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Journal Cover Ethnobiology and Conservation
  [2 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2238-4782 - ISSN (Online) 2238-4782
   Published by Universidade Estadual da ParaĆ­ba Homepage  [2 journals]
  • Are the evolutionary implications of vertical transmission of knowledge
           conservative'

    • Authors: Gustavo Taboada Soldati, Ulysses Paulino Albuquerque
      Abstract: The evolution of cultural systems, or the rate of change in the frequency of traits, is determined by the routes of knowledge transmission, among other factors. According to mathematical models, vertical transmission is the more conservative route, and it promotes high variation among individuals of a population, acts as a barrier to the diffusion of innovations, and promotes slow cultural evolution. However, the history of transmission of the same cultural traits beyond "model-apprentice" pairs indicates that vertical transmission can produce different effects on a cultural system. In the present paper we formalize the hypothesis that vertical transmission has diffusive effects and results in a fast change cultural evolution. If the hypothesis proposed here is confirmed, the theoretical reformulation and relativization of empirical data collected in previous studies will be required.
      PubDate: 2016-06-28
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Hunting management: the need to adjust predictive models to field
           observations

    • Authors: Francois Renoux, Benoit de thoisy
      Abstract: Wild meat is a major protein supply for numerous traditional communities worldwide, but impacts ecological processes and consequently challenges the relevance and suitability of adequate monitoring of the sustainability of harvests. In this study we discuss the classic models of theoretical “maximum sustainable offtake” and propose new considerations on sustainable harvest thresholds. The study focuses on French Guiana, northern Amazonia, on four sites harvested by three communities (Amerindian, Creole, and Hmong), mainly for subsistence purposes. We explored how factors related to the number of hunters, the harvested areas, and the surface area hunted, and measured how fauna abundance generates uncertainties on models and increases the errors on sustainable thresholds. Biased or incomplete ethnologic surveys, as well as local and temporal variations in game species density could lead to considerable underestimation of harvests. We proposed a set of corrections that, once applied to theinput variables of the offtake model, could limit the risk of erroneous assessment of sustainability thresholds.
      PubDate: 2016-06-28
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
  • Healing faith: knowledge, learning and social relationships of healers
           from Araripe plateau, Brazil

    • Authors: Sofia Zank, Natalia Hanazaki
      Abstract: We investigated the practice of healing in three rural communities in Brazil (Ceará) to understand the diseases that are treated, the plants known and used, the ways in which knowledge of the blessing practices and medicinal plants is gained, and the relationships among the healers. We interviewed 41 healers, who treat approximately 20 diseases with blessings and know several species of medicinal plants. Six plants are most often associated with blessing. The transmission of knowledge occurs mainly through people who have kinship. The popularity of a healer was not influenced by the number of therapeutic plants known or the number of diseases treated through blessing. In two communities, the best-known healers are also the most sought after by other healers for the exchange of information and blessings. The results of this study can assist in the establishment of public actions aimed at the enhancement and the recognition of blessing practices.
      PubDate: 2016-06-28
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2016)
       
 
 
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