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South East Asia Journal of Public Health
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 2220-9476
     Published by Bangladesh Journals Online Homepage  [86 journals]
  • Utilization of Cu-T in Paschim Midnapur district of West Bengal, India: An

    • Authors: Anima Haldar, Samir Kumar Roy, Tushar Kanti Saha, Rama Prasad Roy, Baijayanti Baur, Sanjay Kumar Saha
      Abstract: As a part of its commitment towards provision of quality spacing services in family planning, the Government of India introduced Cu-T 380A in 2002 with an effective protection for 10 years replacing the earlier Cu-T 200B. In India, the use of the intrauterine device (IUD) is very low among married women of reproductive age, despite the fact that the Government offers IUD (Cu-T) services free of cost. The aim of the study was to assess the current status of intrauterine contraceptive device (Copper-T) utilization and to determine the relevant factors influencing utilization by currently married women of the reproductive age. The community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in 3 Blocks and 2 Municipality areas of the West Midnapur district in West Bengal. A multistage random sampling method was carried out to select villages of sub-center areas and wards from Municipality areas. A total of 16 areas were selected for the purpose of the study; 125 eligible couples from each selected area were interviewed by a house-to-house survey in order to cover 2000 eligible couples throughout the district. Only females were the respondents. It was found that 67.4% of the couples admitted to the use of any method of contraception. The Couple Protection Rate (by modern method) was found to be 62.6% in the study area. However, it was demonstrated that Cu-T acceptance rate was only 1.3%. Ligation (38.8 %) contributed the highest – other methods included: oral contraceptive pill (19.4%), condom (3%), vasectomy (0.1%) and others (4.8%). The ever use rate of intrauterine contraceptive device (Cu-T/loop) in the study area was 6.2%, which increased significantly with the advancement of maternal age, but no association was found with literacy status of the respondents. Lack of motivation (48.4%), misconception (14%), unawareness (11.3%) unwillingness (9.3%) and religious/cultural barrier (2.4%) were the major factors for underutilization/non-utilization as elicited from the present study. Advocacy through mass media and sustenance of behavior change communication also needed for higher IUD utilization in both rural and urban area.
      DOI : South East Asian Journal of Public Health Vol.3(2) 2013: 30-34
      PubDate: 2014-08-17
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Role of social mobilization in tackling the resistance to polio
           eradication program in underserved communities of Aligarh, India

    • Authors: M Athar Ansari, Zulfia Khan, Saira Mehnaz, M Salman Shah, A Jafar Abedi, Anees Ahmad
      Abstract: Poliomyelitis (polio) is a highly infectious viral disease and mainly affects children under five years of age. The present cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the impact of social mobilization on families resistant to giv-ing polio drops to their children. One round of polio drop administration during September, 2012 was selected ran-domly from total six rounds of Pulse Polio Immunization campaign carried out in the year 2012 in Aligarh, India. Medical interns of the Aligarh Muslim University were trained as social mobilizers by the UNICEF, Rotary Interna-tional trainers and divided into Teams ‘A’ and ‘B’. The teams of social mobilizers visited the households that re-fused to give polio drops to their children because of certain rumors and misguided beliefs. Medical intern tried to convince the family members that polio drops were safe and it did not hurt any religious and cultural sentiments. The total number of resistant families, identified during the house to house outreach activity of Team ‘A’ was 309. A large number of houses (70.9%) were converted to P houses (houses where children had polio vaccination). Ninety houses (29.1%) remained resistant even after the activity of Team ‘A’. These resistant houses were again visited by Team ‘B’ members. Out of these 90 houses, polio drops were administered in 70 (78.9%) houses. How-ever, after maximum efforts of both the teams, only 19 (21.1%) houses remained extremely resistant. Large numbers of resistant families were converted to P houses where children were administered oral polio drops. However, some of the families remained resistant even after maximum efforts of the teams. These extremely resistant families might be the potent sources of polio infection in the community and they should be followed up strictly. Strategies and polices should be developed to cover all children of the community by assessing the reasons for families resistance to polio drop, examining the past failures/limitations in program implementation, and implementing the effective social mobilizing techniques.
      DOI : South East Asian Journal of Public Health Vol.3(2) 2013: 23-29
      PubDate: 2014-08-17
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Knowledge and vaccination status of hepatitis B amongst medical interns of
           Rural Medical College, Loni, Maharashtra, India

    • Authors: Purushottam A Giri, Deepak B Phalke
      Abstract: Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection is a serious global public health problem. It is the most common blood borne viral infection which places healthcare professional at higher occupational risk. The present study was conducted to assess the current knowledge and vaccination status about hepatitis B amongst medical interns. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February and March 2009 on 100 medical interns of the Rural Medical College, Loni, India. A pre-designed questionnaire which assessed their knowledge of hepatitis B was the tool of data collection. The data was analyzed in the form of percentage and proportions, and the chi-square test was applied. In the present study, 83.3% of interns showed a good level of knowledge regarding hepatitis B infection. The percentage of interns with the correct knowledge regarding post exposure prophylaxis and mode of transmission of hepatitis B were 89% and 90% respectively. It was found that 87% of the respondents espoused vaccination as a measure for the prevention of hepatitis B and 72% of the interns were fully immunized against hepatitis B. However, there is a misconception about prophylaxis, vaccination and the treatment of HBV. Hence there is an imperative need for health education to improve the knowledge of the interns towards hepatitis B infection.
      DOI : South East Asian Journal of Public Health Vol.3(2) 2013: 19-22
      PubDate: 2014-08-17
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Diabetes and macrovasculopthy: Double trouble!

    • Authors: Sayeeda Rahman
      DOI : South East Asian Journal of Public Health Vol.3(2) 2013: 1-3
      PubDate: 2014-08-17
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Impact of Janani Suraksha Yojana on institutional delivery in Empowered
           Action Group States, India

    • Authors: Lopamudra Paul, Ramesh Chellan
      Abstract: The National Population Policy (NPP) in India defined goal to increased institutional delivery and reducing Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR). Therefore, National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) aimed to increased expenditure to provide primary health care services to poor households in rural India through Janani Surakshya Yojana (JSY), which provide referral transport, escort and improved hospital care for institutional deliveries. The study concludes from District Level Household Surveys (DLHS)-2 and 3 data that Janani Surakshya Yojana undoubtedly contributed to a tremendous improvement in institutional delivery. Accredited Social Health Activist (ASHA), found as an effective link between the Government and the poor pregnant women to provide information on Janani Surakshya Yojana. States like Madhya Pradesh, Odisha and Rajasthan have an impressive rise in institutional delivery and also high percentage of women received financial benefits through the JSY. Planned im-plementation of programme through NRHM may help achieve the goals of NPP 2000 and hence Millennium De-velopment Goal (MDG)-5 to save life of millions mothers and newborn in India.
      DOI : South East Asian Journal of Public Health Vol.3(2) 2013: 4-18
      PubDate: 2014-08-17
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Psychological distress, general self-efficacy and psychosocial adjustments
           among first year medical college students in New Delhi, India

    • Authors: Varun Kumar, Richa Talwar, Deepak K Raut
      Abstract: First year medical students are under severe psychological distress, since they have to cope with the study demands of the medical curriculum. Living away from home and making a transition to a more independent and less supported condition can lead to distress. The present study was designed to determine psychological distress, general self-efficacy and psychosocial adjustments among first year medical college students in New Delhi. A cross-sectional study was designed and data was collected from 88 first year medical students of a government medical college in New Delhi. A pretested, semi-structured questionnaire was administered. The questionnaire consisted of socio-demographic data, Goldberg’s General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Schwarzer’s General Self-efficacy Scale (GSES) and modified Pareek’s Pre-adolescent Adjustment Scale (PAAS). According to GHQ-12, 39.7% (95% CI 29.6-50.7) students had psychological distress; it was slightly higher in female students (41.6%) than their male counterparts (38.5%). Psychological distress was greater in students when both of their parents are doctors 66.6% (p-0.016). There was a negative association (r: -0.384) between GHQ-12 scores and GSES scores. From PAAS scores, 19.3% students were found to be maladjusted towards college and 9.1% students were found to be maladjusted with teachers. Adjustment towards peers was found to be good. The prevalence of psychological distress among first year medical students was high. The causes of psychological distress among medical students should be recognized and strategies should be designed to address those issues.
      DOI : South East Asian Journal of Public Health Vol.3(2) 2013: 35-40
      PubDate: 2014-08-17
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • An analysis of ASHA Facilitator Model: Assam, India

    • Authors: Heikrujam Nongyai Nongdrenkhomba, Banuru Muralidhara Prasad, Achyut Chandra Baishya, Biraj Kanti Shome
      Abstract: Community Health Worker (CHW) models have evolved as a key community engagement strategy in healthcare. ‘Accredited Social Health Activist’ (ASHA), is a CHW model, implemented to facilitate the process of community engagement in India under the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM). To support ASHAs, a ‘supervisory’ structure is established, known as ‘ASHA Facilitator’. This structure is an amalgamation of various globally known models of supervision. Evidence suggests that the model of supervision is evolving and needs to have an understanding about interlink between community-program-health system. This study aims to analyze the programmatic and community role of ASHA Facilitators within the structure of existing models of supervision. The model of ASHA Facilitators encompasses the supervisory role to ensure service delivery and to monitor activities in relation to restorative, leadership and administrative support. A total of 291 ASHA Facilitators were selected for interview through a stratified random sample method from six districts of Assam, India representing six different regions/zones of the state. It was noted that programmatic roles were performed by ASHA volunteers as per guidelines; however, constrains were noticed in areas of authority and technicalities of program management. As a result, incentive-based tasks influenced the overall supportive supervision role of ASHA Facilitators. Non-incentivized roles/activities were performed on informal basis which were outside the mandate of program though essential (e.g. community resource generation activity). The current analysis recommends the strengthening of community health systems or community participatory supervisory systems in harmonization with community-program-health system through a more structured approach with a formal mechanism of supervision in order to meet the needs of community at large.
      DOI : South East Asian Journal of Public Health Vol.3(2) 2013: 41-46
      PubDate: 2014-08-17
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Perceptions and knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases among rural
           people in India: Some ground realties

    • Authors: Dr Nanjunda
      Abstract: Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) have become a serious public health issue among the rural people in India because of a unique health culture and health seeking behavior. Most rural people are suffering from different types of STDs because of cultural fabrics, poverty, illiteracy, ignorance and poor access to effective treatment. The World Health Organization has also warned that India could be the next nation with the highest number of unreported STD cases, resulting in devastating consequences. This current study, conducted in a rural part of the Hassan district of Karnataka, South India, examined the perceptions and knowledge regarding STDs among rural people. A focus group study conducted among selected purposive samples of both infected (with STD) and non-infected rural people. This study has found that STDs were more prevalent among people in the age group of 25-28 years (50.6%)male respondents (62.6%), people with a low level of literacy (42.2%), professional truck drivers (38.6%), people in the lower income groups (64%), and unmarried people (56%). This study also found vaginites and herpes are the most common types of STDs found among the respondents. The majority of the respondents were not aware about the onset and symptoms of the STDs. People were too shy to seek treatment even from the local healers. Effective public health policies and health promotion programs should be developed regarding the holistic and inclusive health development for the rural people with special references to STDs.
      DOI : South East Asian Journal of Public Health Vol.3(2) 2013: 47-51
      PubDate: 2014-08-17
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Lower and upper bounds of life expectancies and total expected longevity
           of a developing country

    • Authors: Ahbab Mohammad Fazle Rabbi
      Abstract: Regardless of being most used demographic indicator of longevity, life expectancy has few limitations too; and it arise mainly due to irregular mortality patterns in particular age group. This paper aims to analyze the trend of remaining life expectancies in different age groups and examines the highest observed life expectancies along with lower and upper bounds of life expectancies for Bangladesh; a country where early aged mortality is present remarkably. To estimate the lower and upper bounds of life expectancies in particular age; corresponding survival fractions have been taken into account, which gave more flexible concepts about longevity measures. Obtained results indicate decline in the gap between early aged life expectancies for both sexes in Bangladesh; which suggests that the full population, rather than just the more selected survivors, may anticipate a longer life that was previously only the domain of those who survived past the early years.
      DOI : South East Asian Journal of Public Health Vol.3(2) 2013: 52-57
      PubDate: 2014-08-17
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Factors associated with high prevalence of coughs, colds and fever among
           urban slum dwellers in Dhaka, Bangladesh

    • Authors: Arina Zanuzdana, Md Mobarak H Khan, Johanna Katharina Brinkel, Alexander Kraemer
      Abstract: While adverse housing is commonly associated with high respiratory morbidity in urban slum areas, data on prevalence of common respiratory symptoms among adults in urban slums in Bangladesh is limited. We compared the frequency of common respiratory symptoms among men and women in relation to individual socio-demographic and household characteristics using methods of descriptive and analytic epidemiology. Cross-sectional data from 1892 adult respondents collected in the baseline study in 2009 in nine urban slum areas of Dhaka were used. Three month prevalence of coughs and colds was 21.5% (n=1,893). Women were more vulnerable to respiratory symptoms in relation to the frequent exposure to stagnant water bodies near the house (OR: 4.44; 95% CI: 2.49-7.93) and waste disposal (OR: 3.57; 95% CI: 1.37-9.31). Practice of smoking inside dwelling increased the likelihood of having respiratory symptoms for both sexes. Recurrent contact or exposure to stagnant water and unhygienic waste management appeared to be the strongest factors associated with respiratory symptoms, particularly among women. This finding underlines the significance of the improvement of housing quality in slum areas affected by stagnation of water and improper waste management as well as the need for public health intervention to minimize the risk of diseases associated with these factors.
      DOI : South East Asian Journal of Public Health Vol.3(2) 2013: 58-65
      PubDate: 2014-08-17
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Acute Budd-Chiari Syndrome with portal vein thrombosis in a 7-year old boy
           with previously asymptomatic Hepatitis-B Virus related hepatocelluler
           carcinoma: A case report

    • Authors: SM Rokonuzzaman, Moinul Hassan, Mohammad Hyder Ali, SM Moslehuddin Ahmed, Soheli Parvin
      Abstract: Budd-Chiari Syndrome is characterized by obstruction to the outflow of the liver due to the occlusion of the hepatic vein and sometimes the inferior vena cava. This syndrome comprises hepatomegaly, abdominal pain, ascites and hepatic histology showing zone 3 sinusoidal distention and pilling. It may, in the long run, progress to cirrhosis while, on the other hand, cirrhosis due to other causes, especially viral causes may progress to carcinoma and lead to Budd-Chiari Syndrome by compressing the hepatic vein. Here we present a 7-year old boy with a previously asymptomatic hepatitis B virus related hepatocellular carcinoma developing acute Budd-Chiari syndrome. He also had portal vein thrombosis along with acute hepatic decompensation which is uncommon worldwide.
      DOI : South East Asian Journal of Public Health Vol.3(2) 2013: 66-69
      PubDate: 2014-08-17
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • How can we teach students if we do not know how they learn?

    • Authors: Md Anwarul Azim Majumder
      DOI : South East Asian Journal of Public Health Vol.3(2) 2013: 70-73
      PubDate: 2014-08-17
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Conference Proceedings: Public Health Foundation Day 2013

    • Authors: The Editor
      DOI : South East Asian Journal of Public Health Vol.3(2) 2013: 74-94
      PubDate: 2014-08-17
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Thanks to our Reviewers 2011-2013

    • Authors: The Editor
      DOI : South East Asian Journal of Public Health Vol.3(2) 2013: 95-97
      PubDate: 2014-08-17
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
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