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Journal Cover International Journal of Environment
  [4 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2091-2854
   Published by Nepal Journals Online Homepage  [70 journals]
  • Lichen as Bioindicator for Monitoring Environmental Status in Western
           Himalaya, India

    • Authors: Sugam Gupta, Roshni Khare, Omesh Bajpai, Himanshu Rai, Dalip Kumar Upreti, Rajan Kumar Gupta, Pradeep Kumar Sharma
      Pages: 1 - 15
      Abstract: The use of bioindicator communities (lichen) to assess the environmental status of an area is a well-proved strategy to monitor any habitat without any logistic and instrumental facilities. In the present study, 13 bioindicator communities of lichen have been used to assess the environmental status of holy pilgrimage (Badrinath), western Himalaya, India. Three sites (i.e. Badrinath, Mana & pilgrimage route from Bhimpul to Vasudhara) have been comparatively assessed. The results of the study reveals that Badrinath site is less polluted and experiences low degree of anthropogenic disturbances compared to Mana, and pilgrimage route (Bhimpul to Vasudhara). Human settlements, construction of civil works, vehicular emission, and trampling and trekking by tourists are the major threats on these habitats, which ultimately decrease the quality of vegetation and adjacent environment. Controlled vehicular use, promotion of modern way of cooking and managed trekking in these pilgrimage routes could be helpful to combat the decreasing vegetation and environmental quality therein.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT
      Volume-5, Issue-2, Mar-May 2016 page: 1-15
      PubDate: 2016-05-26
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2016)
  • Sulphation Rate in Chandrapur Industrial Cluster, Central India

    • Authors: R. K. Kamble
      Pages: 16 - 25
      Abstract: Sulphation rate in Chandrapur industrial cluster was carried out by using lead peroxide candle turbidimeteric method in December 2014-January 2015 (winter season). Sampling was carried out at four sampling locations; two sampling locations were in upwind direction whereas other two in downwind direction. Minimum sulphation rate in study area was 0.68 mg SO3/100 cm2/day at Tukum, whereas maximum at Ballarpur 1.41 mg SO3/100 cm2/day. Average sulphation rate in study area was 1.12±0.31 mg SO3/100 cm2/day. On comparison of sulphation rate at two road sides, it was observed that at Babupeath–which was adjacent to state highway–had sulphation rate 1.16 mg SO3/100 cm2/day whereas for Nakoda 1.23 mg SO3/100 cm2/day which was adjacent to local road. From the results it was evident that sulphation rate was more in upwind direction as compared with downwind direction may be due to presence of pulp and paper mill. Industrial activities in Chandrapur industrial cluster contributes significant sulphur emissions from pulp and paper mill, super thermal power station where coal is used, ore smelting, number of cement industries, emissions from diesel driven heavy and light motor vehicles along with domestic coal burning. As wind progresses from upwind to downwind direction sulphur concentration was reduced due to dilution, dispersion and transportation, which result into reduced sulphation rate in downwind direction.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT
      Volume-5, Issue-2, Mar-May 2016 Page :15-25
      PubDate: 2016-05-26
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2016)
  • Morphological and Anatomical Properties of Himalayan Herb Stellaria

    • Authors: Satish Chandra, D. S. Rawat
      Pages: 26 - 35
      Abstract: Stellaria webbiana is a Himalayan endemic herb, distributed in Central and Western Himalaya. The present study is based on the morphological properties, anatomical properties and seed microstructure of the species. Number of valves in mature fruit, anatomical properties, stomata type, trichomes, seed microstructure and Western most limit of the species in the Himalaya is described first in the present study.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT
      Volume-5, Issue-2, March-May 2016, Page:26-35
      PubDate: 2016-05-26
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2016)
  • Impact of Nutrients on Distribution of Micrasterias Sp. In Hooghly
           Province, West Bengal, India

    • Authors: Nilu Halder
      Pages: 36 - 47
      Abstract: In the present paper morpho-taxonomic descriptions along with the illustrations of three infraspecific taxa of genus Micrasterias C. Ag. ex Ralfs, analysis of ecological parameters and correlation coefficients between nine limnological parameters as well as the relative abundances of the genus had been described. These three taxa are Micrasterias pinnatifida var. pinnatifida fa. pinnatifida (Kütz.) Ralfs, Micrasterias tropica Nordstedt var. crassa West & West and Micrasterias foliacea var. foliacea Bailey ex Ralfs belonging to the order Zygnematales under the class Chlorophyceae. All these taxa were distributed in ponds (inland water bodies) in Hooghly district, West Bengal, India. The results of analysis of physico-chemical parameters of the ponds water revealed that lower temperature and nutrient status in respect of nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N): phosphate (PO43-): potassium (K); higher dissolved oxygen (DO) values and, slight alkaline water prompted their occurrences, growth and diversity. The above said infraspecific taxa are new taxonomic reports from West Bengal, India. The taxonomic study explored the present biodiversity of this genus while the ecological study showed a clear picture of ecological conditions and water quality of the studied water bodies.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT
      Volume-5, Issue-2, March-May 2016 Pages 36-47
      PubDate: 2016-05-26
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2016)
  • Global Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide Emission in 2005: Environmental
           Kuznets Curve Hypothesis and Implications for Policy

    • Authors: T. S. Krishnan
      Pages: 48 - 60
      Abstract: Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis provides support for public policies that emphasize economic growth at the expense of environmental degradation. This hypothesis postulates an inverted U-shaped relationship between economic growth and environmental degradation with plausible explanations. We contribute to the discussion on EKC hypothesis by focusing on anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emission (a greenhouse gas) during an extreme year. In the year 2005, concentration of anthropogenic CO2 became higher than the natural range observed over the last 650,000 years. Using econometric modeling of data from 122 countries for the year 2005, we study the key question: Does EKC hypothesis hold for anthropogenic CO2 emission after controlling for energy consumption and environmental governance? We do not find statistical support for EKC hypothesis. But, we find that improvements in environmental governance reduces CO2 emission. This suggests support for environmental policies that specifically promote CO2 emission reduction and does not emphasize economic growth at the expense of environmental degradation.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT
      Volume-5, Issue-2, March-May 2016, Page: 48-60
      PubDate: 2016-05-26
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2016)
  • Assessment of PM10 in Aurangabad City of Central India

    • Authors: Geetanjali Kaushik, Arvind Chel, Sangeeta Shinde, Ashish Gadekar
      Pages: 61 - 74
      Abstract: Almost 670 million people comprising 54.5% of our population reside in regions that do not meet the Indian NAAQS for fine particulate matter. Numerous studies have revealed a consistent correlation for particulate matter concentration with health than any other air pollutant. Aurangabad city a rapidly growing city with population of 1.5 million is home to five major industrial areas, the city is also known for its historical monuments which might also be adversely affected from air pollution. Therefore, this research aims at estimating PM10 concentrations at several locations across Aurangabad. The concentration of PM10 was highest at the Railway Station followed by Waluj (an industrial zone) and City chowk is the centre of the city which has high population, tall buildings, few open spaces which causes high congestion and does not allow the particulates to disperse. Other locations with high concentrations of PM are Mill corner, Harsul T-point, Kranti Chowk, Seven Hill, TV centre and Beed Bye pass. All these locations have narrow roads, high traffic density, poor road condition with pot holes and few crossing points which cause congestion and vehicle idling which are responsible for high pollution. Therefore, it is evident that air pollution is a serious issue in the city which may be further aggravated if it is not brought under control. Hence, strategies have to be adopted for combating the menace of air pollution.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT
      Volume-5, Issue-2, March-May 2016, Page :61-74
      PubDate: 2016-05-26
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2016)
  • Heavy Metal Assessment in Water and Sediments at Jaikwadi Dam (Godavari
           River) Maharashtra, India

    • Authors: Satish S Patil, Geetanjali Kaushik
      Pages: 75 - 88
      Abstract: The indiscriminate release of industrial effluents, domestic sewage, agricultural runoff have resulted in extensive contamination of water and soil with heavy metals thereby causing hazard to flora and fauna and the aquatic ecosystem. Therefore, there is a need for biological monitoring studies to evaluate the toxic concentrations of various chemical compounds so that certain preventive measure can be taken to ensure the safety of the environment. Therefore, this study was focused at investigating few of the important heavy metals like zinc, chromium, cadmium, mercury and lead, in water along with sediments of the Jaikwadi dam. It has been found that the content of mercury was the highest in both water (15.24 - 18.21 μg/L) and sediments, it is followed by lead (14.31 - 18.38 μg/L), cadmium (1.95 - 2.29 μg/L), chromium (0.68 - 4.00 μg/L) and finally zinc (0.88 - 1.77 μg/L). High concentrations particularly of mercury and lead warrant studies for their remediation so that the concentration remains safe for the populace dependent on the water.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT
      Volume-5, Issue-2, March-May 2016, Page: 75-88
      PubDate: 2016-05-26
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2016)
  • Comparative Status of Sequestered Carbon Stock of Azadirachta indica and
           Conocarpus erectus at the University of Karachi Campus, Pakistan

    • Authors: Amber Ajani, Zafar Iqbal Shams
      Pages: 89 - 97
      Abstract: Carbon sequestration by trees is one of the most cost-effective and efficient methods to remove carbon dioxide from atmosphere since trees remove and store carbon at higher rates compared to other land covers. Carbon storage by trees typically ranges from 1 to 8 MgC ha-1 yr-1.The carbon is sequestered in different parts of the trees as biomass. The measurements of biomass provide reasonably accurate estimate of the amount of carbon that was removed from lower troposphere over the years. Therefore, the present study investigates and compares the carbon stock of native Azadirachta indica and exotic Conocarpus erectus, which are extensively cultivated in the campus of the University of Karachi, Pakistan. The above-ground and below-ground biomass of 327 trees of A. indica and 253 trees of C. erectus were estimated by using non-destructive method. The average carbon content of A. indica is calculated to be 662.32 + 1144.81 Kg while that of C. erectus is 192.70 + 322.60 Kg. The independent t-test analysis showed significant difference (p < 0.001) between the means of the carbon content of both the species. The carbon contents of two different species were also correlated with bole’s diameter at breast height (DBH) and tree’s height. The analysis demonstrated greater correlation between the carbon content and the DBH of both the species compared to that with their height. The study will help to understand the carbon sequestration potential of two different types of species for planting particularly in urban area of the world.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT
      Volume-5, Issue-2, March-May 2016, Page: 89-97
      PubDate: 2016-05-26
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2016)
  • Preliminary Evaluation of Some Elicited Apple Genotypes Candidate as
           Cultivars Using Morphological and Molecular Markers

    • Authors: Bayan Muzher, Ola Al-Halabi
      Pages: 98 - 109
      Abstract: Preliminary evaluation of 5 apple genotypes produced by seed selection in the germplasm of seed rootstocks in Sweida- Syria was carried out between 2005 and 2012, to study date of full flowering, maturity time, morphological characters of tree, shoots, leaves, flowers, and fruits, including chemical analysis. On the other hand, yield efficiency, fruit storability and the susceptibility to pests and physiological disorders were evaluated. Molecular characterization was achieved by using 8 pairs of SSR primers for the 5th genotypes in comparison with the two main commercial cultivars "Golden Delicious" and "Starking Delicious" to determine the genetic relationship between the studied genotypes and cultivars. The results divided the studied genotypes depending on the time of ripening into three groups: early, intermediate and late genotypes. All studied genotypes gave efficient and regular yield, and showed fixable fruit shape and size with variable storability due to maturity time. Molecular characterization reveled the ability of SSR technique to determine the genetic variation between the studied genotypes, the 8 primer pairs produced 22 alleles, 21 of them were polymorphic (95.45%). Cluster analysis divided the studied genotypes into 2 clusters, the first cluster included the two commercial cultivars Starking delicious and Golden delicious with one genotypes, while the second cluster contained the four remaining genotypes. Finally, the studied genotypes revealed high desired quantitative and qualitative traits, which assess to distribute these genotypes as new cultivars, and SSR technique was able to identify and revealed the genetic distance between the studied genotypes and commercial cultivars.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENT
      Volume-5, Issue-2, March-May 2016, page: 98-109
      PubDate: 2016-05-26
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2016)
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