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Journal Cover International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2091-2609
   Published by Nepal Journals Online Homepage  [70 journals]
  • Technology, Chemistry and Bioactive Properties of Large Cardamom (Amomum
           subulatum Roxb.): An Overview

    • Authors: Nawaraj Gautam, Rewati Raman Bhattarai, Bal Kumari Sharma Khanal, Prakash Oli
      Pages: 139 - 149
      Abstract: Large cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb.) is an aromatic and medicinal spice native to Eastern Himalayas belonging to the family Zingiberaceae. It is used as flavoring and preservative to different types of coffee, liquors, confections, beverages and tobacco. Volatile oil (2-4%) is the principal aroma-giving compound in large cardamom and 1,8- cineole is the major active compound in an extent 60 to 80% of the total volatile oil. Alcohol and aqueous extract of large cardamom have been reported to contain allopathic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcer, cardio-adaptogenic and hypolipidaemic activities. Large cardamom and its powder, oleoresin and essential oils have many culinary and therapeutic uses. Objective of this review is to give short overview on the processing technology, chemistry, bioactivity and uses of large cardamom and its components.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(2): 139-149
      PubDate: 2016-06-27
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
  • Sustainable Use of Plants for Heavy Metal Removal from Water:

    • Authors: Akash Pundalik Bhat, Pooja Pundalik Bhat
      Pages: 150 - 154
      Abstract: There are various methods for removal of heavy metals from contaminated water and many of them can be costly and also consume a lot of resources. Phytoremediation is the use of plants as a filter for removal of unwanted elements and substances from contaminated water. This process is called rhizofiltration. Phytoremediation has not achieved a lot of importance on large scale level. This review- study shows how several species like Brassica juncea and Chenopodium amaranticolor, Pistia stratiotes, Helianthus annuus L. and Phaseolus vulgaris L. var. vulgaris, Eleocharis acicularis, Lemna minor L., Phragmites australis and Eichhornia Crassipes can be used for effective removal of heavy metals. These species are selected based on a review on various studies on rhizofiltration. Hence rhizofiltration can be an eco-friendly and innovative method of removal of heavy metals and has to be applied for large scale treatment of heavy metals in real time waters.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(2): 150-154
      PubDate: 2016-06-27
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
  • Challenges and Opportunity of in vitro Propagation of Paulownia tomentosa
           Steud for Commercial Production in Nepal

    • Authors: Lila Bahadur Magar, Nisha Shrestha, Saraswoti Khadka, Jay Raj Joshi, Jibaraj Acharya, Gaurav Chandra Gyanwali, Bishnu Prasad Marasini, Sabari Rajbahak, Niranjan Parajuli
      Pages: 155 - 160
      Abstract: Paulownia tomentosa Steud is a fast growing multipurpose tree. In vitro propagation using nodal explants of Paulownia tomentosa was performed by manipulating amount of cytokinin and auxin in culture media. Shoot bud proliferation from explants were assessed in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with various amounts of hormones such as a) 0.5-2.5 mg/l benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 0.1 mg/l naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), b) 0.5-2.5 mg/l BAP and 0.5-2.5 mg/l kinetin (KN) and c) 0.5- 2.5 mg/l BAP and 0.1 mg/l indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). In the present study, we found that hormone combination of BAP and NAA gave optimum growth results. MS medium enriched with 2.0 mg/l BAP and 0.1 mg/l IAA resulted a similar outcome but took 3-4 weeks with respect to the same medium enriched with 1.0 mg/ml BAP and 0.1 mg/ml NAA, which showed response within 2-3 weeks. Shoot length of 2.5-3.5 cm with 3-4 nodes and 8-12 leaves were obtained on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l BAP and 0.1 mg/l NAA. The acclimatization of explants was done in a polyhouse at 20±5oC for 2-6 weeks. Rooting has been induced in nonsterile sand. Rooted plants were transferred to plastic bags containing mixture of soil, sand and compost in the ratio of 1:1:1.Besides aforementioned issues, there are several other challenges associated with in vitro propagation of P. tomentosa. The plants were established (90%) on MS medium enriched with BAP and NAA and adapted ex vitro with surviving up to 80%. People received an opportunity with this plant because it grows fast and can generate income in 10 years in comparison with others, but at the same time people also have been facing the challenges for plantation of P. tomentosa as government of Nepal does not formulate necessary national policies, legislations and regulatory frameworks in its favor. Thus, system should be developed to set royalty rate of P. tomentosa recognizing its lifetime value.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(2): 155-160
      PubDate: 2016-06-27
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
  • Phytochemical Screening and Mineral Composition of the Leaves of Ocimum
           gratissimum (Scent Leaf)

    • Authors: Priscilla Alexander
      Pages: 161 - 165
      Abstract: The leaves of Ocimum gratissimum having some ethno-medicinal applications were investigated. The phytochemicals screening of the leaves using Standard Methods and further analysis with HPLC revealed the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, phlobatanins, terpenoids, steroids and cardiac glycosides. The elemental analysis was carried out using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The result revealed the presence of Na (0.311±0.049), Ca (0.138 ±0.111), Mg (1.712 ± 0.537), K (0.261± 0.077), Mn (0.457±0.107, Pb (0.005 ± 0.002), Zn (0.200 ±0.06), Cu (0.803±0.818), N (0.286± 0.052), and Fe (0.312 ± 0.067).  Cd and Cr were not detected in the samples. This investigation suggested that Ocimum gratissimum leaves are rich in phytochemical constituents which contributed to its medicinal uses. The leaves of Ocimum gratissimum can be said to contain some components of medical value since the chemical components elaborated by it are active principles (alkaloid, steroids and glycosides). Ocimum gratissimum also contain most of the essentials elements indicating its nutritive values and less toxic as Cd and Cr were not detected in the leaf.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(2): 161-165
      PubDate: 2016-06-27
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
  • In Vitro Fertilizability of Oocytes Using Fresh, Frozen and Epididymal
           Spermatozoa from Crossbred Bulls in the Tropics

    • Authors: Binoy S Vettical
      Pages: 166 - 171
      Abstract: The objective of the study was to examine the fertilizability of bovine follicular oocytes from abattoir ovaries using fresh, frozen and epididymal spermatozoa from crossbred bulls in the tropics.  Oocytes were cultured in maturation media TCM-199 containing 25mM HEPES, 1mM glutamine L, 2.2mg/mL sodium bicarbonate, antibiotics, 22 µg/mL pyruvate, 1µg/mL estradiol-17β, 0.5µg/mL FSH and 0.06 IU hCG and supplemented with 20% heat inactivated estrus cow serum (serum collected in early estrum) at 39oC temperature, 5% CO2 tension with maximum humidity for 24 hours. Oocytes with maximum cumulus expansion were used for in vitro fertilization. Fresh, frozen and epididymal semen from crossbred bulls was used for in vitro fertilization as treatment 1(n =1690), treatment 2(n = 1620) and treatment 3(n = 1710) respectively. Control group of oocytes (1680) were treated in the same protocol along with each treatment group of oocytes in separate in vitro fertilization drop without sperm injection. The in vitro fertilization medium consisted of Fert-TALP medium supplemented with 1µM epinephrine, 10µM hypotaurine, 20µM pencillamine and 0.56µg/ml heparin. Culture conditions set for IVF were 39oC temperature, 5% CO2 tension with maximum humidity.  Oocytes showing sperm penetration evidence like presence of enlarged sperm head, male pronuclei with its accompanying sperm tail in the cytoplasm, oocytes with two pronuclei and a clear second polar body but without a sperm tail were considered as fertilized.  None of the oocytes in control group showed cleavage due to parthenogenetic activation. Significantly higher results of fertilization rate (p<0.05) were observed when oocytes inseminated with epididymal spermatozoa than fresh ejaculated semen followed by frozen semen.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(2): 166-171
      PubDate: 2016-06-27
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
  • Assessing the Economic and Energy Use Efficiencies of Direct Seeded and
           Transplanted Rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Lamjung, Nepal

    • Authors: K. Thapa, A. Shrestha, M. P. Neupane, L. P. Amgain
      Pages: 172 - 177
      Abstract: To meet the basic food needs of expanding human population a productive sustainable agricultural system must become a major priority in Nepal. An on-farm study was conducted to investigate the economic and energy use efficiencies of rice (Oryza sativa L.) under direct seeded (DSR) and transplanted (TPR) conditions at Lamjung campus. Five varieties of rice differing in phenology and growth (viz. US382, Sukha dhan, NR10676, NR10490 and Khumal10) were tested in Randomized Complete Block Design under DSR and TPR conditions with three replications. The statistical resulted revealed that the average grain yield was highest for TPR-NR10490 (7.52t ha-1), whereas the lowest in DSR- NR10676 (1.96t ha-1). The output energy obtained from grain and biomass yield was highest under TPR-NR10490 (2.05x105MJ ha-1) followed by the lowest in DSR-NR10676 (7.35x104MJ ha-1). In TPR-NR10490 the most energy use efficiency (output-input ratio of 9.22) was obtained whereas in TPR-Sukha dhan, energy use efficiency (output-input ratio of 1.01) was least. Partial-factor productivity and nutrient uptake was highest in TPR-NR10490 and the lowest in DSR- NR10676. The maximum productivity and profitability was recorded in TPR-NR10490 while reverse in DSR-Sukha dhan. The benefit cost ratio was found highest in TPR- NR10490 (4.45) and lowest in DSR-Sukha dhan (2.31). From above result, NR10490 was found to be the best variety under transplanted condition.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(2): 172-177  
      PubDate: 2016-06-27
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
  • Growth and Productivity of Different Cultivars of Rice Under Nutrient
           Expert© and Other Fertilizer Management Practices at Lamjung

    • Authors: Achyut Gaire, Samjhana Koirala, Ram Kumar Shrestha, Lal Prasad Amgain
      Pages: 178 - 182
      Abstract: Rice is an important world leading cereal crop grown extensively in tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. However, its productivity is constrained by a number of problems. Currently, cereal yields are only 40 to 65% of their potential, mostly because nutrient management does not consider crop’s dynamic response to the environment and site specific nutrition management. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted on farmer’s field at Lamjung, Sundarbazar and Bhoteodar using Nutrient Expert® rice model from July 2015 to November 2015. Four replications of 5 treatments were arranged in randomized complete block design. Five treatments were Nutrient Expert recommendation (NE hybrid), Government recommendation (GR hybrid), NE improved, GR improved and Farmers field practice (FFP). The result revealed significant difference in terms of plant height, panicle weight, filled grain/panicle, straw yield, grain yield at 15.5% moisture, biological yield and sterility %.The highest yield (7.362tonha-1) was obtained from NE hybrid field which was followed by GR hybrid (6.12tonha-1), NE improved (5.20tonha-1), FFP (4.76tonha-1) and GR improved (4.70tonha-1). While comparing Nutrient Expert® (NE) estimation for attainable rice yield with actual rice yield from the farmer field trial; NE-based fertilizer recommendations proved to be successful in reaching the yield targets estimated by the software. The actual rice yields recorded in farmer fields were higher than the NE estimated attainable yields, so NE recommendation was found better over GR and FFP. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(2): 178-182
      PubDate: 2016-06-27
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
  • Effect of Sodium Tungstate as a Green Corrosion Inhibitor on the
           Passivation Behavior of Mild Steel Sheet in Aggressive Media

    • Authors: Deepak V.K., Jagadeesh Bhattarai
      Pages: 183 - 190
      Abstract: The effect of sodium tungstate on the passivation behavior of grille sheet made by mild steel was studied using corrosion tests and electrochemical measurements in 1 M HCl, 0.5 M NaCl and 1 M NaOH solutions, open to air at 25 °C. The grille sheet showed the highest corrosion resistance properties in 1 M NaOH solution as compared with 1 M HCl and 0.5 M NaCl solutions. The corrosion resistance properties of the steel sheet was decreased with increasing the concentration of sodium tungstate up to 800 ppm and its corrosion inhibition efficiency was increased with increasing the concentration. The open circuit potential of the mild steel sheet was more negative value in 0.5 M NaCl than that in 1 M HCl, whereas more positive potential value was observed in 1 M NaOH than in 0.5 M NaCl solution. It was found that the mild steel sheet used in the study was found to be more passive in 1 M NaOH than in 1 M HCl and 0.5 M NaCl solutions. Hence, a more stable anodic passive film was formed on the surface of the steel sheet in 1 M NaOH than those in 1 M HCl and 0.5 M NaCl solutions from electrochemical measurements.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(2): 183-190  
      PubDate: 2016-06-27
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
  • Application of Mycorrhizal Technology for Improving Yield Production of
           Common Bean Plants

    • Authors: Gamal M. Abdel-Fattah, Wafaa M. Shukry, Mahmoud M.B. Shokr, Mai A. Ahmed
      Pages: 191 - 197
      Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi with different levels of NPK fertilizers on yield production of common bean plants which common bean plants were subjected to five levels of NPK fertilizers (0, 25, 50, 75, 100 %). Application of AMF significantly increased the growth and yield components of common beans with minimized the levels of NPK comparing to equivalents non-mycorrhizal ones. The results obtained revealed that inoculation with AMF and the concentrations 50% and 75% of NPK with AMF are the greater than other concentrations and non-mycorrhizal plants. Mycorrhizal Common bean plants had significantly higher number of pods, length of one pod, pods weight, 100 seeds weight, weight of seed/plant and intensity of mycorrhizal colonization(M%) . Concentrations of nutrients (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) and total carbohydrates, crude protein and mycorrhizal dependency of some yield parameters were significantly increased in mycorrhizal plants at different NPK levels when comparing to those of non-mycorrhizal plants paticularly at (50% and 75%) concentration of NPK, but lower Na concentration in mycorrhizal common bean seeds than those of non-mycorrhizal.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(2): 191-197
      PubDate: 2016-06-27
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
  • Comparative Advantage of Keyhole Right Flank Laparotomy and Ventral
           Midline Celiotomy for Ovariohysterectomy in Bitches

    • Authors: Mohan Acharya, Manoj Kumar Sah, Dinesh Kumar Singh, Subir Singh, Santosh Dhakal
      Pages: 198 - 202
      Abstract: The objective was to compare the relative advantage of adopting two ovariohysterectomy techniques: keyhole right flank laparotomy or ventral midline celiotomy, for ovariohysterectomy in bitches. Clinically healthy non pregnant bitches (n = 20; 2 ± 0.5 year age; 25 ± 5 kg weight) were used for the study. Bitches were randomly divided into two groups: group A (n = 10) bitches were ovariohysterectomized adopting keyhole right flank laparotomy, whereas in group B (n = 10) bitches were ovariohysterectomized adopting ventral midline celiotomy. Time required for completion of surgery, and length of suturing materials required was recorded, blood hematology and fibrinogen levels were analyzed, and post-operative wound healing was monitored. Length of chromic cat gut No. 1-0 (Ethicon; P < 0.01), and vicryl No. 3-0 (Ethicon; P < 0.001) used was more in ventral midline celiotomy compared with keyhole right flank laparotomy; however, similar length of chromic cat gut No. 2-0 (Ethicon; P = 0.47) was used in both the surgical techniques. Longer time (P < 0.001) was required to complete surgical procedure following ventral midline celiotomy compared with keyhole right flank laparotomy. Blood packed cell volume (PCV), total white blood cells (WBC), neutrophils, monocytes, and fibrinogen levels were statistically similar between the two surgical techniques. Wound healing was better in keyhole right flank laparotomy compared with ventral midline celiotomy.  Conclusion: Keyhole right flank laparotomy required less time for surgery, less suturing materials and better wound healing compared with ventral midline celiotomy for ovariohysterectomy in bitches. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(2): 198-202 
      PubDate: 2016-06-27
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
  • Parasitic Infections among Children of Squatter Community in Dharan
           Municipality, Sunsari, Nepal

    • Authors: R. Chongbang, P. Dongol, A. Chakrawarti, H. Khanal
      Pages: 203 - 206
      Abstract: Background and Objective: Children of squatter community are more prone to many infections and epidemiological studies provide to develop suitable preventive plans. Thus, the main objective of the present study was to determine the prevalence of parasitic infections among children of Squatter Community of Dharan Municipality.Methodology: Altogether 184 stool samples were collected from June 2014 to January 2015. The samples were examined using direct microscopy by saline wet mount technique in the microbiology laboratory of Sunsari Technical College, Dharan.Results: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was found to be 41.4% with male children more infected (45.8%) than female children (37.5%). Children between 4-8 years of age were most infected (48.1%). Among 4 species of parasites detected Ascaris lumbricoides (18.1%) was the commonest helminths and Giardia lamblia (74.02%) was the commonest protozoa. Positive rate was higher in Dalits (59.7%, 43/72) and the least in Tibeto-Burman (27.1%, 22/81) (p<0.05) ethnic groups.52.5% of children not using water and 33.6% of children using bucket water at toilet after defecation were infected. Children using soap for hand washing after defecation were less infected (32.02%) than other children (55.1%). Children taking the anti-parasitic drug in last six months had significantly low positive rate (9.3%) than others (51.7%) (p<0.05).Conclusion: High prevalence of parasitic infection was observed among children in Squatter community of Dharan Municipality. Thus, health education along with infection management actions and the awareness programs for sanitation improvements are required to reduce the parasitosis.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(2): 203-206
      PubDate: 2016-06-27
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
  • In Vitro Screening of Soybean Genotypes under Salinity Stress

    • Authors: M.K. Hasan, K.M. Nasiruddin, M. Al-Amin, A.K.M.S. Hossain
      Pages: 207 - 212
      Abstract: Salinity is one of the most limiting factors for successful crop production in in arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Thirty eight soybean genotypes were screened at 8mMNaCl under in vitro condition. Salinity reduced Shoot dry weight, Root dry weight and Plant height. Salt susceptibility index was fully and positive correlated with percent reduction of total dry weight. Principal component analysis showed that the first two components were extracted that comprises of about 98.6% of the total variation in the genotypes. Based on the K-means clustering, 8, 6, 12 and 12 genotypes were categorized under cluster II, IV, III and I and considered as tolerant, moderately tolerant, moderately susceptible and susceptible which represents the 21, 16, 31.5 and 31.5%, respectively. Genotypes Shohag, AGS 313, PK 416, AGS 66, MACS 57, AGS 195, GC 308, AGS 129 were found relatively tolerant to salinity.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(2): 207-212
      PubDate: 2016-06-27
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
  • Consumer Response and Their Level of Satisfaction towards Nepalese Coffee

    • Authors: Yogendra Kumar Karki, Punya Prasad Regmi
      Pages: 213 - 216
      Abstract: Coffee is important beverages of Nepalese farming society having export potentiality for its unique characteristics as majority of coffee are grown in different microclimates with organic in nature. Production of coffee and its plantation area is in increasing trend every year. In the same situation individuals taste is changing towards coffee than other beverages and are forced to buy from different countries to meet the demand of coffee neglecting quality of Nepalese coffee. There is important role of different actors in coffee value chain and consumers play important role as they decide on the value of coffee serving after various step of processing. This study was done in Kathmandu and Lalitpur districts of Nepal to know the preferences and satisfaction level of coffee consumers. Majority of the consumers were satisfied with foreign coffee and they prefer foreign coffee mostly due to high price of Nepalese coffee and also due to lack of awareness on Nepalese coffee. Foreign peoples were found to prefer foreign coffee in comparison to Nepalese coffee (χ²= 23.02***) and generally drink three cup per day (χ²= 13.67***) while Nepalese consumer drink two cup of coffee per day on an average. The survey showed that high market price for Nepalese coffee is major reason for less consumption of Nepalese coffee.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(2): 213-216
      PubDate: 2016-06-27
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
  • Vibriosis in Farm Reared White Shrimp, Litopenaeus Vannamei in Andhra
           Pradesh-Natural Occurrence and Artificial Challenge

    • Authors: S.A. Mastan, S.K. Aktharunnisa Begum
      Pages: 217 - 222
      Abstract: In the present study, a total of five species of Vibrio bacteria were isolated from diseased shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, collected from commercial shrimp cultured ponds of Eethamukkala, Chinaganjam and Pedaganjam areas, Prakasam district, Andhra Pradesh. The isolated bacterial species were identified as Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio harveyi, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio mimicus and Vibrio vulnificus. The symptoms shown by diseased shrimps include loss of appetite, red coloration of the body and pleopods, gills often appear red to brown in colour, reduced feeding, empty gut and general septicemia. In diseased shrimp, hepatopancrocytes may appear poorly vacuolated, indicating low lipid and glycogen reserve. In affected shrimps, localized lesions were also observed in the cuticle. Experimental infection trials reveals that V. parahaemolyticus is highly pathogenic to L. vannamei while V. harveyi found to be moderate pathogenic to challenged shrimp and remaining three bacterial species namely V.alginolyticus, V.mimicus and V.vulnificus were less pathogenic in nature.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(2): 217-222
      PubDate: 2016-06-27
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
  • Evaluation of Different Nutrient Management Practices in Yield of
           Different Rice Cultivars in Lamjung District of Nepal

    • Authors: S. Ranabhat, L.P. Amgain
      Pages: 223 - 227
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted on farmer’s field at two sites of Lamjung district of Nepal viz. Bhotewodar and Sundarbazaar to evaluate the performance of two commonly grown rice varieties viz US-382(hybrid) and Ramdhan (improved) under two nutrient management practices [Nutrient Expert®(NE) rice model recommendation, and government recommendation(GR)].Four replicates of four treatments were arranged in randomized completely block design. Rice varieties responded differently under the different nutrient management practices in terms of plant height, grains per panicle, sterility%, panicle weight, grain yield at 15% moisture, straw yield and harvesting index. The highest grain yield was obtained from NE field of US-382 variety which was followed by GR for US-382, NE for Ramdhan and GR for Ramdhan variety. NE based practices for US-382 variety produced higher biological yield as compared to GR. NE estimated attainable rice yield provided by the software compared with actual rice yield from the trials in farmer’s field and NE-based fertilizer recommendations proved the validity in reaching the yield targets estimated by the software. The observed rice yields recorded in the trials were higher than the NE estimated attainable yields, so NE recommendation for US-382 variety was found better over GR.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(2): 223-227
      PubDate: 2016-06-27
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
  • PCR-SSCP and Sequencing of CXCR1 (IL8RA) Gene in Indian Water Buffalo

    • Authors: Manpreet Kaur, - Ramneek, C.S. Mukhopadhyay, Jaspreet Singh Arora
      Pages: 228 - 232
      Abstract: Genetic markers associated with inflammatory responses could help in selecting the animals susceptible/tolerant to mastitis. The selective breeding assisted by these markers could help to reduce the huge economic losses that are posed by various forms of mastitis. Onepossible marker is CXCR1, a chemokine receptor that is required for neutrophil migration to infection site. Therefore the present study was planned to identify genetic polymorphism (if any)in CXCR1 gene and associate it with subclinical mastitis in Riverine buffalo of Northern India. For this,two hundred healthy lactating water buffalo were randomly chosenfrom the herds maintained by various farmers in Kapurthala District of Punjab, India.Blood and milk samples of selected buffaloes werecollected. Screening of the animals for sub clinical mastitis was done by SCC and CMT assays of milk samples.Genomic DNA was isolated from blood samples by phenol chloroform method. The DNA of good quality was used for further analysis. PCR-SSCP was used to explore the polymorphism in 311 bp fragment of partial exon2 of CXCR1 gene. The 311 bp fragment of CXCR1 gene was found to be monomorphic in all the DNA samples screened of Indian water buffalo.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(2): 228-232
      PubDate: 2016-06-27
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
  • Bioaugumentation Efficiency of Microbial Bacteria and Strategy for Its
           Recovery through Addition of NPK Fertilizers and the Study of Its

    • Authors: Umema Mohsin, Madan Lowry, Ranu Sharma, Mamta Moond
      Pages: 233 - 235
      Abstract: The study basically focuses on hydrocarbon contamination that is caused because of bacteria present in the soil. Transport Nagar Area in Jaipur is mostly covered with garages and hence surrounded by crude oil, petrol, diesel and other fractions of crude oil. Soil and ground water are polluted with diesel fuel from leaking underground storage tanks which happens as a result of accidental spills and leakage from pipelines which causes harm to the both flora and fauna. In the study conducted the treatment samples were observed with significant difference with the control. The microbial count was maintained in the range of 3.86*104- THBP per gram soil and 1.87*103- PDBP per gram soil. The highest bacterial growth was showed after 60 days with 40% NPK because of the presence of an inorganic nutrition, bacterial activity and as a result petroleum degradation was maximum.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(2): 233-235
      PubDate: 2016-06-27
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
  • Foraging Behavior of Native Honeybee (Apis Cerana F.) and European
           Honeybee (Apis Mellifera L.) on Flowers of Common Buckwheat (Fagopyrum
           Esculentum M.) in Chitwan, Nepal

    • Authors: L.N. Aryal, R.B. Thapa, S. Tiwari, N.K. Chaudhary
      Pages: 236 - 239
      Abstract: This paper is the findings of the research conducted on foraging behavior of Native honeybee (Apis cerana F.) and European honeybee (Apis mellifera L.) on flowering buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) inside the cage during November 2012 to 2013 at Meghauli, Chitwan, Nepal.  Apis cerana F. started their foraging activities early in the morning (8.24 ± 0.50 AM) and ceased late in the evening (5.18 ± 0.20 PM) in comparison to Apis mellifera L., which started foraging at 8.29 ± 0.50 AM and ceased at 4.56 ± 0.50 PM. The total duration of foraging per day was more in Apis cerana F. than Apis mellifera L., i.e. 8.34 ± 0.90 hours per day in Apis cerana F. and 8.25 ± 0.90 hours per day in Apis mellifera L. That means A. cerana F. was 1.8% more efficient on foraging duration than A. mellifera L. Similarly, the number of Apis cerana F. and Apis mellifera L. entering into the hive in five minutes was the highest (51.69 ± 0.45 in Apis cerana F., and 62.81 ± 0.45 in Apis mellifera L.) at 12 Noon while lowest (11.24 ± 0.11 in Apis cerana F., and 5.89 ± 0.11 in Apis mellifera L.) at 5 PM and no activity was started at 8 AM. Likewise, the number of Apis cerana F. and Apis mellifera L. bees outgoing from the hive in five minutes was the highest (42.67 ± 0.98 in Apis cerana F. and 48.71 ± 0.98 in Apis mellifera L.) at 12 Noon and the lowest (4.31 ± 0.07 in Apis cerana F. and 2.39 ± 0.07 in Apis mellifera L.) at 5 PM. The number of buckwheat flower visited by Apis cerana F. was highest at 10 AM while by Apis mellifera L. it was highest at 12 Noon. But, for both species of honeybees it was lowest at 4 PM. There was more time spent by Apis mellifera L. (2.37 seconds) per flower than Apis cerana F. (1.95 seconds) during floral visit. So, Apis cerana F is efficient in foraging and hence in pollination on buckwheat than Apis mellifera L suggesting buckwheat cultivation along with bee farming especially Apis cerana F.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(2): 236-239
      PubDate: 2016-06-27
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
  • Overexpression of Arabidopsis BBX 21 Gene in Bg 250 Rice Enhances Its
           Architecture and Productivity

    • Authors: R.M.L.K. Ratnayaka, G.A.U. Jayasekera, G.H.C.M. Hettiarachchi
      Pages: 240 - 246
      Abstract: Arabidopsis BBX21 protein was identified as a transcription activator which can activate the light dependent transcription and positively regulate light mediated development of plants. The productivity of crop plants can be enhanced by over-expressing central regulators of light signaling pathway. The present study was conducted to enhance the productivity of Bg 250 Sri Lankan rice variety by overexpressing Arabidopsis BBX21 gene. The BBX21 gene was cloned into pPZP 200 binary vector and the cloned vector gene construct was transformed into Agrobarcteium tumefaciens GV3101 strain by freeze thaw method. The selected recombinant colonies of A. tumefaciens strain GV3101 harboring BBX 21 gene were transformed into three weeks old Bg 250 rice callus. Selection of the transformed callus was conducted on N6B5 selection medium containing 50 mg/L gentamycin and 500mg/L cefotaxime. A total of putative 83 plants which showed resistant to gentamycin were subjected to PCR analysis and the results showed 69 of the regenerated plants are transgenic. The T1 seeds collected from putative transgenic plants were characterize to check its integration and inheritance. The transgenic plants which showed 3:1 ratio was selected and further grown to obtain its homozygous lines. The expression of BBX21 gene was demonstrated by northern blot analysis and the results showed 4 fold higher expression of BBX21 gene in the transgenic plants compared with its non-transgenic wild type plants. The phenotypic analysis of homozygous BBX21 transgenic plants showed improved plant height, leaf length, leaf area, number of panicles and bushy appearance compared with its non-transgenic plants. Taken together, these results demonstrate an involvement of BBX21 gene in rice modifying architecture and productivity of Bg 250 transgenic plants. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(2): 240-246
      PubDate: 2016-06-27
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
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