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VIEW Journal of European Television History and Culture
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 2213-0969 - ISSN (Online) 2213-0969
     Published by Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision Homepage  [1 journal]
  • East and West on the Finnish Screen. Early Transnational Television in

    • Authors: Mari Pajala
      Abstract: Research on Finnish television history has so far emphasized Western influences. However, the Finnish television environment was also in many ways shaped by contacts with socialist television cultures. This article analyses the first volume (1960) of the television magazine Katso to trace the various transnational relations which shaped the early Finnish television environment and to discuss the cultural meanings of socialist television in this environment. Nearly every issue of Katso in 1960 discusses television in a transnational context. Transnational themes fall into four categories: (1) learning about television in other countries; (2) the Eurovision and Nordvision networks; (3) watching television across national borders (Swedish and Tallinn television but also television across surprising distances); and (4) visions of world television. Katso’s understanding of television emphasises the literal meaning of television, to see far. The magazine sets no clear limits to what television could do in terms of overcoming physical distance and ideological borders. The magazine avoids overt politics in discussing television from both the West and the East and represents Tallinn television as a potential source of popular television for Finnish audiences.
      PubDate: 2014-06-24
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Italianization Accomplished. Forms and Structures of Albanian
           Television’s Dependency on Italian Media and Culture

    • Authors: Paolo Carelli
      Abstract: After the fall of the Berlin Wall and the end of communist regimes in 1989, national media systems of the Eastern European countries belonging to the Soviet bloc began a process of transformation along the way of liberalization and commercialization. In Albania, this process occurred in different phases, but with a common trend, that is the Italian television as a structural, economic and cultural model to inspire. In this article, I try to outline the deep influences and legacies between Italian and Albanian television systems (dating back to the last years of the regime) showing how, despite a progressive sliding towards americanization, they remain a typical landmark of Albanian media. From the formats of the first programmes after the regime to the recent appearances of Italian Tv presenters (in particular, from Berlusconi's channels) on Albanian private channels, we can observe a subtle but rooted and continuous dependency from the country on the other side of the Adriatic Sea.  
      PubDate: 2014-06-24
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • The Great Époque of the Consumption of Imported Broadcasts. West
           European Television Channels and Polish Audiences during the System

    • Authors: Patryk Wasiak
      Abstract: This article shows how Polish audiences “domesticated” West European television content available with satellite dishes and semi legal cable TVs during the turnover of the 1980s and 1990s. Based on analysis of viewers’ memoirs and content of magazines dedicated to satellite television, this article discusses how Poles considered channels available with Astra satellite as an attractive entertainment juxtaposed with dull national broadcaster TVP. As this article shows, they primarily “domesticated” German late night erotic shows symbolized by Tutti Frutti and music video available with MTV Europe.
      PubDate: 2014-06-24
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Exploring Transnational Media Exchange in the 1960s

    • Authors: Heather Gumbert
      Abstract: This paper uses the history of the East German television service (DFF) to examine the emergence and implications of the international exchange of television content in the 1960s.
      PubDate: 2014-06-24
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Connected Enemies' Programming Transfer between East and West During
           the Cold War and the Example of East German Television

    • Authors: Thomas Beutelschmidt, Richard Oehmig
      Abstract: #piccshare_pic_options, #piccshare_pic_options > *, #piccshare_tint, #piccshare_logo { border-radius: 0; -moz-border-radius: 0; border: none; margin: 0; padding: 0; }This article examines GDR television from a media-historical perspective with special focus on the inter- and transnational communication between Eastern and Western Europe in the Cold War until the dissolution of the separate spheres of power in 1990. It focuses on the development and function of the “Organisation Internationale de diffusion et de Télévision Radio” (OIRT), which was founded in 1946, and their network “Intervision”, founded in 1960, both centred in Prague. The OIRT, as an umbrella organization, coordinated cooperation between the TV-stations in the socialist community and represented their interests to the “European Broadcasting Union” (UER/EBU) and the “Eurovision” system. While “Intervision” handled the direct program traffic between the stations, exchange of movies and occasionally TV series was an autonomous field. A central conclusion is that the program transfer had a hand in a partial rapprochement and dialogue between East and West. In addition, these permanent relations triggered an early synchronization process with a tendency to cross-culture productions – even if the partial opening in Eastern Europe before 1990 brought only limited pluralism and could not contribute to genuine participation.  
      PubDate: 2014-06-24
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Folklore Music on Romanian TV. From State Socialist Television to Private

    • Authors: Alexandra Urdea
      Abstract: Music genres rooted in folklore have often been interpreted as ideological manoeuvres to forge a sense of national identity (Gordy, Mihailescu, Baker, Cash). This article explores formalized folklore performances of muzică populară as forms ‘media rituals’ (Couldry), and focuses on the role that television has played in establishing the genre as we know it today. It analyses the link between muzică populară as rooted in mass participation activities during communism, and ‘media rituals’ as framed on television (Couldry), indiscriminately and democratically involving the entire population that it addresses (and is available beyond that).
      PubDate: 2014-06-24
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • The Eichmann Trial on East German Television

    • Authors: Judith Keilbach
      Abstract: The trial against Adolf Eichmann was one of the first transnational media events on television. Its world-wide coverage required transnational cooperation. Using East German television reports about the trial this article argues that although the event transcended national borders it maintained at the same time ideological boundaries.

      PubDate: 2014-06-24
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Intervision. Searching for Traces

    • Authors: Yulia Yurtaeva
      Abstract: The research on the “Intervision”, used as an empiric case study about the inter-cultural communication between its participants, consists of examining primary sources spread over several archives throughout Europe to collect structural and administrative data, making interviews with contemporary witnesses and evaluating statistics – with mainly the task to widen the perspective on a subject, that was formerly nation-focused or being described with a Western view only. As the preliminary steps of a basic study on the History of the Program Exchange in Eastern Europe during the Cold War, this research became an example, with which challenges one is confronted within an Media Archaeological task.
      PubDate: 2014-06-24
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Comparing Socialist and Post-Socialist Television Culture. Fifty Years of
           Television in Croatia

    • Authors: Zrinjka Peruško, Antonija Čuvalo
      Abstract: This article builds a theoretical model for comparative analysis of media culture based on the notion of genre, and applies it to a comparative analysis of television as a cultural form in socialist and post-socialist Croatia. The paper explores how the shares and generic composition of program modes of information, entertainment and fiction change in time, and how the contribution of different genres to program flow and modes varies with the changes of political, economic and technological context. Longitudinal trends in television flows are comparatively evaluated in relation to trends in genre developments in Europe and their relationship to the changes in the cultural role of television. The results show a decrease in the information and an increase in the fiction mode between socialism and democracy, with some similarities of the Croatian and western television culture in relation to genre and mode composition and flow, albeit with a belated introduction of neo television genres. Notwithstanding the limited freedom of expression and ideological content, which necessarily influenced socialist media culture, television as a cultural form in Croatia developed in concert with the global program flows. The article is based on original content analysis of television schedules where the unit of analysis is a televisions program listing. The analogue television universe is represented by longitudinal data for 1959, 1969, 1979, 1989, 1999, and 2009. The stratified systematic sample (N=3934) for each chosen year consists of two constructed weeks from a universe of all listed programs broadcast on all free to air television channels with a national reach license.
      PubDate: 2014-06-24
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • The Problem of Personality on the Soviet Screen, 1950s-1960s

    • Authors: Simon Huxtable
      Abstract: Over the course of the 1950s and 1960s, Soviet television acquired a growing popularity amongst the public. In a period when its technical and artistic quality remained low, the welcoming presence of TV personalities like Valentina Leont’eva and Iurii Fokin was one key reason for TV’s popularity. In this article, which combines an analysis of selected TV shows with archival documents and press articles, professionals’ discussions over the desirable qualities that personalities needed to possess are placed within a wider historical context where cultivating one's personality was seen as essential for the reconstruction of society after the excesses of Stalinism.  
      PubDate: 2014-06-24
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Multiple Faces of the Nostalgia Channel in Russia

    • Authors: Ekaterina Kalinina
      Abstract: <!-- /* Style Definitions */ p.MsoNormal, li.MsoNormal, div.MsoNormal {mso-style-parent:""; margin:0cm; margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ascii-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} @page Section1 {size:612.0pt 792.0pt; margin:70.85pt 70.85pt 70.85pt 70.85pt; mso-header-margin:36.0pt; mso-footer-margin:36.0pt; mso-paper-source:0;} div.Section1 {page:Section1;} --> Through the discourse on nostalgia and media’s role in the production of the content the producers and the audiences created a clear-cut division, stressing that relations to the past become essential markers of their identity in terms of political views. At that, relating to the past with “restorative” nostalgic aspirations, not being selective in the viewed content and not being able to question what was shown in the media, was seen as a sign or consequences of sickness, some kind of pathology, brought into life by inability to adjust to the changing world. At the same time, production of new content, where past is questioned, as well as broadcasting of the content, which previously had been shown on soviet television, were seen as educational practice. In this respect, the Nostalgia channel can be seen both as a sickness and as a remedy. It all depends on the position of the one, who defines what nostalgia is.
      PubDate: 2014-06-24
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Retro Reappropriations. Responses to 'The Thirty Cases of Major
           Zeman' in the Czech Republic

    • Authors: Veronika Pehe
      Abstract: The first post-1989 rerun of the 1970s television series Třicet případů majora Zemana (The Thirty Cases of Major Zeman) in the Czech Republic generated a heated controversy in the media. This article will examine why Major Zeman became such a contested topic and present an analysis of responses to the series. The paper suggests that the rescreening consolidated a particular ‘retro’ reception of the series, which reappropriates socialist popular culture and ascribes it with an ostensibly apolitical, postmodern, ironic sensibility. The paper will consider how such a response can be reconciled with more explicitly political approaches to the series, arguing that retro has a political agenda of its own.  
      PubDate: 2014-06-24
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Understanding Socialist Television: Concepts, Objects, Methods

    • Authors: Sabina Mihelj
      Abstract: This article develops a number of conceptual and methodological proposals aimed at furthering a firmer agenda for the field of socialist television studies. It opens by addressing the issue of relevance of the field, identifying three critical contributions the study of socialist television can make to media, communication and cultural studies. It then puts forward a number of proposals tied to three key issues: strategies of overcoming the Cold War framework that dominates much of existing literature; the importance of a multilayered analysis of socialist television that considers its cultural, political as well as economic aspects; and the ways in which we can challenge the prevalence of methodological nationalism in the field.
      PubDate: 2014-06-24
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Editorial

    • Authors: Dana Mustata
      Abstract: This thematic issue invites its readers to reflect upon two central questions. If we speak about socialist and post-socialist television in Europe, then:
      What is ‘socialist’ about television in Europe'
      How do we approach ‘television’ in (post)socialist Europe' These questions come with issues of definition, approach and positioning of this area of study within a broader European agenda.
      PubDate: 2014-06-23
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
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