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Journal Cover International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2091-2609
   Published by Nepal Journals Online Homepage  [71 journals]
  • Cumulative Effects of Ultraviolet Radiation and Photosyntheically Active
           Radiation on Phycobiliproteins of A Hot-Spring Cyanobacatrium Nostoc sp.
           strain HKAR-2

    • Authors: Vinod K. Kannaujiya, Akhlaqur Rahman, . Adinath, Arun S. Sonker, Jainendra Pathak, . Rajneesh, Shanthy Sundaram, Rajeshwar P. Sinha
      Pages: 247 - 253
      Abstract: Cyanobacteria are cosmopolitan in distribution and have adapted to diverse habitats. Adaptation of cyanobacteria is one of the key factors to withstand harsh environmental conditions. We have investigated the effects of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR; 400–700 nm), ultraviolet-B (UV-B; 280–315 nm) radiation and PAR+UV-B radiations on phycobiliproteins (PBPs) of a hot-spring cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. HKAR-2. There was a continuous induction of both phycoerythrin (PE) and phycocyanin (PC) after exposure of PAR up to 300 min. However, there was an induction in the synthesis of both PE and PC up to 240 min exposure of UV-B and PAR+UV-B radiations. Further exposure showed decline in the synthesis due to rapid uncoupling, bleaching and degradation of PBPs. Similarly, emission fluorescence also showed an induction with a shift towards longer wavelengths after 240 min of UV-B and PAR+UV-B exposure. These results indicate that short duration of UV radiation may promote the synthesis of PBPs that can be utilized in various biotechnological and biomedical applications. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(3): 247-253
      PubDate: 2016-09-26
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Pomegranate juice extract and
           its antibacterial activity

    • Authors: Mona Hussein Ibraheim, A.A. Ibrahiem, T. R. Dalloul
      Pages: 254 - 258
      Abstract: Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from silver nitrate was carried out using aqueous Pomegranate juice extract (PJE) as a reducing agent. The formation of AgNPs was characterized by UV-visible (UV–vis) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) of ∼420-423 nm confirmed the earlier formation of AgNPs. TEM and XRD analysis showed that the AgNPs with an average diameter of 23 nm are crystalline in nature and have face-centered cubic geometry. The antibacterial efficiency of AgNPs against Escherchia coli and Staphylococcus aureus showed high level of inhibition. Further, the zone of inhibition increased with the increase in the concentration of silver nanoparticles. These studies are quite useful as it shows the utility of green nanotechnology for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles without any toxic residuals and byproducts. The efficient antimicrobial activity of biosynthesized AgNPs proves the application potential in the area of nano-medicine.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(3): 254-258
      PubDate: 2016-09-26
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • Effect of Potting Media on Growth, Flowering and Bulb Production of
           Hippeastrum (Hippeastrum hybridum Hort.)

    • Authors: Md. Khalid Jamil, M. Mizanur Rahman, M. Mofazzal Hossain, M. Tofazzal Hossain, A.J.M. Sirajul Karim
      Pages: 259 - 271
      Abstract: A pot experiment was conducted at the Horticulture Research Farm of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Salna, Gazipur-1706, during the period from March, 2008 to May, 2009 to investigate the suitable potting media for flower and bulb production of hippeastrum. The potting media containing a mixture of rice husk and cowdung at the ratio of 1:1 supplemented with 10 g per pot (30 cm) each of TSP and MP was found to be the best for bigger size of flower (14.20 x 13.70 cm) and flower scape (44.40 x 27.30 cm), the highest number (7.4) and weight (252.5 g) of bulblets, the maximum diameter (76.0 mm) and weight (218.4 g) of mother bulb and total bulb yield (470.9 g) of hippeastrum. But the maximum number (3.8) of flower per scape and the longest flowering duration (11.60 days) were obtained from the potting media containing a mixture of soil, rice husk, cowdung and coirdust in 1:1:1:1 ratio supplemented with 10 g each of TSP and MP. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(3): 259-271
      PubDate: 2016-09-26
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • Performance of Broilers Fed Diets Supplemented With Graded Levels of
           Soybean Oil and Different Sources of Bone Meal

    • Authors: Surya Prasad Tiwari, Maheshwor Sapkota, Dainik Bahadur Nepali, Jagat Lal Yadav, Geeta Jamarkattel Tiwari
      Pages: 272 - 280
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of inclusion of three levels of soybean oil (0%, 2% and 4%) and three sources of commercial bone meals (GBM, PBM and IBM) in the diet of broiler chicken. Body weight, weight gain, feed consumption, feed efficiency, digestibility coefficient, calcium, phosphorus and ash content of blood and bone of broilers were measured. Significantly higher (P<0.01) average weekly feed consumption, average cumulative body weight, average weekly body weight gain was found in broilers fed diets containing soybean oil. The highest (5058.27 g) average total feed consumption was recorded on T9 and the lowest (4117.88 g) on T1. The highest average cumulative body weight was obtained on T6 (2168.33 g) and was the lowest on T1 (1930.00 g). Similarly, the highest average body weight gain was recorded on T6 (301.04 g) and the lowest on T1 (273.77 g). The abdominal fat weight percentage was maximum (2.38%) on the diet containing 4% soybean oil with GBM and minimum (1.04%) on the diet without soybean oil withIBM. However, the overall performance of broilers was found improved on the diet containing soybean oil. The ash, calcium and phosphorus content of blood and bone were better when supplied the diet with 2% to 4% soybean oil containing the sources of bone meal. Considering better bone calcification, phosphorus and minerals utilization in the chicken body, 2% to 4% levels of the soybean oil with the GBM source of bone meal could be incorporated in the diets. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(3): 272-280
      PubDate: 2016-09-26
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • Analysis of Waste Water for Bioelectric Generation Using Microbial Fuel

    • Authors: Shweta Rawat, Jyoti Rawat
      Pages: 281 - 287
      Abstract: Microbial fuel cell technology is a recent approach which consist renewable and sustainable technology for electricity generation. Great attentions have been paid to microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Since, it recovers energy from renewable materials that can be difficult to dispose, such as organic wastes, waste water etc. and utilize variety of biodegradable substrates as fuel. Through which, microorganisms actively catabolize substrate and generate electricity. Besides many advantages, it still faces some limitations such as low power and current density. In the present research waste water was physically, biologically and chemically tested. We found that waste water has less amount of toxicity. Thus, it was assumed as low strength waste water and used for the MFC setup for bioelectric generation.Initially, the setup was run three times in a small scale. Simultaneously voltage and current was measured at different time intervals. It was observed that in first run, the voltage and current fluctuation data was not significant but voltage generation was varied from 140.8-182.5 mV in final run, correspondingly current fluctuated from 51-352 μA and power varied from 7180.8-66439.1 nW. However, we got highest power density of 0.0215-0.042 mW when the setup was moved in higher scale.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(3): 281-287 
      PubDate: 2016-09-26
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • Identification and Characterization of Potential Phenol Degrading
           Bacterial strains Isolated from Municipal Sewage, Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh

    • Authors: Rashmi Parihar, Sumit Kumar Dubey
      Pages: 288 - 293
      Abstract: Phenol and its derivatives are consistently causing harmful effects to an aquatic ecosystem. The present study focused on the isolation and characterization of potential phenol degrading bacterial strains and subsequently optimization of media ingredients for efficient phenol degradation by potential bacterial strains. Bacterial strains were isolated from municipal sewage, Bilaspur (21'47 and 23'8 N 81'14 and 83'15 E). After optimization phenol degradation rate was increased by 1.84 fold for PDB 5 (from 40.37% to 74.67%) and 1.39 fold for PDB 11 (from 58.62% to 81.51%) at 500mg/l initial phenol concentration. PDB 5 and PDB 11 were identified as Streptococcus sp. PDB 5 and Pseudomonas sp. PDB 11 respectively as potential phenol degrading bacterial strains. These strains can further be used in microbially assisted phenol degradation to remove phenol derivatives present in industrial wastewater.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(3): 288-293  
      PubDate: 2016-09-26
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • Assessment of Seed Infestation Level of Brown Spot (Bipolaris Oryzae) in
           Different Rice Genotypes under Natural Epiphytotic Conditions

    • Authors: Prakash Pantha, Dil Raj Yadav
      Pages: 294 - 297
      Abstract: Bipolaris oryzae, the causal agent of brown spot disease, is an economically important pathogen of rice found in several rice growing countries in the world. Seed samples were collected from the rice experimental field comprised of different rice genotypes at National Rice Research Program, Hardinath, Dhanusha, Nepal in 2014 to determine the infestation level of B. oryzae and taxonomic identification of seed borne fungi by standard blotter method. The major recovered fungal mycoflora were B. oryzae, Pyricularia oryzae, Ustilaginoidea virens, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Curvularia oryzae, Rhizopus oryzae, Alternaria sp., Cercospora sp. and Penicillium sp. Seeds of all rice genotypes were infected with these fungi however frequency of fungal association varied among rice genotypes (from 12% to 96%). The percentage infection of B. oryzae was recorded maximum in all the rice genotypes compared to other seed-borne fungi. Madhaya dhan 845 and BI-0530-5-10-1-2 were the most infected genotypes and the infection percentage was 72% and 68%, respectively. Similarly, the least infected genotypes were Sabitri and TN-1 and infection level of 8% was recorded in both genotypes. Our findings may be used to predict disease occurrence and fungal transfer to new uninfected areas. Moreover, this study suggests that rice seed should be properly detected to check contamination by pathogens before sowing for effective and healthy crop production.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(3): 294-297
      PubDate: 2016-09-26
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • Agromorphological Characterisation of Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica L.
           Beauv) at Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal

    • Authors: Manoj Sapkota, Madhav Prasad Pandey, Dhruba Bahadur Thapa
      Pages: 298 - 307
      Abstract: Ten foxtail millet accessions were collected from different parts of Nepal and were characterized for different agro morphological traits at Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan. Ten accessions were experimented in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Observations were taken for quantitative traits i.e. days to heading, days to anthesis, days to maturity, peduncle length, plant height, flag leaf length, flag leaf breadth, flag leaf length breadth ratio and stay green period and yield attributing traits i.e. panicle length, panicle exertion, number of panicle per square meter, hundred grain weight, five panicle weight and yield per plant. The mean performance was obtained and correlation analysis was performed between grain yield and other traits. Observations were also taken for qualitative traits i.e. tip of first leaf, anthocyanin at leaf base, lobe compactness, length of bristles, anthocyanin presence, leaf blade altitude, flag leaf color, lobe in panicles, panicle lodging, inflorescence compactness, overall color, panicle anthocyanin, panicle shape and growth habit. Significant differences were observed among the accessions for many characters. Based on quantitative and yield attributing traits, Humla-149 was considered the best performing accession. The UPGMA clustering and PCA analysis revealed three distinct clusters of the studied accessions. Most closely related accessions were Co-1896 and Co-5645 and most distantly related accessions were Co-1896 and Humla-522.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(3): 298-307
      PubDate: 2016-09-26
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • Effect of Fetal Calf Serum and Mid Estrus Cow Serum on In Vitro Maturation
           and Fertilization of Oocytes from Crossbred Cattle in the Tropics

    • Authors: Binoy S Vettical
      Pages: 308 - 310
      Abstract: The objective of the study was to examine the effect of fetal calf serum (FCS) and mid estrus cow serum (ECS) in culture media on in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) of oocytes from crossbred cattle in the tropics. Oocytes from abattoir ovaries were cultured in three different maturation media at 39oC temperature, 5% CO2 tension with maximum humidity for 24 h. TCM-199 containing 25mM HEPES, 1mM glutamine L, 2.2mg/mL sodium bicarbonate, antibiotics, 22 µg/mL pyruvate, 1µg/mL estradiol-17β, 0.5µg/mL FSH and 0.06 IU hCG without serum supplement used as treatment-1 and the above media were further supplemented with 10% FCS as treatment-2. In treatment-3, instead of 10% FCS, 20% heat inactivated ECS (serum collected in mid estrum) was used as serum supplement. Oocytes with maximum degree of cumulus expansion were selected as matured and used for further IVF studies using frozen semen. The IVF medium consisted of Fert-TALP medium supplemented with 1µM epinephrine, 10µM hypotaurine, 20µM pencillamine and 0.56µg/ml heparin. Culture conditions set for IVF were 39oC temperature, 5% CO2 tension with maximum humidity. Oocytes showing sperm penetration evidence like presence of enlarged sperm head, male pronuclei with its accompanying sperm tail in the cytoplasm, oocytes with two pronuclei and a clear second polar body but without a sperm tail were considered as fertilized. Significantly higher result of cumulus expansion percentage (p< 0.05) was observed when oocytes matured in media supplemented with FCS as compared to other two treatments. There was no influence of source of serum in maturation media on further IVF of matured oocytes in this study. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(3): 308-310
      PubDate: 2016-09-26
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • An Investigation on Disease Incidence, Grain Yield and Quality of BRRI
           Dhan29 in Bangladesh

    • Authors: Md. Mahbubul Alam, Muhammad Abdus Sobahan, Nasima Akter, Ismail Hossain
      Pages: 311 - 317
      Abstract: Rice crops are susceptible to disease, which causes large yield losses in many Asian countries. The influence of disease incidence and severity on grain yield and quality of the rice (Oryza sativa L., cv. BRRI dhan29) was investigated in three different locations of Chief Farm Superintendent’s (CFS) farm viz. Near Weather Yard (location-1), Near Agronomy Farm (location-2) and Near CFS farm office (location-3), Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), mymensingh, Bangladesh during boro season. In location-1, both brown spot and sheath blight were recorded whereas in location-2 and in location-3 only brown spot was recorded. Severity of brown spot was lowest at the location-1 and the highest at the location-3. Combined incidence of brown spot and sheath blight decreased the yield considerably whereas brown spot did not alone. Maximum severity of sheath blight was observed both in flowering and soft dough stage and minimum at maximum tillering stage. The lowest infection index of brown spot was obtained at maximum tillering stage and the highest infection index was obtained at soft dough stage whereas maximum and minimum infection index of sheath blight of rice were recorded at soft dough stage and maximum tillering stage, respectively. Aparently healthy seeds, spotted seeds, discoloured seeds, deformed seeds and chaffy grains were found among the three locations. Germination percentage was highest in healthy seeds compared to other category seeds. Alternaria padwickii, Alternaria tenuis, Bipolaris oryzae, Curvularia lunata and Fusarium semitectum were found to be associated with the seed. The highest and lowest occurrence of A. padwickii, A. tenuis, B. oryzae, C. lunata were recorded from chaffy grains and from healthy seeds, respectively. It is suggest that disease incidence and severity was gradually increased with the age of the plant and reduced yield and quality of BRRI dhan29. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(3): 311-317
      PubDate: 2016-09-26
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • Response of Different Cultivars of Radish (Raphanus Sativus L.) to
           Alternaria Leaf Spot on Seed Production during Winter at Rupandehi Nepal

    • Authors: Madhu Sudhan Ghimire, Prativa Khanal, Ambika Pokhrel, Jyotsna Nepal, Pramod Thagunna, Kanhaiya Prasad Singh, Laxman Aryal
      Pages: 318 - 324
      Abstract: A field experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with three replications and seven cultivars of Radish as treatments for screening against Alternaria leaf spot for seed production. Disease scoring was done as percentage of leaf area infected on individual plant at 7 and 10 days intervals on leaf and siliqua respectively for 3 times, and disease severity and mean AUDPC were calculated and yield was recorded. Disease symptoms appeared first in Long Chetki 22 DAS and last in Green Neck Miyashige 38 DAS. Maximum mean AUDPC (886.7) on foliage was recorded in Long Chetki while minimum mean AUDPC (690.7) was recorded in Green Neck Miyashige Similarly, highest and lowest total mean AUDPC on siliqua were seen on cultivars 40 Days (1080) and Green Neck Miyashige (66.67) respectively. Highest yield was recorded in Green Neck Miyashige (695.2kg/ha) and lowest yield was recorded in cultivar Long Chetki (477.4kg/hac). Similarly, highest test weight was recorded in cultivar Mino Early (10.28gm) and lowest was recorded in cultivar 40-Days (8.4gm). Cultivar, All Season Green Long failed inflorescence formation hence no evidence of siliqua formation therefore bears value 0 for seed yield. Similarly, highest biomass yield excluding root was found in cultivar Subhra-32 (613.3gm/m2) and lowest biomass yield was recorded in cultivar Green Neck Miyashige (341.7gm/m2). Green Neck Miyashige was found resistant to Alternaria leaf spot disease with maximum seed yield (695.2kg/ha). The cultivars Subhra-32 and 40 days were highly susceptible to Alternaria leaf spot disease with minimum seed yield.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(3): 318-324
      PubDate: 2016-09-26
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • Antimicrobial Activity of the Leaf, Flower and Stem Extracts of Sphenoclea

    • Authors: J. Gowri, P.Arockia Sahayaraj, M Amaladasan
      Pages: 325 - 329
      Abstract: The present study was carried out with an objective to investigate the antimicrobial potentials of leaves, flowers and stem extracts of Sphenoclea zeylanica. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and to determine the zone of inhibition of extracts against medically important bacterial and fungal strains. The antimicrobial activity was determined in the extracts using zone of inhibition method. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of extracts (40, 50, 60 and 70) of Sphenoclea zeylanica were tested against B. subtilis, P. vulgaris, S.aureus, E.coli, C. albicans, A. niger, S. typhi and B. cereus. Zone of inhibition of extracts were compared with that of control for antimicrobial activity. The results showed that the leaf extract showed notable inhibition of the microbial growth against the tested organisms. The microbial activity of the Sphenoclea zeylanic a might be due to the presence of various secondary metabolites. Hence, this plant can be used to identify the specific bioactive natural products which may serve as leads in the development of new antimicrobial agents.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(3): 325-329
      PubDate: 2016-09-26
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • Evaluation of Five Wheat Varieties on Arsenic Contaminated Soils of

    • Authors: M.M. Kamrozzaman, M.A.H. Khan, S. Ahmed, N. Sultana, A.F.M. Ruhul Quddus
      Pages: 330 - 337
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted at Farming System Research and Development Site, Hatgobindapur, Faridpur during 2012-13 to evaluate five wheat varieties against arsenic contaminated soils and determined accumulation of arsenic in grain and straw of wheat varieties. The experiment was laid out in RCB design with six replications. BARI Gom-21, BARI Gom-23, BARI Gom-24, BARI Gom-25 and BARI Gom-26 were used as treatment variables. The arsenic content was determined by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS). Result revealed that, wheat varieties differed in their grain arsenic concentration (0.49-1.15 mg kg-1). The arsenic translocation in wheat grains usually least and accumulation by different tissues followed the order root>stem>leaf>grain across the varieties. The variety BARI Gom-26 was found to accumulate least arsenic in grains followed by BARI Gom-25 and BARI Gom-24 under same growing condition due to phyto-extraction or phyto-morphological potential of the varieties. Maximum grain yield (4.36 t ha-1) was obtained from BARI Gom-26 followed by BARI Gom-25 and the lowest yield (3.43 t ha-1) was recorded from BARI Gom-23. Therefore, BARI Gom-26 and BARI Gom-25 can successfully be grown for higher yield in arsenic contaminated soils and water of Faridpur. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(3): 330-337
      PubDate: 2016-09-26
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • Study of Power Density Transmitted from Cellular Base Station Towers of
           Nepal Telecom in Biratnagar Sub-Metropolitan City

    • Authors: Dinesh Thapa, Ram Bharosh Sahu, Prakash Parajuli, Buddha Ram Shah
      Pages: 338 - 345
      Abstract: Background: In this present world, human beings are being exposed directly or indirectly to some kind of ionizing and non-ionizing radiations with the development of recent scientific technologies or by natural phenomena. The study of the measurement of power density (PD) or Radio Frequency (RF) radiated from cellular Base Station Towers (BSTs) is seemed to be important in Nepal like other countries because of its various health effects. In this study, the authors measured the PD radiated from mobile base station towers in Biratnagar sub-metropolitan city, Morang. Methods and Methodology: All together 18 BSTs were selected within Biratnagar for the study purpose. Tenmars TM-196 which is a non-ionizing radiation detector was used to measure the power density. The Global Positioning System (GPS), a space-based satellite navigation system was used to locate the Maximum Peak Point (MPP) from the BSTs. Result: The maximum power density (PD) was observed near Jogbani boarder i.e. 3781.0 µW/m2 which was 0.63% of the NTA guidelines. Similarly, the minimum power density was observed near Rani BRT i.e 1549.3 µW/m2which was 0.26% of the NTA guidelines. Conclusion: From the survey it can be concluded that there is no significant health hazard to the general people due to non-ionizing radiation radiated from Base Station Towers in Biratnagar. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(3): 338-345
      PubDate: 2016-09-26
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • Determination of Urinary Oxalate with Arylamine Glass-Bound Sorghum
           Oxalate Oxidase and Horseradish Peroxidase

    • Authors: M. Thakur, A.K. Bhargava, C.S. Pundir
      Pages: 346 - 351
      Abstract: We describe an enzymic colourimetric method for determination of oxalate level in urine using arylamine glass-bound sorghum leaf oxalate oxidase and horseradish peroxidase. The method is based on quantification of H2O2 generated from oxidation of urinary oxalate by immobilized oxalate oxidase, by a colour reaction consisting of 4-aminophnazone, phenol and immobilized peroxidase as chromogen. Minimum detection limit of the method was 0.05 mmol/l. Analytical recovery of added oxalate in urine was 96.8± 3.0% (mean ±S.D.). Within and between day coefficient of variation (CV) for urinary oxalate in urine were < 3.5% and <6.46 % respectively. The urinary oxalate values in apparently healthy and urinary stone formers as measured by the present method were correlated with those by modified Sigma Kit method (r= 0.929). The method has the advantages that it provides ca 200 times reuse of oxalate oxidase and peroxidase and free from interferences by Cl- and NO3- normally found in urine. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(3): 346-351
      PubDate: 2016-09-26
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • Western Blot Method Evaluation for Detection of Helicobacter pylori
           Infections against H. pylori Ag in Stool Enzyme-Linked Immunoassay in
           Adult Egyptian Patients

    • Authors: Mohamed E. Rashed, Amer M.M., Mostafa Elnakeeb, Waleed Saeed Omer
      Pages: 352 - 358
      Abstract: Helicobacter pylori infection is tremendous medical burden especially in developing countries. Various immunological tests are available for diagnosis of H. pylori infection. Western blot method is proven to be promising for Precise, easy reading, sensitive and specific detection of H. pylori infections, besides it also permits the detection for the different virulence factors of CagA / VacA positive strains (type I). The objective of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of commercial Western Blot (WB) method in the serological diagnosis of H. pylori infections against the H. pylori Ag in stool (HpSAg) using commercial enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) in adult dyspeptic Egyptian patients. Also we investigated the prevalence of virulence factors, cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) and vacuolating cytotoxin A (VacA) in the infected patients. Samples from 46 adult dyspeptic Egyptian patients were tested by the two methods. WB test gave accurate confirmed result with (82.6% accuracy and 89.5% sensitivity) compared to HpSAg test. Also the results indicated a high seroprevalence of cagA- and vacA-positive virulent H. pylori type I strains in adult infected population indicate that such strains may be common in this population and responsible for the majority of H. pylori infection among adult Egyptians. We concluded that WB method could be useful for the confirmatory detection of antibody profiles to H. pylori antigens and virulence factors in adult Egyptian patients.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(3): 352-358
      PubDate: 2016-09-26
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • Phenotypic Dissimilarities among Inbreds of Maize (Zea Mays L.)

    • Authors: S. Subedi, B. Paudel, B. Bhandari
      Pages: 359 - 364
      Abstract: For development of single cross hybrids in maize, developed inbreds must be evaluated for the determination of highly heterotic inbred combination (HIC). One of the best methodologies for determination of heterotic inbred combination can be multivariate analysis (MVA) or scales of phenotypic distance or dissimilarities or cluster diagram. For it, inbred must be observed for useful trait measurements. Accordingly, an experimental evaluation was conducted including promising 55 inbred lines of winter maize planting on Sep 3, 2015 at National Maize Research Program Rampur, Chitwan Nepal (NMRP/NARC). The distant inbred lines were determined through MVA. Single plot research technique was done where each inbred line was provided with 2 rows of 20 plants each. Data were taken for fifteen traits. By the use of MINITAB software, the data was analysed. Graphics of principle component analysis (PCA) cluster diagram (CD or dendogram) were constructed and phenotypic dissimilarities are examined.The distant inbreds RML-8, RML-88, RML-13, RML-103, RML-89, RML-102, RML-11, RML-17, RML-83,RML-98,RML-85,RML-86,RML-94 and RML-28 could be crossed with RML-75,RML-6,RML-68,RML-36 and RML-32 which could be used as tester inbred for heterotic hybrid combination. Similarly, RML-98, RML-85, RML-86, RML-94 and RML-28 could be crossed with RML-24, RML-96 and RML-99.  Though distant inbred, RML-104 had less ASI but it wasn’t feasible to use for crossing due to higher anthesis tasseling interval.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(3): 359-364
      PubDate: 2016-09-26
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • Sero-Surveillance of Brucellosis in Cattle of Chitwan District, Nepal

    • Authors: Sabita Subedi, Meera Prajapati, Bhojan Dhakal
      Pages: 365 - 371
      Abstract: A cross sectional study was conducted in Eastern and Western parts of Chitwan district from November 2015 to April, 2016  in two parts, the social study followed by biological to determine and compare the prevalence, distribution of antibodies, and level of awareness of farmers  against Brucella abortus in cattle of the two regions of same district. Altogether blood samples of 92 cattle were taken for detection of Brucella antibodies by using RBPT test and the positive samples were further retested by Indirect ELISA test through ID Vet iELISA kit 2016. The samples which showed positive on both tests were confirmed as seropositive. Chi -square test and Fisher Exact test was used to find out the association between various variables. The result showed that 14.13% (13/92) and 10.86% (10/92) sample were positive by RBPT and iELISA test respectively. There was no significant prevalence differences (p>0.05) on location, age group, breed type, and method of service (artificial and natural) used in cattle. Comparing abortion with prevalence of Brucellosis, there was significant differences (p<0.05) in the result of both RBPT and iELISA test. Inferring from this result, there is association between the abortion and occurrence of Brucellosis. The higher significant prevalence differences (p<0.01) was according to the time of abortion where higher seropositivity was obtained in the cattle aborted on 5-7th month of pregnancy and cattle of 3rd parity. The study showed the existence of Brucellosis in Chitwan district with no adoption of any preventive measures against this disease, so here is current need of the strategies for its prevention and control in order to mitigate such overwhelming situation.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(3): 365-371
      PubDate: 2016-09-26
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • The Impact of the Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Growth and Physiological
           Parameters of Cowpea Plants Grown under Salt Stress Conditions

    • Authors: Gamal M. Abdel-Fattah, G. Hassan Rabie, D. Shaaban Lamis, A. Metwally Rabab
      Pages: 372 - 379
      Abstract: A pot experiment was conducted to examine the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth, nutrition and some physiological aspects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) plants grown at different salinity concentrations (0, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 mM NaCl). Under saline condition, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) inoculation significantly increased growth responses, photosynthetic pigments, nutrient contents, proline and total soluble protein of cowpea plants compared to non-AM ones. Those stimulations were related to the levels of mycorrhizal colonization in the associated plants. Interestingly, high proline, chlorophyll content and antioxidant enzymes in AM plants could be important for salt alleviation in plants growing in saline soils.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(3): 372-379
      PubDate: 2016-09-26
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • Monitoring of Flower Visiting Insects on Buckwheat (Fagopyrum Esculentum
           Moench.) in Chitwan, Nepal

    • Authors: L.N. Aryal, R.B. Thapa, S. Tiwari, N.K. Chaudhary
      Pages: 380 - 385
      Abstract: This paper presents the finding of the field experiment conducted on monitoring of flower visiting insects on buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) at farmers’ field during winter, 2012/13 at Meghauli, Chitwan, Nepal. The abundance and distribution of flower visiting insects were studied by monitoring with insect net and pan traps at 500 m, 1500 m and 2800 m from the natural habitat (forest). The wild insects (wasps and Apis dorsata F.) were found higher near to natural habitat and domesticated insects (Apis mellifera L. and Apis cerana F.) found more away from the natural habitat or close to housing and apiaries. Besides, Apis florea F., Andrena sp., Synoeca sp., Chalcid sp., Formica sp., Syrphus sp. and various Dipteran, Coleopteran, and Lepidopteran were also the flower visitors of buckwheat close to natural habitat. So, the diversity index varied with distance from the natural habitat, i.e. increase on proximity to natural habitat, i.e. 1.11, 1.25 and 1.62 at 2800 m, 1500 m and 500 m, respectively on sweeping with insect net and 0.65, 1.04 and 1.30 at 2800 m, 1500 m and 500 m, respectively on setting pan traps. Thus, the number and diversity of flower visiting insects get increased on proximity to natural habitat suggesting either conservation of natural habitat (forest) near farming communities or shifting of buckwheat cultivation near to natural habitat for adequate pollination and production.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(3): 380-385
      PubDate: 2016-09-26
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • Serum Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) Activity among Diabetic Patients

    • Authors: Anshu Upadhayay
      Pages: 386 - 390
      Abstract: Serum Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity is the most common screening test as a part of routine assessment of liver damage. Due to its low activity in extra hepatic tissues an increase in serum ALT is more specific for liver disease. The liver pathology among diabetics is similar to that of alcoholic liver disease, including fatty liver, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. Thus, elevated serum ALT activity which is a common sign of liver disease is also observed more frequently in diabetics. This study has been designed with the aim to determine the association of serum ALT activity with diabetes mellitus. The study included 208 subjects attending Nepal police hospital during the time frame 6th October 2009 to 4th January 2010.The ALT activity in serum was determined by kit method, fasting and post prandial sugar was tested by GOD-POD method.Among the total diabetic subjects 43.26% were found to have elevated serum ALT activity (>40IU/L). Diabetic status was found to be significantly associated with ALT activity (p=0.04). In addition to diabetic status body mass index (BMI) was also significantly associated with ALT activity (p=0.02) and higher BMI increases the likelihood of elevated ALT. The association of ALT activity was found to be inverse and significant with age of the patient(r=-0.217, p=0.005). Physical activity was also found to be inversely associated with ALT activity(r=-0.149, p=0.03). Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(3): 386-390
      PubDate: 2016-09-26
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • Participatory Market Chain Approach in Quality Fish Seeds Dissemination
           Process in Nepal

    • Authors: Shailesh Gurung, Vishwa C. Pokharel, Chandra Kanta Devkota
      Pages: 391 - 396
      Abstract: Quality fish seeds production and dissemination is found quite lacking part in boosting up the production of aquaculture in Nepal since long decades. Commercialization in fish farming cannot jumped ahead in absence of available inputs and fish seeds are realized a great factor for subsistence to commercialization of fish farming activities. Participatory Market Chain Approach is found to be a key tool for the social and economic upliftment of farmers and different market actors in a common platform with a dynamic solution in a jointly supply chain modality. Limited and monopoly market of inputs supplier hinders the resilience of fishery sector both qualitatively and quantitatively in Nepal. It is extremely realized that the pocket level fish thematic group concept would be very fruitful in ensuring a milestone by representating village and cluster level problem solving arena among different actors, stakeholders and lead farmers for accession of quality inputs by mutual trust building environment covering wider area in a participatory way which will ensure supply chain of quality products, livelihood and income as well.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(3): 391-396
      PubDate: 2016-09-26
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • Keratinolytic Protease Production by Bacillus Cereus Strain Ps03 under
           Submerged Fermentation: Optimization and Characterization

    • Authors: M.D. BalaKumaran, R. Santhi
      Pages: 397 - 401
      Abstract: In the present study, chicken feather powder was screened for its application as the substrate for the production of keratinolytic protease by Bacillus subtilis strain PS03. Bacillus subtilis produced a high level of keratinolytic protease using chicken feather powder as substrate. With feather powder as substrate, physical factors such as incubation time, pH and temperature were optimized for increased keratinolytic protease production by Bacillus subtilis. The enzyme production was enhanced when using maltose as carbon source and yeast extract as nitrogen sources. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated the molecular weight of 46 kDa of the partially purified keratinolytic protease. The keratinolytic protease enzyme was stable over a pH range of 6 – 9 and temperature range of 35 - 50°C with maximum activity at pH 9 and 40°C. Based on the results, the use of feather powder as substrate for keratinolytic protease production is cost effective and is easy to scale up. Considering the availability and cost, chicken feather powder is considered as an ideal substrate for keratinolytic protease production in an industrial point of view. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(3): 397-401
      PubDate: 2016-09-26
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • Study of Gibberellic Acid Production by Solid State Fermentation Using
           Fusarium Moniliforme Sheldon

    • Authors: Rakeshkumar Ramanlal Panchal, Piyushbhai Vishnubhai Desai
      Pages: 402 - 407
      Abstract: Gibberellic acid production using Fusarium moniliforme, isolated from wilted sugarcane plant has been investigated by solid state fermentation (SSF). The gibberellic acid production of 154mgm/gm was obtained on commercial wheat bran (CWB) mineral salt acid bed in 500 ml flasks after 168 h incubation. The gibberellic acid production rate was about 0.6 to 0.9 mgm/gm/hr during 96 to 168 h. Different carbon sources namely sucrose, lactose, maltose, soluble starch, glycerol, wheat flour and maize flour were tested as an additional substrate along with CWB at the concentration of 25% w/w or v/w base to observe its effects on gibberellic acid production. Soluble starch has been proved the best additional carbon source for gibberellic acid production, which yielded 1160mgm/gm of gibberellic acid after 168 h. Similarly, various nitrogen sources namely NH4Cl, NH4NO3, (NH4)2SO4, (NH4)MoO4 and urea were tested as an additional substrate at the concentration of 0.07% w/w of CWB. Urea was proved as the best nitrogen source which yielded 532 mgm/gm of gibberellic acid after 168 h incubation. We have observed about 7.5-fold and 3.5-fold increase in gibberellic acid production upon addition of soluble starch and urea respectively, in CWB using Fusarium moniliforme.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(3): 402-407
      PubDate: 2016-09-26
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • Coccinellid Predators of Aphid and Their Phylogenetic Analysis Using COI
           Gene Sequences

    • Authors: Faria Farhana Rain, Abu Faiz Md. Aslam, Siddiqua Sultana Ringki, Nahida Sultana, Nayma Akter, Abdul Jabber Howlader
      Pages: 408 - 416
      Abstract: An extensive survey of aphid predatory Coccinellid beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was conducted in Jahangirnagar University campus, Savar during October 2014 to March 2016. Total nine ladybird beetles viz, Adalia bipunctata, Coccinella septempunctata, Coccinella transversalis, Cycloneda munda, Harmonia axyridis, Hippodamia convergens, Micraspis discolor, Scymnus nebulosus, Sticholotis sp. were identified as predators of aphid. Among them, Micraspis discolor was most abundant predator. Biology and bio-control potential of M. discolor was studied in laboratory condition on bean infesting aphid (Aphis fabae). The maximum predation was 102±1.83 observed in 4th instar larvae of M. discolor. Along with biological study, phylogenetic relationship of ladybird beetles was constructed based on mitochondrial COI gene. Out of nine identified coccinellids, five species showed more conserve region than the rest in alignment. The interspecific genetic distance ranges for nine beetles were very low (0.15-0.24). Higher interspecific genetic diversity recorded for H. axyridis. The phylogenetic tree was created and analyzed using both Neighbour Joining and Maximum likelihood methods to define the origin and evolutionary relationships of the species. Molecular analysis demonstrated that evolution of these species has been occurred from a common ancestor. Such study of ladybird beetles would be helpful in biological control program of aphid pest. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(3): 408-416
      PubDate: 2016-09-26
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
  • Influence of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles on Microstructure,
           Electrochemical Corrosion Behavior, Mechanical and Thermal Properties of
           Sn-Al-Bi Based Alloy

    • Authors: Abu Bakr El-Bediwi, N.A. El-Shishtawi, Manal Mawloud Abdullah
      Pages: 417 - 424
      Abstract: Effect of adding titanium dioxide nanoparticles on microstructure, Vickers hardness, internal friction, thermal parameters and electrochemical corrosion behavior of Sn76Al10Bi10Cu2Zn2alloy has been studied using different experimental techniques. Crystallinity (peak intensity), crystal size (peak broadness) and orientations (peak position, 2θ) of Sn76Al10Bi10Cu2Zn2alloy changed after adding titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Corrosion resistance and internal friction of Sn76Al10Bi10Cu2Zn2 alloy improved after adding titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Vickers hardness value of Sn76Al10Bi10Cu2Zn2 alloy varied decreased after adding titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(3): 417-424
      PubDate: 2016-09-26
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2016)
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