaertn. F.) Forest Of Goalpara District, Assam, Northeast

    • Authors: Debajit Rabha
      Abstract: The present paper deals with the above ground biomass and carbon stocks of an undisturbed Sal forest of Goalpara district, Assam, Northeast India. The average AGB and C were recorded 239.45 ± 12.8 Mg ha-1 and 119.73 ± 6.4 Mg ha-1. Density distribution curve indicates the high carbon sequestration potential of the stand in near future which further helps in climate change mitigation. Currently, conservation measures are well imposed in combine effort of local community and government. Legal involvement of local community in conservation exercises along with the forest department might be very effective in management of Sal forests.
      DOI :   International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-3, Issue-4, Sep-Nov 2014Page: 147-155 
      PubDate: 2014-12-15
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Conservation Agriculture: An Eco-Friendly System of Weed Management in
           Field Crops

    • Authors: Tika Bahadur Karki, Jiban Shrestha
      Abstract: Since the conservation agriculture (CA) is spreading across the globe, information on weed dynamics and their management under CA is needed. Here, an attempt has been made to summarize the recent research on weed dynamics and their management aspects in the CA systems. Changes in patterns of tillage, planting systems, and other management strategies can alter the soil environment and lead to shifts in weed populations. Weed patterns and populations are not always stable but vary with location, crop, and herbicides use. However, in many long-term conservation management studies, a general increase in perennial weeds and grass species has been observed. No tillage increased the weed population during first season and there after decreased. Residue has significantly reduced the number of weed species and population compared to conventional agriculture systems. The development of low-dose of non-selective pre and selective post emergence herbicides, and transgenic crops has greatly improved the feasibility of CA systems.
      DOI : International Journal of Environment Volume-3, Issue-4, Sep-Nov 2014Page: 91-100
      PubDate: 2014-12-15
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Folklore Utilisation of Bryophtes amongst the Tribal Regions of North
           Coastal Andhra

    • Authors: G. M. Narasimha Rao, Reshmi Chatterjee
      Abstract: Bryophyte which is otherwise considered to be as Lilliputians amongst the land plants is found to be highly priced for the preparation of ethnomedicines. Ethnic tribes depend upon the plant in their surroundings for traditional medicine preparation. The present article enumerates four species of bryophyte which are used routinely amongst the tribes of North coastal Andhra to treat various ailments. Bryophytes are ecologically friable and very prone to extinction. Hence, these types of studies are important as it will bring more and more new species of bryophyte with exceptional therapeutic properties into light.
      DOI :       International Journal of Environment Volume-3, Issue-4, Sep-Nov 2014Page: 101-108
      PubDate: 2014-12-15
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Pollen Morphology and Palynotaxonomical Studies of Common Garden Plants of
           Apocynaceae, In Kolkata, West Bengal, India

    • Authors: Reshmi Chatterjee, Satadip Sarkar, G. M. Narasimha Rao
      Abstract: Taxonomy and identification of angiosperms are mainly based on external morphological characters and traits of the plants; however palynological data sets are remotely used for the study. Pollen characters are genetically regulated that can be used as an ideal tool for establishing taxonomic groups. This type of integrated study can be useful in redefining the status of families in higher group of plants. Apocynaceae, a Eurypalynous family exhibits variation in possessing more than one type of pollen grains from simple porate to compound colporate apertures. Pollen attributes has been utilized in building a pollen key that would enable us to distinguish genera solely on the basis of pollen characters.
      DOI : International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-3, Issue-4, Sep-Nov 2014Page: 109-116 
      PubDate: 2014-12-15
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Adoption of Root and Tuber Technologies among Farmers (Agricultural
           Development Programme -Adp)

    • Authors: G. E Ekwere, I. D. Edem, O. E. Agbasi
      Abstract: This paper analyzed the adoption rate of root and tuber technologies in Anambra state Agricultural Development Programme. Specific objectives were to ascertain the root and tuber expansion programme (RTEP) technologies, find out the extension methods and level of access to extension services among members of farmers based groups and to assess the farmers’ awareness on various varieties of root and tuber technologies. Three hypotheses were formulated to test the effect of variables on the adoption rate. Stratified random sampling techniques were used to determine the sample size of 112 including the farmers and RTEP staff. Findings showed that various varieties and technologies promoted in the area by RTEP were ABANA 85, ADAKA 96 and EKPE 88 for Yam, while TMS 305SS, TMS 30 and TMS 30572 for Cassava and White P. 179 and RED P. 162 for Potatoes. Comparatively the income levels of the farmers remained unchanged but they expressed satisfaction with the use of RTEP technologies.
      DOI :    International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-3, Issue-4, Sep-Nov 2014Page: 117-132
      PubDate: 2014-12-15
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Environmental Impact Assessment of Kathmandu Terai Fast-Track

    • Authors: Padam Kanta Dahal, Lalita Dahal, Sarina Khanal, Sazina Poudel, Bhawana Khatiwada
      Abstract:  Road transport is dominant necessity for the overall economic development of any nation. In case of Nepal, an easy access between the Capital City and Terai, the store-house of the country and is very necessary. To facilitate this promotion of an improved core road network, Government of Nepal has launched the Kathmandu Terai Fast Track Project. Many concerned personalities and sectors had considered this project to be number one in the list of seventeen projects of national pride declared by the government. The main objective of this study was to identify the impacts of proposed project implementation on physical, biological, socio-economic and cultural environment of the project area and propose mitigation measures to avoid or mitigate such impacts. Primary information collection and secondary data review was the source of data with cross sectional descriptive study design. Data was taken purposively in the project affected area. Length of 72.6 km fast track from Kathmandu – Lalitpur – Makawanpur and up to Nijgadh in Bara district to link with the East West Highway will be of four lanes with 50 m on each side. The project was proposed to have 96 bridges big or small; 1.6 km long tunnel will be built in Thingan of Makawanpur on public-private partnership. It had projected costs of more than NRs 250 million. The impacts on land use will be on about 30km of agricultural land, 43km of forests and about 3km of other land uses, bridges etc. in the main alignment. The impacts on human life will mainly be in villages near the alignment. There are 38 villages within about 50m of the main alignment. The project can be continued with minimum of environmental degradation by applying the mitigation measures. Nation has been investing a lot of resources. Upon the completion of the fast track, the distance and time to reach the capital city from Terai will come down to only 1.5 hours and will transform the capital, eastern Terai and the country as a whole. It is estimated that NRs 4.5 billion will be saved annually of the transport cost. Therefore, Kathmandu Terai Fast Track Project can be considered as the single most important prospect for the improvement of traffic conditions and the creation of a major economic impact in Nepal over the coming decade.
      DOI :      International Journal of EnvironmentVol. 3, No. 4, 2014Page: 1-11  
      PubDate: 2014-12-15
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • PCBs Contaminantion of Transformer Oil and its Occupational Health and
           Safety Status in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    • Authors: Laxman K.C., Bhupendra Devkota
      Abstract: Electrification in Kathmandu valley had started in 1911 and the use of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) probably started since 1940s (Devkota, 2005). This research work was undertaken to find out the degree and extent of PCBs contamination in transformer oil and to explore its impacts on occupational health and safety issues of the workers and on the environment. The research was focused on Distributions Centers of the Nepal Electricity Authority (NEA) in the Kathmandu valley, NEA Lainchaur workshop and welding workshops of the Kathmandu valley. The samples of transformer oil were collected, safely stored and analyzed using L2000DX Chloride Analyzer, PCBs contamination at >50 ppm level was found in 184 distribution transformers with total volume of PCBs contaminated transformer oil to be 67566.3 Kg. The knowledge on impacts of PCBs contaminated transformer oil on human health and environment was better among NEA employees than among employees of welding workshops, though not satisfactory. Due to very low awareness, the workers come in contact with the transformer oil regularly and many health impacts such as eye problems, skin related complication, weakness and respiratory problems might be due to this exposure; however, exact impacts could not be verified scientifically.
      DOI :       International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-3, Issue-4, Sep-Nov 2014Page : 12-23 
      PubDate: 2014-12-15
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • An Assessment of Phytosociological Diversity of Kuther Watershed, Himachal
           Pradesh, India

    • Authors: Peeyush Gupta, Swati Uniyal, Swati Goyal
      Abstract: A plant community acquires many characteristics which are not found in its constituents, (organisms or population). A community is described through species diversity, life forms, structure, dominance and developmental status. To delineate these aspects two significant parameters like analytical characters (quantitative - frequency, density, abundance and cover; qualitative - physiognomy, phenology, sociability, vitality and life form) and synthetic characters (constancy, fidelity and dominance) were studied. The present study focuses on species composition, phytosociological diversity and concentration of dominance of various tree species of Kuther watershed of Himachal Pradesh, India.
      DOI :  International Journal of Environment Volume-3, Issue-4, Sep-Nov 2014Page:  74-90
      PubDate: 2014-12-15
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Urban Expansion and Its Impact on Green Spaces of Dehradun City,
           Uttarakhand, India

    • Authors: Peeyush Gupta, Swati Goyal
      Abstract: Urbanization is on increase because of heavy population pressure, industrialization, and better job opportunities in plane areas compared to Himalayan terrain. The urbanization has also added hypertension because of very fast life and lack of recreational opportunities within easily accessible distances. Deforestation is the permanent destruction of indigenous forests and woodlands. The term does not include the removal of industrial forests such as plantations of gums or pines. Deforestation is clearing of forests on a massive scale, often resulting in damage to the quality of the land. Urbanization is one of the major causes of the deforestation. Urban green space planning is an important component of urban ecosystems; provide many environmental and social services that contribute quality of life in the cities.The green spaces are said to be the lungs of the urban ecosystem. The process of urbanization led to natural landscape change. In the process tree cover, green spaces and wetlands were recklessly converted into built-up areas in the past and the process is still going on. Due to availability of required infrastructure, Dehradun was named interim capital of the nascent Himalayan state of Uttarakhand in 2000. Other regions of Uttarakhand is also experiencing rapid urbanization. The hill districts adjoining Dehradun district have witnessed a four-fold increase in the number of towns between 1901 and 2001. The population of Dehradun registered increase of 41.08 % between1961-1971, 32.84 % between 1971-81, 25.39 % between 1981-91 and during 1991-2001 it increased by 52.45 %. The temporal imaging of remote sensing data and socio-economic data of 1982 will be used for overall spatial monitoring.
      DOI :     International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-3, Issue-4, Sep-Nov 2014Page: 57-73
      PubDate: 2014-12-15
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Employees’ Exposure to Carbon Monoxide in Pakistan Steel Mills

    • Authors: Kanza Abid, Zafar Iqbal Shams
      Abstract: Many processes in the iron and steel making industries emit carbon monoxide, which causes a variety of toxic effects on human health, such as fatigue, impaired memory, headache, and nausea. At elevated exposure, carbon monoxide poisoning may lead to loss of consciousness and death. Therefore, the current study has been carried out to investigate the occupational exposure of randomly selected fifty-eight employees of Pakistan Steel Mills to the carbon monoxide. The selected employees were from 10 different facilities of the Pakistan Steel Mills, who were working in two different shifts viz. nightshift and dayshift, each of twelve hours. Thirty employees from nightshift and twenty-eight employees from dayshift were monitored for their exposure to carbon monoxide. The instrument was logged to measure the employee’s exposure to carbon monoxide with 1-minute interval. The study reveals that the employees, working in the Raw Materials Production Plant during nightshift were exposed to the highest mean concentration of carbon monoxide while those working in Oxygen Plant during nightshift were exposed to the lowest mean concentration of carbon monoxide. According to study, the highest recorded exposure was found near Blast Furnace during dayshift. The employees’ exposure to 98th percentile concentration of carbon monoxide in different facilities of the steel mills has also been analyzed. The employees’ exposure to carbon monoxide during commuting from home to their workplace has also been investigated.
      DOI :      International Journal of EnvironmentVolume-3, Issue-4, Sep-Nov 2014Page: 44-56
      PubDate: 2014-12-15
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Alteration in Vital State Parameters of Scots Pine Tree-Stands under
           Technogenic Pollution

    • Authors: Tatiana A. Mikhailova, Olga V. Kalugina, Olga V. Shergina, Ekaterina N. Taranenko
      Abstract: The study was focused on the relation between deterioration of vital state parameters of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) tree-stands polluted by various technogenic sources, and the level of polluting agents accumulation in the needles. Changes in the balance of the most important biogenic elements and their proportion in the needles of polluted trees have been shown. The results confirm systemic character of polluting agents impact on tree-stands vital state. It may be presumed to show in the following order: polluting agents accumulation in assimilating organs → disbalance of elements composition of plant organism → disturbance of plant organism nutritious conditions → disturbance of tree growth characteristics → reduction of tree-stands productivity.
      DOI : Journal of EnvironmentVolume-3, Issue-4, Sep-Nov 2014Page: 36-43
      PubDate: 2014-12-15
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Classification and Assessment of Aridity Over Pakistan Provinces

    • Authors: Sajjad Haider, Shahzada Adnan
      Abstract: Due to rapid growth of population, massive deforestation and anthropogenic activities, noticeable change in climate conditions is being observed in Pakistan. Increased aridity due to climate change is a growing environmental problem of the agricultural country like Pakistan. It is essential to assess and monitor aridity to combat the probable land degradation and drought desertification. Identification of arid and semi arid regions on climatic basis is the first essential step in any project of land reclamation for agricultural and other purposes. A geographic information system is used in this paper for the assessment of aridity in Pakistan from long term climatic data of fifty years (1960-2009) collected from fifty four stations situated in the country. In the delineation of climatic zones and delimitation of their boundaries, five well known aridity models viz. De Martonne Aridity index, Erinc Aridity index, Thornthwaite Precipitation Effectiveness index, UNESCO Aridity index and Thornthwaite Moisture index are utilized for this purpose. The study shows that southern parts of the country are dry and more vulnerable to drought while the northern parts have variable types of climate. Almost 75 to 85% of the total area of the country is arid in which most part lies in the south while less than 10% area is humid lies in the north of the country. This study will be a good predicator for agricultural scientist, agronomist and hydrologist to plan according the climate of the region.
      DOI : Journal of EnvironmentVolume-3, Issue-4, Sep-Nov 2014Page : 24-35 
      PubDate: 2014-12-15
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
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