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Lubricants    Follow    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Online) 2075-4442
     Published by MDPI Homepage  [119 journals]
  • Lubricants, Vol. 1, Pages 75-94: On the Interactions of Additives in
           Metalworking Fluids with Metal Surfaces
    • Authors: Joachim Schulz, Ekkard Brinksmeier, Daniel Meyer
      Pages: 75 - 94
      Abstract: Metalworking fluids (MWF) play a significant role in manufacturing processes, such as machining or forming. Consequently, a high number of MWF with varying chemical composition are commercially available. However, the working mechanisms of the MWF are still object of discussion in science and application. This paper addresses the possible interactions of additives with metal surfaces taking the characteristic conditions in machining and forming processes as well as the chemical properties of the surface and the additives into account. The new model for possible interaction of additives with the metal surface is considered and supported by experimental data. This new model does not imply reaction layers as tribological active layer anymore.
      PubDate: 2013-11-15
      DOI: 10.3390/lubricants1040075
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 4 (2013)
  • Lubricants, Vol. 1, Pages 95-101: Nanomaterials in Lubricants: An
           Industrial Perspective on Current Research
    • Authors: Boris Zhmud, Bogdan Pasalskiy
      Pages: 95 - 101
      Abstract: This paper presents an overview on the use of various classes of nanomaterials in lubricant formulations. The following classes of nanomaterials are considered: fullerenes, nanodiamonds, ultradispersed boric acid and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). Current advances in using nanomaterials in engine oils, industrial lubricants and greases are discussed. Results of numerous studies combined with formulation experience of the authors strongly suggest that nanomaterials do indeed have potential for enhancing certain lubricant properties, yet there is a long way to go before balanced formulations are developed.
      PubDate: 2013-11-20
      DOI: 10.3390/lubricants1040095
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 4 (2013)
  • Lubricants, Vol. 1, Pages 102-131: Experimental Investigations of
           Biological Lubrication at the Nanoscale: The Cases of Synovial Joints and
           the Oral Cavity
    • Authors: Javier Sotres, Thomas Arnebrant
      Pages: 102 - 131
      Abstract: Interactions between surfaces are ubiquitous phenomena in living organisms. Nature has developed sophisticated strategies for lubricating these systems, increasing their efficiency and life span. This includes the use of water-based lubricants, such as saliva and synovial fluid. These fluids overcome the limitations of water as a lubricant by the presence of molecules such as proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides. Such molecules may alter surface interactions through different mechanisms. They can increase viscosity enabling fluid-film lubrication. Moreover, molecules adsorb on the surfaces providing mechanisms for boundary lubrication and preventing wear. The mentioned molecules have typical sizes in the nanometer range. Their interaction, as well as the interaction with the entrapping surfaces, takes place through forces in the range of nanonewtons. It is therefore not surprising that the investigation of these systems have been boosted by development of techniques such as scanning probe microscopies and the surface force apparatus which allow studying tribological processes at the nanoscale. Indeed, these approaches have generated an enormous amount of studies over the last years. The aim of this review is to perform a critical analysis of the current stage of this research, with a main focus on studies on synovial joints and the oral cavity.
      PubDate: 2013-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/lubricants1040102
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 4 (2013)
  • Lubricants, Vol. 1, Pages 132-148: Phosphate Esters, Thiophosphate Esters
           and Metal Thiophosphates as Lubricant Additives
    • Authors: David Johnson, John Hils
      Pages: 132 - 148
      Abstract: Phosphate esters, thiophosphate esters and metal thiophosphates have been used as lubricant additives for over 50 years. While their use has been extensive, a detailed knowledge of how they work has been a much more recent development. In this paper, the use of phosphate esters and thiophosphate esters as anti-wear or extreme pressure additives is reviewed with an emphasis on their mechanism of action. The review includes the use of alkyl phosphates, triaryl phosphates and metal containing thiophosphate esters. The mechanisms of these materials interacting with a range of iron and steel based bearing material are examined.
      PubDate: 2013-12-18
      DOI: 10.3390/lubricants1040132
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 4 (2013)
  • Lubricants, Vol. 1, Pages 61-74: Employing Acoustic Emission for
           Monitoring Oil Film Regimes
    • Authors: Mhmod Hamel, Abdulmajid Addali, David Mba
      Pages: 61 - 74
      Abstract: The major purpose of a gear lubricant is to provide adequate oil film thickness to reduce and prevent gear tooth surface failures. Real time monitoring for gear failures is important in order to predict and prevent unexpected failures which would have a negative impact on the efficiency, performance and safety of the gearbox. This paper presents experimental results on the influence of specific oil film thickness on Acoustic Emission (AE) activity for operational helical gears. Variation in film thickness during operations was achieved by spraying liquid nitrogen onto the rotating gear wheel. The experimental results demonstrated a clear relationship between the root mean square (r.m.s) value of the AE signal and the specific film thickness. The findings demonstrate the potential of Acoustic Emission technology to quantify lubrication regimes on operational gears.
      PubDate: 2013-07-03
      DOI: 10.3390/lubricants1030061
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 3 (2013)
  • Lubricants, Vol. 1, Pages 22-47: Nanotribological Behavior of Carbon Based
           Thin Films: Friction and Lubricity Mechanisms at the Nanoscale
    • Authors: Costas Charitidis, Elias Koumoulos, Dimitrios Dragatogiannis
      Pages: 22 - 47
      Abstract: The use of materials with very attractive friction and wear properties has raised much attention in research and industrial sectors. A wide range of tribological applications, including rolling and sliding bearings, machining, mechanical seals, biomedical implants and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), require thin films with high mechanical strength, chemical inertness, broad optical transparency, high refractive index, wide bandgap excellent thermal conductivity and extremely low thermal expansion. Carbon based thin films like diamond, diamond-like carbon, carbon nitride and cubic boron nitride known as “super-hard” material have been studied thoroughly as the ideal candidate for tribological applications. In this study, the results of experimental and simulation works on the nanotribological behavior of carbon films and fundamental mechanisms of friction and lubricity at the nano-scale are reviewed. The study is focused on the nanomechanical properties and analysis of the nanoscratching processes at low loads to obtain quantitative analysis, the comparison obtain quantitative analysis, the comparison of their elastic/plastic deformation response, and nanotribological behavior of the a-C, ta-C, a-C:H, CNx, and a-C:M films. For ta-C and a-C:M films new data are presented and discussed.
      PubDate: 2013-04-02
      DOI: 10.3390/lubricants1020022
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 2 (2013)
  • Lubricants, Vol. 1, Pages 48-60: Interaction between Lubricants Containing
           Phosphate Ester Additives and Stainless Steels
    • Authors: David Johnson, Matthew Bachus, John Hils
      Pages: 48 - 60
      Abstract: One way to improve fuel efficiency in today’s jet aircraft engines is to create an environment for higher operating temperatures and speeds. New and improved lubricants and bearing materials must be developed to remain stable in these elevated operating temperatures. Three lubricants, with varying amounts of tricresyl phosphate added as an anti-wear/extreme pressure additive were tested on two different stainless steels at varying temperatures ranging from 300 °C to 350 °C in vacuum. Significant decomposition of the lubricant base-stocks and the phosphate ester additive did occur in most of the trials resulting in the formation of carboxylic acids and phenols. In these cases a film containing phosphorus was deposited onto the stainless steel substrate.
      PubDate: 2013-05-17
      DOI: 10.3390/lubricants1020048
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 2 (2013)
  • Lubricants, Vol. 1, Pages 3-21: A Review of Ionic Liquid Lubricants
    • Authors: Anthony Somers, Patrick Howlett, Douglas MacFarlane, Maria Forsyth
      Pages: 3 - 21
      Abstract: Due to ever increasing demands on lubricants, such as increased service intervals, reduced volumes and reduced emissions, there is a need to develop new lubricants and improved wear additives. Ionic liquids (ILs) are room temperature molten salts that have recently been shown to offer many advantages in this area. The application of ILs as lubricants in a diverse range of systems has found that these materials can show remarkable protection against wear and significantly reduce friction in the neat state. Recently, some researchers have shown that a small family of ILs can also be incorporated into non-polar base oils, replacing traditional anti-wear additives, with excellent performance of the neat IL being maintained. ILs consist of large asymmetrical ions that may readily adsorb onto a metal surface and produce a thin, protective film under boundary lubrication conditions. Under extreme pressure conditions, certain IL compounds can also react to form a protective tribofilm, in particular when fluorine, phosphorus or boron atoms are present in the constituent ions.
      PubDate: 2013-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/lubricants1010003
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2013)
  • Lubricants, Vol. 1, Pages 1-2: Welcome to Lubricants, a New Open Access
           Journal for Interdisciplinary Research in the Field of Tribology
    • Authors: James E. Krzanowski
      Pages: 1 - 2
      Abstract: Welcome to Lubricants, a new open access journal for researchers and practitioners working in the field of tribology. The journal will publish peer-reviewed research papers, reviews, letters and communications, as well as papers on research ideas and proposals. The concept of open access is exciting because it allows free access of all publications to anyone, resulting in the widest dissemination possible for the authors publishing in the journal. In addition, publication is rapid, and full use can be made of color figures which are published at no additional cost to the authors. The contents of the journal will nonetheless be archival and articles can therefore have a long-term impact. [...]
      PubDate: 2012-07-02
      DOI: 10.3390/lubricants1010001
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2012)
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