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Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Medicine
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2345-2447 - ISSN (Online) 2322-5750
   Published by Mashhad University of Medical Sciences Homepage  [14 journals]
  • Radial Probe Endobronchial Ultrasound for Peripheral Pulmonary Lesions:
           Initial Experience in ...

    • Abstract: Introduction : Diagnosis of peripheral pulmonary nodules is confusing; therefore, an accurate and safe lung biopsy can prevent unnecessary invasive diagnostic procedures. This study soughtto study the diagnostic yield, sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values (NPV and PPV) of radial probe endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS)-guided biopsy for peripheral pulmonary lesions.Materials and Methods: Patients referred to the Division of Pulmonary Medicine for evaluation of peripheral pulmonary lesions were subjected to radial probe EBUS-guided transbronchial lung biopsy under conscious sedation after reviewing positron emission tomography scan/computed tomography results. The obtained specimens were considered diagnostic when the cytological, histopathological, or microbiological diagnosis was consistent with the clinical presentations.Results: Totally, 14 procedures were performed on 13 patients with mean lesion size of 30.42 mm. Mean distance between the lesion and pleura was 1.17±0.68 cm, and the diagnostic yield of this technique was 78.57%. Furthermore, the sensitivity, specificity, and NPV were 70% (range: 34.75 to 93.33), 100% (range: 39.76 to 100), and 57.14% (range: 18.41 to 90.10), respectively. This procedure was not associated with any major complications.Conclusion: Radial probe EBUS with satisfactory diagnostic yield and low complication rate is a promising tool for early diagnosis of lung cancer.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Nov 2017 20:30:00 +010
  • Effectiveness of Single-Port Thoracoscopic Splanchnicectomy in Controlling
           Pain in Patients ...

    • Abstract: Introduction: Chronic pancreatitis is defined as a persistent pancreatic inflammatory disease. In chronic pancreatitis, recurrent episodes of inflammation lead to the replacement of pancreatic parenchyma with fibrotic connective tissue. Chronic pancreatitis pain, which may initially mimic acute pancreatitis, is severe, frequent, and continual and has a major impact on the quality of life and social functioning of patients. The standard treatments for this disease are endoscopy, surgery, splanchnic nerve denervation, thoracoscopic splanchnicectomy (TS), and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Considering the advantages of the single-port method, we attempted to describe the post-treatment conditions of the patients undergoing this therapeutic approach.Materials & Methods: Ten chronic pancreatitis patients with severe resistant pain volunteered to enter the study. We recorded the data on patients’ age, gender, pre-operative pain level, surgical complications, and post-operative pain level (two weeks after surgery) were recorded. Visual analogue scale (VATS) was used for pain assessment and paired sample t-test was performed for statistical evaluation of response to the treatment for pain.Results: The participants included one female and nine male patients with the mean age of 53.3±0.8 years. The mean duration of severe pain before the onset of treatment was 13 months (range: 6 to 20 months). The pain level was determined 3 to 5 days before the operation and re-graded two weeks post-operation. Pre- and post-operative pain scores showed a significant reduction in the severity of pain before and after surgery (P<0.004).Conclusion: Single-port technique is recommended as a safe way to reduce pain in patients with chronic pancreatitis.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Nov 2017 20:30:00 +010
  • Early post operative mortality of Total Correction of Tetralogy of Fallot

    • Abstract: Introduction: Since 1954, after the first surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), several innovations have occurred in cardiac surgery, especially in children. One stage complete repair of TOF is currently possible even in infancy; however, complications such as hypoxemia, arrhythmia, cardiac dysfunction, sudden death, and valvular disorders may happen. In this study, we evaluated the results of complete surgical repair of TOF with pulmonary stenosis. Material and Methods: We assessed 74 cases of TOF with pulmonary stenosis that underwent surgery in Cardiac Surgical Ward of Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran from 2008 to 2010. Results: Mean age was 5.74±3.31 years and more than half of the patients were male. Mean perfusion and cross-clamping times were 55.45±15.06 and 42.63±9.07 min,respectively. The most common coexisting anomaly was atrial septal defect. Further, 83.7% of the patients were symptomatic, and history of spell attacks was positive in 24.3% of the cases. Arrhythmia was reported in 28.4% of the patients. Mortality rate was 12.2% in our study, which was higher in younger patients (P=0.022) or those with lower weight (P=0.008), longer perfusion time during cardiac surgery (P=0.009), or presence of associated cardiac anomalies (P=0.030). Conclusion: Outcomes and mortality rate of one-stage surgical repair of TOF with pulmonary stenosis was acceptable in our center, and arrhythmia was the most common postoperative complication
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Nov 2017 20:30:00 +010
  • Effectiveness of Moderate Acute Normovolemic Hemodilution Combined with
           Tranexamic Acid on the ...

    • Abstract: Introduction: There are different approaches to reduce the amount of blood loss and allogenic transfusion in cardiac surgery. Regarding this, the present study aimed to evaluate the blood sparing effect of acute normovolemic hemidilution (ANH) combined with intrao-perative tranexamic acid in patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB).Material and Methods: This study was conducted on 80 consecutive patients scheduled for elective OPCAB. The patients were randomly subjected to tranexamic acid treatment (TA group) or to tranexamic acid plus ANH (ANH group). All data, including demographic information, allogenic transfusions (based on a prior defined criteria), amount of postoperative bleeding, and major complications, were recorded.Results: According to the results, the two groups were comparable in terms of the demographic data and intraoperative variables. The mean values of postoperative bleeding were 483±125 and 580±201 mL in the TA and ANH groups, respectively, indicating no significant difference between them in this regard. Total transfused packed red blood cells (PRBC) used in the TA and ANH groups were 15 and 20 units, respectively, which revealed no significant difference between the two groups in this respect (P=0.23). Furthermore, 12 and 10 patients in the TA and ANH groups were transfused with PRBC, respectively. Moreover, the two groups showed no significant difference in terms of the postoperative hematological variables (P>0.05).Conclusion: As the findings of the present study indicated, ANH was not effective in reducing postoperative bleeding and the need for allogenic blood products in the patients undergoing OPCAB.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Nov 2017 20:30:00 +010
  • Carotid angioplasty and stenting in a patient with high grade stenosis of
           Internal Carotid ...

    • Abstract: Severe internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis is a common cause of cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in middle-aged patients. Contralateral carotid occlusion (CCO) in patients with severe ICA stenosis is associated with high risk of CVA. Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is associated with more complications in patients with CCO than those without CCO. In this study, we present the case of a 61-year-old patient who presented with multiple transient ischemic attack and severe ICA stenosis associated with CCO and occlusion of vertebral arteries. The patient was treated successfully with carotid angioplasty and stenting.
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Nov 2017 20:30:00 +010
  • Boerhaave Syndrome

    • Abstract: Boerhaave syndrome (BS) is a spontaneous esophageal perforation and is a life-threating but uncommon disorder. This syndrome involves a transmural perforation and typically occurs after forceful emesis. The prognosis is dependent on rapid diagnosis and correct management. The classic presentation of BS consists of vomiting, subcutaneous emphysema, and lower thoracic pain. However, significant symptoms and signs rarely occur, about one-third of all patients are clinically atypical. Thus, BS should be suspected in patients presenting any sudden thoracoabdominal pain with a history of emesis. The chest radiograph is the most helpful diagnostic aid, in addition to CT scans for further evaluations.When the clinical condition allows for a less invasive approach, non-operative treatment should be considered, with or without the use of an endoscopic stent or placement of internal or external drains. The best prognosis of Boerhaave's syndrome is associated with early diagnosis and surgical care within 12 hours of perforation.  
      PubDate: Thu, 30 Nov 2017 20:30:00 +010
  • Silent Myocardial Infarction Presented with Homonymous Hemianopia: A Rare
           Case Study

    • Abstract: Silent myocardial infarction is a little-known phenomenon, the mechanisms of which have still remained unclear. Herein, we presented the case of a middle-aged man suffering from silent myocardial infarction who presented with homonymous hemianopia and no other major cardiovascular risk factors, except for stage 1 hypertension.
      PubDate: Tue, 14 Nov 2017 20:30:00 +010
  • Post-Intubation Tracheoesophageal Fistula; A Nine-Year Experience

    • Abstract: Introduction: Tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is a rare condition, which could be life-threatening if diagnosed late or mismanaged. Post-intubation TEF is the most common form of acquired, non-malignant TEF and is usually associated with tracheal stenosis, which makes the treatment more challenging. Here, we present our experience of managing 21 patients with post-intubation TEF.   Materials & Methods: Twenty one patients including seven women and fourteen men with mean age of 38.05 years, who had post-intubation TEF were managed in our center (Massih Daneshvari Hospital, Tehran, Iran) during 2004-2013. None of the patients were operated before weaning from mechanical ventilation. Single division and closure of the fistula was performed in one patient who did not have accompanying tracheal stenosis. One-stage surgical repair including tracheal resection, anastomosis, primary closure of the esophageal defect, and muscle flap Interposition was the main treatment method in all other cases. Patients were followed up for at least two years. Results: Excellent and good results achieved in 85.7% of our patients. Major complications including permanent vocal cord paralysis and recurrence of tracheal stenosis necessitating T-tube insertion occurred in two patients (9.5%). Severe cachexia and sepsis secondary to sputum retention resulted in one mortality (4.8%). Conclusion: Surgery might provide the best treatment results along with low mortality and morbidity rates in post-intubation TEFs if performed within the proper time.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Aug 2017 19:30:00 +010
  • The Relationship between Serum Uric Acid and Severity of Chronic
           Obstructive Pulmonary Disease ...

    • Abstract: Introduction: Some evidence exists about the possible relationship between the serum uric acid (UA) and exacerbation of the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Present study intended to compare the COPD-related variables and the one-year outcome between the two groups of patients with the high and low UA. Material and Methods: This cohort study consisted of 112 patients with COPD exacerbation. The participants were categorized into low (i.e., Afterwards, the patients were followed up for one year and some other variables such as taking oral antibiotic for respiratory infections, admission to hospital or ICU due to COPD exacerbation, and survival were documented monthly. Results: The mean serum level of creatinine was significantly higher in the high UA group (1.1±0.4 mg/dL) than the low UA group (1.01±0.1 mg/dL) (P=0.02). No significant difference was observed between the two groups regarding the GOLD classification, FEV1, oxygen saturation, pCO2, and echocardiographic indices. In the one-year follow-up, 42 cases (82.4%) of the high UA group and 39 patients (63.9%) of the low UA group reported taking oral antibiotics, which was indicative of a significant difference (P=0.03). Hospital admission was likewise significantly higher in the high UA group (30 patients, 58.8%) than in the low UA group (23 cases, 37.7%) (P= 0.03). Conclusion: Those patients with the UA level of ≥ 6.5 mg/dL experienced more hospital admission and were more likely to take oral antibiotics for respiratory infections during a year. However, UA did not correlate with FEV1 or COPD severity.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Aug 2017 19:30:00 +010
  • Outcomes of On-pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting in Patients with
           Metabolic Syndrome in ...

    • Abstract: Introduction: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is considered as an important risk factor for advanced coronary artery disease. This condition can increase the mortality and morbidity in the patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. The aim of the study was compared mortality and morbidity after off Pump- CABG surgery between patients with and without the Metabolic syndrome. Materials & Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 120 patients, who underwent off-pump CABG surgery between October 2014-October 2016. The participants were equally divided into two groups including the patients with and without MS (MS and non-MS, respectively). Results: According to the results, 68 (56.6%) patients were male. Furthermore, out of the 60 participants with MS, 36 (60%) cases were male. The mean ages of the MS and non-MS groups were 64.96±9.6 and 65.62±10.6 P=0.6 years, respectively. No statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups in terms of the mortality and morbidity (e.g., surgical wound infection, length of Intensive Care Unit and hospital stay, atrial fibrillation rhythm, and bleeding in the first 24 h). The intubation time in patients with Metabolic Syndrome was significantly higher than patients without Metabolic Syndrome (6.66 ± 1.97 vs 5.83 ± 1.93 respectively; P=0.007) Conclusion: Metabolic syndrome was not associated with higher mortality and morbidity after CABG surgery compare to patients without Metabolic syndrome, although patients with Metabolic syndrome had higher risk for long intubation time.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Aug 2017 19:30:00 +010
  • Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism as the Initial Clinical Presentation of
           Gastric Cancer: A Case ...

    • Abstract: Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is a clinically critical disease, misdiagnosis or delayed diagnosis of which can lead to increased rate of mortality. For prevention of recurrence of PTE, recognition of its risk factors or underlying diseases is of great importance. PTE is common in patients with cancer and has high morbidity and mortality rates. Although cancer is a lethal condition, PTE accelerates death in these patients. In the current study, we reported the case of a 50-year-old male presenting with dyspnea, pleuritic chest pain, and non-massive hemoptysis indicating pulmonary embolism. Anticoagulant therapy was initiated, but after 12 days of treatment, new deep vein thromboses in the left upper and right lower limbs were diagnosed. However, no specific risk factors or laboratory abnormalities were detected. History of weight loss during the recent months encouraged further investigation for ruling out malignancy, which led a diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma. He did not have any complaints of gastrointestinal disorders.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Aug 2017 19:30:00 +010
  • Heart Carcinoid Disease with Patent Foramen Ovale Treated by Mini

    • Abstract: This case report was an attempt to present the importance of diagnostic echocardiography and closure of a patent foramen ovale in carcinoid heart disease. Herein, we present a case of a 48-year-old woman with a carcinoid metastasis presenting with tricuspid regurgitation, pulmonic stenosis, patent foramen ovale, and borderline left ventricular ejection fraction on an echocardiogram. Surgical intervention included closing the patent foramen ovale and replacing the tricuspid valve via mini-sternotomy. The tricuspid valve was repaired and the ejection fraction was preserved. The patient had an uncomplicated post-operative course. As indicated in this report, closing the patent foramen ovale along with fixing malfunctioning valves can improve the ejection fraction and the associated symptoms.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Aug 2017 19:30:00 +010
  • Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in a Case with Chest Pain and Family
           History of Sudden ...

    • Abstract: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common genetic cardiovascular disease, which is caused by a multitude of mutations in genes encoding proteins of the cardiac sarcomere (1). Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (AHCM) is an uncommon type of HCM. The sudden cardiac death is less likely to occur in the patients inflicted with AHCM (2). Herein, we presented the case of a 29-year-old man with AHCM, who had typical exertional chest pain without any cardiovascular risk factors, except for a sudden cardiac death in his older brother at the age of 28 years. After performing complete clinical and paraclinical evaluations, the patient underwent optimal medical treatment with beta-blocker agents without any symptoms.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Aug 2017 19:30:00 +010
  • Right-sided Infective Endocarditis with Multiple Large Vegetations in a
           Case of Ventricular ...

    • Abstract: Herein, we present the case of a 10-year-old child suffering from right-sided infective endocarditis with ventricular septal defect. Echocardiography revealed multiple rare large vegetations on the pulmonary valve extending into pulmonary artery along with a large vegetation over the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve. 
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Aug 2017 19:30:00 +010
  • An Unusual Presentation of Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis

    • Abstract: The granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), formerly known as Wegener’s granulomatosis, is a pauci-immune vasculitis involving small- and medium-sized blood vessels. Classically, the patients inflicted with this disease present with a triad of necrotizing granulomatous inflammation of the respiratory tract, cutaneous necrotizing vasculitis, and glomerulonephritis (GN). The antinuclear (ANA) and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are considered as relatively specific markers of the disease. Herein, we presented the case of a patient who initially presented with sepsis but did not respond to the conventional antibiotics and later diagnosed with GPA.The granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), formerly known as Wegener’s granulomatosis, is a pauci-immune vasculitis involving small- and medium-sized blood vessels. Classically, the patients inflicted with this disease present with a triad of necrotizing granulomatous inflammation of the respiratory tract, cutaneous necrotizing vasculitis, and glomerulonephritis (GN).The antinuclear (ANA) and anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) are considered as relatively specific markers of the disease. Herein, we presented the case of a patient who initially presented with sepsis but did not respond to the conventional antibiotics and later diagnosed with GPA.
      PubDate: Thu, 31 Aug 2017 19:30:00 +010
  • Upper Extremity Ischemia Complicating Ulcerative Plaque in Descending

    • Abstract: A 54-year-old female patient was presented with upper extremity ischemia. Further investigation revealed ulcerated atherosclerosis plaque in aorta with intramural hematoma and clot formation. The subject underwent a successful surgical resection of mass with the assistance of cardiopulmonary bypass and total circulatory arrest.
      PubDate: Tue, 28 Feb 2017 20:30:00 +010
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