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Journal of Plant Breeding and Genetics
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 2308-121X - ISSN (Online) 2305-297X
     Published by eSci Journals Publishing Homepage  [8 journals]

    • Authors: Abdul Rasheed, Muhammad Rizwan, Jamshed I. Cheema, Shamsher H. Malik, Muhammad I. U. Haq, Shoaib Sohail
      Pages: 01 - 05
      Abstract: Five cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) varieties namely SLH-41, F-281, COKER-3113, LA-85-52-1 and H-88-8-J.69-j.70 were studied in diallel cross experiment to evaluate genetic effects for various plant traits. The characters under consideration were Ginning out-turn, staple length, fiber fineness and strength All the genotypes were found to significantly differ from each other for the above mentioned traits. Joint regression analysis proved the validity of the data of all characters for additive-dominance model suggested by Hayman (1954) and Jinks (1954). Staple length, fiber fineness and fiber strength were controlled by additive gene action with partial dominance while Ginning out-turn revealed over dominance type of gene action. The predominance of additive gene action involved in the phenotypic manifestation of the traits suggested selection as an accurate procedure for character improvement.
      PubDate: 2014-04-29
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2014)

    • Authors: Masanori Inagaki, Bilal Humeid, Sawsan Tawkaz, Ahmed Amri
      Pages: 07 - 14
      Abstract: A total of 400 accessions of Aegilops tauschii Coss. (goat grass) collected from western Asia and the Caucasus were screened for the productive tillering capacity under rain-fed field conditions with the aim of developing new, synthetic hexaploid wheats having enhanced drought adaptation. Of these, 23 Ae. tauschii accessions were selected for interspecific crossing with two durum wheat varieties ‘Belikh-2’ and ‘Jennah Khetifa’. Fifteen of the selected accessions were of Pakistani origin and exhibited early ear-emergence and low cross-compatibility, and five accessions were from Iran and Turkmenistan and exhibited high cross-compatibility. A wide variation among accessions in cross-compatibility might be related to their region of origin. Successful hybridization resulted in the formation of immature embryos, which are capable of regenerating to plants on culture medium. The Ae. tauschii accession ig 47219, of Turkmenistan origin, gave the highest frequency of embryos in crosses with both wheat varieties, but regeneration from the crosses with ‘Belikh-2’ failed due to the occurrence of hybrid necrosis. Thus, a high frequency of embryo production did not always result in the satisfactory development of hybrid plants. Treatment of the hybrid plants with colchicine was essential for the successful set of hexaploid seeds on the newly-synthesized plants. These constraints were discussed for the efficient development of new, synthetic hexaploid wheats.
      PubDate: 2014-04-29
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2014)

    • Authors: Benjamin M. Kivuva, Francis M. Musembi, Stephen M. Githiri, Craig G. Yencho, Julia Sibiya
      Pages: 15 - 29
      Abstract: Sweetpotato is one of the most important staple food crops with significant role for food security and also a potential commercial crop in many sub Saharan African countries. In Kenya, its production is hindered by numerous biotic, abiotic and social factors. A baseline survey study was conducted in central, eastern and western Kenya between September and December 2012, to determine the farmers’ preferences of sweetpotato varieties, production constraints and farmers’ coping strategies. A structured questionnaire was randomly administered to 345 farmers in five counties. Data on households demographics, sweetpotato varieties grown, sources of seed, cultural practices, and production constraints were collected and analysed using statistical package for social scientists (SPSS). Results indicated that 60% of the farmers interviewed were women and family sizes varied between 3-5 persons in 55% of the households. Farm sizes ranged 0.41-0.8 ha with 90% of sweetpotato being grown on 0.24 ha or less. The main food crops grown on the surveyed farms included maize, beans, sweetpotato, cassava, sorghum, and pigeon peas, while the main cash crops were; kale, banana, sugarcane, bean, maize, sweetpotato and groundnut. The average sweetpotato yield on the farms surveyed ranged from 5.5-7.4 t ha-1. The preferred sweetpotato varieties were Vitaa, Kembu 10, and Kabonde because they were orange fleshed with high beta carotene. Production constraints in the three regions were basically similar, with 35% of the farmers identifying weevils as the major pest, and sweetpotato virus disease (SPVD) as the major disease. Drought was identified by 28% of the farmers as a major production constraint. Farmers indicated the use of clean seed, high yielding varieties, high planting density, and manure application as some of the strategies they used to cope with the production constraints. To improve sweetpotato production in Kenya, these production constraints need to be addressed.
      PubDate: 2014-04-29
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2014)

    • Authors: Atakora K. Williams, Fosu Mathias, Safo E. Yeboah, Tuffour O. Henry, Tetteh M. Francis
      Pages: 31 - 43
      Abstract: Use of crop growth simulations models such as those incorporated into Decision Support System for Agro technology Transfer (DSSAT) are useful tools for assessing the impacts of crop productivity under various management systems. Maize growth model of DSSAT is Crop Environment Resource Synthesis (CERES) -Maize. To predict maize grain yield and biomass using CERES-maize under Guinea savanna agro ecological conditions with different weather scenarios, data on maize growth, yield and development as well as data on soil and weather was collected from field on-station experiment conducted during the 2010 growing season at Kpalesawgu, Tamale-Ghana. Twenty on-farm experiments were also conducted in the Tolon-Kunbungu and Tamale Metropolitan districts in Northern Ghana to determine the responsiveness of maize grain yield and biomass to soil, weather and crop genetic variations. The cultivar coefficient was however calibrated with data collected from the on-station field experiment at Kpalesawgu. The cultivar coefficient was however calibrated with data collected from the on-station field experiment at Kpalesawgu. Data on phenology, grain yield and biomass from the field experiment were used for model validation and simulations. Validation results showed good agreement between predicted and measured yields with a Normalized Random Square mean Error (NRSME) value of 0.181. Results of these sensitivity analysis results showed that the DSSAT model is highly sensitive to changes in weather variables such as daily maximum and minimum temperatures as well as solar radiation, however, the model was found to be least sensitive to rainfall.  The model also found to be sensitive to crop genetic and soil variations. Model predictions of the responsiveness of the yield and biomass to changes in soil, weather and crop genetic coefficients were found to be good with an r2 values between 0.95 to 0.99 except when predicting maize grain yield using changes in minimum temperature with an r2 value of 0.8577.
      PubDate: 2014-04-29
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2014)

    • Authors: Bao-Tai Guo, Bin Wang, Man-Li Weng, Li-Xian Qiao, Yan-Bin Feng, Li Wang, Peng-Yan Zhang, Xiu-Liang Wang, Jiong-Ming Sui, Tao Liu, De-Lin Duan, Bin Wang
      Pages: 45 - 55
      Abstract: The trehalose-6-phosphate synthase gene of Porphyra yezoensis (PyTPS) was isolated and cloned into a plant gene expression vector pCAMBIA2300-35S-OCS, and the resulting construct pCAMBIA2300-PyTPS was transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens ) strain AGL1. Genetic transformation of rice variety TP309 was performed with the A. tumefaciens containing pCAMBIA2300-PyTPS. After antibiotic G418 screening and PCR analysis, one hundred T0 transgenic plants were seclected and transplanted into the trial field in the greenhouse and used for further study. Ninety-five of these 100 T0 transgenic cultivaries produced their seeds, which were harvested and stored separately. All of the 95 potential T1 transgenic lines were re-identified by PCR analysis, and their salt-tolerance was tested with 3‰ and 5‰ NaCl solutions. Results indicated that 78 of the 95 T1 transgenic lines were PCR- positive and resistant to 5‰ NaCl solution. Salt-tolerance of these 78 T1 transgenic lines was further tested with higher concentration of NaCl solutions. Of which, three lines (H155, H191 and Y308) showed resistance to 8‰ NaCl in the test. These 3 lines were comprehensively analyzed by PCR, Southern hybridization, northern hybridization and RT-PCR analyses. In addition, trehalose content measurement and preliminary yield evaluation were carried out, results indicated that the PyTPS gene was integrated into the genomic DNA sequences of these 3 transgenic lines and expressed indeed in the transgenic plants. Detection of the transformed PyTPS gene in these 3 transgenic lines was performed in plants from T1 to T6 generations; results indicated that the transformed PyTPS gene was present in transgenic plants from T1 to T6 generations.
      PubDate: 2014-04-29
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2014)
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