Journal Cover International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2091-2609
   Published by Nepal Journals Online Homepage  [74 journals]
  • Use of Crispr/Cas9 for Development of Disease Resistant Cultivars in Plant
           Breeding

    • Authors: Bikal Ghimire
      Pages: 403 - 409
      Abstract: Crop protection against pests and diseases is a major challenge in agriculture. Plant breeding is a key solution for the development of disease resistant cultivars. Gene editing is an indispensable part of plant breeding to obtain desirable traits in crops. CRISPR (Clustered Regular Interspaced Palindromic Repeats)/Cas9 (CRISPR- associated protein) is a recent breakthrough in gene editing technology. It can be utilized to exploit defensive mechanism in plants against pathogen attack with recognition and degradation of the invading pathogenic genes by bacterial immune system. Advances in plant breeding with integration of CRISPR/Cas9 have facilitated the production of cultivars with heritable resistance to viral and bacterial disease. CRISPR/Cas9 mediated genetically engineered resistance can be inherited to further generation of crops after segregation of Cas9/sgRNA transgene in F1 generation. The segregation of Cas9/sgRNA transgene prevents undesirable genome modification in successive generation and makes use of CRISPR/Cas9 safe in plant breeding. CRISPR/Cas9 proves itself as a fascinating tool to revolutionize plant breeding for the development of various disease resistant cultivars however, effects of CRISPR/Cas9 system on different physiological process of plants still needs to be studied.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(4): 403-409
      PubDate: 2017-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Use of Predators for the Biological control of Eriosoma lanigerum (wooly
           apple aphids) on apple

    • Authors: Jyotsna Nepal, Bikal Ghimire
      Pages: 410 - 414
      Abstract: Due to increase demand of organic products, biological control methods have gained interest all over the world. Eriosoma lanigerum, commonly known as Wooly apple aphid, is a serious pest of apple. The negative impacts of pesticides on environment and human life make Biological control an important model in the control of the Wooly apple aphid. Some of the biological control agents that have been used in the control of this pest are predators, parasitoids, nectar of flowers etc. The role of the parasitoid Aphelinus mali in the biological control of wooly aphid has been studied by many researchers and found that use of parasitoids Aphelinus mali is not effective when they attack WAA solely in apple orchards. However, efficiency of use of Aphelinus mali in control of WAA is higher when these parasitoids are used along with natural predators (Gontijo, 2011).In recent days, there has been increasing use of predators for the control of aphids. This review focuses on some of the mostly used predators like syrphids, lacewings, earwigs etc. and their role in WAA management. This review focuses on the feeding habits of predators used as biocontrol agents against WAA as well as the occurrence time of these predators before their integration in management practices. Also; this review provides insight into the integration of predators along with other natural enemies for productive control of WAA. This review can be source of information for producers, as well as researchers who are focusing on organic production of apples and integrated wooly aphid management.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(4): 410-414
      PubDate: 2017-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Identification and Characterization of Green Microalgae, Scenedesmus sp.
           MCC26 and Acutodesmus obliquus MCC33 Isolated From Industrial Polluted
           Site Using Morphological and Molecular Markers

    • Authors: Prakash Sarwa, Sanjay Kumar Verma
      Pages: 415 - 422
      Abstract: Two unicellular green microalgae, were isolated from Amani Shah Nallah (Jaipur, India) that receives discharge of dyeing industries. Preliminary morphological characterization using light microscopy showed ovoid, fusiform shape of cells with single to two celled coenobia in a culture suspension. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analyses depict abundant chloroplast located at the periphery of the cell, a pyrenoid as well as nucleus is visible in the centre. A well developed cell wall with many layers is also evident in TEM. Phylogenetic position and genetic variabilty among the isolated microalgal strains were investigated by 18S rDNA sequence analysis. The results suggest that the isolated microalgae belongs to family chlorophyceae and corresponds to genus Scenedesmus and genus Acutodesmus. Growth profile of both microalgal strains showed a typical sigmoid curve with specific growth rate of µmax, 0.839 day-1 and 0.654 day-1 for Scenedesmus sp. and Acutodesmus obliquus, respectively. The strains were allotted with MCC numbers by IARI, New Delhi as MCC26 for Scenedesmus sp.  and MCC33 for Acutodesmus obliquus.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(4): 415-422
      PubDate: 2017-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Effect Of Planting Geometry On Growth Of Rice Varieties

    • Authors: Mohan Mahato, Bishnu Bilas Adhikari
      Pages: 423 - 429
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted under humid subtropical agro-climatic condition of Nepal during rainy season of 2014. The experiment was laid out in to two factor Randomized Complete Block Design with  three replications consisting three drought tolerant rice varieties (Sukhadhan-4, Sukhadhan-5 and Radha-4) and four planting geometry (15 cm × 10 cm, 15 cm × 15 cm, 20 cm × 15 cm and 20 cm × 20 cm). The results revealed that the highest plant height and maximum leaf area index was recorded in planting geometry 15 cm × 10 cm in all growth stages. Whereas, planting geometry 20 cm × 15 cm produced the maximum number of tiller m-2 in all growth stage.  While planting geometry 20 cm × 15 cm and 20 cm × 20 cm produced statistically similar crop growth rate and dry matter accumulation in all stage of growth. Regarding the varieties, Sukhadhan- 4 showed highest plant height up to 75 DAT and plant height was statistically similar to Radha - 4 in 60 and 75 DAT. But maximum number of tiller m-2, leaf area index, crop growth rate and dry matter accumulation were recorded in Sukhadhan – 5 varieties. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(4): 423-429
      PubDate: 2017-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Effect of Supplementing Rice Bran and Wheat Bran with Probiotics on Growth
           Performance of Khari Kids

    • Authors: Ramchandra Pudasaini, Bigya Dhital
      Pages: 430 - 433
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted in IAAS, Livestock Farm, Rampur Chitwan, Nepal in order to assess the growth performance of kids feeding diets supplemented with probiotics. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications and five feeding supplemented diets with probiotics treatments. Parameters studied were live weight gain, body measurements and economic analysis. The result of this study showed the highest cumulative mean live weight (13.24 kg) in the treatment group feeding mixture of rice bran and wheat bran with probiotics. Fortnightly and daily body weight gains were also highest in the treatment group having mixture of rice bran and wheat bran with probiotics. The highest (11.74cm) overall mean monthly heart girth was observed in the treatment group feeding mixture of rice bran and wheat bran with probiotics. The mean monthly cumulative neck girth, body length and wither height of kids did not differ significant (p>0.05) among treatments. However, the highest overall mean monthly cumulative neck girth (6.71cm), wither height (10.14cm) and body length (14.62cm) was observed in probiotics supplemented treatment groups. Highest (1.61) benefit cost ratio was obtained from goats reared on feeding mixture of rice bran and wheat bran with Probiotics and lowest (1.008) in wheat bran without probiotics. The result of the study thus suggests that feeding of rice bran and wheat bran with probiotics is beneficial in terms of growth rate and cost of production.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(4): 430-433
      PubDate: 2017-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • A New Record of the Pseudolaguvia nubila (Siluriformes: Erethistidae) from
           Baandhkhola (Stream) in Central Nepal

    • Authors: Asha Rayamajhi, M. Arunachalam
      Pages: 434 - 441
      Abstract: In this study, we describe a miniature sisorid catfish of the family Erethistidae, as a new distributional record of Pseudolaguvia nubila from the Baandhkhola (stream), a tributary of Narayani River inCentral Nepal. Pseudolaguvia nubila shows its distribution to Nepal is distinguished from its congeners by combination of characters, such as- two broad and distinct yellowish vertical bands at the origin of dorsal fin and anal fin, smooth outer edge of the dorsal fin spine, dorsal fin spine length 13.23-17.60 % SL, pectoral fin length 24.89-26.27 % SL, pectoral fin spine length 18.39-19.48 % SL and body depth at anus 17.22-18.69 % SL.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(4): 434-441
      PubDate: 2017-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Comparison of Feeding Value of Some Popular Tree Fodders for Goats in the
           Mid-hill Region of Nepal

    • Authors: Tulasi Prasad Paudel, Devi Prasad Adhikari, Ram Prasad Ghimire
      Pages: 442 - 448
      Abstract: Large numbers of species of tree fodder are being used as green roughage source for goats in several farming systems. A study was carried out at Goat Research Station, Bandipur, Nepal in order to compare the feeding value of commonly used tree fodder leaves in mid-hills of Nepal. Altogether five treatments; tree fodder leaves of Ficus semicordata, Shorea robusta, Ficus glaberrima and Ficus lacor and mixed fodder as the conventional practices of the farmers were evaluated in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. Total of 30 male goats were used for the experiment in five groups, 6 for each treatment. The subsequent experiment was carried out to determine the nutrient digestibility of the tree fodder leaves by using fecal collection method. Nutrient composition, voluntary intake and nutrient digestibility of the fodder leaves and growth performance of goats were monitored. Crude protein (CP), total ash (TA), organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), acid detergent lignin (ADL), hemicelluloses and cellulose proportion were better for F. glaberrima and F. lacor leaves, whereas the digestibility of those nutrients were better for F. semicordata leaves and moderate for F. glaberrima and S. robusta. Voluntary fodder dry matter intake was highest for F. glaberrima and least for mixed fodders. Growth performance of goats was higher for F. lacor and F. glaberrima than other tree fodder leaves and mixed fodders. The leaves of F. lacor and F. glaberrima had shown better feeding value than the conventional practices of farmers, mixed fodders. The leaves of S. robusta and F. semicordata were observed similar with the mixed fodders for their feeding value.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(4): 442-448     
      PubDate: 2017-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Association and Path Coefficient Analysis of Grain Yield and Its
           

    • Authors: Manoj Kandel, Arjun Bastola, Pradeep Sapkota, Omprakash Chaudhary, Pratiksha Dhakal, Pushpa Chalise
      Pages: 449 - 453
      Abstract: Forty-one wheat genotypes were tested in randomized complete block design with three replications at experimental farm of Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science Paklihawa, Rupendehi, Nepal in 2014 spring season. The objective of this study was undertaken to estimate the correlation and path coefficient of yield and its contributing traits The data showed that the grain yield had significant associated with biomass and significant correlation with number of effective tillers (0.36*), thousand grain weight (0.376*) and harvest index (0.37*). Path coefficient analysis revealed maximum positive direct contribution towards yield by biomass (0.94) and harvest index (0.3).The study suggested that these traits may serve as effective selection attributes during breeding program for yield improvement in wheat.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(4): 449-453.
      PubDate: 2017-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Management of Purple Blotch Complex of Onion in Indian Punjab

    • Authors: Ritesh Kumar Yadav, Amarjit Singh, Sandeep Jain, Ajmer Singh Dhatt
      Pages: 454 - 465
      Abstract: Six systemic fungicides viz.,  Kitazin 48 EC (iprobenfos), Tilt 25 EC (propiconazole), Folicur 25 EC (tebuconazole), Score 25 EC (difenoconazole), Amistar Top 325 SC (azoxystrobin 18.2% + difenoconazole 11.4%) and Nativo 75 WG  (trifloxystrobin 25% + tebuconazole 50%), and two non-systemic fungicides viz., Indofil M-45 75 WP (mancozeb) and Kocide 77 WP (copper hydroxide), were evaluated under in vitro and field conditions for their efficacy to manage purple blotch complex of onion caused by Alternaria porri and Stemphylium vesicarium. Field efficacy of  the fungicides at different concentrations were determined in controlling the purple blotch complex of onion under artificial epiphytotic conditions on bulb and seed crop (cultivar PRO-6) during the Rabi season 2014-2015 and 2015-2016, respectively. The triazole fungicides, tebuconazole and difenoconazole proved superior in inhibiting growth of A. porri and S. vesicarium under in vitro conditions, respectively. Further, foliar sprays (3 for bulb crop and 4 for seed crop) of tebuconazole 25 EC (Folicur) @ 0.1 per cent at fortnightly interval most effectively managed purple blotch complex of onion under field conditions with highest Benefit: Cost ratio (8.75:1 and 88.7:1) in bulb and seed crop, respectively. Seed-to-seed method of onion seed production recorded significantly lower disease severity and higher seed yield than that of bulb-to-seed method under natural epiphytotic conditions. The present findings can be instrumental in devising strategy for the integrated management of A. porri, S. vesicarium singly as well as in complex, serious limiting biotic factors in onion production. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(4): 554-565
      PubDate: 2017-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Sero-Prevalence of Brucellosis in Pigs of Bhaktapur, Kavre and Banke
           Districts of Nepal

    • Authors: Shilu Sharma, Doj Raj Khanal, Yuvraj Panth
      Pages: 466 - 469
      Abstract: Brucellosis; a zoonotic disease which is caused by Brucella sp. viz; abortus, melitensis, ovis, canis, suis, in Nepal is regarded as one of the occupational and public health hazards for veterinarians, animal attendants, dairy man, slaughter-house workers, butchers and meat sellers. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of brucellosis in pigs of Bhaktapur, Kavre and Banke districts of Nepal. Serum samples of 231 pigs were collected purposively of which, 78 samples were from Bhaktapur, 85 from Kavre and 68 from Banke districts. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of the pigs and were centrifuged to separate the serum from the blood. The separated serum samples were stored at -20°C in the NARC lab till the test was done. Out of 231 samples, 3.90% (9/231) of samples were found to have sero-positivity towards brucellosis by using indirect ELISA test through ID Vet iELISA kit 2016. Fisher exact test was used to find association between variables. There was no significant differences (p>0.05) on sex-wise prevalence. This study shows a potential threat to the public health sector of the country along with the degradable impacts on animal health including the economy of farmers. Thus, timely implementation of appropriate preventive and control strategies should be adopted to eradicate the disease.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(4): 466-469
      PubDate: 2017-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Effect of Seed Priming on Maize in the Western Hills of Nepal

    • Authors: Keshab Babu Koirala
      Pages: 470 - 478
      Abstract: With a view to identify the effect of seed priming technology on maize in the western hills of Nepal, five different varieties of maize including farmers' local were tested during summer seasons of 2004 at three sites of Gorkha, Palpa and Myagdi districts using mother-baby scheme with primed and non-primed treatments. Results of mother trials combined over locations revealed that primed treatments silked three days earlier and matured six days prior to non-primed counterparts. Significant increase in grain yield, average of 11.6% and maximum of 27.8% was recorded. Farmers' response in baby trials combined over locations showed that plant stand after germination in primed treatment was found better as reported by 80% of the respondents. 
      PubDate: 2017-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • A Biomass Upscale System for the Marine Dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima
           and the Production of Bioactive Lipophilic Toxins

    • Authors: Ioanna Varkitzi, Kalliopi Pagou, Christina Pyrgaki, Ioannis Hatzianestis
      Pages: 479 - 485
      Abstract: Biotechnological applications of toxic marine dinoflagellates include seafood safety and biomedical, pharmaceutical and research purposes of their toxins among other bioproducts and bioactive compounds that they produce. The supply of sufficient quantities of phycotoxins for investigational uses remains in demand. Some of these toxins, available in small amounts, are quite expensive while their chemical synthesis is complex and costly. However, some quantities of these toxins could be produced with mass cultures of the appropriate dinoflagellates, which are however difficult to handle. Prorocentrum lima is a cosmopolitan marine dinoflagellate, which synthesizes toxins that cause a diarrheic syndrome to humans through the consumption of contaminated shellfish and fish (Diarrheic Shellfish Poisoning, DSP). The aim of this study was to design and develop a biomass upscale system for the production of the lipophilic toxins okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin 1 (DTX1) from the produced biomass of Prorocentrum lima. In our study, P. lima was grown in large scale semi-continuous cultures under controlled laboratory conditions. The maximum biomass produced was 20690 cells/mL. Maximum toxin production was 63.66 ng/mL for OA and 8.07 ng/mL for DTX1. Toxin quota in P. lima cells was 88.7% OA and 11.3% DTX1. The produced culture volume was 300 L and the total volume capacity of the upscale system could reach 500 L.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(4): 479-485
      PubDate: 2017-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Synergistic Effect of Combined Antibiotic and Methanol Extract of
           Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf Against Staphylococcus aureus and
           Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    • Authors: Fifi Mohammed Reda, YA El-Zawahry, AR Omar
      Pages: 486 - 497
      Abstract: A total of seventy-five medical specimens were collected from different patients admitted to Zagazig university hospital, Egypt. The selected bacterial isolates were distributed as 45 Gram negative bacterial isolates (60%) and 30 Gram positive bacterial isolates (40%). The most effective antibiotic was gentamycin (76%) followed by amikacin and nitrofurantoin. The multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacterial isolates were selected and identified to four groups; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The selected isolates were screened for their capability of biofilm, hemolysins, lecithinase and protease production. S. aureus AM23 and P. aeruginosa AM41 were selected as the highest biofilm and degrading enzymes producers. Furthermore, twenty-four methanolic and aqueous crude extracts derived from different medicinal plants in Egypt were screened for their antibacterial activity against both selected MDR strains. Methanolic extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaf showed the greatest effect on the tested bacteria. Also, there was a synergistic effect of combined E. camaldulensis leaf extract and antibiotics (Gentamycin and Ceftriaxone) against tested organisms. Transmission electron microscopy showed changes in cell shapes, size, contents and cell envelop of antimicrobials treated bacterial cells compared to the control. Our findings proved that the leaf extracts of E. camaldulensis had great potential as antimicrobial agents in the treatment of infectious organisms.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(4): 486-497
      PubDate: 2017-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Field Assessment of Onion Genotypes for Resistance against Purple Blotch
           Complex (Alternaria porri And Stemphylium vesicarium) under Artificial
           Epiphytotic Conditions in Indian Punjab

    • Authors: Ritesh Kumar Yadav, Amarjit Singh, Ajmer Singh Dhatt, Sandeep Jain
      Pages: 498 - 504
      Abstract: A total of forty one genotypes of onion were evaluated for their relative response to purple blotch complex caused by Alternaria porri and Stemphylium vesicarium under artificial epiphytotic condition in field during Rabi 2014-2015 and 2015-2016. Significant variation in disease severity among the onion genotypes was found over two years but the pooled analysis revealed that most of the variations were due to genotype x year interaction. None of the genotypes exhibited resistance to the disease complex. Of the test genotypes, eighteen were found moderately susceptible while twenty one were found susceptible to the disease complex. Two genotypes viz., Punjab Naroya and OSR-1364 exhibited highly susceptible reaction. However, six genotypes viz., P-96, P-30, P-121, OSR-1359, P-98 and OSR-1370 showed superior yield performance. Purple blotch complex exhibited highly significant negative correlation of 0.71 and 0.67 with fresh bulb yield and bulb size, respectively. Cluster analysis of onion genotypes was performed based on disease and yield variables and the genotypes were furthered grouped into five clusters based on average values of disease and yield variables.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(4): 498-504 
      PubDate: 2017-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Identification of Resistant Genotypes on Rice against Blast Disease under
           Field Condition at Rampur, Chitwan

    • Authors: Tirtha Raj Rijal, Govinda Bahadur Hamal, Purushhotam Jha, Keshab Babu Koirala
      Pages: 505 - 510
      Abstract: Blast disease is considered as a major limiting factor in the global rice production because of its wide distribution and destructiveness and it has been causing significant yield loss in all rice growing areas of Nepal. Host resistance is the most desirable means of managing blast, especially in developing countries. Considering the importance of this disease field screening experiment was conducted to identify resistant rice genotypes against this disease. A total of 314 and 346 rice genotypes with resistant (Sabitri) and susceptible checks (Sankarika) were evaluated under epyphytotic conditions during 2016 and 2017 summer seasons at Rampur, respectively.  During 2016 disease severity varied from 1 to 9 and only five genotypes;   Sabitri, IR 12L 110, WAS122-IDSA14-WASB-FKRI, IR 10F 559and IR 10F 616 were resistant, 30 moderately resistant, 150 susceptible and 129 highly susceptible against blast disease. Similarly during 2016 out of 346 genotypes, 23 resistant as ARIZE SWIFT GOLD, IR95784-21-1-1-2, NR2169-10-4-1-1-1-1-1-2, NR2169-10-2-3-1-1-1-1-1, NR2181-165-1-1-1-1-1-1-1, NR2167-48-5-1-2-1-1, NR2171-2-1-1-3-1-1-2, NR2170-5-5-1-6-1-1-3-1, NR2170-31-1-1-5-1-1-1-1, NR2167-41-1-1-3-1, NR2172-34-1-1-1-1-1-1-1, Sabitri, IR82589-B-B-114-3, IR79913-B-238-3-3, IR93823-36, IR08L 152, IR82589-B-B-51-4, IR09F 434, IR55423-01,  IR94391-131-353-19-B-1-1-1-1-1, NR2154-8-1-1-1-1-1, NR 2124-43-3-1-1-1, NR2160-68-1-1-1-1-1., 72 moderately resistant, 191 susceptible and 155 were highly susceptible. Most of the highly susceptible genotypes were knocked down at the time of disease scoring.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(4): 505-510
      PubDate: 2017-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of Grain Yield of Heat Stress Resilient Maize Hybrids in Nepal

    • Authors: Keshab Babu Koirala, Yagya Prasad Giri, Tirtha Raj Rijal, Pervez Haider Zaidi, Ajanahalli Ramaiaha Sadananda, Jiban Shrestha
      Pages: 511 - 522
      Abstract: Midhills, foot hills and river basin areas of are generally under spring maize cultivation. These areas along with the areas from Terai and Inner Terai where spring and early summer maize are grown are the most affected from heat stress. Identification and selection of suitable varieties and traits for high temperature tolerance is vital to produce heat resilient genotypes.With a view to identify high yielding heat stress resilient maize hybrids, genotypes received from International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT) were evaluated in alpha lattice design with two to three replications at Rampur, Nepalgunj and Surkhet in 2013/014, 2014/015 and 2015/016. Total 57 trials consisting of 7764 maize hyrbids were evaluated under heat stress conditions. At Nepalgunj and Surkhet, trials were planted in March/April. Out of the tested genotypes, 24 hybrids were found promising based on grain yield, plant and ear height. These 24 hybrids along with four National Maize Research Program (NMRP) developed and two multi-national companies’ hybrids as checks were tested in multilocation trials at Dumarwana, Nijgadh, Nawalparasi and Rampur in 2014/015. Out of these 24 hybrids, eight were selected and tested during 2015/016 in Dumarwana, Nijgadh, Nawalparasi, Anandapur and Rampur. Based on results combined over years and locations CAH-151 (8629 kg ha-1) and CAH-153 (8955 kg ha-1) were registered for general cultivation as Rampur Hybrid-8 and Rampur Hybrid-10, respectively. Other promising hybrids were CAH-1511 (8800 kg ha-1) followed by CAH-1515 (8678 kg ha-1), RML-95/RML-96 (8486 kg ha-1), CAH-1513 (8258 kg ha-1) and RML-86/RML-96 (7544 kg ha-1), respectively. Stability analysis revealed that CAH-151, CAH-153, CAH-1515, CAH-1511 and RML-95/RML-96 are stable hybrids having good performance.
      PubDate: 2017-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Ganoderma Lucidum and
           Assessment of Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity

    • Authors: Milan Poudel, Rabin Pokharel, Sudip K.C., Suvash Chandra Awal, Rajaram Pradhananga
      Pages: 523 - 531
      Abstract: There is an increasing interest these days in the green route of synthesis of metal nanoparticles using plant extract, fungus and bacterial- mediated eco-friendly materials. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized using an intracellular extract of Ganoderma lucidum, a mushroom from Nepal then characterization of silver nanoparticles was performed. The Ag-NPs thus formed show surface plasmonic resonance with a maximum absorption band at 420 nm. Their crystalline nature was confirmed as a face-centered cubic structure by the XRD, Furthermore, SEM revealed that they were in the size range of 10-30 nm and were spherical in shape. The possible biomolecule involved in the reduction and stabilization of Ag-NPs were believed to be oxidized polyphenol, and carbonyl group, amino acid residue. Ag-NPs exhibit good antioxidant activity but showed low antioxidant in comparison to the fungal extract alone, which was studied using DPPH antioxidant assay. The effect of the colloidal silver nanoparticles solution against six human pathological bacteria was carried out by Disc diffusion method. The zone of maximum inhibition was seen in Bacillus subtilis (17.0 ± 0.13 mm) and least effective against Escherichia coli (10.1 ± 0.2 mm). Further, the results showed that Ag-NPs in combination with antibiotics have better antibacterial effect as compared with Ag-NPs alone. The maximum effect with a 3.2 and 5.3 fold increase was seen in Gentamicin and Streptomycin respectively providing the synergistic role of Ag-NPs. The results of antimicrobial studies indicated that the Ag-NPs are the metal of choice and can be effectively used in combination with antibiotics in order to improve their efficiency against various pathogenic microbes. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(4): 523-531
      PubDate: 2017-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of Maize Genotypes against Southern Leaf Blight (Bipolaris
           Maydis) During Summer Seasons at Rampur, Chitwan

    • Authors: Tirtha Raj Rijal, Keshab Babu Koirala, Mina Karki
      Pages: 532 - 536
      Abstract: Maize genotypes were screened at research field of National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Chitwan on 20 maize genotypes during 2015 and 2016 summer season with the objective of identification of resistant genotypes against southern leaf blight caused by Bipolaris maydis. Field experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications. Disease scoring was done as percentage of leaf area infected using 1-5 rating scale. In both the years among the tested genotypes, disease severity and grain yield varies significantly. None of the genotypes reacted for resistant whereas four genotypes; 05SADVI, BGBYPOP, RAMS03F08 and RML-32/RML-17 were moderately resistant over the years. For grain yield most of the tested genotypes produced comparatively lower grain yield however RML-32/RML-17 was superior for grain yield (3.1 t/ha) over the years. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(4): 532-536
      PubDate: 2017-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Response of Maize to the Soil Application of Nitrogen and Phosphorous
           Fertilizers

    • Authors: Arati Sapkota, Ram Kumar Shrestha, Devraj Chalise
      Pages: 537 - 541
      Abstract: Poor nutrient management is one of the key factors contributing to decline in the productivity of maize in Nepal. Few studies have been done on developing site and variety specific fertilizer recommendation. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted at National Maize Research Program (NMRP) Rampur, Chitwan during winter season in September 2016 to study the response of hybrid maize (RML95/RML96) to different doses of soil application of nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P). The treatments included were 120:60, 120 :( 40+20), 160:60, 160 :( 40+20), 200:60, 200 :( 40+20), 240:60, and 240 :( 40+20) N: P kg ha-1. Potassium fertilizer was fixed and applied as per the Government recommendation i.e., 40 kg K ha-1.Eight treatments were replicated three times in randomized complete block design and maize was planted in six rows of four meter long plot. The research findings revealed that each level of N significantly increased grain yield up to 240 kg N ha-1. The grain yield (8.8 t ha-1) obtained under 240 kg N ha-1 was significantly higher than that obtained under 120,160 and 200 kg N ha-1. However, the results revealed that split application of P failed to bring about any significant difference in the grain yield as well as yield parameters of maize. We can, thus conclude that the addition of increasing rate of N increases the yield and yield attributing characters of maize.  Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(4): 537-541
      PubDate: 2017-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Effect of Mother Plant Nutrition on Seed Quality of Wheat (Triticum
           aestivum.L) in Central Terai Region of Nepal

    • Authors: Prakash Paneru, Birendra Kumar Bhattachan, Lal Prasad Amgain, Suman Dhakal, Bisheswar Prasad Yadav, Pankaj Gyawaly
      Pages: 542 - 547
      Abstract: Seed quality is the major concern for future crop production which largely depends on the nutrient we applied. To evaluate the effect of different doses of nitrogen and phosphorus on yield and seed quality of wheat an experiment was conducted during 2014/15 at agronomy research block of Agriculture and Forestry University. The experiment was designed on randomized complete block experiment with four levels of Nitrogen (0, 50, 100, and 150 kg N/ha) and Phosphorus (0, 25, 50, 75 kg P205/ha) Lab experiment was conducted to evaluate the germination and vigor test of the progeny seeds obtained from the mother plant. Highest grain yield (3.64t/ha) was associated with 100 kg N/ha which was statically similar with 150 kg N/ha, similarly highest grain yield (3.14t/ha) was associated with 75 kg P/ha which was at par with 50 kg P/ha and 25 kg P/ha. Highest germination percentage was associated with 150 kg N/ha (94.08) and 75 kg P/ha (93.66) Highest vigor was observed (36.5) at 100 kg N/ha which was at par with 150 kg N/ha whereas highest vigor was obtained at 50 kg P/ha (35.77) which was at par with 75 kg P/ha (35.71) Gross return, Net return and Benefit Cost ratio was highest at 100 kg N/ha which was at par with 150 kg N/ha. Similarly highest gross return (104.9 thousands) was observed at 75 kg P/ha, highest net income (54.81 thousands), and benefit cost ratio (2.105) was observed with 50 kg P/ha. Therefore for the better yield, good economic return and good seed quality application of nitrogenous fertilizers at 100 kg N/ha and phosphorus at 50 kg P/ha is useful under Chitwan condition.
      PubDate: 2017-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Risk Factors of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    • Authors: Sita Paudel
      Pages: 548 - 554
      Abstract: Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis has been increased worldwide which is a severe problem. A case-control study was carried out among 50 MDR-TB cases and 63 drug susceptible controls to identify risk factors associated with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in Lumbini Zone. Irregularity in taking medicine (OR=2.36), large family size (OR=2.40), farming as occupation (OR=2.83), history of TB and bovine at home (OR=6.5) were statistically associated with MDR-TB. Most of the MDR-TB cases were males (82%) and individual with the age group 21-30 years (40%) were highly infected with MDR-TBInt. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(4): 548-554
      PubDate: 2017-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • A Case Study on Ascites of Hepatic Origin and Their Proper Management in a
           Male German Shepherd Dog

    • Authors: Bharata Regmi, Manoj Kumar Shah
      Pages: 555 - 558
      Abstract: A male German shepherd dog of 11 months was presented to HART Clinic, Pokhara with the history of abdominal swelling, respiratory distress, lethargy, anorexia and weakness. Physical examination revealed dyspnea, pale mucous membrane, and undulating movement (thrills) of fluid on tapping the abdomen. Fecal sample collected for assessing the severity of endoparasites which was found negative. The hematological study showed an increase in numbers of neutrophils, while there were decreased erythrocytes and hemoglobin concentration. The biochemical analysis resulted in an elevated SGOT, SGPT level but decrease in total protein level. Ascitic fluid collected from abdominal paracentesis on examination revealed transudate fluid with serum-albumin ascetic gradient (SAAG) >1.1 gm/dl suggesting ascites due to portal hypertension (96% accuracy) caused by Liver cirrhosis. The dog was diagnosed as ascites of hepatic origin resulting portal hypertension and hypoproteinemia. The abdominocentesis was performed to drain the ascetic fluid followed by albumin and normal saline administration. The dog was further treated with antibiotic, diuretic, amino acid and liver tonics along with protein rich but salt free diet. The dog showed remarkable improvement with gradual reduced in abdominal distention and normalization of the appetite after 7 days of treatment.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(4): 555-558
      PubDate: 2017-12-24
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 4 (2017)
       
 
 
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