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Journal Cover International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2091-2609
   Published by Nepal Journals Online Homepage  [74 journals]
  • Bio-removal of Azo Dyes: A Review

    • Authors: Pradeep Kumar Singh, Ram Lakhan Singh
      Pages: 108 - 126
      Abstract: Synthetic dyes are widely used in textile, paper, food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries with the textile industry as the largest consumer. Among all the available synthetic dyes, azo dyes are the largest group of dyes used in textile industry. Textile dyeing and finishing processes generate a large amount of dye containing wastewater which is one of the main sources of water pollution problems worldwide. Several physico-chemical methods have been applied to the treatment of textile wastewater but these methods have many limitations due to high cost, low efficiency and secondary pollution problems. As an alternative to physico-chemical methods, biological methods comprise bacteria, fungi, yeast, algae and plants and their enzymes which received increasing interest due to their cost effectiveness and eco-friendly nature. Decolorization of azo dyes by biological processes may take place either by biosorption or biodegradation. A variety of reductive and oxidative enzymes may also be involved in the degradation of dyes. This review provides an overview of decolorization and degradation of azo dyes by biological processes and establishes the fact that these microbial and plant cells are significantly effective biological weapon against the toxic azo dyes. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(2): 108-126
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.3126/ijasbt.v5i2.16881
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Bacopa Monnieri: A Wonder Drug Changing Fortune of People

    • Authors: Kriti Rai, Nirmala Gupta, Lakshya Dharamdasani, Pallavi Nair, Prerna Bodhankar
      Pages: 127 - 132
      Abstract: In recent times, the use of herbal products has increased enormously across the globe. Numerous natural products such as those isolated from plants have been evaluated as therapeutics for the treatment of variety of diseases. Bacopa monnieri also referred to as water hyssop and “Brahmi,” has been used in the Ayurvedic system of medicine since time immemorial. It belongs to the family Scrophulariaceae and is an annual creeping plant found in wet, damp, and marshy areas. Phytochemical analysis of BM extracts revealed the presence of various biochemical compounds such as alkaloids, bacosides, flavonoids, glycosides, triterpenoids and saponins etc. The major therapeutic chemical constituents of this plant identified through various researches are the triterpenoids saponins, bacosides. Bacoside A has been recognized as the chief component responsible for therapeutic effects.  BM is conventionally used for diverse ailments, but is best known as memory enhancer. A vast range of studies using methanolic and ethanolic extracts of BM have shown its effect in treatment of wide range of diseases like diabetes, depression, cancer, inflammation etc. BM appears to demonstrate low toxicity in various rat, mice models including humans however, long-term studies of toxicity in humans still need to study in great details. This review focuses on the studies that have traced both pharmacological and phytochemical properties of plant Bacopa monnieri covering wide range of its effect on anti- depression, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative amongst many others which can surely help in betterment of mankind.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(2): 127-132
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.3126/ijasbt.v5i2.16952
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • DNA Sequencing and Bioinformatics Analysis of Clone pOr78 from the Species
           Specific Suppression Subtractive Hybridization Library Constructed from
           Endemic Wild Rice Species O. rhizomatis

    • Authors: Gowri Rajkumar, Jagathpriya Weerasena, Kumudu Fernando
      Pages: 133 - 140
      Abstract: Oryza rhizomatis is an endemic wild rice species in Sri Lanka with some unique characteristics of biotic and abiotic stress resistance. Hence characterization of desirable novel genes found in Oryza rhizomatis will be useful for transferring traits to commercial varieties. Therefore, in this study, a species-specific cDNA library was constructed from the wild rice species O. rhizomatis to isolate and characterize novel genes which are specifically present in this species but absent in cultivated rice (Oryza sativa). Forty recombinant clones were randomly selected from the cDNA SSH library and the inserts were sequenced. Sequence analysis of all forty clones indicated that the suppression and hybridization procedures in the library construction were successful as most of the clones have significant alignment with other wild rice species than O. sativa used as a reference cDNA for construction of subtraction library in this study. Therefore the genes which were specifically expressed in the wild rice species O. rhizomatis enriched in the SSH library. From this study it was possible to characterize O. rhizomatis nsLTP1 proteins (non specific Lipid Transfer Protein 1) super family AAI_LTSS which are found to be involved in control of pathogen attack related responses in plants.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(2): 133-140
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.3126/ijasbt.v5i2.17130
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Study of Antioxidant, Anti-inflammatory, and DNA-Damage Protection
           Properties of Some Indian Medicinal Plants Reveal their Possible Role in
           Combating Psoriasis

    • Authors: Neha Arora, Deepika Tripathi, Neha Pandey, Krishna Kumar Rai, Sanjay Kumar Rai, Shashi Pandey-Rai
      Pages: 141 - 149
      Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated due to severe oxidative stress, thereby resulting in pathogenesis of various disorders in humans, including psoriasis. DNA damage is the major manifestation of long term ROS exposure. ROS can be scavenged by natural antioxidant compounds present in medicinal plants. In this study, aqueous, methanolic and chloroform extracts of eleven dermatologically significant Indian medicinal plants were evaluated for their ROS scavenging and antioxidant properties, using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), along with total phenolic content determination. Lipoxygenase inhibition assay was conducted to determine anti-inflammatory activities. DNA-damage protective capacities were also assessed using plasmid pBluescript II SK(–) DNA, where DNA damage was induced by Fenton reaction. The study reveals that the extracts of T. cordifolia, C. paniculatus, C. longa and A. vera performed far much better, in almost all the assays, with regards to P. corylifolia, a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat psoriasis, thus indicating these plants to be potent sources of effective drug formulation for treatment of psoriasis.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(2): 141-149
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.3126/ijasbt.v5i2.17618
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Assessment of Perceptions and Practices of the Nurses to Prevent
           Indwelling Catheter Associated Infection; Jinnah Hospital Lahore, Pakistan
           

    • Authors: Ghuzala Anwar, Ghalib Nawaz, Muhammad Afzal, Iram Majeed, Ali Waqas
      Pages: 150 - 158
      Abstract: Nursing is an art science and an essential health care profession in which the skilled knowledgeable persons are committed to provide care to  sick peoples and strive for the, protection and promotion of health and prevention against diseases and helps to minimize the risk and risk related injuries. Urinary tract infections are very common infection in the hospital settings almost responsible for 40% nosocomial infections. All the urinray tract infection is expected that approximately more than 70% infection reported because of indewelling cathters.Objectives: To assess the perceptions of nurses regarding indwelling urinary catheter and its care. To assess the practices of nurses to prevent the indwelling catheter related urinary tract infection. Methodology: Descriptive cross sectional design and data was collected through a five point Likert scale questioner. Study population was the nursing staff from the Jinnah hospital Lahore.  Sample size was 184 nurses from all indoor departments of the Jinnah Hospital Lahore. Results: The findings show that the practice and perceptions scores of the registered nurses’ in the study group are insignificant with age, qualification and experience (i.e., p-value > 0.05) with the evidence-based guidelines for prevention of catheter associated urinary tract infection. Results of study indicated insignificant relationship between registered nurses’ practice and perceptions regarding the indwelling urinary catheter associated infection.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(2): 150-158
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.3126/ijasbt.v5i2.17317
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Weed Dynamics in Various Cultivars of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) under Direct
           Seeding and Transplanting Conditions in Lamjung

    • Authors: Basu Paudel, Abhisek Shrestha, Lal Prasad Amgain, Madhav Prasad Neupane Neupane
      Pages: 159 - 167
      Abstract: Even though rice is a major crop of Nepal, its’ productivity seems very low in South Asia due to high infestation of weeds. Therefore, a field research was conducted in the field of Lamjung Campus, Sundarbazar from July-October, 2015. Two Factorial Randomized Complete Block Design under direct seeding (DSR) and transplanted (TPR) cultivations with weeded and non-weeded check for diverse rice cultivars (US-382, Sukha-2, NR-10676, NR-10490 and Khumal-10) as treatments was executed in field with 3 replications. Statistical results indicated that Rotataindica, Fimbristylis miliacea, Ageratum conyzoides, Cyperusiria, Polygonum barbatum and Cynadon dactylon were found as the major weeds under both DSR and TPR whereas Paspalum distichum L., Alternanthera sessiles L., Echinochloa colona L., Digitariasp., Amischophacelus axillaris L., Echinochloa crusgalli L. were minor. Rotataindica was found the major weed in TPR. It was seemed that the highest weed population recorded for US-382(131.7/m2),when cultivated under TPR system but it was completely absent under DSR. Meanwhile Cynadon dactylon was completely absent in weeded region of TPR system, which in contrary was the highest in weeded field of DSR with variety US-382(18.7/m2). Similar results were found in case of biomass for varieties consisting higher number of weeds while it was lowest in weeded field of NR-10490 shown as TPR. Highest grain yield was obtain from the weeded region of US-382(7.7 t/ha) of TPR system whereas lowest yield was found in varieties NR-10490 and NR-10676 (1.8 t/ha) of non-weeded region of DSR system. With the increase in biomass of weed the yield of rice decrease gradually with co-relation, y = -0.0119x + (R² = 0.1251). Hence, without effective weed control management we can’t increase the productivity of rice.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(2): 159-167
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.3126/ijasbt.v5i2.17611
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Boucerosia procumbens (Gravely
           & Mayur.)

    • Authors: Janetha D Prakash Prakash, David Samuel P
      Pages: 168 - 171
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles in the ethanol extract of Boucerosia procumbens. Nanoparticles are being used in many commercial applications. The synthesized Silver Nanoparticles were characterized by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy). It was found that ethanol silver iron can be reduced by ethanol plant extracts of plant to generate to extremely stable Silver Nanoparticles.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(2): 168-171
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.3126/ijasbt.v5i2.17613
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Study of Methyl Orange-Cetyltrimethyl Ammonium Bromide Interaction by
           Conductivity Method in Methanol-Water Mixed Solvent Media

    • Authors: Manoj Khanal
      Pages: 172 - 179
      Abstract: The interaction of an anionic dye (Methyl Orange) with cationic surfactant (Cetyltrimethylammonium Bromide, CTAB) in the series of solvent containing variable compositions of methanol-water mixture (10%, 20%, 30% and 40%) was studied at room temperature (31±2oC). Conductivity measurements were done for the investigation of interaction of dyes. The specific conductance of 6.58x10-5 M to 59.22x10-5M surfactant (CTAB) and these surfactants with 1.008x10-3M dye (MO) mixtures were noted at room temperature. A theoretical model was used to calculate conductance ratio from the data of measured specific conductance values. Values of conductance ratio of CTAB-MO mixtures were found to be all less than 1 which indicated that CTAB-MO dye -surfactant mixture exert significant influence on the degree of interaction.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(2): 172-179
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.3126/ijasbt.v5i2.17622
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Effect of Preceding Crops and Nitrogen Rates on Economic Studies of Winter
           Hybrid Maize (Zea mays L.)

    • Authors: B.P. Yadav, D.N. Yadav, K.B. Koirala, K.R. Pandey, R.B. Thapa
      Pages: 180 - 187
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at Agronomy research farm of IAAS, Rampur, chitwan, Nepal during summer and winter season 2010 and 2011 to study the effect of crop sequence and nitrogen rates on hybrid maize. The research finding revealed that maximum gross return (Rs 53660 /ha in 2010 and Rs 60450/ha in 2011) was obtained from maize grown after greengraml while maximum net return (Rs 30170/ha in 2010 and Rs 33440/ha in 2011) was obtained from maize under greengram-maize sequences. Benefit & cost ratio was maximum (1.22 in 2010 and 1.18 in 2011) from maize under greengram-maize sequences while it was minimum (0.50 in 2010 and 0.47 in 2011) under maize–maize sequences. Maximum maize equivalent yield 11516 kg /ha in 2010 and 12710 kg /ha in 2011) was obtained under maize-maize sequences while it was minimum (4310 kg /ha in 2010 and 4624 kg /ha in 2011) under clusterbean-maize sequences. Maize equivalent yield was maximum (10824 kg /ha in 2010 and 11923 kg /ha in 2011) with 200 kg N/ha while it was minimum (7384 kg /ha in 2010 and 8206 kg /ha in 2011) without nitrogen. Grain production efficiency was maximum (32.0 kg /ha/day under greengram– maize sequences in 2010. but in 2011, maximum grain production efficiency (34.8 kg /ha /day) was recorded under maize–maize sequences which was comparable to grain production efficiency under greengram-maize sequence. Maximum grain production efficiency (29.2 kg/ha/day in 2010 and 32.8 kg /ha/day in 2011) was obtained with 200 kg N/ha.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(2): 180-187
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.3126/ijasbt.v5i2.17612
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Cluster Analysis of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes Based Upon
           Response to Terminal Heat Stress

    • Authors: Ankur Poudel, Dhruba Bahadur Thapa, Manoj Sapkota
      Pages: 188 - 193
      Abstract: High temperature stress adversely affects plant physiological processes; limiting plant growth and reducing grain yield. Heat stress is often encountered due to late sowing of wheat in winter. Fifty wheat genotypes were studied for days to maturity, thousand kernel weight, grain filling duration, grain filling rate, and SPAD reading in alpha lattice design at Agriculture and Forestry University at Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal with the objective to identify superior heat stress tolerant varieties after clustering them based on their response to heat stress. All the genotypes were clustered using reduction in thousand kernel weight, heat susceptibility index for thousand kernel weight, heat susceptibility index for grain filling duration, area under SPAD retreat curve, maturity duration under normal condition, maturity duration at late sown condition, grain filling rate under normal condition and grain filling rate at late sown condition as variables and dendogram was prepared. UPGMA revealed that these genotypes formed five distinct clusters. The resistant genotypes and susceptible genotypes formed different clusters. The member of cluster 3 was found to be tolerant to terminal heat stress where as members of cluster 2 were found most susceptible to terminal heat stress. From this study genotype BAJ #1/SUP152 was found most tolerant to terminal heat stress. The genotypes belonging to superior cluster could be considered very useful in developing heat tolerant variety and other breeding activities.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(2): 188-193
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.3126/ijasbt.v5i2.17614
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Evaluation of Elite Spring Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes for
           Yield and Yield Attributing Traits under Irrigated Condition

    • Authors: Ramji Prasad Bhattarai, Bishnu Raj Ojha, Dhruba Bahadur Thapa, Raju Kharel, Ankit Ojha, Manoj Sapkota
      Pages: 194 - 202
      Abstract: Thirty International Maize and Wheat Improvement Centre (CIMMYT) elite lines and Nepalese commercial wheat varieties were grown at Agriculture and Forestry University, Chitwan in Alpha-lattice design to identify high yielding genotypes, yield attributing parameters and correlations between them. Observations were taken for different morpho-physiological and yield attributing traits i.e., days to booting, heading, anthesis, maturity, flag leaf senescence, flag leaf duration, grain filling duration, plant height, spike length, number of grains per spike, thousand kernel weight, hectoliter weight, grain yield and biomass yield. Significant genotypic differences were observed for all the traits studied indicating considerable amount of variation among genotypes for each character. The mean grain yield was 2148 kg/ha and it ranged from 1000 to 3425 kg/ha. BLOUK#1/4/WHEAR/KUKUNA/3/C80.1/3*BATAVIA//2*WBLL1/5/MUNAL #1 (35th ESWYT138) was the highest grain yielding genotype among all followed by CHIBIA//PRLII/CM65531/3/FISCAL/4/DANPHE#1/5/CHIBIA//PRLII/CM65531/3/SKAUZ/BAV92 (ESWYT 141), Gautam, Vijay and CHYAK1*2/3/HUW234+LR34/PRINIA//PFAU/WEAVER (ESWYT129). Grain yield had significant strong positive correlation with grain filling duration (0.685**), plant height (0.606**), thousand kernel weight (0.675**), biomass yield (0.892**) and hectoliter weight (0.586**). Four clusters were formed by cluster analysis and genotypes were grouped in a particular cluster on the basis of similarity of morpho-physiological traits. So, these genotypes may be exploited for their direct release or as parents in hybridization programmes to develop high yielding wheat varieties.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(2): 194-202
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.3126/ijasbt.v5i2.17615
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Induction of Cytotoxicity by Selected Nanoparticles in Chinese Hamster
           Ovary-K1 Cells

    • Authors: P.V. Vidya, K.C. Chitra
      Pages: 203 - 207
      Abstract: The aim of the present study is to analyze the cytotoxicity of selected nanoparticles on Chinese Hamster Ovary-K1 (CHO-K1) cells using methyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay. Four different metal oxide nanoparticles namely silicon dioxide (SiO2-NPs, 1 nm), aluminium oxide (Al2O3-NPs, 16.7 nm), titanium dioxide (TiO2-NPs, 11.4 nm) and iron oxide (Fe3O4-NPs, 15.65 nm) were exposed to CHO-K1 cells at 25, 50, 75 and 100 µg/ml concentrations for 24 h maintaining the control group. The percentage of cell viability using methyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay showed significant reduction in cell viability from 63.82 to 31.19% in SiO2-NPs, 96.68 to 34.14% in Al2O3-NPs, 65.69 to 14.32% in TiO2-NPs and 120.69 to 59.86% in Fe3O4-NPs when compared with the untreated cells. Assessment of cytotoxicity by using lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay revealed that Al2O3–NPs showed more cytotoxicity followed by Fe3O4-NPs, TiO2-NPs and SiO2-NPs in concentration-dependent manner. Therefore, it is reasonable to conclude that size and the composition of the nanoparticles could contribute to the relative cytotoxicity in CHO cells.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(2): 203-207
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.3126/ijasbt.v5i2.17619
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • The Assessment of Nurses’ Knowledge and Practices about Fluid and
           Electrolytes Monitoring and Administration among Cardiac Surgery Patients:
           A Case of Punjab Institute of Cardiology

    • Authors: Shumaila Aslam, Muhammad Afzal, Robina Kousar, Ali Waqas, Syed Amir Gilani
      Pages: 208 - 215
      Abstract: Background:  In order to maintain the health, the homeostasis dynamics and balance process is most important. Among the critically ill cardiac surgery patients the homeostasis is imbalance and results in insufficient tissues perfusion and many organs of the body lead to the failure condition. It is necessary to monitor actively the intake and output during electrolytes administration in the cardiac surgery patients.Objectives: To assess the knowledge and practice of the registered nurses about fluid and electrolytes monitoring and administration in the cardiac surgery patients. Methodology: This study is of descriptive and cross sectional study design. The questioner of knowledge and practices regarding fluid and electrolytes administration was adopted from the article of Vijayan (Vijayan, 2011) which is based on 5-point Likert scale. The data was collected from 208 nurses of Punjab Institute of Cardiology, Lahore, Pakistan. Conclusion: The findings of the current study show that the nurses have poor knowledge and practices of nurses, so, public hospital’s administration should focus on the strategies and activities which become helpful to increase the knowledge and practices of nurses regarding fluid and electrolytes administration. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(2): 208-215
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.3126/ijasbt.v5i2.17626
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Counteracting Congenital Cataract

    • Authors: Arthy Narayanan, B.V. Sai Sinduri Sai Sinduri, S Pradeep
      Pages: 216 - 221
      Abstract: Congenital or hereditary cataract is a condition where the lens of the eye is not completely transparent resulting in cloudy or blocked vision. Many genes have been found to influence the formation of a cataract. The gene that has been focused on in this paper is the CRYAA gene which codes for the crystallin A protein, a major constituent protein of the lens. Mutations and misfoldings of this protein have been seen to be a major cause of congenital cataract. So, we did an analysis of the gene and the protein using computational tools. As a solution to the condition, we computationally devised a vector that carries the correct CRYAA gene. This vector could be used during the pre-natal stage of pregnancy for children who are believed to inherit this condition.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(2): 216-221
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.3126/ijasbt.v5i2.17620
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Poultry Production in Nepal: Characteristics, Productivity and Constraints

    • Authors: Rajani Osti, Dinesh Bhattarai, Harshika Chaudhary, Virendra Singh
      Pages: 222 - 226
      Abstract: Poultry farming is integral part of agriculture in Nepal. The objective of this research was to analyze the prevailing production constraints, characterization of poultry farming and its economic analysis using questionnaire-based survey and on-site investigation. 180 farms were selected from 3 major districts. Garrett’s ranking technique was used to analyze the constraints.  Highly significant difference (P<0.01) in size of poultry farm was found. We found significant difference in feeding, housing and drinking system for the chicken. Un-organized chicken marketing channel was observed in the study area.   High chicks’ mortality, wastage of feed, insecure vaccination and frequent drop in egg production were characteristic of laying hens. Newcastle disease and Chronic Respiratory Disease were acknowledged as the biggest constraint of chicken production. Government and concerned agencies need to take active part for the extension service to strengthen the health of chicken and organized marketing channel is essential for selling of poultry products  which can improve the profit to the farmers.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(2): 222-226
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.3126/ijasbt.v5i2.17616
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Dietary knowledge, Attitude and Practices of Diabetes Patients at Services
           Hospital Lahore

    • Authors: Anbreen Bano, Muhammad Afzal, Hajra Sarwar, Ali Waqas, Samina Kousar, Saima Gulzar
      Pages: 227 - 236
      Abstract: Introduction: Diabetes mellitus is growing fastly the world is witnessing.  The incidence of alarming concern to health care providers is rapidly rising. The main burden of this disease will fall on all developing countries. The number of diabetic patients will reach 300 million by the end of 2025 it is known through the estimation mostly developing countries will have such a dramatic and significant impacts. Methodology: The quantitative descriptive cross-sectional study design was used with convenient sampling (n=142) from Services Hospital Lahore. Using the questioner consist of 34 items data was analyzed through spss21 version descriptive analyses and the chi-square test with (p=<0.05) was used. Results: Findings of the study that only 19% had good knowledge they answered 8 or more correct responses remaining 81% participants answered less than 50% correct responses had poor knowledge. The 41.5% had positive attitude with diabetic diet while the remaining 58.5% were having negative attitude. The findings also revealed that only 17.6% had good practices they answered 50% and above correct responses while the others 82.4% participants answered less than 50% correct responses and were doing poor practices about the diabetic diet. The significant association was found between the gender and patient’s knowledge and no significant association between the education and patient’s dietary knowledge. Conclusion: The diabetes type 2 patients should have up to mark dietary, knowledge, and keep it in practicing well. It will, prevent from diabetes complications. There is need to improve the patients knowledge and provide education them.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(2): 227-236
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.3126/ijasbt.v5i2.17625
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Survey of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Practice in Vegetable Crops of
           Rupandehi District, Western Nepal

    • Authors: Chandra Bahadur Thapa
      Pages: 237 - 242
      Abstract: In the present study, documentation of farmer’s knowledge on Integrated Pest Management (IPM) was carried out in Rupandehi district during the year 2016. The objective of this paper is to assess the knowledge of farmers about IPM and its effectiveness in this district. It was carried out by conducting semi-structured interview with the participants of IPM FFS, vegetable growing farmers, stakeholders and local people with the help of standard questionnaire, Focus Group Discussion (FGD) and key informant interview. The IPM program is found to be conducted by an international non-government organization viz. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and government organizations viz. Plant Protection Directorate (PPD), Agronomy Development Directorate (ADD) and District Agriculture Development Organization (DADO) through Farmer’s Field School (FFS) in this district. In total forty IPM FFS was conducted from 1998 to 2015 which provided training about IPM in rice and vegetable crops to 1057 farmers in which 393 were male and 664 female. Although a significant difference has been found in the knowledge about the amount of pesticide used, biological method of pest control for IPM by FFS participant and nonparticipant farmers, it is not observed in their behavior during the cultivation of crops in the farm. The result showed that only 5% of participants of Farmer’s Field School (FFS) are following IPM practices in their own farm after taking training. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(2): 237-242
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.3126/ijasbt.v5i2.17628
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Barriers of Research Utilization in Nursing Practices in Public Hospitals
           in Lahore, Pakistan

    • Authors: Roubina Kousar, Robina Kousar, Muhammad Azhar, Ali Waqas, Syed Amir Gilani
      Pages: 243 - 249
      Abstract: Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the barriers of research utilization among nurses of public hospitals Lahore, Pakistan. Methodology: Descriptive cross sectional study was used. This study was conducted among nurses of  Mayo Hospital Lahore and Lady Aitchison Hospital Lahore. The data was collected through simple random sampling from 245 registered nurses from both hospitals. The questionnaire of barriers to research utilization developed by Funk et al. (1993) was used. Result: The current study results show that nurses didn’t utilize the research in practices. Non-supportive organization, colleagues, inadequate facilities, insufficient time, nurse feels she has no authority to change patient care procedure, research factor and nursing factor is the main barrier of research utilization. In the future nurses should come on a paradigm of research. Conclusion: This reveals that management should increase the focus on nurse’s knowledge and facilities about research utilizationInt. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(2): 243-249
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.3126/ijasbt.v5i2.17627
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Response of Wheat Cultivars in Different Agricultural Practices Differed
           by Sowing Date

    • Authors: Ramesh Acharya, Santosh Marahatta, Lal P Amgain
      Pages: 250 - 255
      Abstract: A field experiment with three wheat varieties at different sowing dates on two crop establishment methods was accomplished to identify the optimum sowing date at AFU Rampur during winter season of 2014/2015. Three wheat varieties namely: Tillotama, Danfe and Vijay sown on three dates: 14th November, 29th November, and 14th December under two crop establishment practices: Conservational and conventional agriculture were evaluated with strip –split plot design in three replications. The field data onyield attributes and yields were collected. Earlier sowing on 14th November gave the highest yield (3427.15 kg ha-1), total dry matter (8154.44 kg ha-1), with longest days to crop maturation (133.11 days). In case of varieties, Vijay gave the highest grain yield (3458.61 kg ha-1) and total dry weight (4456.11 and 8832.42 kg ha-1 respectively) with earliest days to heading and maturity. The straw yield was the highest for 29th November sowing (5821 kg ha-1) and for Danfe variety (5756 kg ha-1). Vijay variety recorded the highest test weight (43.60 g) and highest harvest index (35.89%) even though with the lowest effective tillers per square meter (320.83), it proved to be the most promising variety. Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(2): 250-255
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.3126/ijasbt.v5i2.17629
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Antibacterial Effects of Thuja Leaves Extract

    • Authors: Shiv Nandan Sah, Sunil Regmi, Man Kumar Tamang
      Pages: 256 - 260
      Abstract: Various medicinal plants are common in use in Nepal for the treatment of different diseases. Nowadays, drug resistance has emerged as a major problem for various infections, in such case plants can be used as alternative for the production of new antimicrobial agents. Thuja (in Nepali: dhupi) is a small evergreen genus of the Cupressaceae family. This species is widely cultivated as a common ornamental plant in Nepal and India. This study examined the antibacterial activity of Thuja leaves extract on gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus spp.) and gram-negative bacteria (E. coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Thuja leaves were collected from different localities of Dharan, and dried under shade for 10 days. They were then grinded using mechanical grinder. Leaf extract (oleoresin) was obtained by soxhlet extraction technique using mixture of Ethyl acetate, Ethanol and chloroform in the ratio 40:30:30 as the solvent. The antibacterial activity of Thuja oleoresin was tested using both Agar well diffusion as well as disc diffusion technique. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration(MIC) was  determined by agar well diffusion on MHA plates. Thuja oleoresin showed distinct antibacterial activity towards all four isolates on both agar well and disc diffusion methods. MIC for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus spp. was found to be 12.5 µl whereas for E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus, MIC was 25 µl. Thus from our results, it is concluded that Thuja leaves have antibacterial effects and can be a potential source for production of antibacterial drugs.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(2): 256-260
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.3126/ijasbt.v5i2.17617
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Early Mass Diagnosis of Fusarium Wilt in Banana Cultivations using an
           E-Nose Integrated Autonomous Rover System

    • Authors: M. Sanjay, B. Kalpana
      Pages: 261 - 266
      Abstract: Nucleic acid based diagnostics are the standard means for diagnosis of infected plant material. However, these methods are expensive and time-consuming, but they are accurate. On the contrary, disease prediction methods based on Volatile organic compound (VOC) emission from plants are less accurate but, allow for screening of large volumes of samples. This work reports the methodology for development of an inexpensive electronic nose for implementation as early warning systems intended to prevent plant disease outbreaks using VOC pattern analysis. It is proven that plants emit VOCs in response to pathogenic attacks. In this project, efforts were made to register the pattern of VOCs released by the diseased plants. The disease taken for this purpose was Fusarium wilt disease of banana. The E-Nose was successfully fabricated using five MOS sensors connected to a microcontroller, which along with a microSD card module was able to store the acquired VOC data. The VOC data analysis was done in MS-Excel, using NeuroXL Predictor, a neural networking add-in. A small scale banana field containing 35 plants, divided into disease, test and control groups, was established. The disease and test sets were subjected to similar disease induction protocols and VOC data was collected over a period of 40 days. NeuroXL Predictor was trained to recognize odours corresponding to diseases by feeding the neural network with the disease set VOC data. Finally, the training model was validated by providing the test set VOC data to the neural network and the results were found to be accurate. Efforts were made to automate the VOC data acquisition from the plants, as it will be impractical to carry around, a device, through several hectares of plantation. Therefore, a simple autonomous rover was fabricated using DC motors connected to a microcontroller. A DC motor placed on top was used to move the E-nose towards the plants in left and right of the rover. The microcontroller was programmed to stop, move forward and turn the E-nose towards left or right as per the measurements of the field.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(2): 261-266
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.3126/ijasbt.v5i2.17621
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Ion Transport through Surfactant Modified Cellulose Acetate Phthalate
           Membrane in Acidic Medium

    • Authors: A.K. Tiwari, Z.F. Khan
      Pages: 267 - 272
      Abstract: Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP)membrane was interacted separately with aqueous HCl solution and aqueous HCl with sodium dodecyl hydrogen sulphate (SDS) as a surfactant  and their characteristic properties were determined on the basis of water content, conductance-time and membrane potential data. The possibility of electrochemical modification of cellulose acetate phthalate membrane upon immobilization of the anionic surfactant (SDS) has been also explored. Variable concentration of HCl solutions were used across a cellulose acetate phthalate membrane for membrane potential. The data has been used to interpret the variation of permselectivity ,effective fixed charge density and Donnan distribution ratio of membrane.Int. J. Appl. Sci. Biotechnol. Vol 5(2): 267-272
      PubDate: 2017-06-29
      DOI: 10.3126/ijasbt.v5i2.17624
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 2 (2017)
       
 
 
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