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Journal Cover Ethnobiology and Conservation
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2238-4782 - ISSN (Online) 2238-4782
   Published by Universidade Estadual da Paraíba Homepage  [2 journals]
  • Theories of Niche Construction and Optimal Foraging: weaknesses and
           virtues in understanding the early stages of domestication

    • Authors: Ernani Machado de Freitas Lins Neto, Ulysses Albuquerque
      Abstract: The transition from hunter-gatherer condition to the development of agricultural practices has provided one of the greatest technological advances of humanity. In view of the importance of this phenomenon and still persistent gaps, theoretical models emerge to elucidate issues related to the beginning of the domestication of animals and plants, a crucial moment for understanding socioecological and evolutionary factors that are determinant for environmental manipulation. Two theoretical models are relevant in this discussion: theories of optimal foraging and niche construction. In this sense, this mini-review highlights the debate of these two perspectives on the beginning of domestication highlighting weaknesses and virtues of each proposal.
      PubDate: 2018-04-11
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2018)
  • Ethnomedical Remedies among Slavic Speaking People in South Kosovo

    • Authors: Avni Hajdari, Andrea Pieroni, Mamta Jhaveri, Behxhet Mustafa, Cassandra Quave
      Abstract: Local natural resources play an important role in securing human health in the Balkans, particularly as a source of food and medicine. The aims of this study were to document the ethnomedical practices of Slavic speaking groups in South Kosovo and to compare these findings to other studies conducted in the Western Balkans. Field research was conducted over a series of trips in 2014. Semi-structured interviews in which respondents were asked to list local taxa used for food and/or medicine were conducted in six communities located in the municipalities of Prizren and Dragash. Prior informed consent was obtained and 91 people were interviewed. Voucher specimens of cited wild flora and fungi were collected and deposited in duplicate at the herbaria of the University of Prishtina (Kosovo) and Emory University (USA). A total of 1,050 use citations were recorded for the various uses of 119 species (4 fungi and 115 plants) for food and/or medicine. Additionally, the ethnomedical uses of 27 ingredients of animal, mineral or industrial origin were also documented. The greatest number of citations were for dermatological and food uses of local plants. The most common families reported were Rosaceae (18 species cited), Lamiaceae (16) and Asteraceae (10). Informant consensus regarding category of use was highest (Fic ≥ 0.85) for the categories of oral health, dermatological, and otolaryngological applications. Both wild and locally cultivated plants continue to play an important role among various ethnic groups in South Kosovo, with 389 distinct applications documented in this study alone. 
      PubDate: 2018-03-02
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2018)
  • Comparison of medicinal plant knowledge between rural and urban people
           living in the Biosphere Reserve “Bioma Pampa­Quebradas del Norte”,
           Uruguay: an opportunity for biocultural conservation

    • Authors: Elena Castiñeira Latorre, Andrés Canavero, María Lelia Pochettino
      Abstract: The Biosphere Reserve, UNESCO, “Bioma Pampa­Quebradas del Norte”, Rivera Department is an important reservoir of biocultural diversity of Uruguay. With the objective of contributing to its recognition and valuation, we describe the diversity of medicinal plants used by local communities in rural or urban settlements at the Reserve, from a quali­quantitative ethnobotanical approach. We estimated and compared species richness of alien and native medicinal plants mentioned by the 13 urban and 31 rural people in semi­structured interviews selected by snowball sampling. We found that the diversity of medicinal plants comparing urban and rural areas did not present significant differences. However, rural areas report more native species as consequence of a higher environmental offer of medicinal plants and the prevalence of cultural elements of native peoples; in contrast, the construction of homegardens within a pluricultural context in urban areas promotes the incorporation of alien species in the local herbalist. Finally, we emphasize the possibility of integrating the official medicinal system with the traditional medicinal systems based in plants, contributing to the programs of conservation of biocultural heritage and primary health care as posed by the World Health Organization in its Traditional Medicine Strategy 2014­2023.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2018)
  • Soil seed bank and its importance in the natural regeneration of degraded

    • Authors: Danielle Melo dos Santos, Kleber Andrade da Silva, Josiene Maria Falcão Fraga dos Santos, Elcida de Lima Araújo
      Abstract: As florestas tropicais secas sofreram uma grande degradação por atividades antrópicas, e muitas foram convertidas em pastagens ou áreas agrícolas. Conseqüentemente, as características do banco de sementes do solo dessas áreas foram modificadas, e é necessário uma melhor compreensão das implicações para a regeneração natural das florestas. Nesta revisão, o objetivo foi reunir o conhecimento atual sobre a influência das práticas humanas sobre o banco de sementes de solo restante dos ambientes secos, para destacar as implicações da resiliência e da dinâmica da floresta. Realizou-se levantamento bibliográfico, das seguintes palavras-chave: banco de sementes, floresta semi-árida e seca. Em resumo, estudos mostram que o banco de sementes do solo é fortemente afetado por ações antropogênicas. Em geral, o banco de solo de áreas agro-pastorais sofre perda de espécies, E tem uma menor quantidade de sementes quando comparada com áreas não perturbadas pela ação antrópica. Portanto, entender a dinâmica espaço-temporal do banco de sementes na terra pós-uso é essencial para propor estratégias para o manejo sustentável e conservação da vegetação, especialmente considerando o cenário preditivo de mudança climática que deve aumentar a gravidade das secas e, talvez, Naturalmente, reduza o montante da semente que anualmente reabastece o estoque de sementes do solo.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2018)
  • A theoretical review on the origin of medicinal practices in humans:
           echoes from evolution

    • Authors: Washington Soares Ferreira Júnior, Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque
      Abstract: Humans have been coping with diseases throughout the evolutionary history. The emergence of medical systems, which integrate knowledge and practices related to health management, can be assumed as one of the reactions of the human species to respond to the pressures of diseases. An intriguing question is related to the understanding of how these systems have emerged in our species. To answer this question, some authors created scenarios to explain the origin of these systems, from an ecological and evolutionary logic. In this article, we briefly introduce some of the key ideas linked to these scenarios and how they may be important in guiding ethnobiology research.
      PubDate: 2018-02-27
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2018)
  • What role do wild animals (fish and wildmeat) play in the food security of
           urban teenagers living in poverty and conflict - the case of Quibdó,

    • Authors: Nathalie van Vliet, Björn Schulte-Herbruggen, Liliana Vanegas, Eric Yair Cuesta, François Sandrin, Robert Nasi
      Abstract: Many urban areas located at the forest edge maintain a high connection to the forest, either because forests provide resources and services that act as safety nets for the poor or because they represent a cultural link to traditional lifestyles. In urban areas located in forest landscapes, access to food markets is limited, particularly in regions where armed conflict has resulted in decreased agricultural and livestock production and poor or unsafe communication means for the transportation of goods. In this study, we assess the nutritional status of teenagers living in Quibdó, a forest town that lies at the centre of Colombia’s long history of political conflicts, and analyse the role that wild animals (wild fish and wildmeat) play for their food security. While our analysis clearly shows that wild animals significantly contribute to dietary diversity, food and nutrition insecurity prevail among teenagers, especially among the poorest families. Our results suggest that post-conflict policies should explicitly promote integrated approaches to reduce food insecurity and value biodiversity for it’s in reducing malnutrition.
      PubDate: 2017-12-19
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2017)
  • Management of Pindo palm Syagrus romanzoffiana (Cham.) Glassman,
           (Arecaceae) to produce Coleoptera edible larvae among the Guaraníes of
           northeastern Argentina

    • Authors: Jorge Justino Araujo, Héctor Alejandro Keller, Norma I. Hilgert
      Abstract: One of the most important uses of palm trees among Amerindian groups is as a food source as coleopteran larvae are reared on their stems. Guaraní groups settled in the province of Misiones, in northeastern Argentina, consume three species of Curculionidae larvae (Metamasius hemipterus, Rhynchophorus palmarum and Rhinostomus barbirostris), which are bred in the stipes of Syagrus romanzoffiana palm. This work deals with the management of the different ontogenetic stages of this palm to promote the development of the three edible larvae species. Field observation suggests a great knowledge of these insects ecology and of the differential characteristics of the palm tree wood anatomical structure throughout its ontogenetic development. This constitutes the first record of the use of Metamasius hemipterus as food for the Mbya.
      PubDate: 2017-12-08
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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