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Journal Cover   International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology
  [1 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2091-2609
   Published by Nepal Journals Online Homepage  [62 journals]
  • Host Preference of Epilachna Beetle, Epilachna dodecastigma (Wied.) among
           Cucurbitaceous Vegetables

    • Authors: M. Asafuddaullah, M.M. Uddin, K.S. Islam, M.T.H. Howlader, M.M. Rahman
      Abstract: A series of experiments were carried out at the field and laboratory of the Department of Entomology, Bangladesh Agricultural University to determine the host preference of Epilachna beetle, Epilachna dodecastigma (Wied.) among four cucurbitaceous crops viz. cucumber, bottle Gourd, sweet Gourd and bitter Gourd. Three varieties of each crop were tested. Data on insect incidence, infestation, food consumption and fecundity of E. dodecastigma were collected. The highest number of Epilachna beetle was recorded on cucumber and the lowest was on bottle Gourd both in open field and in net cage condition. Among the varieties, the highest insect incidence was recorded on Sitol Sosa and the lowest was on BARI Lau-4 both in open field and in net cage. The highest leaf and twig infestation was found on cucumber crop and its’ Sitol Sosa variety, while the lowest was on bottle Gourd crop and its' BARI Lau-4 variety in both open field and in net cage. The Epilachna beetle showed the similar host preference in case of daily food consumption and oviposition rate both in net cage and laboratory condition. Thus, considering the insect incidence, infestation, food consumption and fecundity, the crop cucumber and the tested Sitol Sosa variety appeared to be the most preferred host for Epilachna beetle.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(2): 352-358
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v3i2.12809 
      PubDate: 2015-06-26
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
       
  • Optimization Studies on Cellulase Production from Bacillus Anthracis and
           Ochrobactrum Anthropic (YZ1) Isolated from Soil

    • Authors: Mohammad Badrud Duza, S.A. Mastan
      Abstract: The present study was carried out to demonstrate the optimization of growth conditions of bacteria with high cellulase activity. Cellulose degrading bacteria were isolated from soil samples collected from different areas of Guntur district, A.P. The bacteria were isolated using serial dilution and pour plate methods. The isolated bacteria were identified by morphological, biochemical and molecular procedures. The isolated bacterial species were screened for cellulase production in sub-merged fermentation process. The two tested bacterial species showed maximum yield for cellulase production. These two bacteria were identified as Bacillus anthracis and Ochrobactrum anthropi (YZ1). Supplementation of glucose, peptone, tyrosine and EDTA to the fermentation medium is favoured enzyme secretion. The optimum pH and temperature for the activity of crude enzyme was 8 and 45°C, respectively for Ochrobactrum anthropi (YZ1) while for Bacillus anthracis, it was 8 and 4°C, respectively.14% of inoculum level and 96 h of incubation period showed the maximum yield by both the species bacteria for cellulase production. The results of present study indicated that favorable fermentation conditions and the selection of a suitable growth medium played a key role in the production of cellulase from newly isolated Bacillus anthracis and Ochrobactrum anthropi (YZ1).Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(2): 272-284
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v3i2.12616 
      PubDate: 2015-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
       
  • Electrochemical Studies of o- and p- Anisidine

    • Authors: Richa Sharma, Sushma Dave
      Abstract: Electrochemical oxidation of methyl substituted aniline (anisidine) has been done on both gold and platinum electrode using cyclic voltammetry. The results were compared in different supporting electrolytes such as KCl, KNO3, H2SO4, HCl. Effect of pH was observed on electrochemical oxidation of o- & p- anisidine at gold and platinum electrode. During various scan single oxidation peak during first forward scan with no corresponding cathodic peak was obtained while a new anodic cathodic couple peak appears in subsequent scan obtained. Kinetic parameters like heterogeneous rate constant, transfer co-efficient and diffusion co-efficient were also calculated. A sensitive method was developed for estimation of micro quantities of anisidine by linear sweep voltammetry and hydrodynamic voltammetry.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(2): 267-271
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v3i2.12615 
      PubDate: 2015-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
       
  • Rhizoremediation of Petrol Engine Oil Using Biosurfactants Producing
           Microbial Consortium in Mustard Crop

    • Authors: Govind Kumar, Rajesh Kumar, Anita Sharma
      Abstract: Contamination of soil / water resources by petroleum products poses severe threats to underground water and soil quality. In the present study biosurfactant producing bacterial cultures were used to degrade petrol engine oil under in situ conditions in the plant rhizosphere system. Two bacterial isolates used in this study were recovered from Haldia oil refinery sites and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (JX100389) and P. moraviensis (JX149542). Application of consortium C2, (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and P. moraviensis) degraded 79.02 % petrol engine oil @ 2% in the soil planted with mustard (Brassica juncea var. Kranti) crop after 120 days. GC-MS of biodegraded fuel showed the presence of new product like hexadecanoic acid 2, oxo-methyl ester.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(2): 261-266
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v3i2.12475 
      PubDate: 2015-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
       
  • The Capacity of Lignin to Enhance the Phthorimaea opercullela Granulovirus
           (PhopGV) Stability in Laboratory Condition

    • Authors: Shiva Shankar Bhattarai, Sunil Aryal, Resham Bahadur Thapa
      Abstract: The lab persistence of Phthorimaea opercullela granulovirus (PhopGV) with and without lignin for egg bioassay with different five virus concentrations (lab experiment- 60, 10, 1.67, 0.28 and 0.046 LE/l 20- 0.015432 LE/l ) to determine the inactivation curve under artificial UVlight, assess the effect and verify the protective capacity of lignin with PhopGV for virus preparations suspensions of raw PhopGV alone and mixed with lignin (1%) used as UV protectants was conducted in simply completely randomised design in the laboratory condition. The LC50 value for PhopGV in lab condition was 1x10-3 LE/l with the slope of the probit regression line 0.51. Similarly, half inactivation speed with lignin was 4.58 days compared to 0.559 days without lignin in lab condition. Inactivation speed was decreased by 87.8 % in case of lignin applied in lab condition. So, the suppression of PTM with virus combined with lignin gave cost effective measures through the use of low dosages. In lab experiment, the control mortality of 19.6 % was probable for all the controls of lignin present and absent. This revealed that there was no effect of lignin alone on target insects’ survival.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(2): 256-260
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v3i2.12481 
      PubDate: 2015-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
       
  • In-Vitro Seed Germination and Effect of Growth Regulators on Subsequent
           Development of Protocorms of Eulophia Nuda Lindl

    • Authors: Varsha Dawande, Rajaram Gurav
      Abstract: Asymbiotic seed germination of Eulophia nuda Lindl. was observed on Knudson C medium. About 90% seeds germinated within 8-10 weeks and formed green protocorms in 11-12 weeks. Effect of BA and IBA was studied on plantlet development from protocorms. BA shows the best results with respect to number and length of shoots. Maximum number (6.45±1.36) and length (3.90±0.99) was observed on MS medium supplemented with 4.44μM.BA. Maximum root growth was also observed on same medium (4.8±0.99 number of roots and 1.43±0.13cm length). The regenerated plantlets were successfully acclimatized and transferred to earthen pots. The results presented here show that in vitro seed germination and plantlet development in Eulophia nuda Lindl., an endangered orchid, can be achieved at a higher rate by this method.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(2): 243-247
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v3i2.12476   
      PubDate: 2015-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
       
  • Wide Spread Prevalence of β-Lactam Resistance among Bacterial
           Species Obtained from Non-Clinical Samples

    • Authors: Shivangi Bhatt, Neepa Pandhi
      Abstract: The potential threats of bacterial resistance, especially widespread multi-drug resistance, are of major concern. The scenario of a patient dying from an infection caused by a multi-drug resistant organism is now a reality. Infections caused by resistant strains of bacteria are related to higher morbidity and mortality. β-Lactam antibiotics are a broad class of antibiotics, consisting of penicillin, cephalosporin, Monobactam, and carbapenems. β-lactam antibiotics are used to treat various infections. β-lactamases are enzymes responsible to provide resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. Among Gram-negative bacteria, the emergence of resistance to expanded-spectrum cephalosporin has been a major concern. Initially a limited number of bacterial species that could mutate to hyper produce their chromosomal class C β-lactamase were found but now, resistance appeared in large number of bacterial species due to the production of TEM- or SHV-type ESBLs. In our study non clinical samples were selected to study the prevalence of drug resistance. After placing the various generations of β-lactam drugs we found that they were also resistant up to 4th generation of β-lactam drugs. This study confirms the growing incidences of β-lactam resistant strains in bacterial species of community origin.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(2): 248-255
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v3i2.12480 
      PubDate: 2015-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
       
  • Estimation of Coal Bed Methane Potential of Coal Seams of Margherita Coal
           Field, Assam, India

    • Authors: Prasenjit Talukdar, Rishiraj Goswami
      Abstract: The rapid industrialization and growing energy needs have put a great stress on the conventional energy resources. This is even more concerning for a country like India which is a net importer of oil. To meet the ever increasing need for energy, it is essential that the search for unconventional energy is intensified. This paper deals with the estimation of coal bed methane potential of the Margherita Coal Field of Assam, India. For this purpose, eight coal samples were collected from Tirap O.C.P., Ledo UG Incline and Tikak O.C.P collieries of the Margherita coal field. Proximate analysis, megascopic study and finally qualitative analysis of these eight samples was undertaken. After analysis, the inferred reserves of CBM at Margherita Coalfield, was found to be in the range of 42.5-49.04 Billion Cubic Meter.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(2): 232-235
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v3i2.12449  
      PubDate: 2015-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
       
  • Certain Biochemical Changes in Haemolymph of Eri Silkworm, Samia Cynthia
           Ricini after Inoculation with Bacteria

    • Authors: Ravindar Gundeti, N. Swetha sudha, Geeta Rajalingam, P. Nagaraja Rao
      Abstract: The insect immune system exists to protect the host from pathogenic invaders and from other harmful insults. Upon bacterial infection insect haemolymph may lead to fatal consequences and it plays a most important role in transport and storage of nutrients, amino acids and free amino acids concentrations are marked changes for substrates by the immune system, these substrates are provide energy and precursors for the synthesis of new cells, effecter molecules, and protective molecule. We have been studied the certain biochemical changes in bacterial challenged Eri silkworm haemolymph at various time intervals. Results shows that the proteins and amino acids levels were significantly elevated and 18 individual free amino acids were found and that are quantitatively variation in the haemolymph after challenge with gram –ve and gram +ve bacteria when compared and control and sterile haemolymph. We may conclude that these were directly involved in the antimicrobial immune response of Eri silkworm innate immunityInt J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(2): 236-242
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v3i2.12453 
      PubDate: 2015-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
       
  • Site-Specific Nutrient Management for Rainfed Maize in Western Mid-Hills
           of Nepal

    • Authors: Prakash Ghimire, Khem Raj Dahal, Santosh Marahatta, Krishna Devkota, Buddhi Raj Ghimire
      Abstract:  On-farm experiment was conducted in eight farmers’ field, of Khasyoli village development committee (952 to 1415 masl), Nepal, from April to September, 2011 to address the major constraint (nutrient management) to maize production through site-specific nutrient management (SSNM) as this approach is popular among scientists. The experiment comprised three nutrient omission plots (0N, 0P, and 0K), an ample NPK plot, and a farmers’ fertilization practice (FFP) plot, arranged in randomized complete block design. Farmers planted open pollinated variety (Manakamana-3) and managed in their way. Field-specific NPK application rates were calculated by considering nutrient demand, indigenous NPK supply and recovery efficiency of fertilizers. Grain yield in FFP (2.32 Mg/ha) and 0N (1.79 Mg/ha) plots differed significantly from each other and rest of the treatments, but was statistically similar among 0P (3.18 Mg/ha), 0K (3.40 Mg/ha) and ample NPK (3.38 Mg/ha) plots. Post-harvest grain and stover analysis revealed that indigenous NPK supply (20-71 kg N, 19-68 kg P2O5 and 51-164 kg K2O/ha) of soil vary among the farmers’ field. Moreover, soil was poor in indigenous N supply (42 kg/ha), but rich in indigenous P2O5 (35 kg/ha) and K2O (90 kg/ha) supply, on an average. As per the principles of SSNM, the initial fertilizer recommendation made can vary from 40-222 kg N, 0- 93 kg P2O5, and 0-50 kg K2O/ha. On an average, farmers may apply no or lower dose of P2O5 (18 kg/ha) and K2O (3 kg/ha) but need to significantly increase dose of N (143 kg/ha) fertilizer for enhancing soil and maize productivity.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(2): 227-231
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v3i2.12538   
      PubDate: 2015-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
       
  • Correlation and Path Coefficient Analysis of Tomato Germplasms

    • Authors: Md. Salehur Rahman, Shahanaz Parveen, Md.Harun -Ur- Rashid, Runa Akter, Abu Yousuf Hossin, Md. Golam Robbani
      Abstract: Forty eight genotypes of tomato were evaluated for yield contributing characters to observe their associations and direct and indirect effect on yield. Character association analysis among yield and yield contributing characters revealed that in most of cases the genotypic correlation coefficient was higher than the respective phenotypic correlation coefficients. This indicated that the suppressive effect of the environment modified the phenotypic expression of these characters by reducing phenotypic correlation values. Also, narrow difference between phenotypic and genotypic correlation coefficient was noticed for almost all the pairs of characters studied showing that masking or modifying effects of the environment was little indicating the presence of an inherent association among these characters. Fruit/cluster showed non-significant positive association with yield/plant at genotypic and phenotypic level but individual weight of fruit had significant negative association at phenotypic level with yield/plant. Path coefficient analysis revealed that no. of fruit/cluster had the highest positive direct effects on fruit yield/plant suggesting their importance while imposing selection for correlation of yield in tomato.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(2): 223-226
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v3i2.12421 
      PubDate: 2015-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
       
  • Sero-Prevalence of Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS) in
           Pigs of Different Developmental Regions of Nepal

    • Authors: Mahesh K.C., Bhoj Raj Joshi, Swoyam Prakash Shrestha, Meera Prajapati, Dipak Kathayat, Santosh Dhakal
      Abstract: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is a highly infectious viral disease of swine. This disease is becoming threat to pig industry of every corner of the world. As the status of this disease in Nepal is not properly understood so far, a cross-sectional sero-prevalence study was carried out in four development regions. A total of 200 blood samples were collected from major pig producing areas of eight districts of four development regions of Nepal and the serum samples were tested for antibodies against PRRS virus by rapid antibody detection kit (Immunochromatographic test using colloidal gold immunoassay: Schenzhen Lvshiyuan biotechnology Co. Ltd, China). Among the tested serum samples, 37 were found to be positive for PRRS indicating 18.5% prevalence of the disease. Statistically the prevalence difference was significant between different development regions and between topographical regions (P<0.05) of the country, but no significant difference was observed in age, sex and housing systems of pigs. Presence of antibodies in serum against PRRSV in the unvaccinated pig population of the country clearly indicates that pigs of the surveyed regions of Nepal have already been exposed to PRRS virus and the disease should be given adequate attention during differential diagnosis of porcine respiratory diseases in Nepal. Further studies are needed for molecular characterization of the virus and to develop control strategies against this disease in the country.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(2): 218-222
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v3i2.12539 
      PubDate: 2015-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
       
  • High Frequency Plant Regeneration of Musa paradisiaca cv. Karibale Monthan

    • Authors: R. Shashi Kumar, V. Krishna, . Venkatesh
      Abstract: High frequency plant regeneration protocol has been standardized from banana cultivar Musa paradisiaca cv. Karibale Monthan, an endemic cultivar of Malnad region of Karnataka. The fruits are used as glomerular protective to solve kidney problems. To minimize the microbial contamination and to promote healthy growth, explants were treated with 70 % absolute alcohol for 6 min, 0.1 % Mercuric chloride for 10 min and 0.2 % for 10 min, 1 % Sodium hypochlorite for 15 min, 0.1 % Cefotaxime for 5 min and 0.05 % Gentamicin for 5 min. The high frequency shoot initiation (93.33 %) was recorded at 5 mg/l BAP. The synergetic effect of BAP (4 to 6 mg/l), TDZ (0.1 to 1.2 mg/l) and coconut water (0.1 to 0.9 ml/l) induced multiple shoot buds and it was optimized at the concentration of 5 mg/l BAP, 0.5 mg/l TDZ and 0.5 ml/l coconut water with 15.90 ± 1.66 frequency of shoots per propagule. Supplementation of 1.0 mg/l IBA induced 5.33 ± 1.21 numbers of roots with a mean root length of 7.50 ± 1.87 roots. The 99% of plantlets with distinct roots and shoots were successfully acclimatized in the green house and transferred to the field to evaluate the agro-morphological variations. The weight of the bunch (kg), number of hands in a bunch, number of fingers in a hand, length of the finger (cm), girth of the finger (cm) and girth of the pseudostem (cm) exhibited by in vitro plants were higher than the in vivo plants.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(2): 202-209
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v3i2.12536 
      PubDate: 2015-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
       
  • Bayesian analysis for genotype x environment interactions and the
           GGE-biplot assessment: Evaluation of balanced classifications with missing
           values

    • Authors: Siraj Osman Omer, Eltayeb Hassan Slafab, Abhishek Rathore
      Abstract: In multiple environmental trials (METs) most of the data, balanced or unbalanced, are normally tested over a wide range of environments (locations, years, growing seasons, etc.) and the basic statistical method used to obtain reliable statistical information. A case study is presented here to demonstrate the usefulness of Bayesian approach in genotype-by environment data analysis, in comparison with frequentist approach and GGE biplot assessment classification with missing value. Particular emphasis was given to Bayesian application that exploits pedigree information and to the analysis of GEI data for estimation of heritability, genetic gain and means prediction. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method has been considered to perform Bayesian inference using R2WinBUGS. The study recently done in sorghum variety trials show investigation can be applied for multi environmental trial data. Results shows that the Bayesian estimation of variance components was accurate compared to the frequentist. The two principal components in GGEbiplot analysis were significant, explaining 95.13% (85.17% PC1 and 9.9.% PC2) for frequentist approach and explaining 97.36% (84.06% PC1 and 13.3% PC2) for Bayesian approach of interaction variation. Bayesian analysis indicates GGE-biplot gave the best results in contributing to the GEI. Bayesian approach for analysis GEI data is highly suitable with missing values.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(2): 210-217
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v3i2.11908  
      PubDate: 2015-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
       
  • Isolation, Screening and Optimization of Estuary Region (Khambhat,
           Gujarat) Microalgae for Lipid/Oil Production

    • Authors: Mahendraperumal Guruvaiah, Madhuri Narra, Garima Dixit, Punit Karawadia, Deval Shah
      Abstract: Water and soil samples were collected from gulf of Khambhat region, Gujarat. The cations and anions like calcium, chloride, fluoride, magnesium, sulphate and total hardness as calcium carbonate were analyzed. Collected estuarine samples were cultured in three different media under standard laboratory conditions. These enrichments were then used to isolate pure unialgal culture by conventional method. Thirty four isolates belonging to twelve species of Cyanobacteria, twenty species of Chlorophyta and two taxa of Bacillariophyta were identified and are maintained at SPRERI centre. The Chlorophyta were found better accumulators of lipids than the cyanobacterial species. Five promising strains (SBC 7, SBC 9, SBC 17, SBC 18 and SBC 19) have been selected. In-house isolates SBC19 and SBC 17 showed highest acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACCase) of 55.2 (U/ml) and 51.2 (U/ml) respectively, with 0.375 g l-1 nitrogen concentration in 24 days. Biomass production was highest for 2.4 g/l, (SBC 19) and 2.7 g/l (SBC 17) with 1.5 g l-1 nitrogen concentration. The highest lipid content was 52% and 48% in SBC19 and SBC 17, respectively, with 0.375 g l-1 nitrogen concentration of solvent extraction method. Lipid accumulation was found enhanced by more than 50% on dry mass basis under nitrogen starvation.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(2): 197-201
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v3i2.12534 
      PubDate: 2015-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
       
  • Development of EST-SSR Markers to Assess Genetic Diversity in Elettaria
           Cardamomum Maton

    • Authors: N Anjali, Sowmya S Dharan, F Nadiya, K K Sabu
      Abstract: Elettaria cardamomum Maton is one of the most ancient and valuable spice crops. Cardamom is cultivated following intensive pesticide usage where alleles present in the wild cardamom genotypes could positively contribute towards genetic improvement of the cultivars. However, the genetic map or whole-genome sequence of E. cardamomum is not available and very limited information on simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are publicly available. We have tested whether SSRs from Curcuma longa can be used to analyze genetic diversity E. cardamomum.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(2): 188-192
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v3i2.12380   
      PubDate: 2015-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
       
  • Status of N P K in Vermicompost Prepared from Two Common Weed and Two
           Medicinal Plants

    • Authors: Jayanta Mistry, Ambika Prasad Mukhopadhyay, Gopi Nath Baur
      Abstract: Vermicomposting is a bio-technique and vermicompost are good superlatives for organic farming. During vermicomposting the nutrients are released and converted into soluble and available forms that’s providing nutrients such as available N (nitrogen), soluble K (potassium), exchangeable Ca (calcium), Mg (magnesium), P (phosphorus) and microelements such as Fe (iron), Mo (molybdenum), Zn (zinc), and Cu (cupper) which can easily taken up by plants. Vermicompost contains plant growth regulators, soil treated with vermicompost showed better plant growth than treated with inorganic and other organic fertilizers. Adding of vermicompost to soil improves the soil structure, increasing the water holding capacity and porosity. Vermicomposts have also been shown to suppress attacks by soil and foliar transmitted plant diseases.This article reviews various attribute as NPK values of Parthenium hysterophorus, Azadirachta indica, Argemone mexicana, and Vitex negundo vermicompost. pH of each compost are in range of 7.5 – 8.1. Nitrogen (N) content (%) is low in cow dung compost (1.7%) and higher in other plant compost except Azadirachta indica and Vitex negundo, maximum in Parthenium vermicompost (1.8%). Phosphorus (P %) ranges 1.3% to 1.6% and maximum in Azadirachta indica vermicompost. Potassium (K %) ranges 0.8% to 15.8% and all four vermicompost has significantly higher K contents than the cow dung compost. Organic carbon - nitrogen ratios (C/N) were also higher in vermicomposts produced with plant except in Argemone mexicana.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(2): 193-196
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v3i2.12533 
      PubDate: 2015-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
       
  • Study of the Electromagnetic Field Radiated From the Cell Phone Towers
           within Kathmandu Valley

    • Authors: Prakash Parajuli, Jagat Prasad Panday, Rajendra Prasad Koirala, Buddha Ram Shah
      Abstract: With the increase in the use of the mobile phone, widely used wireless technology, people are highly conscious regarding the deleterious effects of the RF signals. To account this consciousness, this research work deals with the assessment of the radiation level near mobile Base Station Towers (BSTs) of Kathmandu valley with the analysis of the observed values in reference to the National and International guidelines and radiation norms adopted in different countries. “Tenmars, TM-196” and GPS map60Csx were employed for the measurement. It is found that the maximum value of the Power density in Kathmandu valley is 0.003602 W/m2 at Maximum Peak Point (MPP) near BST of New Baneshwor area, characterized by high traffic (Vicinity population) and all services across the BSTs and the minimum average radiation level far away from the BSTs (Off tower region) with access of the cellular network has 0.00000206 W/m2 Power density near Lele area, Lalitpur, which is far less than the Power density near the BSTs. It is found that all observed sites are within the standards of the Nepal Telecommunication Authority (NTA) in terms of the amount of EMFs that the base station is radiating. Power density highly depends on vicinity population and moderately depends on services across the BSTs. Also the BSTs are constructed haphazardly near School and Colleges, Hospitals etc.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(2): 179-187
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v3i2.12297 
      PubDate: 2015-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
       
  • Annona Squamosa Leaf Extract as an Efficient Bioreducing Agent in the
           Synthesis of Chromium and Nickel Nanoparticles

    • Authors: Solomon A. Mamuru, Abubakar S. Bello, Saminu B. Hamman
      Abstract: Biosynthesis is one of the rapid, reliable, and eco-friendly routes for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles in areas of nanotechnology research. The synthesis of chromium and nickel nanoparticles using Annona squamosa leaf extracts at neutral pH was studied. The formed metal nanoparticles were confirmed by colour changes from colourless to dark brown and it was characterized using UV-visible and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. UV-visible spectrums of the aqueous medium containing the metal nanoparticles show a surface Plasmon resonance at 285 nm. FT-IR analysis reveals that phytochemical groups of aromatic amine character might be responsible for the reduction to metal nanoparticles.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(2): 167-169
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v3i2.11651 
      PubDate: 2015-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
       
  • Antioxidant Activity of Lupine Seeds in Nile Tilapia Fish (O. niloticus)
           Suspected to Oxidative Stress Induced by Neemazal T/S

    • Authors: Ashraf A. El-Badawi
      Abstract: This study was designed to determine the effects of acute toxicity of NeemAzal T/S on Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and to investigate the antioxidant effect of Lupine seeds on the gills and erythrocytes(EC) oxidative stress induced by NeemAzal T/S in Nile tilapia .Two doses of NeemAzal; 1/10 LC50:16 PPM (NA1) and 1/5 LC50:32 PPM (NA2) and three periods of 10, 20 and 30 days were used. Oxidative stress parameter, total peroxide (TP) and antioxidant enzyme activities, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) as well as glycemia were measured. NA2 markedly decreased CAT and SOD activities in gills and erythrocytes at most periods, but NA1 had less effect. In turn, both doses significantly enhanced TP levels in gills and EC. Moreover, hyperglycemia was detected 30 days after control (NA) exposure. LS significantly curtailed or abolished the adverse effect of NA exposure on oxidative and antioxidant parameters in gills and EC. This may be attributed to the hypoglycemic effect of LS as well as its antioxidant efficiency. In conclusion, Lupine seed exerts a potent antioxidant activity against oxidative damages induced by NeemAzal T/S in Nil tilapia fish.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(2): 170-178
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v3i2.12284 
      PubDate: 2015-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
       
  • Effect of Organic Manures on the Yield and Quality of True Seeds of Onion

    • Authors: M. R. A. Mollah, M. A. Ali, M. Ahmad, M. K. Hassan, M. Z. H. Prodhan
      Abstract: The present study was stimulated by the problem of onion seed production where seed production is possibly only winter period after which rapid increase in temperature as well as early shower adversely affect the quality of seed. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replications to determine optimum doses of manures and fertilizers for maximizing quality true seeds of onion. Six treatments viz. T1= Only inorganic fertilizer recommended by Spices Research Centre (SRC), T2 = T1 + Cowdung manure 7.5 t/ha, T3= T1 + Poultry manure 5 t/ha, T4= T1 + Mustard oil cake 5 t/ha, T5= T1 + Dhaincha 5 t/ha and T6= Control (No manures and fertilizer application)were consisted to achieve the objective. The research work was done at On-Farm Research Division, BARI, Bogra during September, 2010 to June, 2011. The results revealed that the growth parameters, seed yield components, health and quality of harvested seeds were significantly influenced by the different treatments. Results showed that among different treatments, inorganic fertilizer Urea, TSP, MoP, Gypsum, Zinc oxide and Boric acid @ 250, 275, 150, 110, 3 and 5 kg/ha, respectively along with Cowdung 7.5 t/ha was the best for true seed production of onion at Bogra region in Bangladesh.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(2): 162-166
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v3i2.12279 
      PubDate: 2015-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
       
  • Generation of Renewable Power from Biodegradation of Anthracene in a
           Microbial Fuel Cell Reactor Using Different Bacterial Inocula

    • Authors: A.N.Z. Alshehri
      Abstract: Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are increasingly attracting attention as a sustainable technology as they convert chemical energy in organic pollutants to renewable electricity. Anthracene is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) that presents a high pollution and health risk. In this study, anthracene degradation with electricity production in Single – chamber air cathode MFC was investigated with respect to values of its biodegradation and MFC performance using different inocula combinations (Anaerobic sludge (AS), Pseudomonas putida (PP), Geobacter sulfurreducens (GS), Shewanella putrefaciens(SP), mixed cultures, and combinations thereof). All the inocula showed high potentials for anthracene degradation efficiency and power density, ranged 41 – 98 % within 120 – 216h and 110.08 – 156.06 mW/m2, respectively. The best overall performing inoculum was anaerobic sludge supplemented with P. putida (AS+PP), having a degradation rate, degradation efficiency, COD removal, maximum power density and coulombic efficiency of 38 μM/d, 98 %, 83 %, 156.06 mW/m2 and 21, respectively. Effect of initial anthracene concentration was also investigated. Results indicated that increasing of initial anthracene concentration to 40 mg/L has a positive effect on both the anthracene degradation rate and the power density by 79 and 83.93 %, respectively, which attained by the best inoculum AS+PP (degradation rate of 41 μM/d and a maximum power density of 287.04 mW/m2).This study highlights the possibility of using MFCs technology to generate renewable electricity and achieve high degradation rates of anthracene simultaneously, through co-metabolism.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(2): 151-161
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v3i2.12731 
      PubDate: 2015-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
       
  • Personalised Medicine: The Rising Sun

    • Authors: Chandani T. Desai, Gaurav S. Shah
      Abstract: Inter individual genetic variation contributes to both disease susceptibility and response to drugs. The genetic makeup of every individual isdistinctive, henceforth there are variations in the gene products. It is also responsible for the phenotypic diversity, which results in the differentcapacity of each individual to respond to exogenous substances, such as drugs and xenobiotics, and in the different propensity to induceundesirable health effects. So, the aim of personalised medicine is to increase the possibility of therapeutic efficiency and to decrease the drugtoxicity risk for an individual patient.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(2): 139-142
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v3i2.12545 
      PubDate: 2015-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
       
  • Molecular Characterization of a Poly-&beta;-Hydroxybutyrate-Producing
           Microbacterium Isolate

    • Authors: Yehia A. Osman, Ahmed Abd Elrazak, Wesam Khater, ElShahat Nashi, Attia Mohamadeen
      Abstract: Bacterial poly-β-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) is a natural, biodegradable polymer, which is accumulated in the cells as an energy reserve materialdue to depletion of nitrogen or phosphorous in the presence of excess carbon source. This polymer is foreseen to possess high industrialpotentiality and excellent alternative to the non-degradable petroleum-based plastics. In this study, we isolated and characterized a localbacterial strain WA81 which accumulated 18mg/L PHB after 72 h growth in mineral salt medium under nitrogen deficiency. The PHB granuleswere detected in the cells using TEM and the genes encode for this polymer were detected by oligonucleotide primers using PCR technology.The 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence for this isolate was used to construct a phylogentic tree against all available sequences in the GenBank.The phylogenetic tree data suggested that the closest type strain to the local bacterium is the Microbacterium paraoxydans CF36T and hencewe named it Microbacterium sp. strain WA81. Moreover, the set of enzymes responsible for the PHB biosynthetic pathway and their controllingelements were detected in this local isolate using PCR. The genes encode for the biosynthesis enzymes are phbA (β-ketothiolase), phbB(acetoacetly CoA reductase), phbC (PHB polymerase), while the genes encode for the controlling elements are phbP (phasin), phbZ (PHBdepolymerase). The novelty of this local bacterium lies in its ability to accumulate huge amounts of PHB in its cytoplasm and the presence ofa whole set of genes encode for the PHB biosynthetic and catabolic pathways of this polymer.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(2): 143-150
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v3i2.12277 
      PubDate: 2015-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
       
  • Phenotypic Diversity of Nepalese Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana (L.)
           Gaertn.) Accessions at IAAS, Rampur, Nepal

    • Authors: Biswash Raj Bastola, M.P. Pandey, B.R. Ojha, S.K. Ghimire, K. Baral
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted at Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS), Rampur, Nepal during July 2011 to September 2011 with an objectine to determine phenotypic variability of Nepalese finger millet landraces using descriptive statistics, cluster analysis and principal component analysis. F- Value of REML procedure of mixed model analysis revealed that highly significant variation was observed in all studied 17 traits. Grain yield per plant was positive and highly significant correlated with grain yield per ear (0.769**) followed by plant height (0.529**), productive tillers number (0.473**), days to maturity (0.471**), days to heading (0.460**), days to flowering (0.457**), straw yield per plant (0.348**), finger number per ear (0.320**), thousand kernel weight (0.281**), flag leaf sheath width (0.230**) and finger length (0.211**). The ear shape (H’= 3.42) followed by grain color (H’= 3.35) showed high genetic diversity after estimated by using Shannon- Weaver index. 46% open type ear shape, 40% light brown grain color, 66% non-pigmentation, 70% absence of inflorescence branch and 54% absence of finger branch were found dominant to other on studied accessions. The distribution pattern was observed by using Ward’s minimumvariance method into five clusters. The number of accessions in a cluster was ranged from 18 in cluster IV to 1 in cluster V. The cluster V (accession no. 10996) and III (accessions no. 431 and 11024) showed early phenological traits, lowest in finger length, finger width, finger number per ear, thousand kernel weight, grain yield per ear and grain yield per plant. The cluster II and IV showed late maturity type, long finger length and width, high in finger number per ear, grain yield per ear, grain yield per plant and plant height. The first five principal components accounted for 74.9% of total variance among 50 accessions. Most of variation was contributed from phenological characters, plant height, grain yield per ear, finger length, finger width, finger number per ear and productive tillers number. These traits were positively correlated with grain yield and can be used in selection for breeding programs.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(2): 285-290
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v3i2.12413 
      PubDate: 2015-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
       
  • A Study on the Role of Pre-Gelatinized Starch (PGS) in the Non Damaging
           Drilling Fluid (NDDF) for the Tipam Sand of Geleki Oilfield of Upper Assam
           Basin

    • Authors: Prasenjit Talukdar, Subrata Borgohain Gogoi
      Abstract: The drilling of the wells from surface to target location with conventional drilling fluids may impair production and ultimate recovery by failing to adequately connect the reservoir with the wellbore by damaging the producing interval. One of the most common ways of damaging a formation is the filtration loss. Non Damaging Drilling Fluid (NDDF) is a clay and barite free environmental friendly polymer mud system mostly used in pay zone sections of development wells and specifically in horizontal drilling to avoid formation damage. Starches [(C6H10O5) n] are an environment-friendly drilling mud additive for water-base drilling fluids used to control the filtration loss. This paper reports the effect and optimum composition of Pre-Gelatinized Starch (PGS) as a filtration control component in the NDDF. PGS is a high-quality nonionic polysaccharide having the Chemical Formula: C27H48O20 and Molecular Weight: 692.658020 [g/mol] which controls the filtration loss by sealing the walls of the borehole due to its long chains of monosaccharide. Some clay specifically the montmorillonite a member of the smectite group that generally also found in the payzones of Geleki Oilfield of Upper Assam Basin absorb hydrogen ions into their structure when comes in contact with fresh water and causing swelling of the clay resulting in a reduction of the pore volume and possibly plug in the pore throats. Therefore the filtration loss should be as low as possible by forming high quality low permeable mud cake of as thin as possible. In this work, an attempt has been made to study the effect of varying composition of PGS on the different mud properties of laboratory formulated NDDF and to choose its optimum composition based on the required mud parameters of the study area.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(2): 291-300
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v3i2.12552 
      PubDate: 2015-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
       
  • Phylogenetic and Systematic Value of Leaf Epidermal Characteristics in
           Some Members of Nigerian Fabaceae

    • Authors: Gbenga Olorunshola Alege, Daniel Ojima Shaibu
      Abstract: This study was undertaken at the Botanical Garden of Biological Sciences Department, Kogi State University, Anyigba with the aim of assessing the systematic and phylogenetic relevance of leaf epidermal attributes in the 10 selected species of Fabaceae. Stomata, trichomes and epidermal cell attributes were taken from adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces. Results obtained in this study revealed that all the 10 plant species considered possess hypo-amphistomatic leaf condition, paracytic stomata type, polygon and irregular shape epidermal cells(on the abaxial surface) which points to their common ancestry. All the analyzed leaf epidermal traits considered on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces showed significant variations among the 10 studied plant species which indicates that genetic diversity exists among members of Fabaceae for their delimitation. It was also observed that all the plants with tree habit considered in this study (i.e Delonix regia, Parkia biglobosa, Senna siamea, Daniella oliveri and Caesalpinia pulcherrima) lack stomata on the adaxial surfaces which strongly suggest that absence of stomata on the adaxial surface may be peculiar to Legumes with such habit. Cluster analysis revealed 2 major clusters and 2 sub-clusters with the first cluster comprising only Senna siamea and Caesalpinia pulcherrima which confirms their close phylogenetic relationship. Variations in trichomes, stomata and epidermal attributes were obvious and could be used to resolve systematic and phylogenetic problems in this family.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(2): 301-307
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v3i2.12733 
      PubDate: 2015-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
       
  • Lignolytic Enzymes Production from Selected Mushrooms

    • Authors: H.M. Shantaveera Swamy, - Ramalingappa
      Abstract: In this paper, ligninase enzymes produced by selected mushrooms have been reported. We collected mushrooms from Western Ghats, most of them were edible food. Thirty samples isolated were tested using a plate assay through direct agar plate assay by using ABTS, decolourisation containing the fifteen isolates were able to decolourise the dye, indicating a lignin-degrading ability. Spectrophotometric enzyme assays from all selected isolates were carried out to examine the production of Ligninolytic enzymes (Laccase, lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase). Ten selected isolates produced all three kinds of enzymes tested. Lignolytic enzymes are groups of enzymes these are actively involved in bioremediation.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(2): 308-313
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v3i2.12732 
      PubDate: 2015-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
       
  • Effects of Short or Long-Term Exposure of Dithiopyr on Certaine Blood,
           Growth and Tissue Biochemical Parameters in Catfish (Clarias garipinus)

    • Authors: Kamal A. Attia, Ashraf A. El-Badawi
      Abstract: In the current study the effects of acute or chronic exposure of dithiopyr herbicide (weed controllers) in Catfish (Clarias garipinus) was studied. LC50 was determined, and recorded as 460 μgl-1. Acute and chronic effects on certain blood, growth and tissue biochemical parameters were studied as a function of exposure time. Exposure of Clarias garipinus to acute or chronic toxicity of the herbicide resulted in significant increase in glucose, total cholesterol, creatinine, uric acid and Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the herbicide-treated group, while aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) showed a fluctuating activities in both exposures. In contrast, there was significantly (P<0.01) lower values for liver and muscle glycogen in acute toxicity as compared with the control group. Also, in herbicide exposed fish a significant reduction in growth parameters was recorded. These alterations could be attributed to the changes in the metabolic pathways of the studied fish that meight be takes place as a secondary response in the fish to provide energy for the "fight-or-flight" reaction and to compensate the high energy demand. This study implies the importance of previous knowledge about the susceptibility of cultured fish species before using herbicides.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(2): 314-321
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v3i2.12686 
      PubDate: 2015-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
       
  • Protein Profile Study of Some Nigerian Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)
           Accessions

    • Authors: Gbenga Olorunshola Alege
      Abstract: This study was carried out to investigate the genetic diversity among 23 sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) accessions obtained from different agro-ecological localities from 10 different states across 4 geopolitical zones in Nigeria using evidence from Sodium Dodecyl Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Total seed protein of the studied plants resolved on 12% SDS-PAGE showed variations in numbers and intensity of bands among the different sesame accessions. Thirteen (13) major bands were recorded in this study. Lack of unique band and presence of common band (band 7) among the 23 studied sesame accessions indicate some levels of genetic affinity and evidence of common evolutionary origin of the sesame genotypes. This band can therefore be tagged as species specific band for discriminating Sesamum indicum. Cluster analysis grouped the 23 sesame genotypes into two clusters with similarity coefficient ranging from 0.42 to 0.96 which indicates existence of genetic diversity; therefore there is ample opportunity for improving the 23 sesame genotypes. Variations in protein bands observed among the 23 studied plants could be attributed to genomic changes taken place during species diversification. It can be concluded that genetic diversity existed among Nigerian sesame for the improvement of characters of interest. Accessions 9 (YOL), 15(OTT), 22 (OFF) and 23 (JAL) are therefore recommended for used in future breeding programs for the development of improved sesame varieties.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(2): 322-329
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v3i2.12734
      PubDate: 2015-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
       
  • Assessment of Genetic Diversity in Bamboo Accessions of India Using
           Molecular Markers

    • Authors: Bharat Gami, Bakhtiyar Alam Syed, Beena Patel
      Abstract: Bamboo is an important grass with wide scale applications in paper industries, medicines, constructions industries. It is potential feedstock for advanced biofuel production due to its favourable characteristics, natural abundance, rapid growth, perennial nature and higher CO2 sequestration. The objective of this study is to understand genetic diversity between the bamboo accessions with respect to geographical origin to correlate molecular information with feedstock characterization and adaptation to abiotic stress. In this study, genomic DNA was extracted from twenty bamboo accessions collected from different regions of India and genetic variations were assessed by inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) based molecular marker approach using 8 primers. Maximum genetic distance was observed between Bambusa wamin-Itanagar & B. ventricosa-Durg (0.48221) & minimum genetic distance between Bambusa balcooa-Modasa & Bambusa balcooa-Tripura (0.00787). Bambusa balcooa and Bambusa vulgaris were genetically similar as compared to other accessions. The genetic distance is independent of geographical distance for the bamboo accessions considered in this study. The findings of this study will help to understand the degree of differences between bamboo accessions under the same environmental conditions and to identify the representative accessions that can be used for abiotic stress resistance studies. The information can be explored for screening of closely related bamboo accessions for abiotic stress resistance screening trials.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(2): 330-336
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v3i2.12587 
      PubDate: 2015-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
       
  • Electrochemical Characterization of Cellulose Acetate Butyrate-Prmutit
           Composite Membrane in Aqueous Uni-Uni Valent Electrolyte Solutions

    • Authors: A.K. Tiwari, R. Sonkar, P.K. Tiwari
      Abstract: Co-mixed cellulose acetate butyrate and permutit in a definite composition was prepared and coded as MRS-2. The membrane potential was measured with uni-uni valent electrolyte, NaCl solutions using saturated calomel electrodes (SCEs).The effective fixed charge density of the membrane was determined by TMS method and it showed dependence on the porosity, charge on the membrane matrix, charge and size of permeating ions. Other important electrochemical parameters were calculated. Conductance-time data were generated for the kinetic study of the permeating ions in terms of membrane permeability, flow and flux parameters. Donnan membrane equilibrium condition was examined. Membrane adsorbability showed concave dependence with external electrolyte solution and convex type dependence was showed by swelling and conductance parameters. This membrane had no characteristic of anomalous osmosis, indicates that there is no water flooding will take place during membrane operation.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(2): 337-341
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v3i2.12748 
      PubDate: 2015-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
       
  • Characterization and Optimization of Alkaline Protease Production from
           Bacillus licheniformis HSW-16 Isolated from Sambhar Salt Lake

    • Authors: Rajnish Prakash Singh, Prabhat Nath Jha
      Abstract: Halophilic microorganisms are recognized as potential source of secondary metabolites including enzymes and drugs with wide agricultural and industrial applications. In the present study protease producing halotolerant bacterium Bacillus licheniformis HSW-16 was isolated from hypersaline Sambhar lake, Rajasthan India. Protease production was performed by using azocasein as substrate. Confirmation of protease production was also done by amplification of alkaline protease gene and sequencing. The various nutritional factors such as carbon and nitrogen source and other physiological parameters like pH, temperature, incubation time and agitation speed were optimized for optimum protease production. The enzyme was active in pH range 7-10, temperature 25 °C-40 °C and salt concentration of 1.5M. The characteristics demonstrated by this isolate showed that it could be used as a potential source of enzyme.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(2): 347-351
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v3i2.12757 
      PubDate: 2015-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
       
  • Molecular Characterization of Some Popular Fish Species in Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: Ayman M. Sabry, Mohamed M. Hassan, Alaa A. Mohamed
      Abstract: The present work aims to molecularly characterize some popular Saudi fish species. Seven popular Saudi fish species namely, Morgan (Nemipteru sjaponicus), Mousa (Solea solea), Hamor (Greasy grouper), Shour (Lethrinus lentjan), Dennis (Caranxsex fasciatus), Harid (Scarus arabicus) and Black surgeon (Acanthurus gahhm) were characterized using six RAPD and three ISSR as well as Rep-PCR markers. These markers produced 187 distinct bands 89.4% were considered as polymorphic bands and 10.6% were considered as monomorphic bands. The RAPD OPA-06 primer revealed 100% polymorphism for 19 produced bands where band width ranged from 190 to 2100 bp. Likewise Rep- PCR ERIC1R primer exhibited 100% polymorphism for 18 bands produced bands where band width ranged from 50 to 1400bp. Data of the three types of genetic markers were combined for phylogenetic analysis. The resulted dendergram produced two large linages with around 59% genetic similarity. One linage only included Morgan (Nemipteru sjaponicus), and the other linage comprised the other six species. This result suggested that this six species were descended from Morgan fish. The second linage comprised two clades; the first clade contained four species (Mousa, Hamor, Shour, and Dennis), where the next clade included only Harid and Black surgeon. Generally genetic distance among native fishes was relatively low. The smallest genetic distance (0.512) was estimated between Shour fish and Black surgeon fish. To the best of our knowledge this work is breaking new ground in two directions, first, molecular characterization of Saudi fish, second employment Rep- PCR genetic marker for molecular characterization of fish species. This work could be considered as preliminary work towards an establishment of Saudi genetic conservation program.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(2): 359-366
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v3i2.12747    
      PubDate: 2015-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
       
  • Prevalence of Lymphoma Cancer in Punjab, Pakistan

    • Authors: Muhammad Zohaib Nawaz, Muhammad Bilal, Muhammad Aamer Mehmood, Muhammad Asgher
      Abstract: Pakistan has a high magnitude of cancer from its independence. The burden of lymphoma cancer continues to increase in Pakistan. The low socioeconomic districts of Punjab such as those in Faisalabad most severely affected by lymphoma. The objective of this study was to analyze the lymphoma cancer registry record of patients from the districts in Faisalabad in order to achieve a net lymphoma incidence for use in raising future health program against cancer. The medical records of 110 patients registered at the Punjab Institute of Nuclear Medicine in Faisalabad were investigated. Information regarding age, gender, socioeconomic status, affected sites and cancer type were obtained. Among 110 cases of lymphoma cancer, the male: female ratio was 3:1, with an age range of 5-85 years. Of the 110 patients, 74% were male and 26% were female. Similar to the subtype distribution of lymphoma in the different areas of Faisalabad and its surroundings, Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) was more frequent, 74 cases (67%) than Hodgkin’s disease (HD), 36 cases (33%).The leading cancers were breast 36% (n=248), lymphoma 16% (n=110), and prostate cancer 10% (n=68). The growing burden of cancer especially lymphoma in Faisalabad is extremely alarming. Since the current work was an initial investigation, it could play a leading role in prevention and future planning regarding the battle against lymphoma in Pakistan.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(2): 342-346
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ijasbt.v3i2.12756 
      PubDate: 2015-06-16
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
       
 
 
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