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Journal Cover   International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology
  [2 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2091-2609
   Published by Nepal Journals Online Homepage  [67 journals]
  • Scenario of Entomological Research in Legume Crops in Nepal

    • Authors: Bishnu Prasad Neupane, Jiban Shrestha
      Pages: 367 - 372
      Abstract: This review paper highlights scenario of entomological research in grain legumes in Nepal into headings of the monitoring, survey and surveillance, insect pest management, existing problem and future strategies. A survey study on yield loss assessment of chickpea due to Helicoverpa pod borer under field condition has been recorded up to 75% in the year 1996-1998 at Banke and Bardiya district. While monitored Helicoverpa armigera through pheromone trap, during the 2nd week of March, peak catches of 91 male moths were recorded at Rampur, while it was the maximum (42 male moths) during the 3rd week of March. Synthetic pyrethroids, deltamethrin, fenvalerate and cypermethrin used at 0.01% concentration (a.i.), were effective in controlling the chickpea pod borer, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner. Genotypes NCH-18, NCH -31, NCH-138 and ICC 3075 WR were found resistant. Ripcord 10%@0.05% was found to be superior and effective chemical insecticides to control stem fly and soybean hairy caterpillar. The late sowing date December, 10 showed significantly higher percentage of chickpea pod borer damage with lower grain yield. Inter crops combinations of Chickpea +wheat (2:1) ratio was found effective against Helicoverpa armigera damage (1.2%) followed by chickpea+barley (2.36%) and Chickpea+linseed (2:1) ratio (3.7%).  Bakaino (Melia azederach L.) was identified as the best indigenous pesticides to check the normal growth of hairy caterpillar (Spilarctia casigneta kollar) under laboratory condition. Metarhizium anisopliae was found effective for the management of Helicoverpa armigera that caused maximum mortality (94.67%), infection (45.33%) within 7.49 days (LT50). Similarly, Beauveria bassiana caused maximum mortality (98.67%), infection (80.00%) with the least LT50 value (5 days). Crop sprayed with HaNPV had the lowest pod damage (0.3%) and the highest in Racer (2.2%). This review work provided a lot of information to conduct entomological research activity conducted in grain legumes and opens the door for future research and strategy.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(3): 367-372
      PubDate: 2015-09-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Biodegradation of Synthetic Dye by Endophytic Fungal Isolate in Calotropis
           procera Root

    • Authors: Shiv Kumar Verma, Anand Kumar, Moti Lal, Mira Debnath
      Pages: 373 - 380
      Abstract: In this study, based on colony morphology characteristics, a total of 19 fungal endophytes were isolated from root of Calotropis Procera a traditional Indian medicinal plant. All fungal isolates were screened for their dye degradation ability. The dyes used as test dyes were Rose Bengal (RB), azo dye Methyl Red (MR), Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB) and Methylene Blue (MB) and the concentration of each dye in the experiment was kept 100mg/L. Among the 19 fungal endophytic isolates (CPR1-CPR19), only one isolate CPR4 showed strong dye decolourization capability against all the four test dye. Dye decolourization ability by the isolate CPR4 was determined to be 97.4%, 87%, 65% and 45% for Rose Bengal (RB), Methyl Red (MR), Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB) and Methylene Blue (MB) respectively. Complete colour decolourization was observed with rose Bengal followed by Methyl Red. Glucose minimal medium was used for liquid and solid culture of fungal isolates. Fungal biomass production in the presence of four test dye was studied and compare with control culture of fungal endophytes. Effect of temperature, pH, stationary and agitation conditions on dye degradation was also studied.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(3): 373-380 
      PubDate: 2015-09-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Consequences of Environmentally Hazardous Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-
           Anthracene Treatment on Cyanobacteria

    • Authors: Jignasha G Patel, J.I. Nirmal Kumar, Shamiyan R Khan
      Pages: 381 - 386
      Abstract: The study was aimed to determine the chronic toxicity of Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon – Anthracene in response to pigments and metabolic study on three different cyanobacterial species such as Synechocystis sp., Anabaena fertilissima, and Nostoc muscorum. Test organisms were treated at different doses and encountered LC50/Mean Lethal Concentration (at which 50% lethality/ growth reduction occur) separately at 7.0 ppm for Synechocystis sp, 5.0 ppm for Anabaena fertilissima and 1.5 ppm for Nostoc muscorum. The influence of anthracene on pigments, metabolites and enzymes was carried out. The test doses caused concentration dependent and decreased pigments like carotenoids and phycobilliproteins. Depletion of carbohydrate by 65 to 80% and proteins by 58 to 78% was encountered with rise in Anthracene concentrations after 16th day exposure in case of Synechocystis sp however, phenols were found to raise by 26 to 37% with increased anthracene concentrations. Similar trend also observed in other two tested blue green algae. Thus the Synechocystis more tolerant to anthracene treatments as compare to Anabaena fertillissima but Nostoc muscorum showed highest sensitivity to anthracene.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(3): 381-386
      PubDate: 2015-09-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Evaluation of Quality Protein Maize and Drought Tolerant Maize in Far
           Western Hills of Nepal

    • Authors: Hari Kumar Prasai, Subarna Sharma, Ujjawal Kumar Singh Kushwaha, Jiban Shrestha
      Pages: 387 - 391
      Abstract: The coordinated varietal trial of quality protein maize was carried out in research station of regional agricultural research station, Doti during 2011/12 and 2012/13. A total of fourteen entries including standard and local checks were included in the experiment of both years. Out of tested entries of the year 2011/12, S99TLYQ-A produced the highest grain yield (2814 kg/ha) followed by SO3TLYQ-AB-01 (2765 kg/ha) and SO3TLYQ-AB-02 (2293 kg/ha). MSTATC software was used in data analysis. Flowering days, plant height and grain yield due to genotypes was found significant at 1-5% level. Amongst the tested entries include in the experiment of the year 2012/13, S99TLYQ-AB recorded the highest grain yield (6006 kg/ha) followed by SO3TLYQ-AB-01 (5409 kg/ha) and S99TLYQ-A (5330 kg/ha). There was significant difference in flowering days, plant height, ear height and grain yield due to genotypes at 1-5 % level. Combined analysis over year was also carried out. Genotypes SO3TLYQ-AB-01 (4087 kg/ha), S99TLYQ-A (4072 kg/ha) and S99TLYQ-AB (3750 kg/ha) identified as promising genotypes for lower hills and river basin agro-environment of far western hills. Similarly, experiment on selection of drought tolerance maize genotypes was also carried out at this research station during 2011/12 and 2012/13. Total 105 genotypes of maize were planted for selection of drought tolerance maize genotypes during 2011/12 and it was replicated twice. Quantitative and qualitative traits were recorded for screening against drought. Out of the genotypes included in the experiment, Manakamana-4 was found super variety in terms of grain yield (4561 kg/ha), leaf senescence (1) and leaf roll (1). Statistically, plant height, ear height, flowering days and leaf senescence due to genotypes were found significantly different. Total eight genotypes were selected for second year's drought tolerance genotypes selection experiment and were planted in three replications. Out of the eight genotypes included in the experiment, Upahar (6897 kg/ha), TLBRSO7F16 (6216 kg/ha) and BLSBSO7F12 (6215 kg/ha) were found superior in terms of grain yield.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(3): 387-391
      PubDate: 2015-09-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Enzymatic Screening and Molecular Characterization of Thermophilic
           Bacterial Strains Isolated from Hotspring of Tatopani, Bhurung, Nepal

    • Authors: Hriush Adhikari, Sangam Ghimire, Binod Khatri, Yuvraj K.C.
      Pages: 392 - 397
      Abstract: Background and Aim: In Nepal not much of study of Thermophilic area and Thermophiles have been done. Thermophilic bacteria are less studied but are important group of microorganisms due to their ability to produce industrially important enzymes. Methods: In this study, thermophilic bacteria were isolated from hot spring of Bhurung, Nepal. Wide range of bacteria that could grow at high temperatures and tolerate extreme temperature were characterized by morphology, biochemistry and sequencing of its 16S rRNA gene sequence. The isolates were screened for production of extracellular enzymes like protease, amylase, lipase, cellulase, caseinase, pectinase and xylanase activity. Phylogenetic tree construction and G+C content evaluation of the isolate was also studied.Results: 15 isolates with ability to tolerate high temperatures were identified as Bacillus sp. by morphology, biochemistry and sequencing of its 16S rRNA gene sequence. BLAST search analysis of the sequence was performed and result showed maximum identity (99% similarity) with Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus pumilus. Isolated strains exhibited considerable amount of extracellular exozymes activity. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolates revealed the relatedness among the species. The G+C content of each species was also evaluated and was found to be in range of 54.87 to 55.54%.Conclusion: The study of isolates confirmed that the isolated Bacillus sp. to be a true thermophile and could be a source of various thermostable exozymes which can be exploited for pharmaceutical and industrials applications. Much detailed study of the isolates can Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(3): 392-397

      PubDate: 2015-09-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • DNA extraction technique for different rice varieties grown in Sri Lanka

    • Authors: Ranganathan Kapilan
      Pages: 398 - 401
      Abstract: Extraction of DNA is very important nowadays in bio-molecular researches. Extracted DNA should be purified and the quality of DNA should also be very high. The objective of the study was to develop a simple efficient method to isolate DNA from the rice varieties in an open laboratory environment, and to eliminate the usage of expensive chemicals and tools. The DNA extraction methods developed by the DNeasy plant kit method supplied by QIAGEN, Cheng et al., Doyle et al. and Michiels et al. were applied to five different rice varieties grown in different parts of Sri Lanka. Based on the quantity and quality of the extracted DNA tested by measuring the absorbance of DNA at 260 nm using Nanodrop® ND-1000 spectrophotometer and measuring the ratio of A260 / A280 and gel running on agarose, the efficiency of the extraction method chosen varied among rice varieties. Among the methods used, the methods introduced by DNeasy plant kit method supplied by QIAGEN and Cheng et al, yielded good and amplifiable quality DNA with satisfactory concentration for all the rice varieties tested. Therefore the modified method of Cheng et al, 1987 could be used to extract DNA from rice varieties instead of the commercially available expensive and hazardous DNeasy plant kit method supplied by QIAGEN.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(3): 398-401
      PubDate: 2015-09-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Seroprevalence of Trichinella Spp. in Pigs and Knowledge, Attitude and
           Practices of Pig Farmers of Eastern and Midwestern Regions of Nepal

    • Authors: Dipak Kathayat, Swoyam P. Shrestha, Santosh Dhakal, Laxman Ghimire, Mahesh K.C.
      Pages: 402 - 407
      Abstract: A cross-sectional study was conducted on four major pig raising districts of eastern and mid-western region of Nepal from February to May 2014 to find out the seroprevalence of Trichinella spp. A total of 184 serum samples of pigs were collected and antibodies against trichinella were detected using ID screen trichinella indirect multi- species ELISA kit. The study revealed prevalence rate of 3.8% and difference in prevalence rate according to age, sex, breed, rearing system, ecozone, region & district were statistically insignificant (P>0.05) as analysed by Chi-square test using PHStat version 2.5 and Fisher’s exact test. This study confirms that antibodies of Trichinella spp. are circulating in pigs of Nepal. Further, the knowledge, attitude and practices survey of meat borne helminthic zoonoses was conducted among 50 pig raisers and pork consumers by face to face interview using a semi-structure questionnaire. This survey concludes that although there were significant portion of the respondents aware of meat borne helminthic zoonoses but there were still a noticeable proportion of respondents who didn’t have a proper knowledge that upsurge public health risks. Moreover, present-day situation of their pig raising practices & pork consumption system possess them to a menace of public health zoonoses. be done for enhancing the potential of isolates.  Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(3): 402-407
      PubDate: 2015-09-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Establishment of Enzyme Inhibitory Activities of Lovastatin, Isolated From
           Pleurotus ostreatus

    • Authors: Muralidhar S. Talkad, Rajat K. Das, Preetham Bhattacharjee, Sagnik Ghosh, Undre Prasad Shivajirao
      Pages: 408 - 416
      Abstract: Enzyme inhibition is significant biological process to characterize the enzyme reaction, extraction of catalysis parameters in bio-industry and bioengineering. The enzyme inhibitors are low molecular weight chemical compounds. Inhibitor can modify one amino acid, or several side chain(s) required in enzyme catalytic activity. To protect enzyme catalytic site from any change, ligand binds with critical side chain in enzyme. Safely, chemical modification can be done to test inhibitor for any drug value. In the present day world they are known for culinary values due to their high-quality proteins, vitamins, fibers and many medicinal properties and accordingly they are called nutraceuticals. Overproduction of ROS can damage cellular biomolecules like nucleic acids, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, proteins and enzymes resulting in several diseases. The chemical nature of the bioactive compounds present in this mushroom includes: polysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides, proteins, peptides, glycoproteins, lectins, lipids and their derivatives. We report the presence of Statins in fruiting bodies and fermentation processes from Pleurotus ostreatus. Lovastatin extracted from the Pleurotus ostreatus showed Anti-oxidant Activity when compared with Standard Quercetin, IC50 values of 3.5'g/ml and 7.5 'g/ml respectively, amylase Assay the percentage inhibitions of 35% and 70 % with 1 and 3 mg/ml respectively. In Membrane Stability assay, the percentage inhibitions of 47.06% and 50%. Acid Phosphatase Assay: percentage inhibitions of 82.78% and 76.11% with 2mg/ml and 4mg/ml respectively. Pleurotus possess a good antioxidant and enzyme inhibitions for Alpha Amylase, Acid Phosphatase and membrane stability studies, hence as health promoter and environmental restorer is gaining more importance.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(3): 408-416
      PubDate: 2015-09-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Evaluation of Wheat Genotypes in Far Western Hills of Nepal

    • Authors: Hari Kumar Prasai, Jiban Shrestha
      Pages: 417 - 422
      Abstract: Coordinated Varietal Trial (CVT) and Advanced Varietal Trial (AVT) of wheat were conducted at Regional Agricultural Research Station,
      Doti during the year 2012 and 2013. Microplot Yield Trial (MPYT) were conducted during the year 2013. Total 20 genotypes were included
      in CVT experiment of both years. Although the difference in grain yield due to genotypes was not found significant during the year 2012, NL
      1144 recorded the highest grain yield (4309 kg/ha) followed by NL 1140 (4295 kg/ha) and NL 1147 (4165 kg/ha) respectively. But in the year
      2013, NL 1097 produced the highest grain yield (4641 kg/ha) followed by NL 1135 (4383 kg/ha) and NL 1164 (4283 kg/ha) respectively.
      Statistically, the difference in grain yield due to genotypes was not found significant in the year 2013. Combined analysis over years was also
      carried out. Out of 20, only 10 genotypes were included in the CVT experiment, which were found similar in both years. Genotypes NL 1097
      (4079 kg/ha), NL 1140 (3814 kg/ha) and NL 1093 (3773 kg/ha) were found high yielding genotypes for river basin agro-environment of far
      western hills. Statistically, effect of year in tested characters was found significant whereas treatment effect was observed non-significant.
      Similarly, 20 genotypes of wheat were included in AVT of wheat during the year 2012 and 2013. Out of the genotypes included in AVT during
      the year 2012, KISKADEE No.1recorded the highest grain yield (3824 kg/ha) followed by CHEWINK No. 1 (3643 kg/ha) and WK 2120 (3583
      kg/ha). Statistically all the tested characters except grain yield were found significantly different due to genotypes. But in the same experiment
      of the year 2013, WK 2412 genotype recorded the highest grain yield (4407 kg/ha) followed by WK 2411 (4329 kg/ha) and Munal-1 (4054
      kg/ha). Statistically the difference in grain yield and other tested characters were found significantly different. Due to dissimilarity in the tested
      genotypes we could not carry-out the combined analysis over years. Total 30 genotypes were included in the MPYT experiment of the year
      2013. Genotype WK 2272 recorded the highest grain yield (6080 kg/ha) followed by the genotypes WK 2274 (5152 kg/ha) and WK 2278
      (4480 kg/ha) respectively. Statistically, the difference in grain yield and other tested characters were found significantly different due to
      genotypes.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(3): 417-422
      PubDate: 2015-09-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases Detection and Multiple Antibiotic
           Resistance Indexing of Escherichia Coli from Urine Samples of Patients
           from a Referral Hospital of Eastern Nepal

    • Authors: A. Chakrawarti, P. Dongol, H. Khanal, P. Subba, J.J. Benerjee
      Pages: 423 - 426
      Abstract: Background: Escherichia coli is the most common causative agent of urinary tract infection. Antibiotic resistance among uropathogens has become a prominent public health problem. Multidrug resistance bacteria have limited the therapeutic possibilities by producing Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamases (ESBL). Objective: Since routine monitoring of ESBL producers are not conducted in clinical laboratories their true prevalence is still unknown. So the objective of this research was to assess multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) indices and determine ESBL production among Escherichia coli isolated from urine samples. Methods: Standard microbiological techniques and antibiotic sensitivity test were performed by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method to identify E. coli. ESBL screening was done by using Ceftriaxone, Aztreonam, Cefotaxime, Ceftazidime and Cefpodoxime whereas confirmation by combined disc assay. SPSS 16 software was used to analyze data. Results: 86.95% E. coli isolates were MDR strains. 27 isolates had multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index of 0.2 and 5 isolates had MAR index of 0.7. E. coli isolates showed higher degree of resistance towards Amoxicillin (100%) while 100% were sensitive towards Gentamicin followed by Nitrofurantoin (62.31%). The reliable screening agent for ESBL detection with sensitivity 100% and positive predictive value of 80% was Cefotaxime. Combined disc assay detected 12/69 (17.31%) of E. coli isolates as confirmed ESBL producers. Conclusion: The ubiquity of ESBL-producing E. coli was observed emphasizing the necessity of regular surveillance of ESBL producing clinical isolates in clinical samples to minimize multi-drug resistance strains and avert the ineffectiveness of antimicrobial agent for good health practices.\Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(3): 423-426
      PubDate: 2015-09-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Thermo Stability Study of Crude Amylase from Bacillus Isolate

    • Authors: Moti Lal, Shiv Kumar Verma, Vipin Mishra, Mira Debnath
      Pages: 427 - 430
      Abstract: An amylolytic strain was collected from rotten potato and its activity evaluated. The isolated strain was cultivated for amylase production in shake flasks at 35±2oC and the fermentation pattern was studied. Optimum temperature for maximum enzyme synthesis was observed at 35°C, when initial pH of fermentation medium was adjusted to 5.5. Maximum extracellular amylase activity of 7.9 U/mL and the maximum intracellular activity of 320 U/mL was recorded. Although maximum biomass was present at 12.6 g/L but highest growth rate was observed between 08 to 40h with maximum at 36h. The extracellular amylase present in the broth was partially purified with an overall yield of 44% through purification procedure of ammonium sulphate precipitation. After completed extraction and partial purification and stabilization, the stability of enzyme was observed in a range of temperature and pH between 60°C-90°C and 2-8 pH respectively. Maximum enzyme activity was demonstrated at 90°C, and pH of 5.5 and 6.5. The thermo stability of the amylases of this Bacillus species was comparable to that of amylases from other microbial sources.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(3): 427-430
      PubDate: 2015-09-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Study on Effect of Supplementary Irrigation on Rainfed Chickpea (Cicer
           arietinum L.)

    • Authors: Nav Raj Acharya, Jiban Shrestha, Subarna Sharma, Gun Bahadur Lama
      Pages: 431 - 433
      Abstract: Chickpea is one of the important winter legumes in Nepal. It is grown after rice or maize either as sole or mixed crop. In Nepal, chickpea is mostly grown as rainfed crop on residual soil moisture or sometimes under irrigation. Lack of irrigation results drought and heat stress which affects crop growth and development. Irrigation at proper time is one of the most important factors for achieving higher crop yield.  The experiment regarding use of supplementary irrigation time on chickpea was carried out at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Khajura, Banke, Nepal during the winter season of the year 2011 and 2012. The experiment was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Seven different time intervals of irrigation was applied in the experiment for both years. Treatments differed significantly in terms of grain yield but showed non -significant difference in days to flowering and maturity over the years. The combined analysis of the experiments showed that the highest grain yield (2318 kg/ha) was produced when irrigation was supplied at vegetative stage followed by irrigation supplied at flowering stage (2298 kg/ha) and pod fill stage (2104 kg/ha) respectively.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(3): 431-433
      PubDate: 2015-09-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Development and validation of Stability Indicating HPLC method for
           determination of Ellagic and Gallic acid in Jambul seed

    • Authors: Mrinalini Damle, Nilam Dalavi
      Pages: 434 - 438
      Abstract: Ellagic and Gallic acid are main phytoconstituents of S.cumini seeds. These are the phenolic compounds. An approach for the stress degradation was successfully applied for the development of stability indicating HPLC method for the determination of Ellagic and Gallic acid. Sample was resolved on a Hypersil C18 (250*4.6 mm particle size 5') column. The mobile phase consisted of 1% OPA and ACN and in the ratio of 70:30 v/v which was sonicated to degas and delivered at a flow rate of 1ml/min at ambient temperature. The retention time of Ellagic acid and Gallic acid was 3.1±0.05 & 4.1±0.05 minutes. Studies were performed using an HPLC system equipped with a UV detector; the response was monitored at 271nm. The method is specific to Ellagic and Gallic acid; it is able to resolve the peak from ethanolic extract of s.cumini seeds and formulation. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 8-24 'g/ml (r2=0.997, 0.998 resp). The limit of detection for  Ellagic acid and Gallic acid   was found to be 0.25'g/ml, 0.15'g/ml resp. and the quantification limit was about 0.75'g/m, 0.49'g/ml. The accuracy of the method was established based on the recovery studies. The markers were subjected to acid, base, neutral hydrolysis, oxidation, thermal degradation and photolysis. The method was successfully validated according to ICH guidelines Q2 (R1).Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(3): 434-438
      PubDate: 2015-09-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Studies on the Enhancement of Chebulinic Acid Using the Composition of
           Medicinal Herbs by Baker’s Yeast

    • Authors: D.V. Surya Prakash, Meena Vangalapati
      Pages: 439 - 442
      Abstract: Chebulinic acid is a phenolic compound, commonly found in the Terminalia chebula, Phyllanthus emblica, Dimocarpus longan species etc. The enhancement of Chebulinic acid was obtained from the composition of medicinal herbs by using Baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under fermentation process. The optimum results were observed for the effect of % inoculum, substrate wt, incubation period, temperature, pH, carbon sources and nitrogen sources were 2.0ml, 6g, 48hr, 30oC, 4.0, sucrose and yeast extract respectively. The Chebulinic acid concentration enhanced from 3.4 to 6.8mg/ml for the optimised conditions. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(3): 439-442
      PubDate: 2015-09-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Correlation of Traits Afffecting Grain Yield in Winter Maize (Zea mays L.)

    • Authors: M. Poudel, H.K. Paudel, B.P. Yadav
      Pages: 443 - 445
      Abstract: The research was conducted under RCBD with three replication to study the inter relationships among traits affecting yield and its affecting character at National Maize Research Programme (NMRP), Rampur, Nepal in 2013. The eleven inbreeds line of maize variety at winter season in 2013 were evaluated for estimation yield and its affecting character. For efficient selection of grain yield, it is necessary to know relation of yield of maize and its morphological traits which are influencing on the grain yield. One of the objectives of this paper was to determine interrelationship between traits and the yields. Correlation coefficients among traits showed that yield was positively and highly significantly related with number of kernel rows per ear (0.788), number of kernels per row(0.571), ear girth(0.516), plant height(0.498), hundreds kernels weights(0.444) and significantly related with other character. .Number of Kernels rows per ear, number of kernels per row, plant height could be the important selection criteria in improving open pollinated maize varieties for high grain yield.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(3): 443-445
      PubDate: 2015-09-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • A Comparative Study of Bioethanol Production from Aquatic Weeds

    • Authors: Kodichetty Ramaiah Sunil, Merin John, Venkatachalapathi Girish, Sirangala Thimappa Girisha
      Pages: 446 - 451
      Abstract: A greatest challenge for society in the 21st century is to meet energy demand, where biomass is subjected for pre-treatment and converted into biofuel (alcohol). Aquatic weeds are potential bio resources which are easily available for biofuel production. Aquatic weeds like Alternanthera sessilis, Typha latifolia, Eichhornia crassipes, Baccopa monnieri, Ipomoea aquatica and Pistia stratiotes are estimated for carbohydrates content. Highest content of reducing sugar was observed in Alternanthera sessilis (296.8µg/ml), total sugar in Ipomoea aquatic (880.00mg/ml), starch in Alternanthera sessilis (57.13mg/ml), cellulose in Pistia stratiotes and Typha latifolia (280.00mg/ml), hemicellulose in Typha latifolia (26.85mg/ml); high cellulosic aquatic weeds were subjected to pre-treatment methods like physical, chemical and enzymatic method.Meanwhile different yeast strains from the fruits of Manilkara zapota, Cucumis melo, Musa paradisiaca, Citrullus lanatus, Punica granatum and Ananas comosus were isolated yeast of Citrullus lanatus shows highest amount of alcohol production (307µg/ml), which is inoculated to pre-treated hydrolysate, where Alternanthera sessilis and Typha latifolia shows high amount of alcohol in physical method (160.5 and 115.4µg/ml). In chemical method in acid hydrolysis it shows 387.1 and  69.63µg/ml  and  in alkali hydrolysis  62 and  170µg/ml, so these two weeds were taken for enzymatic method for alcohol production, on seventh day Alternanthera sessilis shows highest alcohol production (113.33µg/ml), hence among  six weeds Alternanthera sessilis and the yeast of Citrullus lanatus produces more amount of  alcohol than others and it also shows that enzymatic method of pre-treatment is best in hydrolysis of biomass than physical and chemical method. The study revealed the possibility of producing alcohol from locally available fruits using simple, cheap and adaptable technology with biochemically characterized yeast strains.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(3): 446-451
      PubDate: 2015-09-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Assessment of the Microbiological Quality of Public Restaurants and Street
           Vended Ready-To-Eat “Koshari” Meals

    • Authors: Attiya Mohamedin, Magdy Michel, Marwa Tolba
      Pages: 452 - 458
      Abstract: Ninety 'Koshari' meals samples were collected from some restaurants and street vendors located in six public quarters in central Cairo, to determine the microbiological quality of them directly after cooking and preparing and after 4 & 8 hrs of storage at room temperature. These samples examined for aerobic bacteria, Esherichia coli and coagulase positive Staphylococci to conduct a preliminary microbial risk assessment for them in” koshari “meals. According to the CDPH (2009) only 53 samples (59%) were of satisfactory microbiological quality for Aerobic plate count (APC) and 81 samples (90%) were positive for E. coli cells and 58% of them (47 samples) are acceptable quality. About coagulase positive S. aureus, 28 samples (31.1 %) were positive and only 60.7% of them (17 samples) of satisfactory microbiological quality.Moreover, the percentage of unacceptable microbiological quality samples tested (potentially hazardous) reached to 36 samples (40%), 29 samples (32.2%), and 17 samples (18.9%) for APC, E. coli and S. aureus respectively, after 8 hrs of storage at room temperature. This study reveals that “Koshari” meals sold on the public areas are unwholesome and could be a potential source of food-borne bacteria pathogens if not properly handled. Option might be to suggest that the product should be consumed within short time of purchase in these places. Improvements in processing and handling are required and the need of food-borne bacteria disease surveillance indicated. In addition, it was evident that the Egyptian Food Code needed new legal revisions.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(3): 452-458
      PubDate: 2015-09-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Prevalence of Demodectic Mange in Canines of Kathmandu Valley having Skin
           Disorder and Its Associated Risk Factors

    • Authors: Denusha Shrestha, Balaram Thapa, Gaurav Rawal, Santosh Dhakal, Bishwas Sharma
      Pages: 459 - 463
      Abstract: Very little information is available regarding the demographics of the demodicosis in canines of Kathmandu valley and in Nepal as a whole. In this study, we determined the prevalence of the demodicosis and its associated risk factors from 110 canines of Kathmandu valley including both sheltered and free-roaming. The skin scrapping collected was dissolved in 10% KOH for the microscopic diagnosis of the mites. The overall prevalence of demodectic mange was found to be 29.1%. There was significant difference (p<0.05) between the prevalence rate among puppy (49.0%), adult (6.9%) and senior (33.33%). Whereas, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the prevalence rate among female (22.9%) and male (36.7%). Similarly, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the prevalence rate among short hair (40.7%), medium (25.67%) and long hair (28.5%). The association between the prevalence rate among good health status (10.7%) and poor health status (55.5%) is significant (p<0.05). Similarly, there was significant difference (p<0.05) between the prevalence rate among the free-roaming (48.9%) and the owned dogs (13.1%). At last, there was no significant association (p>0.05) between the prevalence rate among the pure breed (27.7%), cross (25.9%) and mongrel (37.5%). This study shows that demodectic mange is somewhat serious skin infection in canines of Kathmandu valley. The high significant association of age, health status and management with its prevalence suggests that the disease is more common in dogs which are left uncared and whose immune system is disturbed. Whereas, sex, breed and type of the hair of the dog did not have such significant relation with its prevalence.  As demodicosis is a huge problem in street dogs, concerned organizations and authorities should develop proper planning for street dog management and their health care. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(3): 459-463
      PubDate: 2015-09-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Morphological Divergence of Snow Trout (Schizothorax Richardsonii, Gray
           1932) from Rivers of Nepal with Insights from a Morphometric Analysis

    • Authors: Suresh Kumar Wagle, Neeta Pradhan, Madhav Kumar Shrestha
      Pages: 464 - 473
      Abstract: Asala or snow trout (Schizothorax richardsonii, Cyprinidae), one of highly valued freshwater fish of Transhimalayan regions, is distributed in upper reaches of all major river systems of Nepal. Morphometric diversification between six river populations of S. richardsonii was examined to identify intraspecific unit for enabling better management of the resources. Significant differences were observed in 17 measured morphometric characters of 207 specimens among the six river populations. Multivariate analysis of variance (Wilks' test) indicated a significant difference for mean vectors of mophometric measurements (' =0.012, F85, 731 = 19.999, P<0.0001) among populations. Principal component and discriminant functions (DFs) analysis of morphometric measurements revealed high seperation of the stocks. The analysis showed that most of the shape and size variation among these populations occurs in the head region, body depth and fin length. Apparent morphometric divergence among S. richardsonii samples showed the existence of three differentiated groups viz., the Indrawati and Khudi populations, the Melamchi and Phalaku Rivers, and the Sabha and Tadi River populations of Nepal. The results of this study may be useful in fisheries management and potential exploitation of this species in coldwater aquaculture.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(3): 464-473
      PubDate: 2015-09-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Use of Chemical Fungicides for the Management of Rice Blast (Pyricularia
           Grisea) Disease at Jyotinagar, Chitwan, Nepal

    • Authors: Prem Bahadur Magar, Basistha Acharya, Bishnu Pandey
      Pages: 474 - 478
      Abstract: Rice blast caused by Pyricularia grisea Sacc. is the important disease of rice and different fungicides against this disease were evaluated in summer 2014 at Karma Research and Development Center, Jyotinagar, Chitwan, Nepal. A susceptible rice cultivar ‘Mansuli’ was planted in randomized complete block design and fungicides viz. Tricyclazole  22% + Hexaconazole 3% SC (0.2%), Streptomycin 5% + Thiophanate Methyl 50% WP (0.15%), Prochloraz 25% EC (0.3%), Kasugamycin 2% WP (0.2%), Hexaconazole 4% + Zineb 68 % WP (0.2%) and Udaan (Hexaconazole 3% SC) (0.2%) were sprayed thrice at weekly interval starting from the booting stage. All these fungicides were found to be effective in controlling leaf and neck blast disease as compare to control one. Among them, Tricyclazole 22% + Hexaconazole 3% SC was found to be the most effective with least leaf blast severity (6.23%), neck blast incidence (8.97%), and highest percentage disease control (87.08% and 79.62% in leaf blast and neck blast respectively) and grain yield (4.23 t/ha) followed by Prochloraz 25% EC (0.3%) and Udaan (Hexaconazole 3% SC) (0.2%). It is therefore concluded that Tricyclazole 22% + Hexaconazole 3% SC fungicide could be used to control rice blast at weekly interval starting from the booting stage for three times. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(3): 474-478
      PubDate: 2015-09-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • p53 Expression in Gliomas

    • Authors: Aruna C. Shanmugavadivu, T. Deepika, R. Hemamalini, G. Madhusudhanan, K. Indhu, N.C. Ramesh Babu
      Pages: 479 - 482
      Abstract: The p53 expression on Gliomas are used for subtyping of tumours. The samples were extracted from the paraffin embedded tissue blocks. The Grade IV and Grade II were tested by IHC (ImmunoHistoChemistry) staining procedures. The primary antibody used was p53. It was found that there is a high expression of p53 in Grade IV (82%) was Score 3 and low expression p53 in Grade II (18%) in which the score was 1. This is in contrast to previous studies of subtyping of Gliomas where, classical types have low expression of p53 and proneural type have high expression of p53. This subtyping was based on score 0 - 3. Score 0 has no positive nuclei, Score 1 has 10% positive nuclei, Score 2 has 10 -30% positive nuclei while score 3 has >30% of positive nucleus.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(3): 479-482
      PubDate: 2015-09-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Flowering Behaviour and Seed Yield of French Bean as Affected by Variety

    • Authors: S.S. Kakon, M.S.U. Bhuiya, S.M.A. Hossain, N. Sultana
      Pages: 483 - 489
      Abstract: The effect of flowering pattern and floral abscission on the yield and yield attributed characters of French bean varieties were studied in a field of Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur. There nine varieties were treated- (1) BARI Jharsheem-1 (2) BARI Jharsheem-2 (3) Sylhet local-1 (4) Sylhet local-2 (5) Sylhet local-3 (6) Sylhet local-4 (7) Sylhet local-5 (8) Sylhet local-6 and (9) Sylhet local-7. Among the treatments, the highest number of flower was recorded within 5 to 8 days in BARI Jharsheem-2 although, the maximum flower opened within 5 to 8 days and following ceased within 15 to 20 days after first flowering. The total number of flowers per plant varied between 19.36 to 45.06 and 22.0 to 47.20 in two consecutive years while percentage of pod abscission varied between 70.53 to 82.26 and 73.46 to 80.75 in two consecutive years. The maximum yield of French bean was obtained from BARI Jharsheem-1, however identical yield was obtained from BARI Jharsheem-2 treatment. The flowering pattern and percent abscission as well greater number of pod were found to be the influential character for the highest yield of French bean. In addition, seed yield was strongly correlated to the number of opened flowers as well as number of mature pods.  Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(3): 483-489
      PubDate: 2015-09-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • A Metagenomics Analysis on B-Carotene Synthesis in Neurospora Crassa

    • Authors: Ravi Gedela, Naga Sai Babu Makke, Dinesh Karra
      Pages: 490 - 503
      Abstract: We have studied insilico on evolutionary uniqueness of phytoene synthase, which is one of the regulatory enzymes of '-carotene synthesis in Neurospora crassa.  This study reveals multiple sequence alignments showed high sequences with similarity within a species of bacteria, fungi and higher plants.  This results designate interestingly between species of bacteria-fungi, fungi-plant, and among the species of bacteria-fungi-plant, showed tremendously less sequence with similarity, except bacteria-plant (high sequence with similarity) respectively.  In Phylogenetics tree analysis showed within species of bacteria, fungi and plant 91%, 92% and 99% homology.  Whereas in between species of bacteria-fungi, bacteria-plant, fungi-plant, and among the species bacteria-fungi-plant showed 99%, 96%, 100%, and 91%-99% homology respectively.  N. crassa phytoene synthase enzyme encode (Isoprenoid Biosynthesis enzymes, Class 1) protein size 610aa, Cyanobacteria phytoene encode (Isoprenoid Biosynthesis enzymes, Class 1) protein size 310aa, and Oryza sativa Indica phytoene synthase 1 (chloroplast), (Isoprenoid Biosynthesis enzymes, Class 1) encode protein size 421aa (e- value 0.0, 0.0 and 0.0; identity 100%, 100% and 100%; Max.score:1238, 644 and 870) respectively.  We studied insilico on basis of an evolutionary Endosymbiotic theory; a bacterium is the ancestors to eukaryotes. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(3): 490-503
      PubDate: 2015-09-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Evaluation of Maize Genotypes for Resistance against Gray Leaf Spot In
           Hills of Nepal

    • Authors: Tirtha Raj Rijal, Jiban Shrestha, Bashistha Acharya, Narayan Bahadur Dhami, Ajay Karki, Ambika Aryal, Pratik Hamal
      Pages: 504 - 512
      Abstract: Maize crop is affected by several diseases, but Gray leaf spot (GLS), is the major disease that threat maize production in every year in mid-hills and high-hills of Nepal. To identify the source of resistant on gray leaf spot disease maize genotypes were screened/evaluated under hot spots during 2013 and 2014 summer seasons across the hill environment of Nepal. In the screening nursery both exotic(CIMMYT China) and NMRP developed genotypes were included and screened at Pakhribas, Dhungkharka, Supping and Salyan during 2013 & 2014 summer seasons under replicated conditions. The genotypes identified resistant and high yielding at Dhungkharka in 2013 were YML58/(CML226/CATETO//CML226/CATETO)F2-B-1-2-B,YML32/(P147-F2-108-S7/P45-C8-76-S5)-F2-B-30-1-3, YML32/Cel FSRYS9956-B-3-2-4-B and YML58/(G34/36/G33TSR)-F2-B-4-1-B. In case of Salyan none of the genotypes showed resistant reaction against GLS but eight genotypes namely; YML23/P502-C2-58-1-1-2-5-B, YML23/P502-C2-185-3-4-1-3-B-1-B, YML23/P502-C3-F2-10-8-1-1-B, YML23/GLSI01P502-B-25-2-B, YML23/MBR-C5W-F108-2-3-1-B, YS12Q-189, YS12Q-33 and YS12Q-189 reacted MR reaction. At Pakhribas two genotypes reacted resistant (R) reaction namely; YML23/GLS101HGA-B-4-1-B and YS12Q-189 and other ten genotypes responded MR reaction. None of the tested entries at Suping responded resistant reaction but four genotypes ZM-401, 07SADVI, ZM-627 and BGBYPOP responded MR reaction against GLS. During 2014 summer season a total of 20 genotypes both exotic (CIMMYT India) and NMRP developed were screened against GLS across the hill regions of Pakhribas, Dhungkharka and Salyan. From the result of Pakhribas the genotype P501SRCO/P502SRCO was recorded for resistant (1.3) reaction and three genotypes 05SADVI, Entry # 36 and Entry # 27 were responded for MR reaction. In case of Dhungkharka nine genotypes namely; ZM-401, ZM-627, 05SADVI, 07SADVI, TLBRSO7F16, ENTRY#33, ENTRY#24, ENTRY#32 and ENTRY#21 were recorded for MR reaction. The tested genotypes at Salyan revealed that six genotypes namely; 05SADVI, 07SADVI, ACROSS-9942/ACROSS-9944, BGBYPOP, ENTRY # 24 and ENTRY# 32 were reacted resistant reaction and the genotype 07SADVI produced significantly highest grain yield (8638 kg/ha).Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(3): 504-512
      PubDate: 2015-09-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Growth and Yield Characters of Potato Genotypes Grown in Drought and
           Irrigated Conditions of Nepal

    • Authors: Binod Prasad Luitel, Bhim Bahadur Khatri, Duryodhan Choudhary, Bishnu Prasad Paudel, Sung Jung-Sook, On- Sook Hur, Hyung Jin Baek, Ko Ho Cheol, Ryu Kyoung Yul
      Pages: 513 - 519
      Abstract: This experiment was conducted to assess the genotypic variation for the growth, yield and yield components of potato grown under drought and irrigated conditions at Hattiban Research Farm, Khumaltar during the summer cropping season (Feb.-May) of the two consecutive years (2013 and 2014). The results revealed that canopy cover, stem height and number of leavers were more sensitive to drought and the effect was more pronounced in early cultivar Desiree. Stem height and leaf number of plant were more (36% and 45%, respectively) reduced in Desiree than other genotypes. Mean tuber number decreased by 55% under drought condition. Drought stress reduced marketable tuber number by 79% as compared to irrigated treatment. Drought stress reduced the marketable tuber yield from 70% to 87%. The clones CIP 392242.25 and LBr-40 had relatively lower yield loss, and less drought susceptibility index under drought indicating their tolerance to drought in field condition. Further experiment is recommended to study the physiological parameters of these genotypes under different water and soil conditions. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(3): 513-519
      PubDate: 2015-09-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Bioprospecting of Traditional Sweet Manufacturing Effluent for
           Exopolysachharide Producing Bacteria and Their Biotechnological

    • Authors: Hema Chandran, Kanika Sharma
      Pages: 520 - 527
      Abstract: This work was aimed to isolate, purify, characterize and to study the biological applications of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) produced by Agrobacterium fabrum strain C 58 isolated from effluent of a traditional sweet manufacturing unit. The isolated bacterium Agrobacterium fabrum strain C 58 was found to produce 16.21 g/L crude EPS in terms dry weight at 28 0C when brown sugar was supplemented as the source of carbon. The polysachharide was further purified by anion exchange chromatography on a column of DEAE Cellulose -52 yielding one fraction which eluted at 0.2M NaCl. The monosachharide composition of EPS by TLC indicated it to be a hetero polysachharide composed of glucose, galactose, mannose and rhamnose. The FT-IR analysis proves the presence of biologically important functional groups and alpha glycosidic linkage between individual glycosyl residues. The biopolymer at a concentration of 1 % exhibited significant lipid emulsifying capacity against various vegetable oils. The effectiveness of polysaccharide in inhibiting free radicals evaluated by DPPH radical scavenging appeared to be significant. This is the first report about isolation of potent EPS producers from a traditional sweet manufacturing unit effluent which confirms that these samples can be used as a potential habitat for bioprospecting extracellular polymer producing bacteria. The diversity offered by microorganisms in these diverse habitats thus renders a hope for screening new habitats for isolating and developing new polysaccharides with properties superior to those of the existing polymers.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(3): 520-527
      PubDate: 2015-09-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Efficiency of Traditional Water Treatment Plant and Compact Units in
           Removing Viruses

    • Authors: Yehia A. Osman, Waled M. El-Senousy, Adel A. El-Morsi, Mohammed K. Rashed
      Pages: 528 - 536
      Abstract: The fecal bacteria have been taken as the gold standard for water industry. However, the spread of viral gastroenteritis due to drinking water have given a momentum to a recent push by microbiologists to consider viruses as important pollution indicator as fecal bacteria. Therefore, we designed a study to evaluate the efficiency of two types of water purification systems: the traditional water treatment plant and two types compact units. Both systems produced drinking waters free of bacteria, chemical contaminants and mostly viruses free.  However, recent advances in molecular biology techniques, such as RT-PCR have detected Rotaviruses in chlorinated drinking waters resulted from all systems. The frequency of Rotaviruses since October 2010 till September 2012 in Shark El-Mansoura WTP in drinking water samples was 12.5% similar to raw water. While the compact unit at Depo Awam (American design) the frequency of Rotavirus was 16.6% in both raw and drinking water samples.  On the other hand the virus frequency in the raw and drinking water sample in El-Danabik unit (Egyptian design) were 12.5% and 4.16% respectively. Signifying failure of the chlorination process in removing viruses completely.  However, detection of Rotavirus genome in the drinking water samples does not means the presence of its infectivity. The infectious ability of the rotaviruses was confirmed by CC-RT-PCR in all positive samples, where viral RNA was not detected in the collected drinking water samples.  In conclusion RT-PCR and CC-RT-PCR techniques high lightened the need to include viruses as mandatory pollution indicator in water treatment plants. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(3): 528-536
      PubDate: 2015-09-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Management of Mustard Aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Homoptera:

    • Authors: K. Kafle
      Pages: 537 - 540
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted at IAAS, Lamjung to evaluate the management practices of Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) during Rabi season in 2013/14.  Field experiment was laid out in a randomized block desigh (RCBD) with four replications and six treatments. The treatments were: i) Verticillilum lecanii @ 5gm/L of water; ii) Derisom (Karinjin) @ 2ml/L of water; iii) Margosom (Azadirachtin) @ 5ml/L of water; iv) Lemon grass oil @ 2ml/L of water; v) Dimethoate (Rogor) @2ml/L of water; and vi) Untreated control. Each plot consisted of 2 m x 2.7 m (5.4 m2) with 360 plants (spacing RR 30 cm x PP 5 cm). Field experiment showed that the highest reduction of Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) was achieved in Dimethoate (Rogor 30 EC) followed by Derisom but these two treatments were statistically at par during almost all the spray times. Thus, Derisom (botanical) might be the best option in eco-friendly management of Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.). Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(3): 537-540
      PubDate: 2015-09-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Effect of Nitrogen and Boron in Seed Yield and Yield Attributing
           Characters of Broccoli

    • Authors: A. Khanal
      Pages: 541 - 544
      Abstract: Plant nutrient is one of the limiting factors affecting crop production. Nitrogen and boron are major nutrients in case of broccoli. So, an experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of nitrogen and boron in seed yield and yield attributing characters of broccoli in Rampur, Chitwan during winter season. The experiment was laid out in factorial RCBD design with four levels of nitrogen and two levels of boron. Each plot consists of 25 plants which were separated by 60 * 60 cm spacing. There are altogether eight treatments replicates thrice. Local variety Calabrese was used.  Significant effect of different dose of nitrogen and boron on yield attributing characters was found. Also interactive effect of nitrogen and boron in number of pods, pod length, seed yield and number of seeds per pod was found significantly different.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(3): 541-544
      PubDate: 2015-09-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Assessment of Heavy Metals in Roadside Surface Soil and Vegetation along
           Mubi – Michika Major Road in Adamawa State, Nigeria

    • Authors: Priscilla Alexander
      Pages: 545 - 551
      Abstract: The study of heavy metals in environmental niches is essential, especially with their potential toxicity to human life. To identify the levels of heavy metals in roadside environment, samples of roadside soils and vegetation were collected from ten (10) towns along the Mubi - Michika major road which include Mubi, Mararaba, Dzakwa, Hildi, Uba, Kudzum, Dilchim, Bazza, Watu and Michika. Subsequently, the concentrations of heavy metals particularly Cu, Pb, Cr, Fe and Cd in the samples were analyzed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). The result revealed that Cu, Pb, Cr, Fe, and Cd were present in the soil, at the mean concentration ranged of Cu (0.20±0.01 to 1.16±0.20%), Cd (0.04±0.03 to 0.13±0.05%), Zn (6.30±0.01 to 13.90±0.23%), Pb (1.32±0.03 to 5.63±0.04%), Fe (12.00±0.20 to 32.92±0.42%), and Cr (0.04±0.02 to 0.09±0.03%). The concentrations of the heavy metals in plant leaves samples ranged from Cu (0.01±0.03 to 0.93±0.01%), Cd (0.01±0.03 to 0.09±0.02%), Zn (2.40±0.03% to 7.10+0.14%), Pb (0.26±0.01 to 2.16±0.01%), Fe (5.10±0.01 to 15.00±0.14%) and Cr (0.01±0.03 to 0.03±0.13%). The Pb concentrations in both soil and plant leaves were found to be in excess of FAO/WHO recommended limits. While the levels of the other heavy metals in both soil and plants leaves were found to be within the FAO/WHO recommended limits. The high level of Pb indicates potential health risk for human through the food chain. From the study, the heavy metals pollutant in roadside soil and vegetation along Mubi-Michika roadside villages might originate from common anthropogenic source and high rate of human activities such as automobile emission.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(3): 545-551
      PubDate: 2015-09-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Isolation and Characterization of Salt Tolerant Endophytic and
           Rhizospheric Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) Associated with the
           Halophyte Plant (Sesuvium Verrucosum) Grown in KSA

    • Authors: Mohamed A.M. El-Awady, Mohamed M. Hassan, Yassin M. Al-Sodany
      Pages: 552 - 560
      Abstract: This study was designed to isolate and characterize endophytic and rhizospheric bacteria associated with the halophyte plant Sesuvium verrucosum, grown under extreme salinity soil in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The plant growth promotion activities of isolated bacterial were evaluated in vitro. A total of 19 salt tolerant endophytic and rhizospheric bacterial isolates were obtained and grouped into six according to genetic similarity based on RAPD data. These six isolates were identified by amplification and partial sequences of 16S rDNA as Enterobacter cancerogenus,Vibrio cholerae, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and two Enterobacter sp. Isolates were then grown until exponential growth phase to evaluate the atmospheric nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization, and production of phytohormones such as indole-3-acetic acid, as well as 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity. While, All of the six strains were negative for ACC deaminaseactivity, two isolates showed Nitrogen fixation activity, three isolates produce the plant hormone (Indole acetic acid) and two isolates have the activity of solubiliztion of organic phosphate. Among the six isolates, the isolate (R3) from the soil around the roots is able to perform the three previous growth promoting possibilities together and it is ideal for use in promoting the growth of plants under the high salinity conditions. This isolate is candidate to prepare a friendly biofertelizer that can be used for the improvement of the crops performance under salinity conditions.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(3): 552-560
      PubDate: 2015-09-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Reduced Time and Toxicity with SIB IMRT in Carcinoma Breast

    • Authors: Rashi Agrawal, Sandeep Agrawal, Sudarsan De
      Pages: 561 - 565
      Abstract: Introduction: To reduce treatment duration, we are treating our carcinoma breast patients with simultaneous integrated boost radiotherapy after breast conservation surgery. Here we are presenting our experience at median follow up of three years. Material and methods: Patients having at least 6 months of follow up after completion of radiotherapy were evaluated .All patients were treated with intensity modulated image guided radiotherapy technique. Dose prescribed to clinical target volume breast was 50 Gy in 25 fractions and CTV boost was 60 Gy in 25 fractions. Results: Median age of our patients was 49 years. Five patients (10.2%) had acute grade 2 skin toxicity and all other (89.7%) grade 1.Grade 2 toxicity was noted in patients with pendulous and bulky breast. Average treatment duration was 34 days (range 32-56 days). Median follow up is three years after completion of radiotherapy. Twenty six (53.06 %) patients had late grade zero and twenty three (46.9% ) grade 1 skin reactions.Conclusion: With simultaneous integrated boost in carcinoma breast patients, overall treatment time can be reduced without increasing early and late toxicities. Implementation is easy with decreased replanning workload. Henceforth SIB can be a feasible option for early breast cancer patients.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(3): 561-565
      PubDate: 2015-09-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
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