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Journal Cover Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1994-2664 - ISSN (Online) 1994-2672
   Published by Nepal Journals Online Homepage  [70 journals]
  • Contractual Transaction: How Renting a Uterus Makes the Human Body a
           Commodity in Nepal

    • Authors: Madhusudan Subedi
      Pages: 1 - 25
      Abstract: The issue of surrogate motherhood has started public debates in Nepal. With surrogacy a child becomes the object of a legal transaction, while the surrogate mother is used, in effect as an incubator, and the hospital declares commissioned parents’ name of a newborn child. The poor women in low-income countries have been used as means to compensate for the reproductive deficiencies of high-income infertile parents. Do purchasing cheaper services, receiving surrogates easier, and having the possibility of gender selection, all in the poor countries, support ‘surrogacy tourism’ or is it a kind of exploitative relationship? Until today, Nepal’s laws do not have any specific provision to deal with surrogacy and, therefore, it is urgent to address the challenges with commercial surrogacy and establish a precise legal policy.
      PubDate: 2015-12-07
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2015)
       
  • Livelihood Change and Household Strategies: Social Displacement of the
           Upper Class in Dhading

    • Authors: Youba Raj Luintel
      Pages: 26 - 52
      Abstract: This article examines livelihoods transition among agrarian households in a cluster of villages adjacent to Kathmandu in a post-Neoliberal context. It specifically looks at the way these households respond to capitalist expansion in Nepal’s agrarian rural setting privileged to draw cash earnings. Looked at from the quest of longer term social change, this article identifies a great deal of similarity in household responses along class lines, and thus, concludes that household strategies broadly embrace class-specific behaviour. In identifying patterns of household response, this article also argues that class-differentiated analysis of household response can potentially illuminate social science understanding of the way capitalism penetrates into the countryside and brings social differentiation. Finally, this article demonstrates that social differentiation of agrarian households in rural Nepal is a mechanism of siphoning off of the rural surplus somewhere else (in this research context Kathmandu)–a mechanism widely attributed for an uneven development and underdevelopment of countryside Nepal. 
      PubDate: 2015-12-07
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2015)
       
  • Sandhyopaasan:The Hindu Ritual as a Foundation of Vedic Education

    • Authors: Rajendra Raj Timilsina
      Pages: 53 - 88
      Abstract: Yoga, meditation and Hasta Mudra Chikitsa (medication through the exercise or gesture of hands) known as spiritual activities in the past have been emerged as bases to maintain  one’s health, peace and tranquility. Some people follow yoga, some focus on meditation and others apply “Hasta Chikitsa” or “Mudra”. They are separate traditional exercises. They require to spend 10 to 30 minutes once or twice a day for their optional exercise/s. It is proved that such practice has productive effect in different health treatments. This paper has applied the methods of observation, interview and literature review as qualitative paradigm in exploring their original roots of Vedic Sandhyopaasan. Twice born castes (Brahman, Chhetri and Baishya) of Nepali Hindu society has been found practicing all components of the exercises as a unified ritual of Sandhyopaasan. Upanayan (Bratabandha) ritual teaches Sandhyopaasan procedures for self control and self healing of the performers. Brahman is not eligible as Brahman without doing the ritual daily. However, this study has found that some Dalits have also been practicing Sandhyopaasan daily and feeling relaxed. Findings of this study show that Sandhyopaasan is a compact package of yoga, meditations and Hasta Chikitsa. Students and gurus of Vedas have been regularly following the compact package for inner peace and self control. Root of yoga, meditation and “Mudra” is Sandhyopaasan and this is the base of Hindu education system. The paper analyzes the ritual through Hindu educational perspective.
      PubDate: 2015-12-07
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2015)
       
  • Representations of Death in a Changing World: An Anthropological Perusal
           of Death Rites of Gurungs in Nepal

    • Authors: Prakash Upadhyay
      Pages: 89 - 114
      Abstract: People have developed ceremonies and rituals to help make sense or celebrate an alteration in position, circumstance or relationship. However, over time some have become diluted or rejected for whom they are intended. In majority of cultures, the greatest effort is given to the death rite of passage– and yet paradoxically it is the one that is now most often distorted or lost. This study attempted to describe the multiple aspects of changes that are occurring in Gurung death rite. Gurungs are followers of ‘Bonism’ but they are under the profound influence of Tibetan Mahayani Lamaism. Gurung community is changing from Mechanical to Organic Solidarity in which the Mechanical Unity of their traditional culture is transforming to loosely united Organic Solidarity of body. Gurung death rites have been influenced by many rudiments--migration, urbanization and modernization due to which there has been the emergence of deformed usages and behaviors in death rite. Urbanization impact on death rite is closely linked to modernization and the sociological process of rationalization, a speedy and historic transformation of Gurung social roots whereby predominantly rural Gurung culture is being rapidly modified by urban ostentatious culture. However, there is very vital element of unity, cooperation, sympathy and we feeling among the Gurungs owing to death rite that has tied all Gurungs under a shared and endorsed bond. It has created a reciprocal relationship between the living and dead-- both depending upon each other. Death rituals have been a means of co-ordination creating solidarity through ‘Syaisyai’ which is a social institution for uniting the Gurungs. This bond between giver and gift, the act of giving creates a social bond in Gurung community with an obligation to reciprocate on part of the recipient.
      PubDate: 2015-12-07
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2015)
       
  • Human Ecological Analysis of the Life of Pi

    • Authors: Man Bahadur Khattri
      Pages: 115 - 127
      Abstract: In this article, I have discussed how can we analyze an adventurous and fantasy Novel like “Life of Pi” from human ecological perspective. Knowledge is generated and applied in diverse spatial and temporal contexts, which has varied implication to individuals, households, communities, and human kind as a whole. The implication confines not only to human being would be equally implicate to the surrounding of biotic and abiotic elements. The human ecological knowledge of “Life of Pi” is one of such case. The early life of Mr. Pi and his social educational background had great implication on his later academic life, thinking, acting and feeling as well as for livelihood. How diversity plays a great role in our perception and creates beautify of life around us? The difference between 'knowing how' and 'knowing that' is felt by people of different socio-economic background. Knowing how is more relevant in the context of practical or empirical knowledge. Knowing that is a formal informed knowledge with little connotation of empirical understanding. Combination of both types of knowledge is important in human ecological analysis. In this article I have tried to explore complex connectivity in relation with human being, diverse animal’s world, and landscape relation from human ecological perspective which can be vividly locate in the Novel.
      PubDate: 2015-12-07
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2015)
       
  • Process and Impact of Globalization in Nepalese Women

    • Authors: Manju Sharma
      Pages: 128 - 146
      Abstract: This paper explores the impact of globalization in Nepalese women. The changes on the women’s way of life due to globalization can be seen directly in the economy, media, IT sectors, various parts of society and ultimately in the culture. When the Nepalese women entered into the globalization process the Hindu norms and values of the society (where more than 82 percent are Hindu) has creolized with the global way of life. The women are becoming more self- reliant and empowered due to globalization but at the same time they are entering more risky markets to fulfill the desires that floated by the globalization. Similarly, globalization has offered various employment opportunities and exposure in international arena, but it also creates mental anxiety, depression and sexual abuse for those remaining in or outside the country. As there is very limited research and study on the impact of globalization in the Nepalese society, it is too early to conclude the impact of globalization as good or bad on Nepalese women.
      PubDate: 2015-12-07
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2015)
       
  • Visual Ethnography, Thick Description and Cultural Representation

    • Authors: Dipesh Kharel
      Pages: 147 - 160
      Abstract: The purposes of this paper are threefold: to cover historical, theoretical and methodological overview of visual ethnography (photography and film) as a research tool in studying culture; to examine visual ethnography as a means of cultural representation, and to discuss visual ethnographic method with Clifford Geertz’s idea of “thick description”. I hope to bring some clarity and consensus to our understanding how visual ethnography can be an adequate research tool for “thick description” and a study of culture. Furthermore, in this paper, I begin by seeing visual ethnography in the context to visual anthropology, photography, ethnographic film, and semiotics.
      PubDate: 2015-12-07
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2015)
       
  • Auto/ethnography: A Transformative Research Paradigm

    • Authors: Sadruddin Bahadur Qutoshi
      Pages: 161 - 190
      Abstract: This paper aims to address the key question, ‘How far autoethnography contributes towards enriching the field of transformative learning?’ Using my lived experiences as a teacher educator/autoethnographer/researcher and contextualizing self/others within a particular socio-pedagogical life courses I build the basis through addressing questions: Why auto/ethnography is one of the most suitable spaces for transformative researchers and to what extent it serves the agenda of envisioning a transformative teacher education. To achieve this objective I use autobiographies, stories, reflections and poems etc. as narratives with multiple logics and genres; pictography as art-based expression; and ethnography as methodological space within multiparadigmatic design space. In so doing autoethnographer has to delve into whole process of research along a continuum of self and beyond within a particular sociocultural context to understand the phenomena at deeper level of consciousness. This transformative paradigm holds a strong basis in the process of research as: re/reading, re/viewing, critically reflecting on self/others, re/writing for meaning making and developing a subjective understanding of phenomena under exploration. This process of research is found to be an innovative way of knowing through ‘interpreting and constructing (Luitel, 2009)within Interpretivism, critically thinking and reflecting within Criticalism, and adding both ‘pluralism and playfulness’ (Taylor, 2013) within Postmodernism. In so doing it raises awareness, develops consciousness and improves capacities constantly that ultimately alters our way of seeing and being in the world differently- a paradigm shift in self/others. It is found to be highly rigorous, dialectically eloquent, dialogically rigorous, critically reflective, consciously awakening, and innovative critical discourse that greatly contributes to transform researcher/s. Therefore, it seems illustrious for teacher educators/teachers to embrace this paradigm in order to foster their transformative learning so that to transform self/others.
      PubDate: 2015-12-07
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2015)
       
  • Ethnic Entrepreneurs and Political Mobilization: Exploring a Case of
           Tharu-Pahadi Conflict

    • Authors: Ishwari Bhattarai
      Pages: 191 - 208
      Abstract: Nepalese society today is witnessing an unprecedented sharpening of ethnic boundaries. In the last couple of decades or so, there have been growing instances of inter-ethnic conflict and clashes. The clash among the Tharus and Pahadi (Bahun-Chhetri) communities that took place in the month of May, 2012 in the Nawalparasi district is one such example. Borrowing the conceptual idea from Fredreick Barth (1995) who critically engages with the question of culture, ethnicity, and contemporary nature of ethnic mobilization, this paper seeks to explore how such conflicts are an epiphenomena of tactical moves carried out what he calls as ‘middle echelon politicians’. Through the qualitative data collected with the help of open-ended interviews and couple of other illustrations, this paper argues that, the contemporary character of ethnic mobilizations in some way or the other, are manipulated by ethnic entrepreneurs who politicize cultural differences, ethnic sentiments, and collective backwardness which often result in violent confrontations. Despite the Tharus being diverse and sharply divided in terms of political allegiance and electoral behavior, the leaders or activists use politics of cultural difference, and attempt to mitigate internal differences, to present a consolidated picture of ethnic unity. Through such actions ethnic leaders or activists selectively mobilize ethnic sentiments and symbols in order to motivate members of an ethnic group and also assume leadership position at both local and national levels.
      PubDate: 2015-12-07
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2015)
       
  • Equity, Inclusion and Conflict in Community Based Forest Management: A
           Case of Salghari Community Forest in Nepal

    • Authors: Sushant Acharya, Bishnu Raj Upreti
      Pages: 209 - 223
      Abstract: The equity and inclusion issues are widely observed in Community Based Forest Management (CBFM) and Community Forestry (CF) is not an exception. Community Forest User Groups (CFUGs) are portrayed as robust grassroots institutions for forest management and group governance. However, many contemporary researches have shown that CFUGs are still governed by some influential local elites who hardly practice equity and inclusion. In this context, objectives of this paper are: to explore how equity and inclusion issues lead CFUGs fall into internal conflicts; and to demonstrate how CFUGs are able to address such issues locally. The study was carried out in Salghari CFUG of Ratnechaur, Myagdi. Semi-structured interview and focused group discussion were key tools used for data collection. Livelihoods and Social Inclusion Framework and Equity Framework are used for data analysis. The findings of the research revealed that dalits and non-dalits of Salghari fall into internal conflict regarding the use of forest products. The conflict was then managed through amendments in CF provisions and change in CF leadership. This paper concludes that execution of equity and inclusion provisions in CF, secures access to assets for disadvantaged people from CBFM. However, this demands empowerment of these people and facilitating role of external agency.
      PubDate: 2015-12-07
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2015)
       
  • Nepal’s Free Health Care Policy in Practice: Perspectives from Community
           Stakeholders, Providers and Users of Health Services in Myagdi District

    • Authors: Shiva Subedi
      Pages: 224 - 236
      Abstract: Government of Nepal has introduced Free Health Care Policy (FHCP) through different tiers of health delivery system in 2007. With the objective of understanding the perspectives of community stakeholders, health service providers, and the services users towards free care policy, a qualitative-quantitative study was conducted in selected communities of Myagdi district from December 2010 to January 2011. Although the majority of user group thought that free care service is good but only two-third of them had received free care. Shortage of free essential drugs at health facility centers, absence of health workers   and lack of clear information about free services or counseling on free services available at health facility centers are the most repeated issues raised by the service users. Similarly, the service providers had similar experiences and perceptions on FHCP. The majority of the community stakeholders also had positive perception on this implemented policy. They have observed that many facilities had shortage of drugs and people are not having free health care. Many health facilities lacked interaction on FHCP, and service users did not have equitable access to the services provided. Overall, though the free care was perceived to be good policy, its satisfactory implementation remains one of the challenges. Many of the areas relating to service delivery need to be strengthened. A reliable supply system of drugs and its regular monitoring mechanism can ensure the effective implementation of free health care services.
      PubDate: 2015-12-07
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2015)
       
  • Inter-linkage between Hinterlands and Service Centers of Bima and Darbang
           VDCs in Myagdi District: A Rural Development Perspective

    • Authors: Beg Prasad Garbuja
      Pages: 237 - 255
      Abstract: This study focuses on exploring the status and contribution of inter- linkage relationship between service center and rural hinterland. The study was conducted in Bima and Darbang Village Development Committees (VDCs) of Myagdi district. This paper has used rural development perspective. The respondents were from 63 sample households including producers, consumers and service providers selected by using probability and non probability sampling methods. The primary data were collected through survey questionnaire, key informant interview, participant observation and focus group discussion whereas secondary data were generated from published and unpublished books, articles, journals, profile of VDCs and DDC. The study has revealed with various types of linkage between service center and rural hinterland i.e. service delivery, spatial or physical, administrative, economic, technological, financial and socio-cultural, educational and health service linkage. The study also highlighted productive role of remittance, international experience and adaptation of modern agriculture technology that has been positively affecting socio-economic life of the rural people. Further, joint efforts of public and private sectors’ and local stakeholders’ can be applied for developing and promoting service delivery opportunities and marketing facilities to the local people. The finding of the study has very strong implications to the local stakeholders for formulation of short run and long run local development plan in a similar situation.
      PubDate: 2015-12-07
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2015)
       
 
 
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