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Journal Cover International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2091-2609
   Published by Nepal Journals Online Homepage  [74 journals]
  • Pretreatment of Lignocelollusic Biomass Based on Improving Enzymatic

    • Authors: Meysam Madadi, Yuanyuan Tu, Aqleem Abbas
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: Lignocellulosic materials among the alternative energy resources are the most desirable resources that can be employed to produce cellulosic ethanol, but this materials due to physical and chemical structure arranges strong native recalcitrance and results in low yield of ethanol. Then, a proper pre-treatment method is required to overcome this challenge. Until now, different pre-treatment technologies have been established to enhance lignocellulosic digestibility. This paper widely describes the structure of lignocellulosic biomass and effective parameters in pre-treatment of lignocelluloses, such as cellulose crystallinity, accessible surface area, and protection by lignin and hemicellulose. In addition, an overview about the most important pre-treatment processes include physical, chemical, and biological are provided. Finally, we described about the inhibitors enzymes which produced from sugar degradation during pre-treatment process and the ways to control this inhibitors.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(1): 1-11
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids (MAAs) Profile of Two Marine Red Macroalgae,
           Gelidium sp. and Ceramium sp.

    • Authors: Abha Pandey, Shruti Pandey, - Rajneesh, Jainendra Pathak, Haseen Ahmed, Vidya Singh, Shailendra P. Singh, Rajeshwar P. Sinha
      Pages: 12 - 21
      Abstract: Macroalgae have evolved different strategies to mitigate the damaging effects of solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR), including accumulation of photoprotective compounds such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). MAAs are secondary metabolites, synthesized by a large variety of organisms including macroalgae, phytoplanktons, cyanobacteria, lichen, fungi and some marine animals. MAAs act as photoprotectants and antioxidants. In the present investigation, MAAs profile of methanolic extracts of two marine red algae Gelidium sp. and Ceramium sp., collected from their natural environment, was studied. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UV-Vis spectrometry analyses were used to reveal different MAAs profile in the extracts obtained from these two red algae. The MAAs isolated by HPLC were identified as shinorine (λmax= 333.5 nm), porphyra-334 (λmax=332.3 nm) and palythine (λmax=317.9 nm) having retention times (RT) 1.26, 2.12 and 3.64 min, respectively, in the extract obtained from Gelidium sp. Similarly, shinorine (λmax=332.3 nm), porphyra-334 (λmax=333.5 nm) and palythinol (λmax=332.5 nm) with RT 1.27, 2.13 and 4.61 min, respectively, were identified in the extract obtained from Ceramium sp. This study revealed that Gelidium sp. and Ceramium sp. could serve as potential source for economical exploration of MAAs in pharmaceutical sciences.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(1): 12-21
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • Cloning and Expression of Alpha Hemolysin Toxin Gene of Staphylococcus
           aureus Against Human Cancer Tissue

    • Authors: Gamal M. Abdel-Fattah, Elsayed E. Hafez, Mysaa E. Zaki, Nada M. Darwesh
      Pages: 22 - 29
      Abstract: Recombinant technology has crucial impact in therapy development. In microbial environment, Pathogenic bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus produces alpha hemolysin protein. This protein is used as anticancer protein. In our study, alpha hemolysin toxin (hia) gene was isolated from S. aureus isolate. The isolate of S. aureus was isolated from blood samples of patients at Microbiology laboratory of Chlidren Mansoura Unversity Hospital. The purified PCR of hia gene of S. aureus strain was subjected to sequencing and cloning. Recombinant alpha hemolysin toxin cloning was detected by PCR, and α- hemolysin protein was purified by Sphadex. The purified α-protein was used as anticancer against HepG-2 cells (human Hepatocellular carcinoma), HCT-116 cells (human colon carcinoma), MCF-7 cells (human breast cancer cell line) and A-549 cells (human Lung cancer cell line). Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(1): 22-29
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • Effect of Replacement of Fish Meal by Soybean Meal on Growth of
           Oreochromis niloticus (Linné, 1758) Juvenile under High Temperature
           Treatment for Masculinization

    • Authors: Charles Koffi Boussou, Gustave Nguessan Aliko, Nicole Ahou Yoboué, Félix Koffi Konan, Mamadou Ouattara, Germain Gourène
      Pages: 30 - 36
      Abstract: Two experiments were conducted consecutively in triplicates to evaluate and compare the impact of different feeds on survival rate and growth performances of Oreochromis niloticus larvae during both the heat treatment for thermal masculinization and the subsequent juvenile stage. A commercial feed containing fishmeal with 32.38% crude protein (CFA) and an experimental feed with 25.48% crude protein (EFB) where fish-meal was entirely replaced by soybean meal were tested. In the first experiment, larvae of about 4 days post-hatch were reared for 21 days at a temperature of 36°C and the second has consisted in testing at ambient temperature the performances of these feeds on the previous fry for 70-72 days. Fish were fed four times a day ad libitum.Results showed that there were no significant differences between growth performances (survival rate, final body weight, daily weight gain and specific growth rate) of larvae bred in hot water and nourished with feed containing fishmeal (CFA) or feed containing soybean (EFB) as protein source. However, better results were obtained with control batches bred at ambient temperature and fed with feed CFA or EFB. Post-larval rearing of previously heated fry showed that feed containing fishmeal has similar growth performances as feed containing soybean. Then, soybean meal can replace successfully fish-meal in diet of larvae during heating treatment for masculinization and also for the post-larval rearing of fry. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(1): 30-36
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • Feeding Efficiency of Green Lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens)
           against Different Species of Aphid in Laboratory Conditions

    • Authors: Lok Bahadur Rana, Ram Prasad Mainali, Homan Regmi, Binayak Prasad RajBhandari
      Pages: 37 - 41
      Abstract: Green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) is the most effective polyphagous predator of different species of aphids and is commonly known as “aphid lion” . The experiment on feeding efficiency of green lacewing was studied in the laboratory of Entomology Division, NARC, Khumaltar, Lalitpur, Nepal from 21st , December 2015 to 26th, March 2016. The known number of predatory larva of green lacewings were fed with known number of seven different species of live aphid and frozen Corcyra eggs representing each treatment. The treatments were replicated four times. The predatory efficiency was calculated by counting the number of consumed host per day. The result revealed that the predatory efficiency of C. carnea larvae were increased from first to third instar and third instar were more voracious as compare to first two instars. It consumed significantly the highest rice moth, Corcyra cephalonica followed by Aphis craccivora and others aphid species, respectively. From this experiment, it is evident that the green lacewing is potent bio-agent against different aphid species and hence further research is required simultaneously in the farmer’s field conditions.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(1): 37-41
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • Crop Yield and Soil Fertility Status of Long-Term Rice-Rice-Wheat Cropping

    • Authors: Nabin Rawal, Rajan Ghimire, Devraj Chalise
      Pages: 42 - 50
      Abstract: Balanced nutrient supply is important for the sustainable crop production. We evaluated the effects of nutrient management practices on soil properties and crop yields in rice (Oryza sativa L.) - rice - wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) system in a long-term experiment established at National Wheat Research Program (NWRP), Bhairahawa, Nepal. The experiment was designed as a randomized complete block experiment with nine treatments and three replications. Treatments were applied as: T1- no nutrients added, T2- N added; T3- N and P added; T4- N and K added; T5- NPK added at recommended rate for all crops. Similarly, T6- only N added in rice and NPK in wheat at recommended rate; T7- half N; T8- half NP of recommended rate for both crops; and T9- farmyard manure (FYM) @10 Mg ha-1 for all crops in rotation. Results of the study revealed that rice and wheat yields were significantly greater under FYM than all other treatments. Treatments that did not receive P (T2, T3, T7, T8) and K (T2, T4) had considerably low wheat yield than treatments that received NPK (T5) and FYM (T9). The FYM lowered soil pH and improved soil organic matter (SOM), total nitrogen (TN), available phosphorus (P), and exchangeable potassium (K) contents than other treatments. Management practices that ensure nutrient supply can increase crop yield and improve soil fertility status.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(1): 42-50
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • Yield and Grain Protein Content of Aromatic Boro Rice (cv. BRRI dhan50) as
           Influenced by Integrated Fertilizer and Weed Management

    • Authors: P. Roy, M.A.R. Sarkar, S.K. Paul
      Pages: 51 - 58
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh during December 2014 to May 2015 to study the effect of integrated fertilizer and weed management on the yield and gain protein content of aromatic Boro rice (cv. BRRI dhan50). The experiment comprised six sets of fertilizer managements. 1. Negative control having no fertilizers and no manures, 2. Recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers (i.e. Urea, TSP, MoP, Gypsum, ZnSO4 @ 250, 120, 120, 100, 10 kg ha-1, respectively), 3. 50% of recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers + cowdung @ 5 t ha-1, 4. 75% of recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers + cowdung @ 5 t ha-1, 5. 50% of recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers + poultry manure @ 2.5 t ha-1, 6. 75% of recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers + poultry manure @ 2.5 t ha-1.  Four weed managements 1. Control (no weeding), pre-emergence herbicide, 2. Panida 33 EC + one hand weeding at 35 DAT, 3. Post-emergence herbicide, Granite 240 SC + one hand weeding at 35 DAT and 4. Pre-emergence herbicide, Panida 33 EC + post-emergence herbicide, Granite 240 SC. The highest grain yield (6.40 t ha-1), grain protein content (7.79%) and benefit cost ratio (2.20) were obtained from 75% of recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers + poultry manure @ 2.5 t ha-1 with pre-emergence herbicide, Panida 33 EC @ 2.5 l ha-1 + post-emergence herbicide, Granite 240 SC @ 93.70 ml ha-1 while their corresponding lowest values were found inweedy check without fertilization. Weed infestation reduced 58.28% grain yield in control plots due to crop-weed competition compared to plot receiving pre-emergence herbicide + post-emergence herbicide. It can be concluded that 75% of recommended dose of inorganic fertilizers + poultry manure @ 2.5 t ha-1 combined with pre-emergence herbicide, Panida 33 EC @ 2.5 l ha-1 + post-emergence herbicide, Granite 240 SC @ 93.70 ml ha-1 may be used to obtain the highest grain yield and grain protein content of aromatic Boro rice (cv. BRRI dhan50).Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(1): 51-58
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • Conjugation of Peroxidase from Brassica oleracea gongylodes for Use as a
           Label- Prospect of a Novel Enzyme Tag for Immunoassay Systems

    • Authors: Premalatha Shetty, Avila D’Souza, Geethu CP
      Pages: 59 - 65
      Abstract: Peroxidase tagged proteins are being used successfully as immune-histological probes for the demonstration of tissue antigens, and in enzyme amplified immunoassay systems for the quantitative determination of soluble and insoluble antigens. The glycoprotein nature of peroxidases can be exploited for conjugation to proteins of interest. Peroxidase extracted from the bulbs of Brassica oleracea gongylodes was salted out at 40-80% ammonium sulfate saturation and activated by treatment with 1-Fluoro-2,4-dinitro benzene (FDNB) and periodate. Treatment with 0.08% FDNB and 12.5mM periodate was optimized for activation of the enzyme. The treated enzyme was found to conjugate successfully to immunoglobulin fractions harvested from egg yolk (IgY), human plasma and goat serum. Enzyme conjugated to IgY fraction showed improvement in its pH stability and temperature stability. The affinity of the enzyme for its substrate phenol did not alter to a significant extent upon activation and conjugation. The conjugates exhibited high affinity towards phenol, bromocresol purple and bromothymol blue in comparison to HRP conjugates prepared using the same protocol. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(1): 59-65
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • Cytological Studies on Two Species, Xanthium strumarium Linn. and Bidens
           pilosa Linn. Var. minor (Blume) Sherff (Asteraceae-Heliantheae) from Nepal

    • Authors: Pushpa Karna
      Pages: 66 - 71
      Abstract: Karyotype, meiosis and pollen stainability of the taxa Bidens pilosa L. var. minor (Blume) Sherff and Xanthium strumarium L. collected from central part of Nepal was cytologically carried out. Results obtained from this investigation showed that chromosome number in somatic cells were recorded to be 2n=36 in Bidens pilosa and 2n=32 in Xanthium strumarium using aceto-orceine squash technique. Likewise haploid chromosome number in reproductive cells were recorded to be n=18 in Bidens pilosa and n=16 in Xanthium strumarium using aceto-carmine squash technique. The range of chromosome length found to be 0.4 to 2.1 µm in Bidens pilosa and 0.4 to 1.6 µm in Xanthium strumarium. Karyotype formula was M16+m2+sm14+st4 for Bidens pilosa and M18+ sm12+st2 for Xanthium strumarium. Based on the position of the centromeres, the chromosomes were categorized into four types with centromere at median point, median region, sub median region and terminal region in Bidens pilosa whereas three types, namely chromosomes with centromere at median point, sub median region and sub terminal region in Xanthium strumarium . In Bidens pilosa karyotype is asymmetrical and slightly asymmetrical karyotype is found in Xanthium strumarium. Absolute length recorded in Bidens pilosa were 19.2µm and 15.8. µm in Xanthium strumarium . Pollen stainability is found to be 94.0 percent in Bidens pilosa and 92.7 percent in Xanthium strumarium.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(1): 66-71
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • Molecular Diversity Assessment of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria
           Using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16s rRNA Gene

    • Authors: Umesh Prasad Shrivastava
      Pages: 72 - 80
      Abstract: The rhizobacteria were isolated from rhizosphere of rice plant of different fields of 4 districts of Nepal and 5 districts of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh, adjoining states of India with Nepal. The DGGE analysis was performed for diversity analysis. For the construction of dendrogram, 16S rRNA gene was amplified by two different sets of primers. The DGGE ladder consisting of PCR amplified products of nine pure bacterial cultures were obtained. The first DGGE ladder was prepared by 400 bp fragment of 16S rDNA with GC clamp and the second DGGE ladder was prepared with 200 bp fragment of 16S rDNA with GC clamp. The perpendicular DGGE of these amplicons based on their melting behavior clearly demonstrated separation of different isolates. The 16S rDNA fragment amplified with primer set of V2-V3 regions with GC clamp showed separation between 40-60% of denaturant. The DGGE profile based on primer set F352T and 519r for various bacteria present in soil samples of 5 districts of India and 4 districts of Nepal revealed that the number of bands which might be specific for diazotrophic isolates varied from 2 to 11. The dendrogram constructed based on DGGE profile of various samples of 5 districts of India and 4 districts of Nepal showed that all the samples could be clustered in nine groups with 58-96% similarity to each other. Among all these 37 samples, only Var-4 and Var-5 showed 100% similarity, no other samples from any site showed 100% similarity. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(1): 72-80
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • Amplification Refractory Mutation System – Polymerase Chain Reaction for
           Rapid Detection of rpoB Gene Mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    • Authors: Hemanta Kumari Chaudhary, Mitesh Shrestha, Prakash Chaudhary, Bal Hari Poudel
      Pages: 81 - 85
      Abstract: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has become a serious worldwide threat including in Nepal. MDR-TB refers to the pathological condition whereby Mycobacterium tuberculosis becomes resistant to the first line of drug treatment i.e. rifampin and isoniazid. Resistance to rifampin (RIF) is mainly caused by the mutations in the rpoB gene which codes for the β-subunit of RNA polymerase. In this study, Amplification Refractory Mutation System – Polymerase Chain Reaction (ARMS – PCR) technique has been used to detect mutations in the rpoB gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Total DNA samples of 34 phenotypic MDR-TB were subjected to ARMS – PCR using three different codon specific primers (516, 526 and 531). These three codons occupy large portion of total mutation responsible for rifampin resistance. Out of the total DNA samples, all were bearing mutation in at least one of the three codons mentioned. Of those bearing mutation, the highest number had mutation in codon 531 (97.05 %) followed by codon 516 (17.64 %) and finally in codon 526 (11.76%) respectively. Hence, ARMS – PCR may be used as an alternative diagnostic technique for detection of rifampin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, especially for a developing country like Nepal.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(1): 81-85
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • Swasth Mahila Swasth Pariwar: A Screening Program for Women to Detect
           Common Health Problems in Cost Effective Manner

    • Authors: M. Thakur, A. Narang, S. Muzammil, K.G. Mahabole, M. Aggarwal, M. Gupta, S. Rastogi, S. Kapil, L.M. Sharma
      Pages: 86 - 90
      Abstract: Objectives- A woman is pivot of a family, but they hardly pay attention to their health. The present study aimed to screen the women for common health problems under one roof. A programme “Swasth Mahila, Swasth Pariwar” was conducted in a small hospital set up and cost effective manner. Material and Methods- 408 women, above 18 years were screened for the study after obtaining their consent, 294 were enrolled and were subjected to a questionnaire regarding sociodemographic factors, dietary habits and medical history. Anthropometry and clinical examination was followed by laboratory investigations including Hb%, TLC, DLC, P/S for anaemia, Urine analysis, Blood Glucose. Vaginal cytology with special staining in patients complaining of vaginal discharge (n=128). After screening, patients were referred to separate special clinics accordingly for homoeopathic treatment and follow up. Collaboration with family planning department was done to educate them about family planning practices. Results- The prevalence of anaemia was 40.14% (mean haemoglobin 10.1g/dl). 64.4% had mild, 33.1% had moderate and 2.5% had severe anaemia. 92 % women had iron deficiency anaemia. The prevalence of diabetes was 11.57% and pre-diabetes was 28.9 %. 13 new diabetic and 35 UTI cases were identified. 45.3% women had bacterial vaginosis, 10.9% had trichomoniasis, 17.2% had candidiasis and 0.8% had candidiasis with bacterial vaginosis. All the facilities including consultation, medical examination and laboratory testing were free of charge. The expenditure on laboratory testing for each patient was Rs 300 (approx). Conclusion- This programme helped to identify nutritional, lifestyle disorders and to generate awareness to improve the sexual health status of women in a cost effective manner.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(1): 86-90
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • Tomato Quality from Organic and Conventional Production in the Selected
           Area of Dharan, Sunsari, Nepal

    • Authors: Pramod Kumar Yadav
      Pages: 91 - 97
      Abstract: From the selected area of Dharan, Sunsari, Nepal, conventional and organic tomatoes were grown and tested with different parameters. Conventional tomatoes contained less value of Mg, Ca, K, Cu and Mn, but more value of Fe than organic tomatoes, where as Pb and Ni were not detected.The Zn was found to be same in both tomatoes sample. The sizes of conventional tomatoes were reportedly bigger than organic tomatoes. The viscosity and surface tension of organic tomatoes juice were reported to be higher than in conventional tomatoes juice. The refractive index value was found to be lower in conventional tomatoes juice than in organic tomatoes juice. The vitamin C value was found to be higher in conventional tomatoes juice than in organic tomatoes juice. The comparative study of color, juice containing capacity, storage capacity and firmness of organic and conventional tomatoes of Dharan,Sunsari,Nepal has also been included.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(1): 91-97
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • Growth Attributing Traits of Maize Affected by Different Nutrient
           Management in Lamjung Nepal

    • Authors: Manish Kumar Pal, Prakash Marasini, Salikram Ghimire
      Pages: 98 - 101
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during the spring season of 2016   at research field of Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS), Lamjung, Nepal to evaluate effect of different nutrient management on growth attributing traits of maize. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) having three replications with following treatments; T1( Control), T2 (0.18:0.09:0.06 kg NPK), T3 (3.75 kg vermicompost),  T4 (7.5 kg Poultry manure), T5 (11.25 kg goat manure), T6(15 kg cattle manure) and T7(13 kg Asuro). All these fertilizers were used per plot (15 m2) and the maize variety was Arun-2. The results showed that the application of poultry manure produced the highest plant height, leaf area index and dry matter which was followed by vermicompost.  The application of goat manure gave the highest benefit cost ratio.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(1): 98-101
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
  • Source of resistant against Fusarium wilt and Stemphylium blight in lentil
           (Lens culinaris Medikus)

    • Authors: N.K. Yadav, S.K. Ghimire, S.M. Shrestha, B.P. Sah, A. Sarker, S.K. Sah
      Pages: 102 - 107
      Abstract: The crop yield of lentil is below attainable levels which are mainly attributed to pathological factors especially lentil wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lentis and Stemphylium blight caused by Stemphylium botryosum .Fusarium wilt is a potential threat to letil production not only in Nepal but worldwide that can cause complete crop failure. While stemphylium blight is recently being serious problem to Bangladesh, Nepal and India. In Nepal, multiple disease resistance work was not reported in lentil before the present study. Two trials separately using 185 genotypes were conducted to study the wilt and stem phylium blight were conducted. For wilt screening one hundred eighty five lentil lines including resistant check ILL7164 and susceptible check sindur, were sown in a previously developed wilt sick bed, while for stem phylium blight serarate trial was conducted in the research area of Regional Agricultural Research Station Nepalgunj using augmented design. Natural inoculums were also relied upon. Disease severity data were recorded. Results revealed that incase of Fusarium wilt sixteen genotypes were found resistant and twenty-three moderately resistant while in case of Stemphylium blight 87 resistant and 36 moderately resistant in field condition. It also indicated that 9 genotypes i.e RL-13,RL-21,ILL6468,ILL9996,\ILL6024,ILL6811,ILL7164,Arun,Maheswar bharti showed combined resistant to both the diseases.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(1): 102-107
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
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