Journal of Plant Breeding and Genetics
[10 followers] Follow
Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2308-121X - ISSN (Online) 2305-297X
Published by eSci Journals Publishing [8 journals]
- AGRO-MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION AND GENETIC STUDY OF NEW IMPROVED
LINES AND CULTIVARS OF CHICKPEA (CICER ARIETINUM L.)
Authors: Kaouthar Bayahi, Salah Rezgui
Pages: 59 - 65
Abstract: The genetic resources of chickpea (Cicer arietinum, L.) are threatened by the decreasing of its cultivation throughout the world, in most producing countries. So efforts are displayed to alleviate this situation by releasing new well adapted cultivars. The post-harvest data of new chickpea lines and their describing in the different states of agro-morphological development are important and useful in the characterization, evaluation and identification of best lines. This study deals with an agro-morphological characterization of a new genetic material composed of sixteen improved winter chickpea which were submitted to a describing with twenty five agro-morphological characters of UPOV’s chickpea descriptors (2005).The comparison of the eleven new inbreeding lines with the five witnesses varieties of the collection (Kasseb, Chetoui, Bouchra, Neyer and Beja1) showed that the characters of earliness, tallness and size of grain were improved for all the genetic material and especially for the new lines which were superior to the witnesses varieties (spring of high yield, tolerance to Ascochyta blight and tallness). The two lines 6 and 5 proved to be the best of the collection for most of all studied characters such as precocity, size of pods, size of grains, the duration of the cycle of maturation and in more for number of pods of two grains per plant, number of grains per plant and yield of grain. They have also tall plants, favoring them for a mechanized harvest. These results allow line 6 and line 5 to be selected as lines of the highest capacity of yield, growth and adaptability and can also be used in other genetic programs of improvement.
Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2016)
- COMBATING STRIGA WEED IN SORGHUM BY TRANSFERRING RESISTANCE QUANTITATIVE
TRAIT LOCI THROUGH MOLECULAR MARKER ASSISTED INTROGRESSION
Authors: Kahiu Ngugi, Abigail J. Ngugi, Sarah Osama, Charles Mugoya
Pages: 67 - 76
Abstract: Sorghum, the second most important cereal crop in Kenya is often attacked by Striga hermonthica weed with grain yields being reduced up to 100%. In the marginal and semi-arid areas, there is urgent need to enhance the genetic resistance to Striga hermonthica in local varieties. The aim of this study was to introgress Striga resistance from a documented resistant donor line N13, into Ochuti, a susceptible farmer preferred variety through molecular marker assisted selection (MAS). Two backcross populations namely, BC2F1 and BC3F1 were generated by crossing N13, the donor parent to Ochuti, the recurrent parent line and the resultant backcrossed Striga resistant progenies were subjected to phenotypic selection initially. At the BC3F1 stage, fore-ground selection for the Striga resistance Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) was conducted through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and N13 and Ochuti alleles sized through capillary electrophoresis. Eleven polymorphic markers identified at least three Striga resistance QTLs, in five plants of BC3F1//F2 generations. Eight progenies from BC2F1 and BC3F1 backcross populations were evaluated in field trials under artificial Striga inoculation in two locations and for two seasons. The backcrossed genotypes with Striga resistance allowed fewer Striga plants to germinate though in certain cases Ochuti genotypes performed equally the same. Marker assisted Selection (MAS) can successfully be utilized to transfer Striga resistance QTLs from a resistant donor source to a susceptible sorghum variety but the transfer should be complimented by field evaluation of the resistant progenies under artificial Striga infestation over several seasons, locations and replications.
Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2016)
- GENETIC ANALYSIS OF WEEVIL (COSMOPOLITES SORDIDUS) RESISTANCE IN AN F2
DIPLOID BANANA POPULATION
Authors: Ivan Kabiita Arinaitwe, Alex Barekye, Jerome Kubiriba, Kassim Sadik, Eldad Karamura, Richard Edema
Pages: 77 - 91
Abstract: The East African highland bananas (Musa spp. AAA), an important staple food in Uganda, are highly susceptible to the banana weevil (Cosmopolites sordidus Germar). Sources of host plant resistance to the banana weevil exist in wild diploid bananas. The use of wild diploid bananas to improve East African highland bananas can be facilitated by studying genetics of host plant resistance of inter-diploid crosses. The objectives of this study were a) to identify segregating weevil resistance and agronomic traits in an F2 diploid population, and, b) to determine the inheritance of banana weevil resistance and agronomic traits based on an F2 banana diploid population. An F1 population developed from Musa acuminata subsp. banksii acc. Kasaska (ITC0591) and M. acuminata subsp. microcarpa acc. Borneo (ITC0253) was selfed to generate an F2 diploid population. The F2 population was screened against weevil resistance and agronomic traits in the laboratory, pot and field experiments. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) among the different genotypes for banana weevil resistance traits such as head capsule width, body length, body weight, larval mortality, total damage, peripheral damage, dead weevils and larvae retrieved. There were also significant differences (P < 0.05) for agronomic traits such as inner corm hardness and total corm hardness. The histograms for the banana weevil resistance traits such as head capsule width, body length, body weight and larval mortality, total damage, peripheral damage, cross sectional inner and outer damage, larvae retrieved and dead weevils showed continuous distribution. Similarly, histograms for agronomic parameters such as height of plant at flowering and girth at 1 meter at flowering showed continuous distribution. The Chi-square test of goodness of fit indicated that weevil growth and damage parameters had significant modifications of the expected 9:3:3:1 ratio for two independent loci, thus suggesting epistasis affects their inheritance.
Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2016)