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Journal Cover International Journal of Environment
  [5 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2091-2854
   Published by Nepal Journals Online Homepage  [74 journals]
  • Organic Carbon Stocks, Dynamics and Restoration in Relation to Soils of
           Agroecosystems in Ethiopia: A Review

    • Authors: Getaneh Gebeyehu, Teshome Soromessa, Demel Teketay
      Pages: 1 - 22
      Abstract: Soils represent the largest carbon pool and play important roles for carbon storage for prolonged periods in agroecosystems. A number of studies were conducted to quantify soil organic carbon (SOC) worldwide. The objective of this review was to evaluate organic carbon stocks, dynamics and restoration in soils of agroecosystems in Ethiopia. Soil data from 32 different observations, representing four different agroecosystems, were analysed. The mean SOC stocks in the four agroecosystems varied and ranged from 25.66 (sub-humid agroecosystem) to 113.17 (humid mid-highland agroecosystems) Mg C ha-1 up to one meter depth. The trend of mean SOC followed (in descending order): humid mid-highland (113.17 Mg C ha-1) > per-humid highland (57.14 Mg C ha-1) > semi-arid (25.77 Mg C ha-1) > sub-humid (25.66 Mg C ha-1). Compared with soils of tropical countries, those in Ethiopian agroecosystems contained low SOC storage potential. This might be associated with differences in measurement and analysis methods as 53.1% of the studies employed the Walkley-Black Method, which is known to underestimate carbon stocks in addition to ecological and management effects. However, shifts of land management from rain-fed to irrigation farming systems exhibited progress in the improvement of mean SOC storage potential. The analyses showed that farming systems involving irrigation sequestered more carbon than rain-fed farm systems. The mean SOC in the various agricultural land uses followed the following trend (in descending order): agroforestry (153.57 Mg C ha-1) > grazing land (34.61 Mg C ha-1) > cereal cultivation (24.18 Mg C ha-1). Therefore, the possible solutions for improvement of organic carbon stocks would be implementation of appropriate restoration strategies based on agroecosystems.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT Volume-6, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2016/17, page: 1-22 
      PubDate: 2017-02-28
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2017)
  • Mysid (Crustacea: Mysidacea) Distribution in the Bolgoda Estuarine System
           and Lunawa Lagoon, Sri Lanka

    • Authors: N. N. Punchihewa, S. R. Krishnarajah, P. Vinobaba
      Pages: 23 - 30
      Abstract: Mysids are one of the most abundant and important fauna in estuarine hyperbenthic communities. They form important links in estuarine food chains and play a critical role in the cycling of energy within estuarine systems. Therefore, it is important to recognize the distribution of estuarine mysids in Sri Lanka. The present study was undertaken in Bolgoda estuarine system and Lunawa lagoon, in order to find out the distribution of mysids in these brackish water systems. Reconnaissance surveys were conducted, in Bolgoda North Lake, Panadura estuary of the Bolgoda estuarine system and the Lunawa lagoon from April 2012 to February 2013. The samples were collected using a hand held dip net, during day time at low tide along an eighty meter transect at the boundary of the estuarine waters. Mesopodopsis zeylanica was the only mysid species observed from the low water areas of the lagoon along the boundary of the stream. In each collection, it was recorded, higher percentages of females than the males. Mysids were recoded only from unpolluted areas and they were absent, where Eichhornia crassipes (water hyacinth) was widespread. The findings of this analysis could be used to establish the fact that boundary condition and polluted condition are having a great effect on presence of mysids. It may be due to their specific niche requirements and specialized habitats. Accordingly, mysids serve as pollution indicator species in estuarine ecosystems. An immediate management strategy is required in protecting the Bolgoda estuarine systems from dumping household pollutants as well as other pollutants and complete elimination of the invader plants like E. crassipes, in order to protect estuarine biodiversity.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT  Volume-6, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2016/17, page: 23-30
      PubDate: 2017-02-28
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2017)
  • Rhododendrons in Uttarakhand: Diversity and Conservation

    • Authors: Kaiser Iqbal, A. K. Negi
      Pages: 31 - 45
      Abstract: Rhododendron is a very widely distributed genus, occurring throughout most of the Northern Hemisphere except for dry areas, and extending into the Southern Hemisphere in southeastern Asia and northern Asia with 1200 species. In India, Rhododendrons are represented by 80 species with 10 subspecies and 14 varieties most of which are widely distributed in the Himalayas at an altitude ranging from 1500 – 5500 m. During the course of a revisionary study of Rhododendrons in Uttarakhand, an attempt has been made to collect information on the uses of different species from the field through personal communications with the inhabitants of the remote villages and through repeated inquiries from local folk. Besides of its immense horticultural importance, about 6 species have been recorded here which are used by the local people in different ways. Some species are also found poisonous. The paper deals with the enumeration of these species, their vernacular names, distribution and abundance, uses and methods of utilization. Natural calamities anthropogenic activities such as deforestation, unsustainable extraction for firewood pose a serious threat to Rhododendrons.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT Volume-6, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2016/17, page: 31-45
      PubDate: 2017-02-28
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2017)
  • Occupational Health Hazards in Municipal Solid Waste Collecting Workers of
           Chandrapur City, Central India

    • Authors: Priyanka V. Patil, R. K. Kamble
      Pages: 46 - 57
      Abstract: Solid waste management has important occupational health issues associated with it. Out of 204 solid waste collecting workers of Chandrapur Municipal Corporation, 20 workers were selected (10% of the population) as sample size (15 female and 5 male) and 10 individuals as control group (5 female and 5 male). The study was carried out from November 2015 to January 2016. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate analysis was carried out through Breath-o meter and identification and assessment of other occupational health hazards through interview schedule specially designed and developed for this study. The results of the study showed that, Peak Expiratory Flow Rate values were lower in exposed workers as compared with control group. These workers were exposed to a number of environmental and occupational hazards leading to musculoskeletal disorders (100%), respiratory problems (90%), headache (90%), dermatological problems (25%) and gastrointestinal problems (15%) during work. It was further observed that these workers were suffering from allergies (100%), stomach pain (50%), asthma and bronchitis lungs (45%), cough and cold (25%), vomiting (25%), hearing disorder (20%), fever (15%), typhoid (10%), malaria (5%) etc. after completion of work.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT, Volume-6, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2016/17, page: 46-57
      PubDate: 2017-02-28
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2017)
  • Status of Household Solid Waste and People‚Äôs Perception on its
           Management at Sitakunda Upazila, Chittagong

    • Authors: Md. Juwel Rana, Ohidul Alam, Sahadeb Chandra Majumder, Khaled Misbahuzzaman
      Pages: 58 - 75
      Abstract: Urban household solid waste (HSW) is well-known, but has little knowledge about the rural areas and sub-cities. The quest of the study was to investigate current HSW management system and people’s attitude towards it’s at Sitakunda Upazila. The study was conducted through a semi-structured questionnaire survey by interviewing 150 households from 3 different socioeconomic groups. The results showed that on an average each household generated 1.26 kg/day wastes which stands at 0.24 kg/person/day in the study area. However, HSW generation is positively correlated with family size (rxy=0.991, p˂0.05), average age of family members (rxy=0.455, p˂0.01), and monthly earnings (rxy=0.999, p˂0.01) of the households. Amidst the various categories of wastes, vegetable and food wastes (VFWs) were identified as the highest value 68.4%. In contrast, 24.6% of the generated wastes were recyclable and 75.4% non-recyclable; 82.1% organic and 17.9% inorganic. A large percentage of sampled households opined that present HSW management involves merely partial collection that is also irregular in urban areas but absent in rural areas. Unfair HSW collection was noticed by 58.7% and partial source segregation is also rare 14%. Besides, 42.7% people were found to dispose their daily generated wastes by open dumping and 25.3% nearby lagoon. A large number of people were dissatisfied 68% and only 6.7% were satisfied with the existing HSW management system. In addition, most of the people encountered bad odor problems by 28.7% and wastes spread on roadside by 38%. Significant quantity of recyclable wastes was noticed to collect from households by hawkers/scraps in the study area and very few household were found to use VFWs with cow-dung to generate biogas.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT Volume-6, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2016/17, page: 58-75
      PubDate: 2017-02-28
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2017)
  • Arsenic Contamination of Water-Soil-Crop System in an Industrial Area of

    • Authors: M. Ahmed, K. Kurosawa
      Pages: 76 - 86
      Abstract: The arsenic (As) concentrations of irrigation water, soils and vegetables were investigated in an agricultural section of Gazipur industrial area in Bangladesh, where industrial wastewater is mixed with irrigation water. The results showed that the mean As concentration of the irrigation water (0.16-0.62 mg L-1) exceeded the permissible limit for agricultural purposes recommended by the Food and Agriculture Organization (0.10 mg L-1). The mean As concentration of soils (6.48-9.75 mg kg-1) did not exceed the tolerable limit for agricultural soils recommended by the FAO (20.0 mg kg-1). While, the As concentration of the respective vegetables in average varied from 0.63 to 1.07 mg kg-1 dry weight, and the highest As concentration in average was observed in taro root (1.26-2.31 mg kg-1), followed by helencha leaf (1.85-2.02 mg kg-1). The average As concentration of root vegetables (1.84 mg kg-1) exceeded the permissible limit of 1.0 mg kg-1 suggested by the Food and Agriculture Organization, while that of leafy (0.77 mg kg-1) and fruit vegetables (0.14 mg kg-1) did not exceed the limit. Soils irrigated with As containing water that holds much amount of As showed a positive correlation with the vegetable As concentration. A decrease in the As concentration from soil to vegetable was found in root, leafy and fruit vegetables. However, the vegetables were not safe for human consumption. Some countermeasures are, therefore, necessary to reduce the vegetable As concentration.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT Volume-6, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2016/17, page: 76-86
      PubDate: 2017-02-28
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2017)
  • Soil Catena Properties of Daher Al- Jabal in South Syria

    • Authors: Hussam H. M. Husein, Tareq Nammora, Ibrahim Zaghtiti, Anwar Al-Khateeb, Ehsan Zenyah
      Pages: 87 - 107
      Abstract: Soil catena concept is a sequence of soils extends across relief positions and is developed from similar parent material. This study highlighted on the important aspects and properties of soil catena of Daher El-Jabal in Jabal Al-Arab mountainous area South eastern of Syria, by implementing pedologic study in 2010-2012. Six soil profiles have been studied along pedo-genetic transect in order to highlight the soil catena prevailing properties. The results reveal that the soil has formed from igneous basaltic parent casts, related to Neogen era, where reliefs had the key role in the developing of soil solum. Consequently, Entisols were dominated on eroded summits, Inceptisols on back slops and mountain flanks, Mollisols on depressions. Both water erosion of soil surface and leaching inside soil solum processes were responsible for variation of soil texture, as such soils showed evident of changing in particles size distribution as well as in clay content. Cation exchange capacity (CEC) was less than moderate with domination of Magnesium cation. Soil trace elements were poor to somewhat poor. Soil pH values in general were low; which reflect the pedo-genic character of igneous parent material in which soil drifted from. In some cases, where soil body subjected to continuous leaching of soil bases, in particular calcium cation; soil profiles became totally freed from calcium carbonates. Accordingly soil problems related to downing of soil reaction (pH) are more expected to be increasing by time. This is main reason for some physical diseases, which beginning arise on pomes fruits, particularly bitter pit.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT Volume-6, Issue-1, Dec-Feb 2016/17, page: 87-107
      PubDate: 2017-02-28
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 1 (2017)
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