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International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology
   Journal TOC RSS feeds Export to Zotero [3 followers]  Follow    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 2091-2609
     Published by Nepal Journals Online Homepage  [60 journals]
  • Profile of Paediatric Poisoning at a Tertiary Care Center in Karnataka

    • Authors: DK Dnyanesh, Suma Dnyanesh, Roopa Bellad
      Abstract: Objectives: To determine the profile and outcome of paediatric patients presenting with poisoning to a tertiary care center in Karnataka. Methods: Retrospectively we studied the PICU records of all the paediatric patients who presented with acute poisoning during the 4-years period from Feb 2010 to Jan 2014. All children aged less than 18 years with a definite history and suspected cases of poisoning were included. Results: 106 patients presented with acute poisoning during the study period. The majority of our patients were in the 0 - 6 year age group. Poisoning in this age group was most common with higher frequency in males, the ratio being 1.2:1. The agents most frequently used were hydrocarbons (43.1%), pyrethrine compounds 15.5%, Organo-Chlorine compounds 12.1%drugs, Organo-Phospherous compounds 12.1%, drugs 1.8%. In 1 - 6 year age group 54.7% cases were accidental in nature, whereas in the 12 - 18 year group 93.3% were suicidal. All patients were symptomatic and needed symptomatic or definitive treatment. 21 patients required mechanical ventilation. Almost 3/4th of patients underwent Gastric lavage. Specific antidote was given to 41 patients. 2 patients of OP poisoning died. Conclusion: Our study concluded that accidental poisoning is common in 0-6 year children, the common substance being used in rural areas was kerosene and in urban areas it was found to be pyrethrin compounds. Lack of awareness of parents regarding appropriate storage of these dangerous household products is the main cause. Measures should be taken to educate the parents and public in order to decrease the poisoning cases. Suicidal cases are increasing in adolescents and precipitating factors like exam fear, exam failure, love failure and parental pressure regarding studies needs counseling of both parents and children
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(2): 142-145 
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis of Fish Tissue of Oreochromis
           Mossambicus Collected from Kedilam River, Cuddalore, Tamilnadu, India

    • Authors: Gyaneswar Bhuyan, R. Anandhan, V. Kavitha
      Abstract: Qualitative and quantitative histological alteration was taken to analyze in fish Oreochromis mossambicus collected from Kedilam River at three stations, which receive mostly industrial effluent and municipal runoff. Histoarchitecture of tissue alteration and percentage of prevalence was used as protocol for analysis. Results showed that number of histological alteration observed in gill like structural alteration of epithelium, epithelial lifting, fusion of secondary lamellae and hyperplasia. In liver blood congestion, regressive changes like degeneration of hepatocytes, vacuolation, and necrosis observed where as in kidney it shows glomerular congestion, tubular degeneration, progressive changes like hypertrophied epithelial cells, haemorrhage in bowman’s space. Among the three stations severe histological alteration and percentage prevalence was observed in order of station 1> station 2 >station 3. Highest histological alteration and percentage of prevalence in three organs of fish o. mossambicus are kidney >gill >liver. The major reason for this histological alteration and contamination of fish is mostly due to industrial effluent. Repeated and continuous monitoring is must needed to protect the aquatic organism.
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(2): 135-141 
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Degrading and Detoxifying Industrial Waste Water using Bioremediation

    • Authors: P. K. Agrawal, Sangeet Prabha, Shalu Mittal
      Abstract: Bioremediation uses various microorganisms to detoxify or degrade various harmful substances in the nature, particularly soil and water. In the proposed work, five species of micro-organisms were used to analyse their impact on various physico-chemical parameters of water. In the first attempt the actual physico chemical parameters of the collected sample water were noted down (Fresh sample parameters). Then the sample water was treated with micro-organisms (one at a time). The growth of microbes was noted carefully over 96 hours after inoculation. The physico chemical parameters were recorded again and were compared with the fresh sample parameters. The results were analysed for any change and on this basis an impact factor was developed. The study reveals all the selected microbes have a great capacity of degrading and simplifying the complex molecules into simpler ones. Bioremediative treatment further enhances this capacity and therefore this approach can be utilized on large scale to minimize pollution of water bodies.
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(2): 132-134 
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • A Pilot Study on Vitamin-D Status and Metabolic Syndrome in Adult Indian

    • Authors: Arti S Muley, Prof. Uma M Iyer
      Abstract: Vitamin D status indicated by 25-hydroxyvitamin D, along with its classic role in calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism, is thought to be inversely associated with adiposity, glucose homeostasis, lipid profiles, and blood pressure. Studies among the western population have also shown it to be inversely associated with metabolic syndrome (MS) and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). However, evidence from the Asian population is limited. Therefore, the present study aimed to study the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) (<20 ng/mL) and its association with metabolic risk factors among adults. About 129 adults in the age group 30-60 years, who gave consent for participation, were enrolled in the study through snowball effect. Anthropometric measurements were recorded using standard methods & tools. Serum 25(OH)D was estimated by CLIA method, lipid profile and fasting-glucose using enzymatic kits. MS was defined using NCEP ATP-III, 2005 guidelines. The results revealed that, around 88% of the subjects had VDD, with the prevalence being significantly higher among females than males (95% vs 77%). 31% of the population had MS of which 87.5% were vitamin-D deficient. The vitamin-D status of the subjects was not significantly related with the risk of developing MS (OR=0.88, 95% CI= 0.28-2.78). None of the risk factors for MS correlated significantly with the vitamin-D levels of the subjects. Waist-circumference (Exp(B)= 0.281, 95% CI= 0.089-0.887) entered the model for logistic regression with vitamin-D status as the dependent variable. Thus the results highlighted the high prevalence of VDD among the population and it was independently associated with greater abdominal obesity.
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(2): 126-131 
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Comparative Efficacy of Different Mastitis Markers for Diagnosis of
           Sub-Clinical Mastitis in Cows

    • Authors: Anil Langer, Sunanda Sharma, Narendra Kumar Sharma, DS Nauriyal
      Abstract: Seven hundred ninety six milk samples from 266 quarters of 69 lactating cows were subjected to microbiological investigations for identification of pathogens. One hundred ninety bacterial isolates were recovered from 89 infected quarters, among these monomicrobial infection was found in 50 (56.2%) quarters, whereas, mixed infection was observed in 39 (43.8%) quarters. Bacterial isolates identified were Staph. chromogenes (49.47%), Staph. hyicus (21.1%), Staph. epidermidis (11.05%), Str. agalactiae (5.8%), Staph. aureus (4.2%), Staph. intermedius (3.1%), Enterobacter sp. (1.5%), Klebsiella sp., E. coli (1.05%), Micrococcus sp. (1.05%) and Serratia marcescens (0.52%). Milk samples from every quarter of each cow were also subjected to 6 mastitis marker tests named Somatic cell count (SCC), California mastitis test (CMT), electrical conductivity (EC) by EC-meter as well as by Hand-held mastitis detector, pH detection by impregnated paper strip and also by pH meter. Efficacy of mastitis markers for diagnosis of sub-clinical mastitis was determined by comparing results of mastitis marker tests with microbiological findings. Mean value of SSC in milk from healthy quarters was significantly lower (p than that in milk from infected quarters. Significantly higher (p value of SSC was observed in milk samples having coagulase positive staphylococci as compared to that in milk from quarter with coagulase negative pathogens. The mean electrical conductivity (EC) in milk samples from infected quarters was significantly higher (P<0.05) than that from healthy quarters. Numbers and percentages of samples showing true positive, true negative, false positive and false negative results with SSC, CMT, EC by EC-meter, EC by hand-held meter, pH by impregnated strips, pH by digital pH-meter tests were evaluated and compared. The sensitivity and specificity of impregnated pH paper strip, CMT, pH-meter test, SCC, electrical conductivity by EC-meter and the same by Hand-held mastitis detector were evaluated The compatibility between the results of SCC, impregnated pH paper strip, CMT, EC-meter, pH-meter, Hand-held mastitis detector and bacteriological culture examination (reference test) was found to be 64.4, 63.4, 61.5, 59, 59 and 53 respectively.
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(2): 121-125

      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Effect of Flue Gas on Microalgae Population and Study the Heavy Metals
           Accumulation in Biomass from Power Plant System

    • Authors: Mahendraperumal Guruvaiah, Keesoo Lee
      Abstract: Microalgae have high photosynthetic efficiency that can fix CO2 from the flue gas directly without any upstream CO2 separation, and concomitantly produce biomass for biofuel applications. These gases, both untreated and treated into current discharge standards, contain CO2, N2, H2O, O2, NOx, SOx, CxHy, CO, particulate matter, halogen acids and heavy metals. Microalgae population studies were conducted in a batch mode experiments at Power plant site of Chamois, Missouri. The experiments were conducted in different period (June to December 2011) of time. This study evaluated the effect of several heavy metals that are present in flue gases on the algae, focusing on the growth and accumulation of lipids in the algae that can be converted to biodiesel. The genus Scenedesmus presented the greatest richness of species and number of counted individuals in the flue gas ponds compare than non flue gas treatment ponds. Among the diatomaceae the genus Navicula sp, Nitizchia sp and Synedra sp. presented the next subdominant richness in the ponds. The last results of counted green algae Ulothrix sp and Coelastrum sp were least number of cells reported in these ponds. The heavy metal-contaminated in flue gas and also enter into the microalgae biomass population. Comparative studies were carried out by flue gas and control system of open ponds. Control system of microalgae population was represented in less amount of heavy metals compare than flue gas ponds.
      DOI : Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(2): 114-120 
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Decentralization of Scientific Research in Nepal

    • Authors: Umesh Prasad Shrivastava
      Abstract: No abstract
      DOI :
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • In Vitro Callus Induction and Regeneration Potentiality of Aromatic Rice
           (Oryza sativa L.) Cultivars in Differential Growth Regulators

    • Authors: Zahida Yesmin Roly, Md. Mahmudul Islam, Md. Pallob Ebna Shaekh, Md. Saiful Islam Arman, Shah Md. Shahik, Dipesh Das, Md. Mujjammil E Haamem, Dr. Md. Khalekuzzaman
      Abstract: Aromatic rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars are strong aromatic rice cultivars which can thrive well in rice fields prone to flood, drought and other soil constraints. The present investigation was undertaken to determine a suitable media compositions for callus induction and regeneration using immature embryo of six aromatic grown rice cultivars of Bangladesh, namely, Chinigura, Kalijira, Radhuni Pagal, Modhumala, Kataribog and Mohonbhog. For callus induction different concentrations and combinations of 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyaceticacid (2, 4-D) along with NAA were evaluated. Maximum callus induction (97.22%) was observed in Kalijira when 2 mg/L of 2, 4-D and 0.5 mg/l NAA was used and less Modhumala (66.67%) and remaining cultivars showed moderate. For regeneration initially different concentrations and combinations of 6-BenzylAminoPurine (BAP) and Indole-3-Acetic Acid (IBA) were tested. Maximum regeneration frequency (91.67%) was observed Kalijira when the optimum concentrations and combinations of 0.5 mg/l of BAP + 0.1 of mg/l IBA were used. Presently optimized regeneration method holds promise for facilitating the deployment of agronomical important trait through genetic transformation for the improvement of this important food crops.
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(2): 160-167 
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Virtual Screening and Molecular Docking Study of Bloom’s Syndrome
           Protein (BLM) for Finding Potential Lead Drug Candidate

    • Authors: Manoj Kumar Verma, Vikas Kaushik
      Abstract: Increased levels of locus-specific mutations within the BLM result in development of Bloom Syndrome and patients are found to be immune deficient. HRDC domain amino acid Lys1270 is presumably to play role in mediating interactions with DNA. Single point mutation of Lys1270 (K1270V) reduces the potency of Double Holliday junction (DHJ) DNA unwinding so BLM lead to its functional loss. Quadruplex formation have role in immunoglobulin heavy chain switching and inhibiting RecQ helicases activity in-vitro in BLM. Variety of G-Quadruplex ligands are employed by molecular docking for arriving at lead compound identification. The scoring function of docking results describes protein-ligand interaction and it conjointly instructed that docking of ligand at mutational binding site shows some repressing function to make potential lead drug molecule. So as to know the elaborated purposeful functional mechanism of protein and to relate impact of mutation with function and activity; dock screening, hit identification and lead optimization facilitate in design of lead drug compound.
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(2): 152-159
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Phylogeny and antagonistic activity of some protoplast fusants in
           Trichoderma and Hypocrea

    • Authors: Mohamed M. Hassan, Ismail A. Ismail, Abd El-Latif A. Sorour
      Abstract: The present work aimed to apply mutagenesis and inter-specific protoplast fusion techniques of two locally isolated Hypocrea and Trichoderma to enhancement their biocontrol abilities against some important plant fungal pathogens which cause damping-off diseases that attacking different crops. The mutants were selected after EMS/UV treatment of Trichoderma isolates. The obtained protoplasts were fused by polyethylene glycol, and six fusants were selected for further studies. The phylogeny of the parental strains was carried out using sequence of ITS region. The BLAST of the obtained sequence was identified these isolates as H. koningii and T. asperellum. The fused protoplasts of the two mutant strains have been regenerated on PDA medium supplemented with the two fungicides. Most of the fusants exhibited fast mycelial growth on PDA as compared to parent strains. The obtained results indicated that partial or incomplete genetic recombination may be possible during nuclear and cytoplasmic protoplast fusion. Most of the fusants have shown powerful antagonistic activity against the grapevine pathogens as Pythium ultimum and Fusarium roseum as shown in dual culture and observed by SEM technique. Results of the present study demonstrated the scope and significance of the protoplast fusion technique, which can be used to develop superior hybrid strains of filamentous fungi that absent sexual stages in Trichoderma enhance biological control activity.
      DOI : Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(2): 146-151 
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Documentation of Invasive Alien Plants Species of Rupandehi District,
           Western Nepal

    • Authors: Anant Gopal Singh, Anil Sharma
      Abstract: Invasive species are non-native to the locality. They have been introduced in any area both accidentally and intentionally. Their introduction undoubtedly modifies the structure and functions of the ecosystem supply and alters the rate of nutrient cycling. Invasive alien species compete with the crop mainly for water, light, and nutrients. During study we have collected fifty-five species which are invasive and alien. They directly affect the productivity of food crop like rice, wheat, maize etc.
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(2): 168-175 
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Synthesis, Characterization and Thermal Analysis of Resins from Different
           Cardanol Based Dyes

    • Authors: Tapan K. Das
      Abstract: Cardanol(Cashew phenol) is subjected to diazotisation with Aniline and m-Toluidine to get  monomers like Cardanol based dye from Aniline (CBDFA) and Cardanol based dye from m-Toludine (CBDFT). Such monomers have been condensed with formaldehyde in presence of acid catalyst to form resins. The resins have been characterized by FTIR spectra and their thermal behaviour have been studied.
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(2): 176-179 
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • In Vitro Embryo Transfer of Bubaline Embryos using Oocytes Derived from
           Transvaginal Ultrasound-Guided Follicular Aspiration (TUFA)

    • Authors: FP Aquino, Eufrocina P. Atabay
      Abstract: Transvaginal ultrasound-guided follicular aspiration (TUFA) has become a popular tool for embryo production in vitro due to its high degree of repeatability in terms of recovering oocytes from live animals. In Study 1, the quantity and quality of oocytes from Bulgarian Murrah buffalo cows (n=10) of varying ages (Group 1, 8-12; and Group 2, 13-17 years) were assessed. Group 1 buffalo donor cows yielded significantly higher (P<0.05) number of oocytes vs Group 2 buffalo donor cows (71 vs 29 oocytes, respectively), though in terms of oocyte quality, no difference was observed. In Study 2, oocytes collected (n=100) in Study 1 were matured, fertilized in vitro and the resulting zygotes were cultured which developed to blastocyst stage embryos. The maturation, fertilization and blastocyst development rates obtained were 53.0%, 40.0% and 32.5%, respectively. In Study 3, the viability of resulting blastocyst stage embryos was determined by transferring to recipient cows. Of 10 recipients 1 got pregnant and delivered a 35 kg male calf after 310 days gestation period. Overall, the results of the studies conducted demonstrated the potential of TUFA technology in the in vitro production of embryos which eventually could be used in the production of live offspring.
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(2): 180-184 
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Studies on the Conservation Agriculture Based Practices under Maize (Zea
           Mays L.) Based System in the Hills of Nepal

    • Authors: Tika Bahadur Karki, Nirmal Gadal, Jiban Shrestha
      Abstract: A farmer’s field trial comparing the conservation tillage, where tillage was avoided and previous crops residues were kept and conventional tillage, where tillage was done and residues were removed from the field along with farmers practice of manual weeding and application of herbicides under maize-rapeseed based cropping system in the mid hills of Nepal was carried in collaboration with farmers during 2012 and 2013. Thus, three factors each having two levels was tested under randomized complete block design with five replications in each districts of Palpa and Gulmi.  The effect of tillage methods and residue levels were not significant for yield and its’ contributing traits of maize and test weight along with seed yield of rapeseed. However, it was evident in the second year. The effect of herbicide over farmer’s practice of manual weeding on diameter and length of cob, test weight and grain yield of maize was obvious in both the years. The benefit cost ratio of 1.7 in conventional tillage with residue removed and 2.5 in no tillage with residue kept were recorded in the second year. Since, it reduced significantly the cost of production without severe yield penalties; farmers are interested to scale-up the conservation agricultural practices in the hills of Nepal. 
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(2): 185-192 
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Soil Properties and Earthworm Population Dynamics Influenced by Organic
           Manure in Winter and Spring Seasons at Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal

    • Authors: Roshan Babu Ojha, Shree Chand Shah, Keshab Raj Pande, Durga Datta Dhakal
      Abstract: Two experiments were carried out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with six treatments (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 Mg FYM ha-1) replicated four times at the horticultural farm, IAAS, Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal in winter (Oct-Jan) and spring (Feb-May) seasons to quantify optimum dose of organic manure (FYM) to maintain earthworm population and enhance soil properties. In each treatment 100 earthworms (Eisenia fetida) were inoculated within one square meter of each plot. Porosity in the first season was significantly higher than the control treatment (0 Mg FYM ha-1). In the second season it remained unaffected but in increasing trend. In the second season the highest porosity (40.75 ± 1.57%) was obtained from 50 Mg FYM ha-1. The highest bulk density (1.553 ± 0.017 Mg m-3) in the second season was observed from the control treatment but it was in decreasing trend with increasing doses of FYM. There was no significant effect of FYM on pH in the either season. The highest OM (3.87 ± 0.22%) was observed from 50 Mg FYM ha-1 which was similar to 30 and 40 Mg FYM ha-1 in first season. Similarly, in the second season, increasing doses of FYM increased the OM and the highest OM (3.83 ± 0.19%) was from 50 Mg FYM ha-1 which did not differ from 40 Mg FYM ha-1. As anticipated, the lowest OM 2.425 ± 0.224% and 2.275 ± 0.1968% were from control treatments of the first and second seasons, respectively. As the doses of FYM were increased, earthworm populations were also increased significantly in the both seasons. Earthworm numbers from 50 Mg FYM ha-1 were significantly higher than the 20, 30 and 40 Mg FYM ha-1 in both seasons. The highest numbers 887 ± 12.84 and 976 ± 20.30 of earthworm per square meter were recorded from 50 Mg FYM ha-1 in the both seasons, respectively. Thus, the application of 30 Mg FYM ha-1 is optimum for both the seasons to improve soil properties and to maintain earthworm population in the agricultural field. Also, this research indicated a possibility for earthworm inoculation in the field to enhance soil fertility for sustainable agriculture in the western Chitwan, Nepal. 
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(2): 193-198 
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Physicochemical Analysis and Microbial Diversity of Yamuna Water and
           Industrial Effluents

    • Authors: Poonam Gupta, Monika Asthana, Avnish Kumar, Siddhartha Barun
      Abstract: Pollution has arisen as a serious environmental concern to the present world after industrialization of human societies. It has severely affected our air, soil and water sources. Looking to its global, national, regional and local dimensions, it is now imperative to check it at each and every level. In the present study, 8 samples (3 Yamuna water samples, 3 tannery effluent samples and 2 textile effluent samples), were collected from different sites of Yamuna and exit points of textile and tannery Industries. Water and effluent samples were analysed for various physicochemical parameters (pH, TDS, hardness, chloride and BOD) using conventional methods. Afterwards these samples were utilized for isolation of the native bacterial species. All the samples were showing higher than the standard values for TDS (500mg/l), hardness (80-100 mg/l), chloride (250mg/l) and BOD (30mg/l). It was observed that the tannery effluents were showing maximum TDS values(1190-1240mg/l), followed by textile effluents (1190 and 1210mg/l) and Yamuna water (530-1180mg/l).Similarly, in case of chloride content, highest concentration range(828.8-1598mg/l)was shown by tannery effluents.  pH value was nearly neutral for Yamuna water, slightly  acidic in case of textile effluents and more acidic for tannery samples. Highest range of hardness values were observed for the tannery effluents (860-880mg/l) followed by textile effluents (760 and 860mg/l). The BOD values were nearly similar for all the samples with maximum values being observed for tannery effluents (42-48 mg/l). Thus it can be inferred that all the samples were highly polluted and need to be treated by suitable methods. There were 11 cultures purified, that could be employed in bioremediation purposes.
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(2): 199-205 
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Physico-Chemical and Biological Parameters of the Three Rural Ponds of
           Sasaram of Bihar

    • Authors: Jyoti Choudhary, S.N. Singh, Sunita Singh
      Abstract: Physico chemical and biological parameters of the three rural pond of Sasaram,Bihar has been studied to see the present condition for its better utilization. The study revealed that parameters are within permissible limit for fish culture and the stocking should be done as per the productivity of the water. As per the BOD estimation the ponds falls under moderately polluted category.
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(2): 206-210 
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Detection of Toxigenic Fungi and Mycotoxins in Some Stored Medicinal Plant

    • Authors: Ashish Rawat, Surabhi Mahajan, Ankur Gupta, Rajneesh Kumar Agnihotri, Nitin Wahi, Rajendra Sharma
      Abstract: A total forty samples of eight different medicinal plants were taken for the detection of toxigenic fungi and their mycotoxins. The fungal mycroflora comprises of six different fungal species belonging to three genera. A. niger, Mucor species, A. flavus and Rhizopus species dominate other fungal species isolated. Among ten samples of different medicinal plants which were contaminated with A. flavus was further analysed for mycotoxins potential. Four of them shows positive results for mytoxins potential.  Although the presence of toxigenic fungi in a product did not imply the presence  of  mycotoxins in the product, their presence represents a potential risks of contamination with mycotoxins. Therefore, these medicinal plants should be carefully stored and the growth of the naturally found toxic fungi should be inhibited. Beside that, these medicinal plants must be tested for the presence of  mycotoxins present prior to their use.
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(2): 211-216  Keywords: Medicinal plants; Mycroflora; Toxigenic fungi; Mycotoxins.
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Hepatoprotective effect of Alchornea cordifolia leaf on liver damage in
           albino rats

    • Authors: J. M. Jacob, M. T. Olaleye, J. A. O. Olugbuyiro
      Abstract: Ethnopharmacological relevance: The dry leaf of Alchornea cordifolia (AC) is used, in traditional medicine in the S Nigeria, for the preparation of blood tonic, remedies for urinary, respiratory, liver and gas intestinal disorders. Aim of the study: This study investigated the protective property of AC leaf against liver damage in animals with a view to exploring its use for the treatment of hepatotoxicity in humans. Material and methods:  Ethanol extract of A. cordifolia was used to study the hepatoprotective activity in acetaminophen-induced Albino rats (150-200g). Animals in Group 1 served as vehicle control, Group 2 served as hepatotoxin (Acetaminophen 2g/kg treated) group, Groups 3 and 4 served as positive control (Vitamin E and Curcumin 100 mg/kg bw respectively) groups, and Groups 5-8 served as (200-500mg/kg bw) AC leaf extract treated groups while Group 9 served as normal group (AC extract only 300 mg/kg bw). Results: The hepatotoxic group showed hepatocytic necrosis, cellular infiltration and inflammation in the liver. The treatment group restored the liver cells to their normal lobular architecture in a dose dependent manner. The protection offered by the plant extract compared well with the standard antioxidant agents (Curcumin and Vitamin E). Tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids and saponins were detected in the phytochemical screening. Conclusion: Our findings suggest Alchornea cordifolia ethanol leaf extract as promising herpatoprotective herb and give credence to the folkloric use of this plant for the treatment of liver problems.
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(2): 217-221 
      PubDate: 2014-06-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
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