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Journal Cover   Ethnobiology and Conservation
  [2 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2238-4782 - ISSN (Online) 2238-4782
   Published by Universidade Estadual da ParaĆ­ba Homepage  [2 journals]
  • Medicinal plants with cholesterol-lowering effect marketed in the Buenos
           Aires-La Plata conurbation, Argentina: An Urban Ethnobotany study

    • Abstract: This contribution presents 82 species of medicinal plants whose products are sold and consumed as cholesterol-lowering in the Buenos Aires-La Plata conurbation, Argentina. The hypocholesterolemic effect is relevant because the high level of blood cholesterol is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, leading causes of death and disability almost worldwide. The species were selected from their locally assigned use, obtained from interviews with informants, data labels, prospectus and leaflets of products, and information diffused in the media, specially the Internet. Furthermore, a bibliographic review on scientific studies that validate the biological activity and effects of each species was accomplished. The theoretical framework of this research argues that urban botanical knowledge comprising some knowledge linked to traditions of various immigrants segments (invisible to most of the local population), and other non-traditional knowledge (visible). The evaluation of these kinds of knowledge is approached from the plant products circulation in the restricted circuits of immigrants (Bolivian and Chinese for this contribution) and the general commercial circuit, so that products that pass from the first circuit to the second gain visibility. The movement of plant products that acquire visibility also expressed the botanical knowledge transmission from one context to another, a transmission enhanced and accelerated by the media. In this frame, the visibility levels of plant products considered hypocholesterolemic in the study area are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-11-18
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • From fish and bushmeat to chicken nuggets: the nutrition transition in a
           continuum from rural to urban settings in the Tri frontier Amazon region

    • Abstract: The current contribution of wild animal proteins has been poorly quantified, particularly in the rapidly growing urban centers of tropical forests. Lack of such evidence impairs food security strategies to include the diversity of food supply inherent to traditional food systems. In this study we focus on wild sources of animal protein: wild fish and bushmeat, which have traditionally been important in people’s diets in the Amazon. We analyze their consumption frequencies as compared to domestic and processed meat in a rural to urban gradient in Amazonas, Colombia. Our results show that, despite its geographical position, the region is increasingly dependent on domestic and industrialized sources of animal protein. The frequency of wild fish and bushmeat consumption decreases from rural to urban areas to the advantage of domestic and processed meat/fish. Patterns of animal protein consumption for indigenous children indicate that indigenous families adopt non-indigenous consumption patterns when they move to town. Bushmeat consumption in urban areas is more frequent in wealthier families and could be considered as a luxury product. In urban areas, chicken is the protein of the poor and beef replaces chicken for the families that can afford it. In rural settings, chicken replaces wild sources of animal protein as people increase their income and move away from forest/agriculture dependent livelihoods. The increased consumption of industrial chicken in rural communities poses important food security and ecologic concerns. Despite, the low importance of bushmeat and wild fish in urban areas measured in terms of consumption, we show that these foods continue to play an important role in terms of dietary diversity, which is fundamental to eradicate energy and micronutrient deficiencies. In conclusion our results call for a better attention to the changes observed in diets in the Amazon, given their potential health and nutrition consequences.    
      PubDate: 2015-07-29
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • Reports of the use of Urticaceae collected in Brazil and deposited in the
           herbaria of Kew (K), New York (NY) and Paris (P)

    • Abstract: The purpose of this study was to use a historical series of exsiccates as a documentary source, aiming to retrieving information on species of Urticaceae Juss. The study approached the collections of exsiccates belonging to herbaria of the Royal Botanic Gardens (K), Kew, England; Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle (P), Paris, France; and New York Botanical Garden (NY), New York, USA, also printed sources and manuscripts. We analyzed more than 2800 exsiccates, comprising the period between 1783 and 2003. From the information labels of the exsiccates, it was possible to obtain the use and common name of the Urticaceae species. A total of thirteen species with register of use were find in the labels, six genera of Urticaceae: five species of Pourouma Aubl., three of Cecropia Loefl., two of Urera Gaudich., one of Boehmeria Jacq., one of Coussapoa Aubl., one of Laportea Gaudich. Five categories of usage were identify: (1) animal feeding; (2) human feeding; (3) medicinal; (4) fiber and (5) fuel. The analysis of the labels registers pointed to be efficient to raise information related to Urticaceae species, and combined to the research of printed sources and manuscripts provide more details to the data. Furthermore, adding information to the review of the collections history in Brazil. It is necessary to establish initiatives which facilitate the access to documents associated to exsiccates, like the manuscripts of collectors, for continuing the advances in the retrieval of knowledge registered.
      PubDate: 2015-06-11
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • A Pluralistic Approach to Protected Area Governance: Indigenous Peoples
           and Makuira National Park, Colombia

    • Authors: Julia Margareta Premauer, Fikret Berkes
      Abstract: Based on a study of collaborative governance (Spanish cogobierno, literally co-government) in Makuira National Park overlapping with an Indigenous collective territory of the Wayúu people recognised by the Government of Colombia, we analyse how Indigenous rights and conservation interests are negotiated between the national parks authority and local Indigenous governing authorities. Recognised common interests provide a basis for collaboration in protected area governance even where conflicting interests exist. The arrangements arrived at by negotiation incorporate Indigenous commons governance and parks conservation objectives, enabling territorial use planning which allows for both conflict management and protected area management. Ongoing collaborative governance based on common interests, brings both benefits and tradeoffs. The Wayúu give up part of their self-determination rights and the Park gives up part of the ideals of ecosystem conservation based on biological criteria. The strategic alliance works because it is based on the recognition of the legitimacy of Indigenous governing authority, the Parks’ role in protecting Wayúu territory, and the complementary strengths of the two parties. The core message of the case is that designing an inclusive and broad practice of conservation requires an approach involving processes that acknowledge common interests and tradeoffs for both parties.
      PubDate: 2015-06-11
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • Chemistry and pharmacology of some plants mentioned in the letter of Pero
           Vaz de Caminha

    • Authors: Lucio Ferreira Alves, Lin Chau Ming
      Abstract: Brazil has a long tradition in the study of medicinal plants. When the Portuguese arrived to the new colony, Pero Vaz de Caminha, the scriber of the fleet, left the first impressions of the local and the inhabitants. He clearly mentions how the Indians use natural dye as tincture to paint their bodies. This article reviews the phytochemical and pharmacological characteristics of these colorants and other medicinal plants recently identified mentioned in this letter.
      PubDate: 2015-02-05
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • Evaluation of Mammals Hunting in Indigenous and Rural Localities in
           Eastern Brazilian Amazon

    • Authors: Geison Pires Mesquita, Larissa Nascimento Barreto
      Abstract: Hunting is responsible for the decline of more than half of all mammal species from Brazil; however, very few studies relating to hunting exist for the Eastern region of the Amazon. Medium- and large-sized mammals are valued for their protein and are thus more affected by hunting activity. Published studies on hunting in the region were quantitatively analyzed and used to determine the biomass and extraction rates of species and groups of species, considering the characteristics of each group, as well as the differences and similarities in composition in each type of game in the locality. A total of 32 species from eight orders and 17 families were hunted, totaling 32,726,990 kilograms of game meat. A positive correlation was found between biomass, the number of animals slaughtered and the number of species. Ungulates were the most hunted group, from which the most biomass was obtained. Concerning food preferences, frugivores represented the highest number of species hunted and also the highest biomass, and a positive correlation existed between the extraction rate and ungulate biomass. There was no significant difference between the diversity of mammals of different indigenous and rural localities; however, from a multidimensional analysis of the localities, A’Ukre and Alto Turiaçu were more similar to each other, and were more distant from the other groups. Knowledge concerning which species and groups and how many animals are hunted in each locality is necessary to direct conservation management plans and increase their efficiency within localities.
      PubDate: 2015-01-29
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
  • Ethnozoology: A Brief Introduction

    • Abstract: Connections between animals and humans date back thousands of years, and cultures all over the world have developed characteristic ways of interacting with the regional fauna over time. Human communities have accumulated a huge store of knowledge about animals through the centuries (passed from generation to generation, largely through oral traditions) that is closely integrated with many other cultural aspects, and this zoological knowledge is an important part of our human cultural heritage. The variety of interactions (both past and present) that human cultures maintain with animals is the subject matter of Ethnozoology, a discipline that has its roots as deep within the past as the first relationships between humans and other animals. Within this context, ethnozoology can be viewed as a discipline that examines the historical, economic, sociological, anthropological and environmental aspects of the relationships between humans and animals. These studies can aid in the evaluation of the impacts human populations have on native animal species and in the development of sustainable management plans - and are thus fundamental to conservation efforts. Additionally, popular knowledge about the regional fauna can be important to academic research projects and offers the possibility of significant savings in comparison to the costs involved with conventional methodologies. The present work gives a brief introduction to Ethnozoology, focusing its importance, historic aspects and current trends.
      PubDate: 2015-01-29
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
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Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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