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Journal Cover International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2091-2609
   Published by Nepal Journals Online Homepage  [70 journals]
  • Evolving Stem Cells Research in Vision Restoration: A Reality Check!

    • Authors: Vivek Singh
      Pages: 1 - 2
      Abstract: No abstract
      PubDate: 2016-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Bacillus Spp. Amylase: Production, Isolation, Characterisation and Its

    • Authors: Shivani Sachdev, Sanjay Kumar Ojha, Snehasish Mishra
      Pages: 3 - 14
      Abstract: Amylase is one of the leading enzymes used in industry from decades. The preliminary function of this enzyme is the hydrolysis of the starch molecule into glucose units and oligosaccharides. Amylases have spectacular application in broad spectrum of industries such as food, detergent, pharmaceutical and fermentation industries. Among different type of amylases α- amylase is in utmost demand because of its striking features. This particular enzyme is a good substitute over the chemicals catalyst used in industries. α- amylases can be acquired from different sources such as microorganism, animals and plants. Microorganisms are the major source of production of amylase because of the ease of availability, manipulation and operation.  The starch converting enzymes is basically generated using submerged fermentation.  Some of the prominent characteristics of amylase are its mode of action, substrate specificity and operating condition (temperature and pH). Amylases from different bacterial sources contribute differently to the particular trait of the enzyme. Bacillus amylases have been studied and applied so far because of their robustness in nature and easy accessible pure form of it. Thus this makes it more specific and fit for distinct application in the industry. The purpose of this manuscript was the comparative analysis of the physical and chemical features of α amylases from Bacillus species. It also focuses on the unique characteristics of this enzyme and their industrial applications.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(1): 3-14
      PubDate: 2016-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Lawsonia Inermis Linn: A Plant with Cosmetic and Medical Benefits

    • Authors: Ritesh Kumar Sharma, Anjana Goel, A. K. Bhatia
      Pages: 15 - 20
      Abstract: Plants play a major role on the earth and human beings depend on plants because of their medicinal properties. About 80% of the world population using plants as a medicinal drugs because plants have no side effects and show synergistic effect unlike modern medicine. In the present study, review and authentication of the various aspects of the plant Lawsonia inermis was carried out. This plant is mainly present in subtropical and tropical areas and is used in all over the world. The common name of L. inermis is Henna and Mehndi. It has been used for over 9000 years for their cosmetic values as a dye. Traditionally, in Asian countries like India and Pakistan, plant leaves are applied to hands, hairs and feet. Morphologically the plant is a small tree or shrub. L. inermis is cultivated for roots, flowers, stem bark and seeds for their medicinal uses. Proteins, carbohydrates and fatty acid are primary metabolites along with secondary metabolite such as tannins, quinines, terpenoids, coumarins etc which are present in L. inermis plant. Phytochemical constituents of L. inermis are responsible for its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and hypoglycaemic properties. The plant has also been reported for antibacterial, antifungal, immunostimulatory, antioxidant and cytotoxic activity. Presence of these properties in L. inermis plant develops it as medicine against various pathogenic organism and diseases. This review gives a wide view on the phytochemistry, pharmacological properties and traditional uses of the plant.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(1): 15-20
      PubDate: 2016-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Determination of the Chemical Compositions of Clay Deposits from Some Part
           of South West Nigeria for Industrial Applications

    • Authors: A.I. Inegbenebor, A.O. Inegbenebor, R.C. Mordi, N. Kalada, A. Falomo, P. Sanyaolu
      Pages: 21 - 26
      Abstract: Clay is one of the major raw materials in ceramics, paint and paper industries. In this paper, a report is given on the chemical composition of clay deposits in Ilaro and Ikorodu, South West Nigeria and their suitability as raw materials in the above mentioned industries is suggested by comparison of their composition with industry standards. The clay samples were activated with H2SO4 and their moisture content was determined. The mineral content of the clays was determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy, which showed significant presence of Si, Al, Fe, and Ti. The morphology of the clays was studied using scanning electron microscope (SEM/EDX) in combination with X-ray analysis. The investigation revealed the agglomeration of the particles of quartz and rutile on the surface structure of the activated clays. The results obtained from their observed properties and chemical compositions indicate that these clays are suitable for use in the ceramics, paint and paper industries. This proposition is supported by reduction in moisture contents of the activated clay samples from both Ilaro and Ikorodu.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(1): 21-26
      PubDate: 2016-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Effect of Date of Sowing on Yield and Yield Attributes of Different Wheat
           Varieties under Conventional Tillage in Sub-Humid Condition of Chitwan
           District of Nepal

    • Authors: Dinesh Marasini, Santosh Marahatta, Surya Mani Dhungana, Ramesh Acharya
      Pages: 27 - 31
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at the Agronomy farm of Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science (IAAS), Rampur during winter season of 2014/2015 to find out the response of wheat varieties under different sowing dates. There was 9 treatments consisting three date of sowing (November 14, November29 and December 14) in main plot and three varieties namely Tillotama, Danfe and Vijay in sub-plot and were arranged in split plot design with three replications. The grain yield was significantly higher (3.09 tha-1) at November 14 whereas highest straw yield was recorded for November 29 sown wheat (5.61 t ha-1). Effective tiller (414) and number of grain per spike (34.34) were highest for November 29 sown wheat. The late sown wheat had more sterile floret (42.65%) while early sown wheat had highest thousand grain weight (51.23 g). Danfe had highest straw yield (5.87 t/ha). Effective tiller/m2 (419) and sterility percentage (43.35%) of Danfe was highest. Number of grains per spike (37.89) of Tillotama was highest and thousand grain weight (57.09 g) of Bijay was found highest. The grain yield of Bijay (3.30tha-1) was highest when it was sown at November 29. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(1): 27-31
      PubDate: 2016-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Genomic diversity of Sri Lankan New Improved Rice Varieties revealed by
           AFLP markers

    • Authors: Gowri Rajkumar, Jagathpriya Weerasena, Rangika Silva, Kumudu Fernando
      Pages: 32 - 38
      Abstract: Genetic relationships among 28 new improved rice varieties were established using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) markers. Cultivars were analyzed with 10 EcoR1 and MseI primer combinations. A total of 517 fluorescent AFLP markers were generated and analyzed. Of these 480 fragments were polymorphic (92.84%) and 37 (7.16%) fragments were monomorphic. The Jaccard’s similarity indices (J) based on the AFLP profiles of the 28 varieties were computed and Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic mean (UPGMA) based dendrogram was constructed. The dendrogram separated varieties into three major clusters. Outliers used in the study were uniquely separated from the rest confirming the reliability of data and analysis. The Cophenetic correlation with 0.862 strongly supported the clustering pattern of UPGMA dendrogram. Principal Coordinate analysis and the unrooted tree also confirmed the clustering pattern of the UPGMA dendrogram. Rice varieties in the same cluster showed similar characteristic features (Eg. Grain colour, life span etc). Therefore this genetic diversity data at molecular level will provide detailed estimates of the genetic variation among Sri Lankan new improved rice varieties and also useful in ex situ and in situ genetic conservation, utilization and exchange of genetic material. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(1): 32-38
      PubDate: 2016-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Survey on Management of Spotted Pod Borer (Maruca vitrata Fabricius) on
           Yardlong Bean in Chitwan, Nepal

    • Authors: Rajendra. Regmi, Sundar Tiwari, Resham Bhadur Thapa, Ranju Maharjan, Sujata poudel poudel, Kapil Poudel Poudel
      Pages: 39 - 43
      Abstract: A household survey was conducted during January 2012 in Gunjanagar, Dibyanagar and Sukranagar Village Development Committee of Chitwan district to know the socioeconomic status, status of spotted pod borer and its management practice. The survey included purposive random sampling methods in 35 yardlong bean growers. Most of commercial farmers have been growing since 3-7 years. Nearly three fourth of the farmers considered spotted pod borer as a major pest of yarldlong bean in Chitwan. Most of them considered more than 60% loss caused by spotted pod borer if no management practice is applied. Almost all sprayed chemical pesticides for management of spotted pod borer and nearly three fourth of them used more than one chemical pesticides alternately for management of spotted pod borer.One third farmers (31.43%) applied chemical pesticides in 4-7 days interval and one third of them (31.43%) applied chemical pesticides in 7-10 days interval after beginning of flowering for management of spotted pod borer. Almost all farmers (94.29%) knew adverse effect of pesticides on human, environment, natural enemies and other animal. Majority (94.29%) of farmers harvested pods after 1-3 day of spray of chemical pesticides and very few (14.29%) of commercial grower of this area get training in insect pest management.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(1): 39-43
      PubDate: 2016-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • In Vitro Screening of Stem Explants of In Situ Uv-B Irradiated Cowpea
           Varieties for Germplasm Storage

    • Authors: K Rajendiran, L Gowsalya, J Sudaroli Sudha
      Pages: 44 - 52
      Abstract: Even though seeds form the natural progenies of all sexually reproducing plants, change in climate makes it mandatory to device in vitro methods for selecting germplasm for conservation and regeneration. An experiment was conducted to induct callus in stem explants (nodal region from third node from top of canopy) harvested on 30 days after seed germination from in situ control and supplementary ultraviolet-B irradiated (UV-B = 2 hours daily @ 12.2 kJ m-2 d-1; ambient = 10 kJ m-2 d-1) three varieties of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) viz. Gowmathi, Fola and NS-634 to assess their response to in vitro culture. Axillary bud initiation occurred only from GOWMATHI control stem explants, while callus induction occurred in GOWMATHI and FOLA control stem explants. Stem explants harvested from all the three UV-B stressed cowpea varieties did not proliferate callus. The nodal stem explants of the three varieties of cowpea are not the suitable materials for germplasm preservation for growing in UV-B elevated climate.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(1): 44-52
      PubDate: 2016-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Major Health Problems and Diseases of Street Dogs in Pokhara Valley, Nepal

    • Authors: Mohan Acharya, Santosh Dhakal
      Pages: 53 - 56
      Abstract: Objective of the study was to find the prevalence of major health problems among street dogs in Pokhara Valley, Nepal. Data were taken from the rescued street dogs brought for the treatment at Himalayan Animal Rescue Team (HART), Nepal, from January to December, 2011. A total of 171 sick or injured dogs were brought for the treatment. All the preliminary diagnosis was done by the veterinary officer and confirmatory diagnosis were limited. Data were analyzed using Microsoft excel program 2013 (Microsoft Corporation, New York, USA) and results are presented as number and in percentage. Mange infestation (40.35%) was the most prevalent problem, followed by general wound (18.12%), respiratory tract infection (7.60%), gastrointestinal parasites (5.26%), and general nervous signs (4.09%). Two dogs were suspected with rabies. Maggot infestations, tick infections, poisoning, bone fractures, otitis, pyometras, bite wounds, mammary tumors, hernias, abscesses, and anemic conditions collectively accounted for nearly 24.58%. Results presented in this study can be a reference for non-government organizations involving in rescue and treatment of sick and injured street dogs to plan their activities.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(1): 53-56
      PubDate: 2016-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Studies on Anti-Cancer Activity of Lysyl Oxidase from Trichoderma Viride
           MTCC 167

    • Authors: Shipra Kalra, Kanav Midha, - Monika, Manpreet Kaur
      Pages: 57 - 63
      Abstract: Lysyl oxidase produces H2O2 i.e. ROS by acting on L-Lysyine. In the present study, ROS thus produced has been used by in vitro cytotoxicity assay on ovarian cancer cells thereby achieving 250 percent inhibition. Lysyl oxidase activity was determined spectrophotometrically by Dintrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) reagent. For isolation of lysyl oxidase produced by Trichodermaviride, acetone precipitation and ammonium sulphate precipitation was carried out. The effect of temperature on lysyl oxidase production was determined by incubating the media with 1.5 % inoculum at different temperature ranging from  10 , 20, 30,40,50,60,70 , 80 0C for 72 hr . Anti-tumor properties of Lysyl oxidase was checked using Rhodamine assay and NBT Assay.  Comparative results for Acetone and Ammonium Sulphate precipitation showed that Enzyme activity(U/ml)  of acetone precipitation is 124.6 and 144.3 IU/ml and Protein Content is 1.8 and 2.2 mg/ml with the specific activity 68.4IU/mg and 64.1IU/mg . The optimum enzyme production was found to be at pH 8 and optimum temperature for lysyl oxidase production was 500C with maximum enzyme activity of 0.38 (U/ml). 7th fraction contained highest enzyme activity so the retention time of lysyl oxidase was found to be 7 min. The protein content was also calculated by using Bradford method and it was highest in the 1st fraction and in 6th, 7th and 8th fractions. The specific activity has been improved from 75.1 IU/mg to 86.5 IU/mg. 10 units of lysyl oxidase inhibits 3x104 cells in each well to 82.5% and inhibition achieved at same cell count at 200 units which was 250% as observed with NBT and Rhodamine assay.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(1): 57-63
      PubDate: 2016-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Farmers Perception on Effect of Pesticide on Insect Pollinators at
           Padampur and Jutpani Vdcs, Chitwan, Nepal

    • Authors: R. Pudasaini, R. B. Thapa, S. Tiwari
      Pages: 64 - 66
      Abstract: A survey was conducted to know the farmers perception on the effect of chemical pesticide on insect pollinators at Jutpani andPadampur VDCs, Chitwan, Nepal in 2013. Thirty households were randomly selected and semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect necessary information by face-to-face interview. Majority of the farmers (60%)applied pesticides on crops during mid day. Half of the farmers (50.00%) rankedpopulation decline as effect of pesticide on pollinators, some farmers (16.67%) also observed dead pollinators in field and hives, affecting their distribution (13.33%) and repelling them from field as mentioned by the respondents (13.33%). Majority of respondents (56.67%) perceived that misuse and overuse of chemical pesticide was the major cause of declining insect pollinators, among other causes, 16.67% farmers replied deforestation, 10.00% environmental pollution and 6.67% less cultivated area responsible for the decline. Very few farmers (6.67%) could realise the incidence of disease on pollinator due to pesticidal effects.  Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(1): 64-66
      PubDate: 2016-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Analysis of Soil Enzymes During the Cyclic Process of Vineyard Management

    • Authors: Dastigir Sayyad Mundaganur, Yasmin Dastigir Mundaganur, Ashokan K.V.
      Pages: 67 - 73
      Abstract: Keeping soil quality at par is one of the needed things for sustainable development and the existence of millions of living things in biosphere. Soil enzymes are used as soil quality indicators for quick response of changes for environmental stress, pollution and agricultural practices much more sooner (1–2 year) than other soil properties (organic matter); easy to measure (relatively simple procedure), having relations with plant productivity, soil quality parameters (organic matter, soil physical properties, microbial activity, and microbial biomass), and biogeochemical cycle; and being integrative. To assess the detrimental effect of the soil in grape cultivating field we selected four farming sites and various soil enzymes like protease. Urease, cellulose, chitinase, beta glocosidase, phosphatase, amylase, aryl sulphatase and dehydrogenase. As an additional support, we estimated the microbial population in all these fields and in all the stages of the cyclic process of the vine cultivation. Our study showed that the extensive use of the chemical pesticide badly affect the soil microorganism and which in turn badly affect the quality and quantity of the soil enzymes and subsequently the quality of the soil. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(1): 67-73
      PubDate: 2016-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Comparative Efficacy of Different Tactics for the Management of Okra Shoot
           and Fruit Borer, Earias Vittella (Fab.) under Field Condition

    • Authors: M.A. Rahman, M.M. Uddin, M.A. Haque, M.M. Rahman
      Pages: 74 - 78
      Abstract: Comparative field efficacy of different control measures of okra shoot and fruit borer, Earias vittella were evaluated in the Entomology Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University during February to May, 2014. Field efficacy of two selected chemical insecticides (Decis 2.5EC, Agritaf 50SP), three botanicals (Neem oil, Pitraj oil and Mahogany oil), one parasitoid (Trichogramma chilonis), Light trap along with Hand picking and Trap crop (Maize) were evaluated by analyzing percent shoot and fruit infestations. BARI-1 (okra variety) was used as a test crop in the experiment. Among the tactics, the minimum shoot (4.72%) and fruit infestations (6.77%) were observed in the plots treated with Decis 2.5EC followed by Neem oil treated plots (4.83% in shoot and 7.56% in fruit). The highest reduction of percent shoot infestation (79.89%) and fruit infestation (64.97%) over untreated control plots was found in the Decis 2.5EC sprayed plots followed by Neem oil while the lowest percent reduction of shoot infestation (29.86%) and fruit infestation (29.43%) were recorded in case of Light trap + hand picking.  Neem oil and Decis 2.5EC were found very effective in managing E. vittella up to 7 days after each spraying. Agritaf 50SP, Pitraj oil, Mahogany oil, T. chilonis and trap crop were also found effective over untreated control plots although were significantly lower than Decis 2.5EC and Neem oil. Therefore, application of Decis 2.5EC and Neem oil were mostly effective and Light trap + hand picking was the least effective measures in controlling E. vittella.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(1): 74-78

      PubDate: 2016-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Brain Morphology and Feeding Habits of Some Fresh Water Teleosts of Nepal

    • Authors: Rajani Shrestha, sheetal vaidya
      Pages: 79 - 81
      Abstract: External morphology of teleost brain is organized in such a way that it reflects the correlation between sensory adaptation and principal modes of activity very clearly. Channa gachua, Garra annandelei and Heteropneustes fossilis are among the 168 fresh water fishes recorded in Nepal. While examining the gut contents of these fishes, it was found that C. gachua fed primarily on insects, G. annandelei fed mainly on filamentous algae whereas H. fossilis fed both on plants and animals. Their brain morphology revealed that olfaction in C. gachua was stronger than in G. annandelei and H. fossilis. Similarly, optic sense was also more powerful in C. gachua than in G. annandelei and in H. fossilis. On the contrary, cerebellum of H. fossilis was more developed than that of G. annandelei and C. gachua. These morphological differences of brain could be undoubtedly correlated with the carnivorous, herbivorous and omnivorous feeding behaviour of C. gachua, G. annandelei and H. fossilis respectively. Moreover, in all three fishes, around 20% of the total gut content was made of mud and sand, and they all had inferior mouths, indicating that they were bottom feeders.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(1): 79-81 
      PubDate: 2016-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • In Vitro Callus Proliferation from Leaf Explants of Green Gram after In
           Situ UV-B Exposure

    • Authors: K Rajendiran, S Vidya, D Arulmozhi
      Pages: 82 - 91
      Abstract: Callus induction was tried with leaf explants (third leaf from top of canopy) harvested from in situ control and supplementary UV-B irradiated (UV-B = 2 hours daily @ 12.2 kJ m-2 d-1; ambient = 10 kJ m-2 d-1) three varieties of green gram viz. CO-8, NVL-585 and VAMBAN-2 to study their viability for germplam conservation. Callus induction occurred both in control and UV-B stressed NVL-585 leaf explants. VAMBAN-2 both in unstressed and UV-B stressed conditions did not initiate callus. Only control leaf explants from CO-8 proliferated callus. Callus of UV-B irradiated NVL-585 weighed less (51.28 %) than control. Parenchyma cells were smaller in callus inducted from in situ UV-B exposed NVL-585 leaf explants. The leaf explants from UV-B stressed NVL-585 varieties of green gram responded to in vitro callus proliferation making them fit for germplasm conservation for cultivating in UV-B elevated environment.Int J ApplSci Biotechnol, Vol 4(1): 82-91
      PubDate: 2016-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • In Silico Approach of Structure Prediction and Functional Characterization
           of Zaire Ebola (Ebov) and Identification of Binding Site for Drug

    • Authors: Md.Jahirul Islam, Kaniz Fatema, Pipasha Biswas
      Pages: 92 - 103
      Abstract: Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV) is one of the dangerous and a negative-stranded ssRNA virus. EBOV is a zoonotic pathogen that causes severe hemorrhagic fever in humans. Nowadays epidemic outbreak caused by EBOV is incurable with present technologies; thus figure out as a major health risk which needs enhanced surveillance. The study was conducted with seven proteins of Zaire ebola (EBOV) and gene sequences are available in NCBI database. The homology modeling was done by SWISS-MODEL, Phyre2 and HHpred. The obtained model was verified with structure validation programs such as PROCHECK, Verify3D and ERRAT. PROCHECK analysis of seven proteins showed that 85-96.6% of the residues are in the most favored region, the verify 3D value of 80-100% indicates that constructed model is good and ERRAT value of 87.442-100% indicates that overall good quality factor. In this study, we also reported phylogenic relationship, physico-chemical characteristics, secondary structure,3-D structure. Moreover, active sites were identified by CASTp suggests that these proteins can be utilized as a potential drug target. Furthermore, the initial findings were reinforced by the results from I-Mutant and mCSM as these tools predicted significant and functional instability of the mutated vp35 protein.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(1): 92-103
      PubDate: 2016-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Chromosome Aberrations as a Biomarker for Genomic Instability in Cell
           Cultures Originated From Bovines, Canines and Equines Infected With

    • Pages: 104 - 112
      Abstract: Chromosomal abnormalities or aberrations were investigated in ten bovines, three canines and three equines presenting cutaneous papillomatosis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate possible chromosomal abnormalities as a biomarker of genomic instability induced by the interaction of the viral genome with the chromatin of the host cell in peripheral blood lymphocytes and skin warts lesion cultures. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood samples and epithelial biopsies. Amplification products from PCR using degenerated primer pair FAP59/FAP64 were sequenced. Peripheral blood lymphocytes and tumor cell cultures were performed. Structural chromosomal aberrations were verified as associations, chromosomal fragments, centric fusions, open chromatids, gaps, rearrangements and rings. Several levels of premature chromosome condensation were observed in both cultures. Numeric abnormalities as aneuploidy were also detected and hipoployd cells were found in a larger number than the hiperployd cells. This cytogenetic study in detecting premature chromosome condensation in the three species investigated describes by the first time the structural and numerical abnormalities in canines and equines presenting papillomatosis lesions. These abnormalities are similar of the three groups of animals, but virus specific.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(1): 104-112
      PubDate: 2016-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Effect of Seed Treatment (Soaking Cum Incubation) on Plant Population
           Maintenance of Maize (Zea Mays L) under Rainfed Conditions during Winter
           Season at Parwanipur, Bara, Nepal

    • Authors: B.P. Yadav, D. N. Yadav, K.B. Koirala, K.R. Pandey, R.B. Thapa
      Pages: 113 - 116
      Abstract: Non-primed top quality seed of maize having cent-percent germination in lab resulted only 61% emergence in the field based on 4806 observations for non-primed seed while treated seed (priming cum incubation) recorded 82 % emergence in the field based on 4806 observations during first year. During second year experiment also non-primed top quality seed of hybrid maize having cent-percent germination in lab resulted 71.29% emergence while priming cum incubation treatment recorded 91.84% emergence. The result of both years clearly indicates the importance of seed treatment for maintaining the optimum plant population and there by insuring higher yield of winter hybrid maize.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(1): 113-116
      PubDate: 2016-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • In vitro seed germination and Growth of Three Varieties of Black Gram
           after Ultraviolet-B Radiation

    • Authors: K Rajendiran, K Thiruvarasan, R Vijayalakshmi
      Pages: 117 - 129
      Abstract: In vitro seed germination and growth of seedlings was tried with three varieties of black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) viz. Vamban-3, Nirmal-7 and T-9 after ultraviolet-B irradiation (UV-B = 2 hours once with 1 hour recovery time @ 12.2 kJ m-2 d-1; ambient = 10 kJ m-2 d-1). Unstressed and UV-B stressed VAMBAN-3 and T-9 seeds both in dry and wet conditions responded to in vitro germination. Unstressed NIRMAL-7 failed to germinate under in vitro culture. UV-B stressed NIRMAL-7 responded to in vitro culture. UV-B irradiation enhanced seedling height at both dry and wet conditions in VAMBAN-3 followed by NIRMAL-7 compared with controls. Root and shoot length of UV-B stressed VAMBAN-3 and NIRMAL-7 performed five to six times better than control. Root and shoot length of T-9 was reduced (2.61 to 8.69 %) below control after UV-B exposure. UV-B stressed VAMBAN-3 under dry and wet exposure accumulated three to six times more plant biomass over controls. UV-B stressed NIRMAL-7 and T-9 dry seeds accumulated less plant biomass by 70.86 % and 12.39 % respectively than their controls. NIRMAL-7 and T-9 under dry UV-B exposure produced two times more leaves than control.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(1): 117-129
      PubDate: 2016-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Evaluation of Cauda Epididymal Semen Quality of Crossbred Bulls in the

    • Authors: Binoy S Vettical
      Pages: 130 - 132
      Abstract: The objective of the study was to evaluate the quality of semen retrieved from cauda epididymis of crossbred bulls in the tropics.  Testes from one hundred and twenty six recently slaughtered cross bred bulls in the tropics were used for the analyais. The total and progressive motility percentage obtained for epididymal semen were 49.17±9.26 per cent and 27.5±9.11 per cent respectively.  The mean concentration obtained for epididymal semen was 37,175x106 ±7612x106 per ml.  The mean percentage of live and dead sperms was 84.5±8.02 per cent and 15.5±8.02 per cent respectively.  The mean percentage of normal spermatozoa, spermatozoa with abnormal heads, abnormal tails, spermatozoa with a proximal protoplasmic droplet and distal protoplasmic droplet were 35.67±2.30, 3.17±1.58, 2.33±0.61, 11.67±4.01 and 47.17±3.17 per cent respectively. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(1): 130-132
      PubDate: 2016-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Detection of Genetic Diversity in Four Candidate Genes by Polymerase Chain
           Reaction-Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) Analysis of
           Goats in Sri Lanka

    • Authors: H.B.P.C. Ariyarathne, LGS Lokugalappatti, H.B.S. Ariyaratne, D.M.S. Munasinghe
      Pages: 133 - 138
      Abstract: Genetic diversity of Sri Lankan goats (Capra hircus) was evaluated using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) method to detect polymophism in four candidate genes (LALBA, k-CSN3, GnRHR and BMP4) in a sample of 219 goats representing three phenotypic groups. All studied loci were polymorphic, having three morphs for BMP4, LALBA and two morphs for k-CSN3 and GnRHR in the study population. A significant difference between genotypic frequencies for BMP4 and GnRHR genes was found while PIC criterion revealed an intermediate polymorphism for all analyzed phenotypic groups except for k-CSN3 and GnRHR genes. Cross-bred animals for BMP4 gene and nondescript animals for LALBA gene were comparatively more polymorphic according to the effective allele number criterion. This study provides insight into the genetic diversity of Sri Lankan goats, which can be utilized to develop single nucleotide polymorphism markers to be used in association studies, and marker assisted selection.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(1): 133-138
      PubDate: 2016-03-31
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
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