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Journal Cover South East Asia Journal of Public Health
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2220-9476
   Published by Bangladesh Journals Online Homepage  [108 journals]
  • Myanmar needs to strengthen smokeless tobacco control polices

    • Authors: Soe Htet Aung
      Pages: 1 - 2
      Abstract: not availableSouth East Asia Journal of Public Health Vol.6(2) 2016: 1-2
      PubDate: 2017-04-22
      DOI: 10.3329/seajph.v6i2.31828
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
  • A review of climate change in South East Asian Countries and human health:
           Impacts, vulnerability, adaptation, and mitigation

    • Authors: Anuji Upekshika Gamage, Dess Pearson, Fahad Hanna
      Pages: 3 - 10
      Abstract: Climate Change (CC) is one of the most significant global environmental challenges humanity has faced. The most dominant causative factors due to human activity are emissions of greenhouse-gasses (GHG) from the combustion of fossil fuels and deforestation of natural rain forests. Although CC has a global impact, developing countries in the South East Asian Region (SEAR) would be more vulnerable to the effects as growth, development, poverty and health of these countries will be severely affected. The key ill-effects include increasing global average temperatures, the rise in sea levels, changes in eco-systems, and adverse impacts on human health. Rising sea levels threatens coastal cities; changes to the monsoon rainfall and a significant reduction in agricultural output are among some of the climate risks these countries will have to face. CC would compromise the essential prerequisites for good health; safe water, secure shelter, and food security and aggravate health risk through emerging and re-emerging diseases and spread of infectious diseases. Health-focused investments in climate actions remain weak and countries should focus on implementing health systems, while targeting for universal health coverage. The growth rate for Asian economies has risen over the past decade and this has led to steady emission increase. India and Indonesia are amongst the top ten emitters while others remain small emitters. Efforts are needed to limit the temperature increase to minimize adverse effects, which will require deep de-carbonization by both developed and developing countries, through an integrated portfolio of mitigation and adaptive strategies, which will be abide by UNFCCC common but differentiated approach.South East Asia Journal of Public Health Vol.6(2) 2016: 3-10
      PubDate: 2017-04-22
      DOI: 10.3329/seajph.v6i2.31829
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
  • Public Health Problems in Bangladesh: Issues and challenges

    • Authors: Faisal Muhammad, Moniruddin Chowdhury, Mohd Arifuzzaman, ABM Alauddin Chowdhury
      Pages: 11 - 16
      Abstract: In South-East Asia the main public health issues are infectious diseases and communicable diseases. Public health has improved markedly in Bangladesh over the past three decades. Nevertheless, Bangladesh faces major health challenges. A scoping study was performed according to York methodology. The study was aimed to find out the major public health issues and challenges in Bangladesh. Bangladesh has one of the worst burdens of childhood malnutrition in the world. Communicable diseases are a major cause of death and disability in Bangladesh. Unsafe food remains a major threat to public health each year, citizens suffer from the acute effects of food contaminated by microbial pathogens, chemical substances and toxins. Bangladesh still ranks among the top ten countries in the world with the highest TB burden. Pneumonia and other infections are major causes of death among young children. In Bangladesh only 1% of the population is reported to be HIV-positive, but rates are much higher among high-risk populations: injecting drug users, sex workers, and men who have sex with men. The toll of non-communicable diseases — chronic diseases, cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and chronic respiratory diseases — is increasing in Bangladesh as the population becomes more urbanized. The converging pressures of global climate change and urbanization have a devastating effect on Bangladesh’s most vulnerable populations. The disease burden Bangladesh is further exacerbated by unsanitary living conditions that underscore the poor economic conditions of both urban and rural home dwellers. There are still several issues that Bangladesh health care system is yet to tackle, governance, accessibility, and affordability are key issues that are preventing the implementation of solutions to the public health issues in Bangladesh.South East Asia Journal of Public Health Vol.6(2) 2016: 11-16
      PubDate: 2017-04-22
      DOI: 10.3329/seajph.v6i2.31830
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
  • Health Paradox of Indigenous people in Bangladesh: Unravelling aspects of
           mass media campaigns in changing health behaviors to prevent
           non-communicable diseases

    • Authors: Reshman Tabassum
      Pages: 17 - 22
      Abstract: Bangladesh, a developing country, has one of the highest rates of age-standardized mortality due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The prevalence of NCDs is steadily increasing within all population groups, including indigenous communities in Bangladesh. Indigenous people, non-dominant communities of society, are individuals having distinctive social, economic or political systems, and preserving own languages, cultures and beliefs. Contemporary research proposes that negative health behaviors, especially tobacco use, unhealthy diets, physical inactivity, and alcohol consumption are becoming escalating problems in Bangladesh. Indigenous communities with low health literacy are less receptive to health information and are unlikely to embrace positive health behaviors. Three major barriers to change health behaviors toward preventing NCDs among indigenous people in Bangladesh are: unawareness of the severity and/or importance of NCDs; absence of health literacy or knowledge on NCDs; and lack of advocacy for health intervention programs for indigenous patients suffering from NCDs. Intertwined within socio-economic delusions and discrepancies, indigenous people miss out on health care to prevent NCDs. Mass media campaigns have both an extensive coverage and an awareness-constructing potential to educate and influence intended audiences’ attitudes on changing health related behaviors. Bangladesh can change health behaviors within indigenous communities by adopting some effective strategies, including using multifaceted mass media to intensify coverage of the health campaigns, underpinning stereotyping health beliefs and conveying unidentified details about NCDs, and developing risk-reduction strategies for indigenous patients suffering from NCDs. Multi-stakeholder and intergovernmental mechanisms and mass media campaigns can be effective options for changing health behaviors of indigenous people in Bangladesh.South East Asia Journal of Public Health Vol.6(2) 2016: 17-22
      PubDate: 2017-04-22
      DOI: 10.3329/seajph.v6i2.31831
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
  • Barriers to access in maternal healthcare services in the Northern

    • Authors: Bijoy Krishna Banik
      Pages: 23 - 36
      Abstract: Poor women, in both rural and urban areas in the northern region of Bangladesh, experience high maternal mortality rate (MMR), and compared to other regions, this group also has a low proportion of receiving antenatal care (ANC) and of births assisted by the skilled health personnel. One of the prime factors for this situation is the lack of the poor mothers’ access to maternal health care (MHC) services. Finding out physical, social and organisational access barriers to MHC services and exploring how these barriers caused three delays in healthcare seeking behaviour were therefore the main objectives of the paper. The study used both primary and secondary data to meet its objectives. The primary data was collected from October to December in 2010 interviewing 160 mothers who were pregnant or delivered at least one baby during the last ten years and the heads of seven relevant health centres, administering eight focus group discussions and observing the field. An assortment of articles, reports, theses and books were consulted in complementing and substantiating the argument. The study found social (early marriage, perception of pregnancy and childbirth, high financial cost) and organizational (lack of female health staff, lack of a guiding principle in the health sector, in/exclusion errors in benefit distribution, low quality services) barriers more acute than physical (distance and waiting time) barriers. As concluded, all these barriers seem to have caused delays in seeking healthcare, reaching facility centres at the right time and receiving adequate services. The findings of the current study suggest that rescheduling official time of the service centre, recruiting and posting female health workers, following a guiding path and providing emergency obstetric care at free of costs are the feasible ways of getting better maternal health situation in the study areas.South East Asia Journal of Public Health Vol.6(2) 2016: 23-36
      PubDate: 2017-04-22
      DOI: 10.3329/seajph.v6i2.31832
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
  • Hemoglobin level and prevalence of anemia in Soliga tribal children of
           Karnataka, India

    • Authors: SC Jai Prabhakar, MR Gangadhar
      Pages: 37 - 41
      Abstract: Hemoglobin status of tribal children in Karnataka has not been investigated adequately and extensively. Hematological parameters help to understand the normal growth and nutritional status of the children. A cross-sectional purposive sampling study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of anemia among 152 Soliga tribal children belonging to 6+ to 10+ years of Mysore district, Karnataka, India. Hemoglobin level was determined by cyanmethaemoglobin method. As per the WHO cut-off points, the children were grouped under mild, moderate and severe anemia where the level of hemoglobin below 11.5 g/dL. BMI values were estimated based on the measurements of height and weight of the children. The overall prevalence of anemia was 91.4%; 7.2% mild, 74.3% moderate, and 9.9% severe anemia. Mean hemoglobin values between boys and girls of 7+ years age group were statistically significant. A higher proportion of girls were severely anemic in the age group of 9+ and 10+ years than boys. The prevalence of different grades of anemia was more or less equally distributed among boys and girls of Soliga children. Remarkably, about 94.3% normal BMI children were anemic. Comparison of mean values of anemia and BMI between boys and girls were found statistically significant. The level of hemoglobin among Soliga Children in Karnataka is a cause for concern. Appropriate measures should be taken by the respective authorities to decrease the prevalence of anemia and improve the condition of health among the children.South East Asia Journal of Public Health Vol.6(2) 2016: 37-41
      PubDate: 2017-04-22
      DOI: 10.3329/seajph.v6i2.31833
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
  • Influence of ethnicity on glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c): A cross-sectional
           study among newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic Arab Population

    • Authors: Mir Mosarraf Hossain, Tahseen Mahmood, Rehena Akhter, Bushra Zaman, Mir Mahmud Hossain
      Pages: 42 - 47
      Abstract: Diabetes is a global health burden and threat that needs proper managements. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is an important marker, both in the diagnosis and treatment of diabetes. The purpose of the study was to demonstrate the influence of ethnicity on HbA1c in relation to fasting plasma glucose (FPG), by observation among newly diagnosed type 2 diabetics in Arab population, with a view to speculate comparison with other population groups in order to make a more rationale management plan of diabetes for different ethnic groups. This cross sectional study was performed amongst 573 newly diagnosed, untreated type 2 diabetic subjects attending the outpatient department (OPD) of Al-Qunfudah General Hospital Diabetic centre, in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) from June 2010 to April 2013. Data were collect by face to face interview using pre-tested questionnaire. Height, weight, body mass index (BMI), blood-pressure, fasting and post-prandial venous plasma glucose, HbA1c and serum creatinine were measured. Patients receiving any treatment for diabetes, suffering from Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus (T1DM), having ketonuria ≥2+, pregnant and patients of hemolytic anemia were excluded from the study. Sensitivity, specificity and the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) Curve for HbA1c using different cut-off values were calculated using venous FPG considering gold standard. The analysis was done by computer using SPSS version 22.0. Mean fasting plasma glucose was 227.9±81.45mg/dl and mean HbA1c was 9.79±2.22%, 269 patients (47%) had HbA1c >10%, much above ≥6.5%, cutoff determined by American Diabetic association (ADA). For diagnosing diabetes, the optional cut-off for HbA1c was 7.9%, with sensitivity of 83.6%, specificity of 87.8%, positive predictive value of 98.6%, and negative predictive value of 33.3%. These characterizations would not only accord to construct more tactical initiative for comparison but also instigate the rationale to individualize HbA1c on ethnic basis for diabetes management protocols.South East Asia Journal of Public Health Vol.6(2) 2016: 42-47
      PubDate: 2017-04-22
      DOI: 10.3329/seajph.v6i2.31834
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
  • High rate of diabetes in the Asia-Pacific Island: Possible role of rapid
           urbanization – A hospital based study

    • Authors: Rhoda K Ila, Venkat N Vangaveti, Usman H Malabu
      Pages: 48 - 52
      Abstract: Asia-Pacific countries are experiencing lifestyle-related non-communicable disease crises. Kimbe, one of Papua New Guinea’s provincial capitals is noted as the fastest growing city in the South Pacific subcontinent yet its impact on diabetes mellitus (DM) is not known. To determine pattern of newly diagnosed DM, we conducted a retrospective review of Kimbe General Hospital medical admissions from January 2009 to December 2012. 125 patients were diagnosed with diabetes with male: female ratio of 1.1: 1. Overall, number of patients diagnosed with DM at the hospital increased rapidly from 16 in 2009 to 49 in 2012; p <0.05. Majority of the patients were of young population aged <50 years representing 72 % of the cohort and predominantly of coastal province of origin. Almost 3/4th of the study population was based in Kimbe town and its suburb with only 32 subjects (25.6%) identified as rural residents; p<0.05. This study suggests that subjects living in Asia-Pacific area of rapid urbanization are at higher risk of diabetes compared to residents of rural areas. It highlights the need for adequate health planning and education as part of urbanization program in the DM-prone Asia-Pacific population. Further prospective studies are needed to verify our findings.South East Asia Journal of Public Health Vol.6(2) 2016: 48-52
      PubDate: 2017-04-22
      DOI: 10.3329/seajph.v6i2.31835
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
  • Does household food insecurity influence nutritional practice of children
           age 6 to 23 months in Bangladesh'

    • Authors: Mohammad Rocky Khan Chowdhury, Russell Kabir, Konstantinos Papadopoulas, SM Yasir Arafat, Manzur Kader, Mohbub Alam, Md Nazrul Islam Mondal
      Pages: 53 - 60
      Abstract: To examine the prevalence of household food insecurity (HHFI) among children aged between 6-23 months in Bangladesh. This paper also aims to identify the individual, household and community levels determinants of HHFI and the association between nutritional behavior and HHFI. Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey (BDHS), 2011 was used for this research. A total of 2,344 children were selected for analysis. Statistical analysis and tests were guided by the nature of the variables. Finally, logistic regression analysis was used to find out the association between independent variables and outcome. The overall prevalence of HHFI was 36.3% (95% CI: 33.6-39.0) among the participants (children). The prevalence of HHFI was significantly higher among children who did not receive nutritional items. In contrast, HHFI was more prevalent among children who were breastfed (37.0%) as compared to non-breastfed. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that children of illiterate mothers (adjusted OR: 2.20, 95% CI: 1.17-4.10), illiterate fathers (adjusted OR: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.41-3.66) and socio-economically poor families (adjusted OR: 11.35, 95% CI: 7.20-17.91) were more at risk of experiencing HHFI, whereas, rural children (adjusted OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.57-0.93) were more protective. In the adjusted logistic regression model, children who did not receive juice (adjusted OR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.09-2.16) had experienced HHFI. The prevalence of HHFI among children is still high in Bangladesh. Therefore, to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, the Government of Bangladesh should priorities HHFI as a major public health issue. Strong collaborations among various stakeholders are also crucial to improve the situation.South East Asia Journal of Public Health Vol.6(2) 2016: 53-60
      PubDate: 2017-04-22
      DOI: 10.3329/seajph.v6i2.31836
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
  • Epidemic situation of tuberculosis in Bangladesh: An overview

    • Authors: Akkur Chandra Das
      Pages: 61 - 62
      Abstract: not availableSouth East Asia Journal of Public Health Vol.6(2) 2016: 61-62
      PubDate: 2017-04-22
      DOI: 10.3329/seajph.v6i2.31837
      Issue No: Vol. 6, No. 2 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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