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  South East Asia Journal of Public Health
  [3 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2220-9476
   Published by Bangladesh Journals Online Homepage  [103 journals]
  • Fear of Ebola epidemics in Bangladesh: Issues and approaches

    • Authors: Rabiul Ahsan
      First page: 1
      Abstract:
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/seajph.v4i1.21829 South East Asia Journal of Public Health Vol.4(1) 2014: 1-3
      PubDate: 2015-02-02
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Effect of breast feeding on child development: At birth and beyond

    • Authors: Saria Tasnim
      First page: 4
      Abstract: The effect of breast feeding on infant health and development has been the subject of scientific enquiry for decades. The association between breast feeding and early child development is also a complex issue. It has been found that determining the true influence of breastfeeding on child development is difficult for several reasons. This review has been made to explore the effect of ever breast feeding and duration of breast feeding on intelligent quotient, psychomotor and social development of the child during childhood and beyond. Breast feeding has positive effects on cognitive development of infant and it is more pronounced in premature infants. Breast feeding infants have higher intelligence quotient (IQ) than non-breast fed. The amount of mutual touch, tactile stimulation and mother’s gaze to the infant are significantly elevated during breastfeeding and this has a positive influence on the child’s psychological development. The impact of breast feeding on cognitive development, behavior, social adaptation and understanding of the infant needs to be emphasized during the promotion of breast feeding and early child development programs.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/seajph.v4i1.21831 South East Asia Journal of Public Health Vol.4(1) 2014: 4-8
      PubDate: 2015-02-02
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Level of fatigue and daytime sleepiness among heavy vehicle drivers in Sri
           Lanka

    • Authors: Damitha Asanga Gunawardane, Samath D Dharmaratne, Samath D Dharmaratne
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Heavy vehicle crash rates are high in Sri Lanka. International studies showed that fatigue and day time sleepiness are linked to heavy vehicle crashes. The aim of this study is to examine the level of fatigue, day time sleepiness and their associated factors among heavy vehicle drivers in Sri Lanka. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 403 heavy vehicle drivers through an interviewer administered structured questionnaire consisting of the ‘Fatigue Severity Scale’ (FFS) and the ‘Epworth Sleepiness Scale’ (ESS). The mean age of the study sample was 36.5±8.6 years and all were males. They drive an average of 129.03±87.24 km/day. It was found that the mean FFS score in the study participants was 2.43±0.99 and the mean ESS score was 6.57±4.07. Prevalence of fatigue (FSS score ≥4) was 8.7% (n=35) and the prevalence of excessive day time sleepiness (EDS) (ESS score ≥10) was 14.4% (n=58). Working for non-fixed schedule, married marital status, and working more than 11 hours/day are found to be significant risk factors for being fatigue. Drivers who were having night sleep of less than 6 hours were found to have a higher risk of EDS. A high prevalence of fatigue (8.7%) and EDS (14.4%) among heavy vehicle drivers was found which may link to heavy vehicle crashes. The occupational health service providers should be aware of the possibility of fatigue and daytime sleepiness in heavy vehicle drivers and its overall risk on the roads to take neces-sary actions.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/seajph.v4i1.21832 South East Asia Journal of Public Health Vol.4(1) 2014: 9-16
      PubDate: 2015-02-02
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Social correlates of sexual risk behaviors among urban men who have sex
           with men in Kolkata, India

    • Authors: Soumya Sarkar, Subhasis Bhandari, Pinaki Sensarma
      First page: 17
      Abstract: The factors defining the vulnerability of men who have sex with men (MSM) population are multiple and follow a complex social pattern culminating to their risk for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. Even though the vulnerability of this population has been previously reported, prevention efforts are poor, may be due to the lack of understanding of the nature of sexual behavior in its social context. The main aim of this research was to study the social factors that are correlated with sexual risk behavior among the urban MSM population living in Kolkata. A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in the Kolkata Metropolitan Area using a pre-structured interview guide. Data obtained from 126 beneficiaries of the NGO networks representing the MSMs of the area, were analyzed. Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STI) among the MSMs during a recall period of last six months was used as a marker of sexual risk. Multiple logistic regression analyses were done to estimate and test associations between STI and social variables. The prevalence of STI among the respondents was 60.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 51.2-68.9). Inconsistent condom use (OR:11.98; 95%CI: 4.03-35.59), low self-esteem (Rosenberg scale) (OR:4.18; 95%CI: 1.48-11.82), substance abuse during sexual activity (OR:4.94; 95%CI: 1.30-18.82), and adverse reactions when coming out (OR:4.91; 95%CI: 1.63-14.77) were significantly associated with STI prevalence. For HIV risk reduction among the MSM population, intervention efforts should address the potential social stressors and adverse life events in addition to condom promotion.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/seajph.v4i1.21834 South East Asia Journal of Public Health Vol.4(1) 2014: 17-24
      PubDate: 2015-02-02
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Video show helps in improving IYCF knowledge and practice: Experience from
           rural Bangladesh

    • Authors: Zakia Rahman, Fazlur Rahman, Aminur Rahman, Saidur Rahman Mashreky
      First page: 25
      Abstract: Proper Infant and young child feeding is crucial for growth and development of an infant and child under two years. In Bangladesh government has taken many initiatives for improving nutritional status of children less than two years. One of them is mass media campaign. To evaluate the effectiveness of media campaign on Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) in rural Bangladesh. An ecological study was conducted in a rural setting of Bangladesh during 2011. Higher proportion of mothers in intervention area had the right knowledge on initiation of breastfeed-ing and right practice was also found better in intervention area (p=0.003). Compare to control correct knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding found significantly higher (p=0.02) in intervention area. Better EBF practice was found in intervention area, it was 79% and 71% in intervention and control area respectively. Compare to control area, significantly higher proportion of mothers in intervention area had correct knowledge of adequacy of breast milk till six month of child (P=0.000). Right knowledge regarding way of increase breast milk supply was also found significantly higher in intervention area (P=0.003). Correct knowledge regarding initiation of complementary feeding found significantly higher in intervention area (p=0.012), proportions were 53% and 41% in intervention and control area respectively. Animal food feeding practice was found higher in intervention area (P=0.015). Both knowledge and practices of mothers on IYCF found better in intervention area. This better effect suggests video
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/seajph.v4i1.21835 South East Asia Journal of Public Health Vol.4(1) 2014: 25-29
      PubDate: 2015-02-02
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Association between maternal socio-demographic factors and low birth
           weight newborn in a rural area of Bihar, India

    • Authors: Kashif Shahnawaz, Sanjay Kumar Choudhary, Gautam Sarker, Palash Das, Ranabir Pal, Laxman Kumar
      First page: 30
      Abstract: Low birth weight (LBW) is an important cause of perinatal, neonatal and post-natal morbidity and mortality. In developing countries, LBW of newborns is mainly due to the poor socio-economic and environmental conditions of the mother. The aim of the study was to identify and quantify the effects of age, religion, socio-economic status and occupation of mothers, in order to examine which factors were primarily responsible for LBW of babies. In this study, all singleton newborn having a weight of <2.5kg was included as a case and a weight of ≥2.5kg was included as a control. The relation of birth-weight to few maternal factors such as age, socio-economic status, religion and occupation were studied. A total of 120 cases and 240 controls were selected. After selection of each case as defined, the next available two newborns that had fulfilled the criteria for controls given above were selected and included in the control group. This ensured a case:control ratio of 1:2. Our Study showed that the greatest number of mothers having LBW newborns were in the age group of 21 to 25 years (50% and 45.1% in both the cases and control groups respectively), belonged to socio-economic group V (42.5% and 40% in both groups respectively) and were Hindus (96.7% and 89.6% in both groups respectively). It was found that 70% of LBW babies were born to mothers who belonged to the labor class by occupation. This study concluded with the findings that maternal factors like age, socio-economic status, religion and occupation of the mothers were related to LBW of the newborns. Avoiding teenage pregnancies, improving the socio-economic status (SES) of people and providing better working
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/seajph.v4i1.21836 South East Asia Journal of Public Health Vol.4(1) 2014: 30-34
      PubDate: 2015-02-02
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Body fat percentage, BMI and skinfold thickness among medical students in
           Sabah, Malaysia

    • Authors: Thant Zin, Aza Sherin Mohamad Yusuff, Than Myint, Daw KS Naing, Kyaw Htay, Aye Aye Wynn
      First page: 35
      Abstract: Nutrition is a critical part of human health and development. However, overweight and obesity prevalence are rising worldwide, with associated diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and other diet-related conditions. Body mass index (BMI) is an index of weight-for-height that is commonly used to classify overweight and obesity in adults. The skin-fold measurement method is the most widely used body fat composition testing method for assessing body fat percentage. The objective of the study was to measure the body weight and body fat of medical students of Sabah, Malaysia by using different types of nutritional assessment methods. A cross-sectional study among the selected Year 2 medical students of School of Medicine, University Malaysia Sabah was conducted using different types of nutritional assessment. The average BMI and mean body fat percentage measured by body fat analyzer of the re-spondents were 21.95±0.59 kg/m2, and 16.98±1.37% respectively. The mean body fat percentages calculated by different skinfold thickness were: abdominal 24.13±1.11%, supra-iliac 20.35±1.35%, subscapular 21.83±1.01%, and alternative three-site 19.46±1.02%. In reliability testing, results are variable between male and female – internal consistency of the alternative three-sites skinfold calculation for body fat percentage showed male (excellent) and female (acceptable), and skinfold reading for body fat percentage for triceps, abdomen, sub-scapular and supra-iliac showed male (good) and female (poor to acceptable). Our findings could be used in obesity awareness promotion among Malaysian youth. However, further investigation about the determinants of obesity and body fat, including age, sex, race, nutrition, and changes over time, is needed.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/seajph.v4i1.21838 South East Asia Journal of Public Health Vol.4(1) 2014: 35-40
      PubDate: 2015-02-02
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Magnitude and reasons of initial default among new sputum positive cases
           

    • Authors: Amitabha Mandal, Mausumi Basu, Palash Das, Sujishnu Mukherjee, Sibasis Das, Nirmalya Roy
      First page: 41
      Abstract: Under the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP), Tuberculosis services are provided free of charge in India; all diagnosed TB patients are initiated on treatment within 7 days. Initial default is a potentially serious problem, particularly in cases of smear positive patients because they may continue transmitting the disease. This study was conducted to estimate the proportion of new sputum positive pulmonary TB patients who dropped out before initiating treatment, and their reasons for not registering for treatment. A cross-sectional study was carried out at Darjeeling District from July 2011 to April 2012 among 132 initial defaulters. Initial defaulter rate was 23.5%. A majority of the defaulters were 15-29 years old (59.10%); male (70.45%); from rural areas (80.06%); literate (78.79%); employed (86.36%); married (71.97%); non-smokers (77.27%); and had a mean per capita monthly income of Rs 741.40. Age, literacy, employment, marital status, smoking habits, alcohol consumption and pre treatment counseling were associated more among males than females and the differences were statistically significant. Among ‘busy with other jobs’, 76.19 % of patients were from a rural area, 71.43%were below the mean age, 73.81% had below mean per capita income. Among ‘temporary vocational migration’, 87.8% of patients were from rural areas, 56.1% were below the mean age, 63.41% had below mean per capita income. Among ‘idle at home’, 78.57% patients were from rural areas, 60.71% were below mean age, 75% had below mean per capita income. There is a need to convince the tuberculosis patients for initiating and completing treatment.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/seajph.v4i1.21839 South East Asia Journal of Public Health Vol.4(1) 2014: 41-47
      PubDate: 2015-02-02
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Knowledge and preventive practices regarding Hepatitis B among nurses in
           some selected hospitals of Dhaka city, Bangladesh

    • Authors: Nadira Mehriban, GU Ahsan, Tajul Islam
      First page: 48
      Abstract: Hepatitis B is the most important infectious occupational hazard which the healthcare workers (HCWs) encounter. Healthcare personnel specially nursing staff represents a high risk population for HBV infection. The objective of the study was to assess the level of preventive practices regarding Hepatitis B among nurses and the factors associated with preventive practices. The study was conducted among 300 nurses both from public and private hospitals using a pretested structured questionnaire adopting a purposive sampling technique. The mean age of the respondents was 29.7±5.8 and majority of them (83.7%) were holding Diploma degrees with (83.3%) designated as staff nurse. About 59.7% were married and 94.3% were females. One third of the respondents (34.3%) were from public institution and 65.7% from private institution. It was revealed from the study that (67.3%) of the respondents had adequate level of knowledge on Hepatitis B but only half of them (49.3%) had good level of preventive practices. Bivariate analysis showed association between institution, income, age, religion, knowledge and level of preventive practice (P<0.05). In conclusion it can be said that compared to knowledge of the respondents on Hepatitis B, their preventive practices were low. Appropriate educational and health promotion programs should be implemented to increase the level of preventive practices on Hepatitis B among the nurses.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/seajph.v4i1.21840 South East Asia Journal of Public Health Vol.4(1) 2014: 48-52
      PubDate: 2015-02-02
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Association between smoking and body mass index among males aged 20 years
           and above: A study in rural Tamil Nadu, South India

    • Authors: Anil C Mathew, Royce Kurian, KM Akshaya, S Karthikeyan, Thomas V Chacko
      First page: 53
      Abstract: A large number of epidemiological studies reported an increase in mortality due to cancer and other diseases among lean individuals. In this paper we aimed to investigate the relationship between smoking status and Body Mass Index (BMI) in men aged 20 years and above. A cross sectional study was conducted in the rural field practice area of the Department of Community Medicine, PSG Institute of Medical Science and Research, Coimbatore during June and July 2010. A total of 459 men aged 20 years and above were included in the study. Statistical analyses were done using the General Linear Model procedure of SPSS. We observed that cigarette smokers weighed (Kg) less, p<0.01 (age adjusted mean ± standard error= 58.64±0.44) and were leaner, p<0.001 [age adjusted mean BMI (kg/m2) ± standard error=21.13±0.13] than ex/non-smokers (61.11±0.69 and 22.19± 0.2 respectively). Regarding the intensity of smoking and BMI, light smokers (1 to 20 cigarettes per day) were leaner than ex/non smokers (mean ± standard error were 21.13 ± 0.13, 22.19 ± 0.208 respectively, p< 0.001). Regarding the duration of smoking and BMI, a linear diminution in BMI is observed with increasing duration of cigarettes smoking compared to ex/non smokers (mean ± standard error of BMI) for ex/non smokers 22.19±0.208, 1 to 10 years of smoking 21.56 ± 0.221(p<0.05); 11 to 20 years of smoking 21.23±0.256 (p<0.01); 21 to 30 years of smoking 20.30 ± 0.333 (p<0.001); 30 and above years of smoking 20.07±0.501 (p<0.001). In conclusion, we found significant results confirming an association between cigarette smoking and lower BMI in men. Hence we recommended that health intervention programs to quit smoking should take into account the underlying perceived benefits of smoking with body weight.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/seajph.v4i1.21841 South East Asia Journal of Public Health Vol.4(1) 2014: 53-58
      PubDate: 2015-02-02
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Propensity of the managers to outsource hospital services in Shiraz, Iran

    • Authors: Sahra Kavosi, Fatemeh Setoodehzadeh, Erfan Kharazmi, Mohammad Khammarnia, Ramin Ravangard
      First page: 59
      Abstract: Contracting out of health services to the private sectors has been the subject of extensive debate and discussion among health personnel and policymakers. Outsourcing is now considered as a useful management tool for health care managers in the public sector. Outsourcing increases efficiency and service quality, reduces costs, focuses on core processes, improves skills, enhances the overall competitive advantages of the organization, and creates effective occupations in the private sector. The present study aimed to determine the present status of outsourcing hospital services (i.e. radiology, laboratory, nursing, and nutrition) to the private sectors and the propensity of the managers to outsourcing services in six hospitals affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Iran. The study was conducted in six hospitals of Shiraz, Iran in 2012. The study population included all hospitals managers and the sample size was 24. The findings of the study revealed that nutrition, radiology and laboratory services were being outsourced by the hospitals to the private sectors. None of the hospitals outsourced the nursing services. Nutrition service was outsourced by five of the six hospitals, and radiology and laboratory services were outsourced by only one hospital. The highest propensity for outsourcing services among the studied hospital managers were nutrition (87%) followed by laboratory (73.9%), radiology (62.2%) and nursing services (43.3%). Hospital managers and health policy makers should pay more attention to the characteristics of services, besides considering the costs, while outsourcing the services. An effective national policy should be developed to engage the private sectors to improve public health by outsourcing health services.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/seajph.v4i1.21843 South East Asia Journal of Public Health Vol.4(1) 2014: 59-62
      PubDate: 2015-02-02
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Reproductive health practices of rural mothers in Bangladesh:
           Community-based learning experiences for medical students

    • Authors: Md Mahfuzar Rahman, Md Atiqur Rahman, Tabassum Tahmin Sajani
      First page: 63
      Abstract: Reproductive health is an emerging issue in Bangladesh as well as in the world. This was a survey conducted among rural women of the reproductive age group as a part of academic exposure of the medical students in community medicine during the Residential Field Site Training (RFST) program. The study aimed to determine antenatal and natal services, nature of complications during last delivery, and health problems related to the reproductive tract. The study also highlighted the views of the students in various aspects of the RFST program during development and implementation. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried among 534 married women of reproductive age during December 2012 in different villages of Dhamrai Upazila, Dhaka. Medical students collected the data using a pre-tested questionnaire through face to face interview. The student’s feedback was collected through another questionnaire using Likert 5-points scale. The study revealed that the mean age of respondents was 29±7.3 years, 86% were housewives, 58% had 2-4 children and mean age of the respondents at first issue was 19±3.5 years. The study showed that 75.7% and 75.4% respondents received antenatal visits and TT immunization respectively. Among the respondents 48% had hospital delivery and 52% had home delivery, of which 30% were by skilled and 22% were by untrained birth attendants. The common reproductive health problems in relation to delivery were obstructed labor (28%), PPH (22%) and abortion (21%.) Other related reproductive health problems included: menstrual disturbance (52%), leucorrhoea (41%) and UTI (35%). In this study, students expressed their satisfaction about the RFST program except duration of program. Medical students should provide opportunities to learn about reproductive health in a community-based setting which helped to increase their skills and confidence.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/seajph.v4i1.21844 South East Asia Journal of Public Health Vol.4(1) 2014: 63-66
      PubDate: 2015-02-02
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • A study on the prevalence of Schistosoma Haematobium and Schistosoma
           Intercalatum in a rural community of Ogun State, Nigeria

    • Authors: O Gladys Otuneme, FO Akinkuade, O Oluwasola Obebe, OS Usiobeigbe, TG Faloye, AS Olasebikan, WA Akinleye, OD Koku
      First page: 67
      Abstract: Urinary Schistosomiasis is endemic in Nigeria and continues to pose public health challenges especially in inhabitants of rural areas. This study was conducted in an attempt to determine the co-infection of Schistosoma haematobium and S. intercalatum in Apojola Community area of Abeokuta North LGA of Ogun State, Nigeria. Urine samples were analyzed in the Laboratory using sedimentation/centrifugation technique to determine schistosoma eggs. Positive urine samples were further confirmed using Ziehl-Neelsen (zn) staining method for differentiating S. haematobium from S. intercalatum eggs. The results indicate that 79 (52.7%) of the urine samples collected were positive for schistosoma eggs. Among the positive urine samples, 62% had S.haematobium while 38% had S. intercalatum eggs. Infections were found to be high in males 39 (55.7%) than female 40 (50%). Villagers who were <13 years of age had the highest prevalence rate of infection. Co-infection of S. haematobium and S. intercalatum among the villagers was established in the study and was observed to be highest in the age group <13years, compared to other age group. The study confirmed the endemicity and the co-infection of S. haematobium and S. intercalatum in the study area. It is therefore recommended that water control, sanitation and snails elimination as well as community-based programs are urgently needed to reduce S. haematobium and S. intercalatum infection.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/seajph.v4i1.21845 South East Asia Journal of Public Health Vol.4(1) 2014: 67-71
      PubDate: 2015-02-02
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
  • Is it assessment of learning or assessment for learning?

    • Authors: Sayeeda Rahman, Md Anwarul Azim Majumder
      First page: 72
      Abstract: Assessment is a central feature of teaching and the curriculum. It powerfully frames how students learn and what students achieve. It is one of the most significant influences on students’ experience of higher education and all that they gain from it. The reason for an explicit focus on improving assessment practice is the huge impact it has on the quality of learning’.1
      ‘Students should realize that assessment can be an opportunity for learning, rather than just something to be endured and suffered’.2
      'Institutions should ensure that appropriate feedback is provided to students on assessed work in a way that promotes learning and facilitates improvement'.3
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3329/seajph.v4i1.21847 South East Asia Journal of Public Health Vol.4(1) 2014: 72-74
      PubDate: 2015-02-02
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2015)
       
 
 
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