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  Journal of Developmental Biology
  [3 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2221-3759
   Published by MDPI Homepage  [140 journals]
  • JDB, Vol. 3, Pages 25-56: Retinoic Acid and the Development of the

    • Authors: Gregory Kelly, Thomas Drysdale
      Pages: 25 - 56
      Abstract: Retinoic acid (RA) is an important signaling molecule in the development of the endoderm and an important molecule in protocols used to generate endodermal cell types from stem cells. In this review, we describe the RA signaling pathway and its role in the patterning and specification of the extra embryonic endoderm and different endodermal organs. The formation of endoderm is an ancient evolutionary feature and RA signaling appears to have coevolved with the vertebrate lineage. Towards that end, we describe how RA participates in many regulatory networks required for the formation of extraembryonic structures as well as the organs of the embryo proper.
      PubDate: 2015-04-20
      DOI: 10.3390/jdb3020025
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
  • JDB, Vol. 3, Pages 57-70: Roles of Antioxidative Enzymes in Wound Healing

    • Authors: Toshihiro Kurahashi, Junichi Fujii
      Pages: 57 - 70
      Abstract: Since skin is the first barrier separating the body from the external environment, impaired wound healing can be life threatening to living organisms. Delayed healing processes are observed in animals under certain circumstances, such as advanced age, diabetes, and immunosuppression, but the underlying mechanisms of the abnormality remain elusive. Redox homeostasis is defined as the balance between the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants in which antioxidative enzymes play central roles in scavenging ROS. In addition to deleterious effects, ROS also exert beneficial functions on some cellular processes such as transducing phosphorylation signaling, but excessive antioxidants may impede the healing process. Hence, strict control over the amounts of antioxidants is desirable when applied for therapeutic purposes. Here we overview recent findings regarding the relationships between antioxidative enzymes and wound healing. Unveiling the role of antioxidative enzymes is expected to contribute to our understanding of the wound healing processes.
      PubDate: 2015-04-27
      DOI: 10.3390/jdb3020057
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
  • JDB, Vol. 3, Pages 71-89: Regeneration of the Epiphysis Including the
           Articular Cartilage in the Injured Knees of the Lizard Podarcis muralis

    • Authors: Lorenzo Alibardi
      Pages: 71 - 89
      Abstract: Cartilage regeneration is massive during tail regeneration in lizards but little is known about cartilage regeneration in other body regions of the skeleton. The recovery capability of injured epiphyses of femur and tibia of lizard knees has been studied by histology and 5BrdU immunohistochemistry in lizards kept at high environmental temperatures. Lizard epiphyses contain a secondary ossified center of variable extension surrounded peripherally by an articular cartilage and basally by columns of chondrocytes that form the mataphyseal or growth plate. After injury of the knee epiphyses, a broad degeneration of the articular cartilage during the first days post-injury is present. However a rapid regeneration of cartilaginous tissue is observed from 7 to 14 days post-injury and by 21 days post-lesions, a large part of the epiphyses are reformed by new cartilage. Labeling with 5BrdU indicates that the proliferating cells are derived from both the surface of the articular cartilage and from the metaphyseal plate, two chondrogenic regions that appear proliferating also in normal, uninjured knees. Chondroblasts proliferate by interstitial multiplication forming isogenous groups with only a scant extracellular matrix that later increases. The high regenerative power of lizard articular cartilage appears related to the permanence of growing cartilaginous centers in the epiphyses of long bones such as those of the knee during adulthood. It is likely that these regions contain resident stem cells that give rise to new chondroblasts of the articular and metaphyseal cartilage during most of the lizard’s lifetime, but can produce an excess of cartilaginous tissues when stimulated by the lesion.
      PubDate: 2015-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/jdb3020071
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
  • JDB, Vol. 3, Pages 1: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of the Journal of
           Developmental Biology in 2014

    • Authors: JDB Office
      Pages: 1 - 1
      Abstract: The editors of the Journal of Developmental Biology would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2014:[...]
      PubDate: 2015-01-09
      DOI: 10.3390/jdb3010001
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2015)
  • JDB, Vol. 3, Pages 2-10: Strain-Dependent Gene Expression during Mouse
           Embryonic Palate Development

    • Authors: Jiu-Zhen Jin, Jixiang Ding
      Pages: 2 - 10
      Abstract: The effect of strain background on gene function in growth and development has been well documented. However, it has not been extensively reported whether the strain background affects the gene expression pattern. Here, we found that the expression of homeobox gene Meox-2 and FGF receptor 1 gene Fgfr1 during mouse palate development is strain-dependent. On the C57B6 inbred background, Meox-2 is expressed in the palatal outgrowth on Embryonic Day 11.5 (E11.5); the expression shifts posteriorly and is restricted to the back of palate on E14.5. On the Swiss Webster outbred background, Meox-2 expression covers both anterior and posterior regions with the same intensity from E12.5 to E14.5. On the Black Swiss background, Meox-2 expression also covers the entire palate A-P axis, but is much weaker in the anterior region on E14.5. Fgfr1 also displays distinct expression patterns in the palatal outgrowth on E11.5 in these three strains. On the Black Swiss outbred background, the expression is restricted to the anterior palatal outgrowth. In marked contrast, the expression in the Swiss Webster outbred strain is located exclusively in the posterior palate outgrowth on E11.5, whereas in the C57B6 inbred strain, the expression is undetectable in the palatal outgrowth on E11.5.
      PubDate: 2015-02-06
      DOI: 10.3390/jdb3010002
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2015)
  • JDB, Vol. 3, Pages 11-24: Inhibition of SERPINE1 Function Attenuates Wound
           Closure in Response to Tissue Injury: A Role for PAI-1 in
           Re-Epithelialization and Granulation Tissue Formation

    • Authors: Tessa Simone, Paul Higgins
      Pages: 11 - 24
      Abstract: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1; SERPINE1) is a prominent member of the serine protease inhibitor superfamily (SERPIN) and a causative factor of multi-organ fibrosis as well as a key regulator of the tissue repair program. PAI-1 attenuates pericellular proteolysis by inhibiting the catalytic activity of both urokinase and tissue-type protease activators (uPA and tPA) effectively modulating, thereby, plasmin-mediated fibrinolysis and the overall pericellular proteolytic cascade. PAI-1 also impacts cellular responses to tissue injury and stress situations (growth, survival, migration) by titering the locale and temporal activation of multimeric cell-surface signaling complexes. This review will describe PAI-1 structure and function and detail the role of PAI-1 in the tissue repair program with an emphasis on cutaneous wound healing.
      PubDate: 2015-03-02
      DOI: 10.3390/jdb3010011
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2015)
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