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  VIEW Journal of European Television History and Culture
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2213-0969 - ISSN (Online) 2213-0969
   Published by Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision Homepage  [1 journal]
  • TV Goes Social: Italian Broadcasting Strategies and the Challenges of
           Convergence

    • Authors: Luca Barra, Massimo Scaglioni
      Abstract: In recent years, the Italian television scenario has become fully convergent, and social TV is an activity – and a hip buzzword – indicating both a rich set of possibilities for the audience to engage with TV shows, and an important asset developed by television industry to provide such engagement, with promotional and economic goals. Mainly adopting the perspective of the production cultures of Italian broadcasters, the essay will explore the “Italian way to social television”, highlighting the strategies adopted by networks and production companies to encourage online television discourse and to exploit it as a content, a marketing device or a source of supplementary income.
      PubDate: 2014-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Digital Convergence and Content Regulation

    • Authors: Michael John Starks
      Abstract: Broadcasting, Press and Internet journalism systems of distribution are converging: the same infrastructure can deliver all three historically separate services. Reception devices mirror this: the Connected TV, the tablet and the smart phone overlap in their functionality. Service overlaps are evident too, with broadcasters providing online and on-demand services and newspapers developing electronic versions. Does this mean that media regulation policies must converge too?My argument is that they should, though only where historically different communications are now fulfilling a similar function, e.g. broadcaster online services and electronic versions of newspapers. Convergence requires a degree of harmonisation and, to this end, I advocate a review of UK broadcasting's 'due impartiality' requirement and of the UK's application of the public service concept. I also argue for independent self-regulation (rather than state-based regulation) of non-public-service broadcasting journalism.
      PubDate: 2014-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • ‘The Schneiderverse’: Nickelodeon, Convergent Television and
           Transmedia Storytelling

    • Authors: Helena Louise Dare-Edwards
      Abstract: This article will analyse the textual features of two recent and successful Nickelodeon shows, both of which incorporate digital and social technologies into their sitcom-style format. Aimed at a tween-girl audience, these ‘convergence comedies’ complicate traditional notions of media spectatorship and the distinctions between media producers and consumers as audiences are invited to participate in the processes of production. While media convergence is built into the visual style of both shows, the shows themselves converge to create a shared fictional world, dubbed the ‘Schneiderverse’, which traverses the boundary between the real and the fictional. It will be considered how the audience’s media experience could be enriched through immersion in the online spaces associated with the texts.
      PubDate: 2014-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • ARTE: French-German Experiments in Crossing the Borders. 'One Media
           – Three Screens' Convergence and Interactivity at its Full
           Potential?

    • Authors: Anna Wiehl
      Abstract: This contribution aims at discussing policies of convergence as well as at questioning whether the current strategies really exploit the options of digital media to its full potential – especially with regard to transmedia-storytelling, interactivity, participation and networking. By the paradigm of the 'European Culture Channel' ARTE, we draw a sketch of the portfolio of existing and emerging new formats and user practices. In the second part, we examine one specific genre from this context: the web-or trans-media-documentary. Taking Prison Valley as a case study, we consider transformations on both the macro and the micro level. Eventually, we question whether ARTE fulfils its promise to be the first "100% bi-medial channel" (ARTE mission statement), or whether it promotes an 'extended side-by-sideness' of devices and practices – some first steps towards the synergetic potential of media convergence.
      PubDate: 2014-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Convergent Television and 'Audience Participation': The Early
           Days of Interactive Digital Television in the UK

    • Authors: Vivi Theodoropoulou
      Abstract: The paper focuses on the introduction of interactive digital television (DTV) in the UK, at the turn of the millennium, and its take-up and use by early audiences. It discusses whether the processes of television technological convergence went together with “consumer behavior convergence”[i], enhanced audience engagement with the interactive TV services offered, and participation. Based on findings from a UK-wide survey and interviews with early Sky digital subscribers[ii] it shows that early interactive DTV was taken up because of its multichannel offering and thematic orientation and, interestingly, was approached and appreciated mostly as a television content provider. It thus notes a divergence on industry’s attempts to promote convergence in broadcasting and on the level and pace with which users adopt and adapt to such change. In so doing it highlights the evolutionary nature and slow rate of ‘change’ of cultural habits and forms.
      [i] Horst Stipp, ‘Convergence now?’, The International Journal of Media Management, 1, 1, 1999, 10-13. [ii] A postal survey using a simple random sample of 1986 early Sky digital subscribers was conducted and achieved a response rate of 35.25%. This was complemented by 15 in-depth interviews with a stratified sample of the original survey sample. In the quotes that follow the gender initial (Male or Female) and age of the interviewee is used as an identification mark.
      PubDate: 2014-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Newspaper Video Content: Genres and Editorial Formats in Spain

    • Authors: Samuel Negredo
      Abstract: Newspaper websites and online only news operations deliver an increasingly varied and comprehensive offer of original audiovisual content. In Spain, they cover current affairs and niche interests, complementing the video reports supplied by news agencies. The spoken word is a primary mode of expression, in the form of dialogues (interviews and debates) and speeches (comments and analyses), but more complex and visually appealing formats have been developed. There is a challenge to organise these packages and programmes in order to facilitate access and retrieval, which may help to improve user experience, and to maximise long-term consumption and value.
      PubDate: 2014-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Convergent Cultures: The Disappearance of Commissioned Audiovisual
           Productions in The Netherlands

    • Authors: Bas Agterberg
      Abstract: The article analyses the changes in production and consumption in the audiovisual industry and the way the so-called ‘ephemeral’ commissioned productions are scarcely preserved. New technologies and the liberal economic policies and internationalisation changed the media landscape in the 1980s. Audiovisual companies created a broad range of products within the audiovisual industry. This also resulted in a democratisation of the use of media as well as new formats of programmes and distribution for commissioned productions. By looking at a specific company that recently handed over a collection to the Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision, challenges and issues of preserving video and digital and interactive audiovisual productions are discussed.
      PubDate: 2014-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Multiscreening and Social TV: The Changing Landscape of TV Consumption in
           Italy

    • Authors: Alberto Marinelli, Romana Andò
      Abstract: The explosive growth of handheld screen devices has fostered the emergence of new TV consumption practices: "always connected while watching TV" is the expression that best summarizes this transformation.  On the one hand we observe multiscreening practices engendered by the availability of second screen devices, which people use both simultaneously and sequentially while watching. On the other hand  these handeld device are strengthening the social dimension of the TV-watching experience (Social TV). This paper aims to analyze the diffusion of social and connected television in the Italian market,  relying on data from the “Osservatorio Social TV 2013-2014” (Sapienza University, Rome).
      PubDate: 2014-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Public Service Television in a Multi-Platform Environment: A Comparative
           Study in Finland and Israel

    • Authors: Oranit Klein Shagrir, Heidi Keinonen
      Abstract: Cultural and economic transformations have encouraged television companies to turn their attention to multi-platform practices so as to increase their compatibility with the changing media environment. While digital media provide public service broadcasting (PSB) institutions with new opportunities for meeting their public commitments and maintaining their relevance in national media systems, PSB is also faced with additional challenges. One of these is the tension between public service values on the one hand and digital technologies and practices on the other. In this article we discuss how Finnish and Israeli PSB managers and producers perceive the opportunities and challenges of multi-platform production. In both countries public service broadcasting is striving for public legitimacy and relevance in a changing technological environment. However, the two countries currently find themselves at quite different stages: Israel has a struggling public service agency, while Finland boasts a strong broadcasting company.
      PubDate: 2014-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Editorial

    • Authors: Gabriele Balbi, Massimo Scaglioni
      PubDate: 2014-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • ‘More Than a Television Channel’: Channel 4, FilmFour and a
           Failed Convergence Strategy

    • Authors: Hannah Andrews
      Abstract: Obliged by act of Parliament to ‘innovate and experiment’, Channel 4 has, since its birth in 1982, been the UK’s most pioneering commercial television broadcaster. Its arrival broadened the meaning, function and operations of public service broadcasting in the UK, with a particular focus on minorities and pushing boundaries, political and creative. In the late 1990s, though, it was under increasing threat from specialist pay-TV services that could more accurately target its audiences. As a commercially funded channel with public service responsibilities, Channel 4 was under increasing pressure to be financially independent and fulfil a challenging remit. Its response to a threatened income and increasing competition was to diversify its portfolio into various media related businesses, particularly taking advantage of the arrival of digital television to expand its offer. The subtitle of the Corporation’s 2000 Annual report, ‘More than a Television Channel’ indicates the confidence, optimism and boldness with which this expansion was approached. The rapid expansion of the channel’s portfolio in a time of relative confidence in the commercial viability of the television industry was to be reversed only a few years later, when, after it failed to produce the returns it was designed for, 4Ventures was drastically scaled back, and Channel 4 refocused its efforts on the core broadcast channel.

      Channel 4 therefore offers a test case in the limits of convergence as a strategy for survival for British broadcasters at the arrival of digital television. This paper focuses specifically on the areas of Channel 4’s strategy that pertained to one of the broadcaster’s particular strengths: film culture. It explores one of the film offshoots of 4Ventures: FilmFour Ltd, the film finance, production, sales and distribution company and how its failure to find a commercial hit mirrors the general problems for a commercial public service broadcaster in expanding to become a convergent television company.
      PubDate: 2014-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
  • Wide-Screen Television and Home Movies: Towards an Archaeology of
           Television and Cinema Convergence Before Digitalisation

    • Authors: Tom James Longley Steward
      Abstract: In this article, Tom Steward uses past interrelations of television and cinema spectatorship, exhibition, production and aesthetics to historicize phenomenological digital-era discourses on, ontological definitions of, and cultural arguments about television and cinema convergence. He argues that television and cinema assisted in defining each other as late 20th Century media and cultural forms, have a multi-directional industrial and artistic flow, and are often interdependent in reception and distribution. Television and cinema convergence demonstrates the need for historical breadth in media convergence theory and an understanding of medium-specificity that incorporates interactions with other media.
      PubDate: 2014-12-15
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
       
 
 
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