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  International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology
  [3 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2091-2609
   Published by Nepal Journals Online Homepage  [61 journals]
  • Biodegradation of Plastics: Current Need

    • Authors: Umesh P. Shrivastava
      Abstract: No
      DOI :
      PubDate: 2014-12-27
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Prevalence of Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci Species in Minced Buffalo
           Meat of Chitwan, Nepal

    • Authors: Sudeep Ghimire, Hom Bahadur Basnet, Lok Raj Joshi, Maheshwar Sapkota
      Abstract: Vancomycin resistant Enterococci is becoming one of the concerns of public health in recent times. VRE involve those strains of Enterococci that are resistant to the vancomycin which is considered as last drug of choice for the Gram positive bacterial infections. Studies show enterococci to be one of the major food borne diseases and medical consequences of its occurrence in humans. Thus, a cross sectional studywas carried out to determine the prevalence of VRE in buffalo meat in Chitwan. A total of 63 retail minced meat samples were collected from different meat shops. These samples were diluted and cultured and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test. Of 63 samples, 16 (25.39%) samples were positive for the enterococcus species among which 3 (18.15%), were VRE indicating overall prevalence of VRE to be 4.76%.AST reveled that resistance among them was high for penicillin G and amikacin (75%) followed by tetracycline (43.75%), erythromycin (37.5%), vancomycin (18.75%) levofloxacin ( 12%) and methicillin. Even though methicillin revealed no resistance it showed intermediate sensitive to all the samples. Thus, it clarifies the presence of VRE in meat samples suggesting zoonotic disasters that can follow.
      DOI : Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(4): 409-412 
      PubDate: 2014-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Microbes Thriving in Extreme Environments: How Do They Do It'

    • Authors: Prameela Jha
      Abstract: Our knowledge about habitat of microorganisms appears diminutive when we witness amazing flexibility in choice of survival under various conditions. Extremophiles refers to the organisms living and carrying out vital life processes at extreme conditions of temperature, pressure, pH, salt concentration among others and this is why they have attracted attention of researchers worldwide. There is a continuous quest to unreveal the probable mechanism or structural and functional adaptations that make extremophiles survive under other holistic conditions. There occur modifications primarily in cell membrane, DNA, RNA, protein and enzymes in order to render fit microbial cell to its external environment. Thus, extremophiles are robust source of high temperature and alkali stable enzymes. Various enzymes as lipase and protease have found several applications in food and cosmetic industry while Taq polymerase from bacteria Thermus aquaticus has revolutionized entire scene of molecular biology. Present review focuses on extremophiles, their structural and molecular adaptations to overcome unfavorable conditions of environment.
      DOI : Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(4): 393-401 
      PubDate: 2014-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Swertia chirayita: The Himalayan Herb

    • Authors: Supreet Khanal, N. Shakya, N. Nepal, D. Pant
      Abstract: Swertia chirayita is a native Himalayan herb typically found in the altitude of 1500 to 3100m. Swertia species are commonly used as primary medicines in fever, digestive and enteric diseases; especially S. chirayita is of principal importance. The pharmacological and ethno-medicinal perspective of the plant is well understood traditionally and pharmaceutically. Its secondary metabolites including glycosides and xanthones show promising bioactivity making it a powerful herb. Mixing of Swertia chirayita with its other species is done routinely in chiretta trade. Extensive wild collection and lack of sustainable conservation has led to the vulnerable status of the wild cultivar. 
      DOI : Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(4): 389-392

      PubDate: 2014-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Development of Rhamnolipid Based White board cleaner

    • Authors: Reshma Turbekar, Nagesh Malik, Debarshi Dey, Deepak Thakare
      Abstract: In the present study biosurfactant based white board cleaner was formulated, using column purified rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A rhamnolipid concentration of 0.01% was finalized, as it was efficiently able to remove fresh and aged white board marker stains on white board. The rhamnolipid formulation was found to be stable over a tested span of 6 months and it did not exhibit any cytotoxicity on Human Lung Epithelial Cell Line (L132) and Normal Human Skin Fibroblast (NHSF) cell line. The cleaning efficiency was equivalent to conventional synthetic surfactants, but the biosurfactant based approach is more environment friendly and biocompatible.
      DOI :  Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(4): 570-573 
      PubDate: 2014-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Ecosystem Services and Stakeholder Analysis in Bishajari Lake and
           Associated Wetland Areas, Chitwan, Nepal

    • Authors: S. Khanal, S. B. Gurung, K. K. Pant, P. Chaudhary, D.R. Dangol
      Abstract: Wetlands as other ecosystems deliver goods and services of enormous value to the human society and are regarded as one of the most productive ecosystems. We assessed the ecosystem services delivered by Bishajari Lake and its associated wetland areas of Chitwan district during June to August, 2012. A household survey consisting 110 households, interviews with key informants, group discussions and stakeholder analysis were carried out for this purpose to document the overall status of ecosystem services, evaluate the provisional services generated by the lakes, understand potentials for payment to ecosystem services, and identify stakeholders involved and their roles and responsibilities. A total of 12 fish species, 17 wild and domestic fruits, 12 timber species, 15 fodder species, 20 wild vegetables species and 31 medicinal plant species were recorded. Moreover 65.5% of respondents were found receiving some sort of income from the wetland area. The majority of respondents felt that the ecosystem is being changed mostly on provisional services. So far with little support from government, the local people have practiced some adaptive responses like biogas plant, afforestation, electric fencing, contract fisheries, ecotourism and other climate-smart measures. It suggest that raising awareness and sharing information among the locals should be done more frequently and effectively to continuously cope with ecosystem change.
      DOI :  Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(4): 563-569 
      PubDate: 2014-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • EGFR Signaling and its inhibition by EGFR inhibitors in NSCLC

    • Authors: Rajvi Patel
      Abstract: Lung cancer is the third most cancer among the population. The American society’s estimation for lung cancer in the United States for 2014 states that about 2,24,210 people are suffering from the lung cancer and 1,59,260 deaths are occur from lung cancer. Among all the types of lung cancer, NSCLC (Non-Small cell Lung Cancer) represents 85% of the lung cancer. The estimated spread of NSCLC is 2,26,160 and 1,60,340 cases are of death in 2012. One of the risk factor for NSCLC is over expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and its intracellular signaling pathways. EGFR is over expressed in 40-80 % cases of NSCLC. EGFR belongs to the ErbB family of receptor tyrosinekinases (RTK) having molecular weight 170 to 185 kDa. Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) binds to the EGFR at its extracellular domain and this binding leads to the homo or hetero dimerization and autophosphorylation of EGFR which initiates the several intracellular pathways. Several mutations in EGFR or in any of the proteins of the pathway leads to the growth and survival of the tumor cells. So in order to inhibit the growth of tumor cell, several EGFR inhibitors and targeted therapies are found to target the particular mutations.
      DOI : Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(4): 375-388 
      PubDate: 2014-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Assessment of Fruit and Vegetable Losses at Major Wholesale Markets in

    • Authors: A. R. Devkota, D. D. Dhakal, D. M. Gautam, J. P. Dutta
      Abstract: A study regarding the losses of harvested horticultural produces in the major fruit and vegetable wholesale markets of Nepal was conducted to identify the major causes of fruits and vegetable wastage. This study aimed at generating useful information about the causes of loss of horticultural produce, types of loss and also about the possibility of reuse and recycling of such organic wastes as resource for composting and vermicomposting. Survey of the three major market centers namely; Narayangadh, Pokhara, and Kalimati fruit and vegetable wholesale market was conducted. Forty five wholesalers and 90 retailers were selected for the study. Data were collected using structured questionnaires. From regression analysis it was concluded that lack of cold storage facility and inappropriate packaging facility had significant effect on the loss of the produce.
      DOI :  Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(4): 559-562 
      PubDate: 2014-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Use of O-J-I-P Chlorophyll Fluorescence Transients to Probe Multiple
           Effects of UV-C Radiation on the Photosynthetic Apparatus of Euglena

    • Authors: Chalinda Koshitha Beneragama, B.L.H.N. Balasooriya, T.M.R.S. Perera
      Abstract: Although the kinetic chlorophyll fluorescence signals are rich in information, most of the chlorophyll fluorescence related studies deal only with the quantum yield of primary photochemistry (Fv/Fm). JIP-test based OJIP fluorescence transient analysis is relatively a new technique to investigate the environmental stress responses of photosynthetic organisms. In the present study, the deleterious effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on the photosynthetic machinery were probed by the JIP-test in Euglena, one of the most potent organisms for the future space stations. The cells were exposed to a series of UV-C doses and immediately after exposure, survival percentage was determined with Neutral Red staining, and the chlorophyll fluorescence was measured using AquaPen AP-C 100 fluorometer. Resultant OJIP transients were analyzed according to JIP-test, and several functional and structural parameters were derived to explain the PSII behavior. Results indicated that the UV-C induced inhibition of electron transport is severely affected due to higher sensitivity of dark reactions after QA -, represented as ψo, the electron transfer probability, than of the light dependent reactions, represented as φPo, the trapping probability. The performance index (PIABS) of PSII, which is a combination of the indices of three independent parameters, decreased markedly in exponential manner in response to UVC. Results illustrate the advantage of using a number of fluorescent parameters over the use of one parameter, often the Fv/Fm.
      DOI :  Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(4): 553-558 
      PubDate: 2014-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Bioinformatics Study on Zaire Ebolavirus (EBOV) Protein for Better
           Understanding the Vaccine Development

    • Authors: D.S. Mundaganur, D.Y. Mundaganur, Ashokan Kannarath
      Abstract: Nine, Ebola viruse EBOV (Zaire ebolavirus), proteins are extracted from the NCBI repository and their study was carried out. The physicchemical properties and evolutionary link with other such viruses by homology modeling were carried out. All the proteins show rich in leucine domain an ideal requirement for fast attachment of the virus to the receptor molecule on the host cell surface. The prediction of trans-membrane sequence for the entire glycoprotein component reveals the ability of the virus to enter the host with ease. The lack of adequate homology model for the viral proteins indicates its novel origin and lack of well traceable evolutionary link. We studied the homology based model by using various available tools and find similar approach in all, hence finally concentrated only on one method. The model predicted shows well acceptable region on Ramchandran plot. This discrepancy is only due to the fact that we validate the model to Ramchandran plot and the model predicted were not under the well acceptable ‘e’ value range i.e. >1. Therefore we suggests that vaccine production against this deadly virus should be concentrated on the structure and functions of glycoprotein like low quality secreted glycoprotein (NP_066248), low quality spike glycoprotein(NP_066246)0, small secreted glycoprotein (NP_066247) and RNA dependent RNA polymerase (NP_066251).
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(4): 544-552  
      PubDate: 2014-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Study of Corrosion Inhibition Mechanism of Sputter-Deposited W-42Cr-5Ni
           and Cr-10Zr-10w Alloys by Sodium Nitrite as Green Inhibitor in 0.5 M NaCl
           and 1 M NaOH Solutions

    • Authors: Dhruba Babu Subedi, Durga Bhakta Pokharel, Jagadeesh Bhattarai
      Abstract: The effect of different concentrations of sodium nitrite as a green corrosion inhibitor on the corrosion inhibition mechanism of the sputterdeposited ternary W-42Cr-5Ni and Cr-10Zr-10W alloys was studied in 0.5 M NaCl and 1 M NaOH solutions open to air at 25ºC using corrosion tests. The use of the sodium nitrite enhanced the corrosion resistance properties of both the alloys in 0.5 M NaCl and 1 M NaOH solutions. It is found that the sodium nitrite is strongly adsorbed on the surface of the sputter-deposited these two alloys by physical adsorption, not by the chemisorption. As a result the corrosion resistance property of the alloys was found to be significantly increased with increasing the concentration of the green corrosion inhibitor of sodium nitrite. The corrosion rates of the sputter-deposited W-42Cr-5Ni and Cr-10Zr-10W alloys were decreased with increasing the concentrations of sodium nitrite of 2400 ppm.
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(4): 537-543 
      PubDate: 2014-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Molecular Cloning, Expression and FPLC Purification of Lectin A from
           Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    • Authors: Peyman Ghoraishizadeh, Shraddha Raikar, Mahsa Takhtechian
      Abstract: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) as an opportunistic pathogen infects the pulmonary tract, bladder, cystic fibrosis patients and burn victims. PA infections treatment is challenging because of its ability to rapidly develop resistance to multiple classes of antibiotics. Lectin is protein that isexpressed in cell of PA and cause of infection by attaching to the host cells. Lectin A gene coding lectin protein so we cloned and expressedthis gene then purified of related protein, that can be used in preparation of vaccine to treat PA infections.
      DOI : Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(4): 529-536 
      PubDate: 2014-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Comparative Study on the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Methanolic Extract of
           Root, Callus and Fruit Extracts of Myxopyrum smilacifolium Blume

    • Authors: RP Praveen, Ashalantha Nair
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of methanolic extract of root, callus and fruit of Myxopyrum smilacifolium Blume. Antimicrobial activity was tested using agar well diffusion with four bacterial strains viz: Escherechia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus of which E. coli alone was gram negative. The fungal strain employed was Candida albicans. Root extracts shown to be effective only against B. subtilis. Fruit extracts showed the maximum antimicrobial activity against all the microbial species considered for the current study except against S. aureus. Highlight of the present study was the antimicrobial activity of callus extracts.
      DOI :  Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(4): 521-524 
      PubDate: 2014-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Evaluation of Snake Gourd (Trichasanthes Anguina L) Test Hybrids Comparing
           with Four Popular Checks

    • Authors: M.M. Haque, M. S. Uddin, H. Mehraj, AFM Jamal Uddin
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted at Research and Development (Vegetable) Farm, Supreme Seed Company Limited, Mymensingh in 20th March to 14th June, 2013 to evaluate performance of eight snake gourd genotypes. Among snake gourd genotypes four were test hybrid viz. SG1001, SG1002, SG1003 and SG1004 (from the seven inbreed lines) and four were checks (three from local market and one from BADC) viz. SUPREMA, RUNNER, SURMA, ZUM LONG. Wide ranges of variability were found in the studied characters among the genotypes. Maximum total number of fruits was found from SUPREMA (235.3/plot) which was statistically similar to RUNNER (201.3/plot) while minimum from ZUM LONG (24.7/plot) that was used as check. SG1002 genotype provided maximum marketable yield (49.6 kg/plot) and minimum from ZUM LONG (30.7 kg/plot). SUPREMA, SG1002, SG1001 and RUNNER genotypes showed better performance in respect of number of fruits/plant, fruit length, individual fruit weight, yield/plot and some other characters. Flowering period was significantly correlated with yield contributing characters. Number of fruits/plant, total number of fruits/plot and individual fruit weight was significantly positively correlated with yield of snake gourd. 
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(4): 525-528 
      PubDate: 2014-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Biophysical and Characterizations of Silver Nanoparticles used as
           Salmonella typhi Detector

    • Authors: Hala Moustafa Ahmed
      Abstract: The present study mainly focuses of combined action of Nepali hog plum as well as citrate synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and Amikacin, as an antibiotic. The synergistic actions of citrate stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs with chem) were compared with that of Nepali hog plum Choerospondia saxillaris (Lapsi) synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs with plant), together with action of antibiotic onselected bacterial strains of Salmonella typhi. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized through UV-Vis spectroscopy, Transmission electronmicroscopy and X-ray diffraction technique. The size of the synthesized silver nanoparticles was measured by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).
      DOI : Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(4): 510-515 
      PubDate: 2014-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Extraction of Jute Genomic DNA: Difficulties and Solutions

    • Authors: A. K. M. Shahadat Hossain, Md. Abdul Latif, Bipul Kumar Biswas, Saidin Saclain, Md Salahuddin, M. Abu Sayed, Md. Mahboob Hussain, Sheik Md Moniruzzaman, Md. Shahidul Islam
      Abstract: The plant parts of jute are composed of highly viscous substances and phenolic compounds which make nuisance to extract good quality genomic DNA (gDNA). Here different methods viz., phenol chloroform isoamylalcohol extraction and ethanol precipitation method; potassium acetate method and Cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method were applied for isolating the jute gDNA from leaves of 14 and 40 day’s plants. All of these methods were unable to extract good quality gDNA from jute leaves. That is why, in this experiment, the concentration and chemical compositions of CTAB method were modified for obtaining good quality jute gDNA. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was added in the CTAB extraction buffer and β mercaptoethanol was used while grinding the leaf tissues with CTAB extraction buffer. It was found that good quality gDNA was obtained using modified CTAB method from 14 day’s plant’s leaves but low quality gDNA was obtained from 40 day’s plant’s leaves. These were confirmed by 0.8% agarose gel electrophoresis. Considering the visual quality of the banding patterns and their reproducibly MHR24 (5/-TTCCCTCCCA-3/) and MHR21 (5-/CCCGAAGCGA-3/) primers were selected out of 8 Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers for PCR. A total number of 11 loci were identified by these RAPD primers. Popgen32 software was used for analyzing the RAPD data. The number of polymorphic loci was one and the percentage was 9.09 which stated that a low level of genetic variations was existed among the jute accessions. In the dendrogram, jute accession CC875 (C. capsularis) was grouped in one cluster while CC894 (C. capsularis) and CC896 (C. capsularis) accessions were grouped in another cluster.
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(4): 516-520 
      PubDate: 2014-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Antibacterial Activity of Solanum pubescens - An Ethnomedicinal Plant from
           South Western Region of Andhra Pradesh

    • Authors: Haseebur Rahman, Riaz Mahmood, Nazneen Rahman, Mir Haris
      Abstract: The present movement to find out alternative antibacterial drugs from medicinal plants and the presence bioactive phytochemicals in fruit andstem bark of Solanum pubescens, promoted the authors to take up the antibacterial evaluation of fruit and stem bark extracts of Solanumpubescens. Against clinical and plant pathogenic bacterial strains by employing the methods of National Committee for Clinical LaboratoryStandards (NCCLS). It was observed that all the extracts showed inhibition zone against one or more of the tested bacteria between 80 to 160 μg/ml concentrationswith 3.17 ±0.17 to 10 ± 0.17 mm inhibition. The spectroscopic determination of MIC and MBC exhibited by extracts went between 100-300μg/ml. In fruit extracts, fruit chloroform (FC) has inhibited all the tested organisms, similarly, fruit ethyl acetate (FEA) inhibited Bacillussubtilis and Xanthomonas sp. whereas, fruit ethanol (FET) has been restricted to inhibit Bacillus subtilis at 100 μg/ml. Furthermore, amongall the active extracts of stem bark extracts bark chloroform (BC) showed potential inhibition of Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli with81.44% and 82.17% respectively. Similarly, bark bottom crystals (BBC) extracts inhibited Bacillus cereus and Xanthomonas sp. with 77.38%and 77.72% respective inhibition at 100 μg/ml concentration.The present exploration has revealed that the extracts from fruit and stem bark of S. pubescens revealed potential antibacterial activity againstGram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria, which are validating the ethnomedicinal claims and this the first report of investigation of above extracts forits antibacterial activity.
      DOI : Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(4): 501-509 
      PubDate: 2014-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Land Suitability Evaluation for Cereal Crops: A Multicriteria Approach
           Using GIS at Parbatipur VDC, Chitwan, Nepal

    • Authors: B. Neupane, C.P. Shriwastav, S.C. Shah, K. Sah
      Abstract: A research was conducted to evaluate the suitability of soils of different land unit for cereal crops productions at Parbatipur VDC, Chitwan, Nepal with the integrated use of Geographical Information system (GIS) and Multi-criteria evaluation (MCE).Existing geodatabase information from National Land Use Project (NLUP) was used as data for this research. The database was used to derive crop suitability using vector based index model in GIS along with multi-criteria analysis. The research revealed that for rice cultivation, 1.06 %( 10.70ha) was highly suitable, 51.54 %( 515.89ha) was moderately suitable, 3.39% (33.987 ha) was marginally suitable but 28.28 %( 283.11 ha) was not suitable whereas for wheat cultivation, 7.6 %( 76.73ha) was highly suitable, 44.91% (449.53 ha) was moderately suitable and 4.6% (46.26ha) was marginally suitable, but 27.15% (27.14ha) was not suitable. Similarly, for maize cultivation, 12.07% (120.83ha) was highly suitable, 40.19% (402.25ha) was moderately suitable and 0.53% (5.37ha) was marginally suitable, but 31.54% (315.72ha) was not suitable for maize production. Suitability data of this VDC shows that maize and wheat was highly suitable than rice cultivation. But, the area not suitable for rice, wheat and maize must be allocated for alternative uses to achieve optimum productions and further there must be new research for alternative crops in VDC. Hence, this research is useful to farmers and VDC level planners for optimum crops production.
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(4): 493-500 
      PubDate: 2014-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Production, Purification and Standardization of Anticancerous Enzyme
           (L-Asparaginases) from Aspergillus Niger Using Soil Samples by Solid State

    • Authors: OM Fasalu Rahiman, Musambil Mohthash, U Salmanul Faris, TK Mohammed Muneersha, M Shejina
      Abstract: Biotechnology techniques can provide an unlimited and pure source of enzymes as an alternative to the harsh chemicals traditionally used in industry for accelerating chemical reactions. L-asparaginase is one among them, found in various plants, animals and bacterial cells. Lasparaginase is studied to be responsible for catalyzing the deamination of Asparagines to yield Aspartic acid and an ammonium ion, resulting in depletion of free circulatory Asparagines in plasma. Its use in therapeutics is found to be remarkable, especially for those specific cases where blood cells become cancerous, such as in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. In this study we have made an effort to isolate, identify and screen micro-organism (Aspergillus niger) for the production of anticancerous enzyme (L-asparaginases) by solid state fermentation process and the produced enzyme was purified and characterized for L-asparaginases. The aim of the study was to validate the solid fermentation process in terms of its reliability and feasibility for production of L-asparaginase enzyme. This method was found to be very cost effective and reliable when compared to the other expensive techniques used around the globe for enzyme production. Even though the product yield and purity is comparatively less in comparison with the other techniques it can be still used as a reliable technique for short scale enzyme production.
      DOI :  Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(4): 488-492 
      PubDate: 2014-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Comparative Foraging Behavior of Apis Cerana F. and Apis Mellifera L. in
           Rapeseed under Cage Condition in Chitwan, Nepal

    • Authors: Rameshwor Pudasaini, Resham Bahadur Thapa
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to determine the foraging behavior of Apis mellifera L. and Apis cerana F. in rapeseed under cage condition in Chitwan, Nepal during 2012-2013. This experiment showed that Apis cerana F. foraged extra 42 minute per day as compared to Apis mellifera L. Apis cerana F. were more attracted to nectar, whereas Apis mellifera L. were more attracted to pollen collection throughout the day. The activities, in into hives and out from hives, for both species were recorded more at 2:00 pm and least at 8:00 am. The highest in-out were observed at 2:00 pm on both species as Apis mellifera L. 44.33 bees entered into hives and 49.66 bees went out of hives, whereas lower number of Apis cerana F. 43.66 bees entered into hives and 48.16 bees were out of hives. Apis mellifera L. collect 1.22:1 and 0.41:1 pollen nectar ratio at 10:00 am and 4:00 am whereas at same hours Apis cerana collect 1.16:1 and 0.30:1 pollen nectar ratio. Apis cerana F. foraged significantly higher number of rapeseed flowers and plants as compared to Apis mellifera L. under caged condition. It shows that Apis cerana F. was more efficient pollinator as compared to Apis mellifera L. under caged condition.
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(4): 483-487  
      PubDate: 2014-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Estimation of Native Nutrient Supplying Capacity of Soil for Improving
           Wheat (Triticum Asestivum L.) Productivity in Chitwan Valley, Nepal

    • Authors: A.R. Adhikari, K. R. Adhikari, A.P. Regmi, A. McDonald
      Abstract: Three field experiments were conducted at farmer's field of Torikhet, Gopaljung and Kalyanpur of Chitwan Valley, Nepal during Nov 2011- April 2012 to assess N, P and K supplying capacity of soil. Each experimental site consists of four replications and five treatments laid out in RCB design. Among the five treatments, -N, -P and -K were set to estimate the inherent N, P and K supplying capacity of soil respectively. Highest uptake of N (100 Kg ha-1), P (21 Kg ha-1) and K (84 Kg ha-1) by wheat and highest native N (41 Kg ha-1), P (18 Kg ha-1) and K (72 Kg ha-1) supplying capacity of soil was recorded at Kalyanpur. Similarly, N, P and K required to produce one Mg of wheat grain was found highest in Kalyanpur. Based on the yield obtained in fully fertilized plot, target yield of 5 Mg ha-1 was set. Finally, N, P and K fertilizer needed were calculated on the basis of nutrient required for target yield, NPK supplying capacity of soil and recovery efficiency of NPK from fully fertilized plot. To obtain the target grain yield of 5 Mg ha-1, N: P: K at differential rate of 140: 30.5: 57 Kg ha-1, 140:27:53 Kg ha-1 and 120:22.5:38.5 Kg ha-1 has to be supplied from external source in Torikhet, Gopaljung and Kalyanpur respectively. This research outcome strengthens the fact that spatial variability for soil nutrient supplying exist across the farmer’s field. So it is necessary to estimate that variability for improving wheat productivity.
      DOI :  Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(4): 478-482 
      PubDate: 2014-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Partial Proteome Map of Campylobacter Jejuni Strain Nctc11168 by Gel-Free
           Proteomics Analysis

    • Authors: Zilun Shi, Chris Dawson, Stephen L.W. On, Malik Altaf Hussain
      Abstract: A proteome map of the foodborne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni NCTC11168 was analyzed using a state-of-the-art gel-free proteomic approach for the first time. A whole cell protein extract was prepared from the C. jejuni strain NCTC11168 grown in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth at 42°C under microaerobic conditions. A gel-free technique using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) was employed to create a protein expression profile of the strain. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to identify the proteins. Protein functionalities were searched to classify them. A total of 235 proteins were identified in the whole cell protein fraction of C. jejuni NCTC11168 cells using iTRAQ analysis. Functional grouping of the identified proteins showed that forty percent of these proteins were associated with energy metabolism, protein synthesis and genetic information processing. iTRAQ was faster, easier and proved more sensitive than two-dimensional gel-based proteomics approaches previously applied to C. jejuni, making it an attractive tool for further studies of cellular physiological response.
      DOI :  Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(4): 464-477 
      PubDate: 2014-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Profitability and Major Problems of Coffee Production in Palpa District,

    • Authors: Bibek Acharya, Shiva C. Dhakal
      Abstract: The survey was conducted in Palpa district of Nepal in 2013 to assess the profitability and major problems associated with coffee production. Barangdi, Boughapokharathok, Madanpokhara and Khaseauli Village development committees (VDCs) were selected for the survey. A household survey of 110 coffee growers was conducted. Primary data were collected through face to face interview, direct observation; secondary data were collected from different publications. Data was analysed by using SPSS V16, Microsoft Excel and STATA 12. It was found that the coffee contributes about 10 percent to the annual household income. The GM was found NRs. 6637.52 and net profit of NRs. 4783.52 per ropani and the profitability index of 1.47 shows the coffee business as profitable business. The major problems in the coffee production were the high insect pest attack such as red and white borer. About 63 percentage respondents had said that the insect pest (white borer) was the major problem followed by low market price of the fresh cherry. It shows that the coffee business may be the suitable and financially feasible business in the mid hills of Nepal and need to address the major problems associated in production.
      DOI :   Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(4): 460-463 
      PubDate: 2014-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Spectrophotometric Screening of Potent Bactericidal Property of Thevetia
           Peruviana Schum. Leaf and Fruit Rind Extracts on Clinical and Plant

    • Authors: Nazneen Rahman, Riaz Mahmood, Haseebur Rahman, Mir Haris
      Abstract: The development of multi drug resistance in human and plant pathogens, reconsidering the traditional medicines as antibacterial source and presence of promising phytochemicals in leaf and fruit rind of T. peruviana (S) (Nazneen et al., 2014) prompted the authors to take up the antibacterial evaluation of different extracts. Antibacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of various extracts of T. peruviana (S) were measured using methods of National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS).The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) spectrophotometric determination of active extracts has found that the MICs of all the active extracts lies between the range of 250 μg to 1250 μg and bactericidal concentration in a range of 500 to 1250 μg. The percentage of inhibition was analysed, where in among all the extracts tested against B. subtilis and E. coli, fruit upper liquid (FUL) exhibited highest inhibition percentage of 33.75% and 30.31 % at 500 μg/ml respectively. Similarly, fruit hexane (FH) extract has the highest inhibition of 15.60% against B. cereus at 750 μg/ml. The Xanthomonas sp. was susceptible to leaf chloroform (LC) with 32.29% of inhibition at 1000 μg/ ml. The activity index and total antimicrobial activity indicates the antibacterial action of extracts.The present investigations have revealed that among the extracts, the fruit rind extracts have most prominent inhibition abilities against tested bacteria, which are validating the use of this plant in traditional system of medicine and this is the first report of exploration of above extracts for their antibacterial activities against B. subtilis, B. cereus, E. coli and Xanthomonas sp.
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(4): 451-459 
      PubDate: 2014-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Study on Livelihood through Adaptation and Diversification in Flood Prone
           Areas in West Bengal

    • Authors: Debashis Sarkar, Sumantra Hazra
      Abstract: The study points out the need for third party intervention in promoting the livelihood patterns which are less exposed to the damaging effects of flood. Self-employment in small business or trading is a good option for households to supplement their streams of income. But such business even though required small capital, required at least some degree of training and skills development. Therefore, the financing and consultancies agencies can intervene. Promotion of ancestral occupation based on traditional skills and local level resources may be considered. Once again intervention of government and non-government organizations is highly required. Similarly, non-farm wage employment can also be promoted by introduction of “year round” public projects and employment guarantee schemes. Promotion of activity-wise micro financing, self-help groups may be involved. However, none of the areas as identified can be taken sufficient to substitute the flood risk prone livelihoods as most of them are directly or indirectly dependent on agriculture in the context of a farming community.
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(4): 446-450 
      PubDate: 2014-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • In Vivo Assessment of Antioxidants and Antihyperglycemic Effect of
           Barleria cristata leaves in Streptozotocin- Induced Diabetic Rats

    • Authors: Narmadha Rajasekaran, Gomathi Duraisamy, Kalaiselvi Manokaran, Devaki Kanakasapathi
      Abstract: Objective: Many new bioactive drugs isolated from plants having hypoglycaemic effects showed anti diabetic activity equal and sometimes even more potent than known oral hypoglycaemic agents. In this present study, designed to evaluate antihyperglycermic and antioxidants effect on ethanolic leaf extracts Barleria cristata (EtBc) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats at dose level 400mg/kg body weight for the treatment of 45 days. Method and materials: The experimental rats were randomly divided into five groups as a control, streptozotocin induced with diabetes (45mg/kg bw) without any treatment, treated with standard drug glibenclamide (1.25 mg/kg bw), EtBc (400 mg/kg bw) in diabetic induced rats and treated with EtBc alone without diabetic rats. At the end of 45th day animals were sacrificed, collect the serum, liver, kidney and pancreas for estimate the glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glycosylated hemoglobin, hemoglobin in serum, protein, enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in tissues. Results: After the administration of EtBc, blood glucose levels were showed significantly reduction (P<0.05) in diabetic rats and it has been observed alternation occured in body and organ weight and it was also normalized the serum level of glycemic profile like insulin, C-peptide, total hemoglobin and glycosylated hemoglobin levels similar to that of control rats. Antioxidants enzymes were return to back their levels as control in different tissues when compared to diabetic rats and also observed no significance difference between control and EtBc alone group rats at the end of 45th day. Therefore it was suggested that Barleria cristata may act by potentiation of pancreatic secretion of insulin or increasing glucose uptake by muscle cells. Conclusion: In this study, suggested the efficacy of Barleria cristata proved the maintenance of glucose homeostasis and may be used as a therapeutic agent in the management of diabetes mellitus.
      DOI : Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(4): 437-445 
      PubDate: 2014-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Association and Correlation between Temporomandibular Disorders and
           Psychological Factors in a Group of Dental Undergraduate Students

    • Authors: Divya Sood, Arun V Subramaniam, Tulsi Subramaniam
      Abstract: Aims/Objectives: To evaluate the prevalence and severity of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and presence of psychological factors (i.e.,anxiety and depression levels) in dental undergraduate students. Second purpose was to assess the association and correlation between TMD degree and psychological factors viz. anxiety and depression.Materials and methods: The sample comprised of 400 Dental undergraduatestudents aged 18- 25 years, including both the genders. TMD degree was evaluated using an anamnestic questionnaire (modified version of Helkimo’s anamnestic index). Morphologic occlusion was evaluated according to Angle classification. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to assess of levels of anxiety (HADSa) and depression (HADSd) in the dental undergraduate students.Results: Onbasisof the TMD anamnestic index, 74% of students were TMD free. 24.5% of subjects presented with mild degree of TMD and only 1.5% of subjects presented with moderate degree of TMD. According to the results obtained from HADSa, 35.3% of subjects presented with mild anxiety level, 13.8% with moderate anxiety level, and only 1.3% with severe anxiety level. According to the results obtained from HADSd, 10.3% of subjects presented with mild depression level and only 2.3% with moderate depression level. A definite association between TMD degree and Anxiety level (HADSa) was found. A definite association between TMD degree and Depression level (HADSd) was found. Therewas significant association between TMD degree and occlusion.Conclusions: On the basis of anamnestic index, this study revealed a 26% TMD prevalence in the dental undergraduate students included in the study; majority of cases being of mild degree. Both anxiety and depression were found to be associated with TMD degree/severity. Both anxiety and depression are weakly correlated with TMD in the present study.
      DOI : Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(4): 426-431 
      PubDate: 2014-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Identification and Characterization of Panama Wilt Causing Fungal Isolates
           to Musa Paradisiaca cv. Puttabale

    • Authors: Dr Venkatesh, Venkatarangaiah Krishna, Krishnappa Pradeepa, Santosh Kumar S Rajanna, Deeplanaik Nagaraja, Mohan Kumar, Santhosh Kumar
      Abstract: Musa paradisiaca L. (Musaceae) cultivar ‘Puttabale’ is an indigenous banana commonly cultivated in the farmyards of Chitradurga,Davanagere, Chikmagalur and Shivamogga district of Karnataka. The fruits are valued for delicious taste. This banana cultivar is highlysusceptible to Fusarium infection and the yield loss has estimated to 30-40% at standing stage. The corm tissue of Musa paradisiaca cv.Puttabale showing typical panama wilt symptoms were collected from pathogen infected banana farmyard of Bhadravati, Sagara, Shikaripura,Holehonnur, Soraba, Thirthahalli, Gonibeedu and Lakkavalli regions of Shivamogga district of Karnataka. These infected corms were cultureon PDA medium and examined carefully by morphological and molecular identification. Out of the eight fungal isolates, the colonies of fungalisolates collected from Bhadravati, Sagara, Holehonnur, Thirthahalli, Gonibeedu and Lakkavalli regions produced a dense white aerialmycelium that evenly spread on the growth medium similar to the colony texture of Fusarium species. Among these fungal isolates, thepathogen collected from Gonibeedu region showed the presence of sickle or rod shaped, four-celled macro conidiophores, round or ovalshaped chlamydospores and the BLASTn search result showed 99 % similarity with the sequences of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense(Foc). The only one fungal isolate showed the presence of actual panama wilt causing fungi.
      DOI : Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(4): 420-425 
      PubDate: 2014-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Estimation of Plant Growth Promoting Potential of Two Nickel Accumulating
           Morphotypes Isolated from River Hooghly on Indian Yellow Mustard (Brassica

    • Authors: Tanoy Mukherjee, Avijit Ghosh, Santanu Maitra
      Abstract: Plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) are known to influence plant growth by various direct or indirect mechanisms. Present study was conducted with an aim to estimate the PGPB potential of two nickel tolerant bacterial isolates from river Hooghly. Isolates (I-3) (Gram negative coccobacilli) and (II-1) (Gram positive rods) were observed, among a total of 22 other isolates, to tolerate and accumulate significant amounts of nickel and also have multiple Plant Growth Promoting (PGP) activities like IAA production and phosphate solubilization. Present study also shows that seeds of yellow mustard (Brassica hirta) inoculated with both the test isolates individually, significantly enhanced root and shoot growth and also protected the plant from the various phytotoxic effects of nickel.
      DOI : Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(4): 413-419 
      PubDate: 2014-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Estimation of variability and heritability for morphological traits and
           leaf rust severity in spring wheat

    • Authors: Rudra Bhattarai, Bedanand Chaudhary, Kiran Baral, Shukra Raj Shrestha, Surya Prasad Adhikari
      Abstract: The seed materials were received from National Wheat Research Program, Bhairahawa and field experiment was conducted at Regional Agricultural Research Station Tarahara during 2012 and 2013 in wheat growing season. The topography of the experimental site was 130 masl with sandy loam soil. The trial included 24 wheat genotypes laid out in alpha lattice design in eight sub blocks within two main blocks. The eastern region of Nepal has been facing the problem of sterility caused by different stresses during reproductive growth stage. So we need to develop the early maturing variety with high yielding potential that could escape the reproductive damage from rainfall, hot westerly wind and leaf rust epidemic. In this study, we identified BL3594, NL1026, NL297, BL3978 and NL1140 as early maturing wheat genotypes with 102, 102, 101, 97 and 102 days of maturity, respectively. The genotypes varied significantly for heading days, maturity days, plant height, spikes per meter square, grain per spikes and grain yield ton per hector. The most stable yield producing genotypes were BL3264, BL3535, BL3623, NL1135 and BL3978. The variety BL3978 had maturity duration of 97 days, even earlier than check variety NL297. The genotypes NL1093 and NL1094 had highest grain per spikes although had negative correlation coefficient with panicle length consequently led to the lower yield. The new genotypes like BL3978, BL3594 and NL1140 should be promote as appropriate varieties for terai region of Nepal.
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(4): 574-578 
      PubDate: 2014-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Effect of Carbon Sources on the Biomass Build-Up and Degradation of Rubber
           Processing Industry Effluent

    • Authors: K. Girish
      Abstract: Rubber processing industry effluent represents a serious environmental pollution problem especially for underground and surface water. Wastewater collected from rubber processing industry was characterized for their pollution characteristics. Analysis showed that the biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), total solids (TS), ammonia and phosphate were high when compared to effluent discharge standard for industrial wastewater. Four bacterial species were isolated from the wastes and were identified as Arthrobacter sp., Bacillus sp., Lactobacillus sp., and Pseudomonas sp. A bacterial consortium was constituted by mixing proportionately these four bacteria and used in effluent aerobic biotreatment. Complex carbon sources such as bagasse, corn-cob, rice straw, wheat bran, molasses, corn steep liquor, were screened for their effect on growth of the consortium constituted. Highest biomass production was in molasses followed by rice straw hydrolysate, wheat bran hydrolysate and bagasse hydrolysate. However, the inoculum grown on rice straw and wheat bran hydrolysate caused maximum degradation in terms of reduction in various parameters such as BOD, COD, TDS, TSS, NH4+ and PO43, about 70 to 80% reduction was observed. From the results of the present study it could be inferred that the constituted consortium could effectively be used for the treatment of effluents from rubber processing industry and rice straw and wheat bran hydrolysate could be used for mass production of effective consortium.
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(4): 579-584
      PubDate: 2014-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Effect of Different Diets on Biology of Corcyra Cephalonica (Stainton)
           under Laboratory Condition in Chitwan, Nepal

    • Authors: Gopal Bhandari, Rajendra Regmi, Jiban Shrestha
      Abstract: The experiments were conducted from 10th October, 2013 to 10th January, 2014 in Entomology Laboratory of National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal at 26±2ºC and 70±5% RH in order to assess diet performance on the biological parameters of Corcyra cephalonica (Stainton). Four cereals namely corn, rice, millet and wheat were tested solely and mixed with groundnut. Among the eight treatments, corn + groundnut was superior diet in almost biological parameters of C. cephalonica followed by millet + groundnut. The experiment showed that the corn + groundnut are biologically better option for production of robust eggs of C. cephalonica.
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(4): 585-588 
      PubDate: 2014-12-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Nutrient Analysis of Grass Species Consumed by Greater One-Horned
           Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros Unicornis) in Chitwan National Park, Nepal

    • Authors: S. Thakur, C.R. Upreti, K. Jha
      Abstract: The Greater One-horned Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) is found almost exclusively in Nepal and North-Eastern India. There have beenonly a few studies made on the food and the nutrient compositions of fodder species preferred by The Greater One- horned Rhinoceros. Thepresent study identifies the nutrient content of the fodder species consumed by One-horned rhinoceros which would be helpful to develop proper strategies for rhinoceros food management. For this altogether 8 grass species which were most preferred by rhinoceros were collected from Chitwan National Park. Systematic sampling was applied for sample collection and collected samples were taken to the Animal Nutrition Laboratory, Khumaltar for nutrient analysis. Among all the collected species the highest OM% was seen in Faank (93.98 ± 0.88) while Ash% and CP% was found to be highest in Eragrastic Tenella (13.67 ± 2.92) and Phragmatic karka (11.94 ± 2.26) respectively. Lowest NDF% was again seen in Eragrastic tenella (76.76 ± 2.93) and lowest ADF% and ADL% were found in Mala dubo with mean values (43.50 ± 6.86) and (6.41 ± 2.16) respectively showing high digestibility of these grasses. There were only slight variation in the EE% of the grass species withhighest mean value of (3.702 ± 1.73) of Imperata cylindrical to lowest mean value of (1.722 ± 0.11) of Eragrastic tenella. Highest energy was found in Faank (4181.90 ±1.10) and Calcium content was seen highest in Cynodon dactylon (1.30 ± 0.83).
      DOI : Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(4): 402-408 
      PubDate: 2014-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Comparative Study of an Enhanced Oil Recovery process with various
           chemicals for Naharkatiya Oil Field

    • Authors: Kalpajit Hazarika, Subrata Borgohain Gogoi
      Abstract: This paper reports the effect of using black liquor whose main constituent is Na- lignosulfonate, which is the effluent from Nagaon paper Mill, Jagiroad, Assam, along with Alkali and Co-surfactant in enhanced crude oil recovery from Upper Assam porous media. In this paper an attempt has been done to study the change in Inter Facial Tension (IFT) with different concentration of Surfactant and also a comparative study has been done determine the change in IFT with or without Alkali and Co-Surfactant. Increasing the surfactant concentration reduces the IFT, hence increases the recovery efficiency. Alkali changes the Wettability of reservoir rock and reduces the surfactant adsorption and also act as an in-situ surfactant production.
      DOI : Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(4): 432-436 
      PubDate: 2014-10-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
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