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International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology
   [3 followers]  Follow    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 2091-2609
     Published by Nepal Journals Online Homepage  [60 journals]
  • Differential Pressure Transducer for Corrosion Monitoring of Iron

    • Authors: Amar Prasad Yadav
      Abstract: In this study, differential pressure transducer (DPT) has been applied as an alternate corrosion monitoring device for monitoring corrosion of iron in atmospheric environment by measuring very small changes in the amount of oxygen. The result of corrosion current obtained from DPT method has been compared with that obtained from AC impedance method. The difference in the value of corrosion current obtained from these two methods was attributed to the error in choosing the value of proportionality constant k of the Stern-Geary equation.
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(1): 109-111
      PubDate: 2014-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Quality of Vegetable Seeds Collected from Mymensingh Region in Bangladesh

    • Authors: I. Hossain, P. Dey, K. Dilruba
      Abstract: Seed quality and health status of 11 vegetable crop seeds of viz. Cabbage (Brassica oleraceae var. capitata), Indian cabbage (Brassica oleraceae var. indica), Indian spinach (Basella alba), Spinach (Beta vulgaris var. bengalensis), Red amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor), Bitter gourd (Momordic acharantia), Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria), Sweet gourd (Cucurbita moschata), Carrot (Daucuscarrota var. sativa),  Radish (Raphanus sativus), and Turnip (Brassica rapa) collected from the greater Mymensingh region of Bangladesh were tested. The germination percentage of seeds of the collected samples ranged from 11 to 100. The highest germination was recorded in indian cabbage (100%) followed by carrot (92%) and radish (90%), while the lowest was recorded in indian spinach seeds (11%). Altogether 10 fungi were found associated with the seeds which were Alternaria spp., Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Botrytis cinerea, Chaetomium funicola, Curvularia spp., Fusarium spp., Penicillium spp., Phoma spp. and Rhizopus spp.. The highest total seed-borne fungal infection was found in bottle gourd (155%) followed by sweet gourd (145%). The lowest infection was found in turnip seeds (6%). The maximum number of dead seeds was found in indian spinach (89%) and no dead seed was found in indian cabbage. Among the vegetables seed samples, seedling vigour ranged from 59 to 3083, where the highest seedling vigour was observed in sweet gourd (3083) and the lowest was in indian spinach (59). 
      DOI : Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(1): 103-108
      PubDate: 2014-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Feasibility of real time PCR over cell culture in diagnosis of influenza
           virus infection: an experience of rade I viral diagnostic laboratory of
           developing country

    • Authors: Bhawana Jain, Ajay Kr Singh, Tanushree Dangi, Anil Kr Verma, Mukesh Dwivedi, Madan Mohan, K P Singh, Amita Jain
      Abstract: Introduction: In spite of the discovery of viral culture technology about a century ago, its application in diagnostic labs is being used since 1970s. It served as the "gold standard" for virus detection for long. In recent years, rapid, technically less challenging, sensitive and highly specific viral identification is possible by molecular tools. Hence, the purpose of this study was to analyze the importance of real time PCR over virus culture in diagnosis of Influenza virus infections, the biggest viral challenge of present India, a developing country, so that prompt and correct diagnosis can help physicians as well as the policy makers to control the virus spread. Objective: To study the feasibility of real time PCR vis a vis viral culture technique and evaluate the utility of these methods for laboratory diagnosis of Influenza virus infections. Methodology: The study was conducted in Grade I Virology Diagnostic laboratory, Dept of Microbiology, KGMU, Lucknow. We used both real time RT-PCR and viral culture methods (on MDCK cell lines) for detection of Influenza virus infection and compared the effect of transport time, cost per sample and turnaround time on both the techniques. Results & Conclusion: Real time PCR is more practical, more sensitive, quicker and cost effective. It needs less expertise and availability of reagents is better. Though viral culture proved to be highly specific and useful for wide application but the use should currently be limited to mostly research facilities. Therefore for epidemiological diagnosis purposes real time PCR detection of Influenza virus is advised.
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 2(1): 97-102
      PubDate: 2014-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Study of Faunal Diversity of Laxmipur Pond at Raxaul Area of
           Indo-Himalayan Range of Bihar

    • Authors: Mandip Kumar Roy, Amaresh Kumar Deo, Akriti Rani
      Abstract: North Bihar exhibits a wide range of wet lands and net of water bodies due to its geographical distribution and climatic condition and has become a good source of income through fish culture and variety of important cultivable crops. The fish collected from water body are represented by 8 orders and 12 families, 18 genera and 23 species. During the entire period of investigation, altogether 32 genera of phytoplankton consisting of chlorophyceae, cyanophyceae, euglenophyceae and bascillariophyceae, etc. In the present study, Zooplankton are represented by 05 genera of 7 copepoda, 06 genera of ostracoda. The density of phytoplankton was found to be higher than Zooplankton. The population of plankton was observed to be low during rainy season.
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(1): 93-96
      PubDate: 2014-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Antimicrobial Activity of Some Medicinal Plants from East and Central Part
           of Nepal

    • Authors: Bimala Subba, Prakash Basnet
      Abstract: To evaluate the antimicrobial activities of extract of eleven plants were examined against four common bacterials. The ethanolic extracts of various plants such as  Cissus repens, Hedyotis scandens, Jatropha curcas, Morus alba, Inula cappa, Equisetum ramosissimum, Osyris wightiana, Alternantheria sessilis and Hibiscus lampas  investigated individually for antimicrobial activity by disc diffusion method. These were investigated against selected species of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Klebsiella pneumoniae to find the inhibitory activities of the microbes. The ethanolic extract of C. repens showed considerably high activity against P. vulgaris, E. coli and S. aureus than other extracts.
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(1): 88-92
      PubDate: 2014-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Evaluation of cellular antioxidant activity of selected species of
           Caralluma and Boucerosia on cell lines

    • Authors: Madhuri Vajha, Siva Rama Krishna Chillara
      Abstract: Objective: The aim of the present work was designed to study cellular antioxidant properties of selected plant extracts of Caralluma and Boucerosia on cell lines. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out in four species of Caralluma R.Br. such as Caralluma adscendens (Roxb.) R. Brown var. attenuata (Wight) Grav. & Mayur. (CAA), Caralluma adscendens (Roxb.) R. Brown var. fimbriata (Wall.) Gravely & Mayur. (CAF), Caralluma stalagmifera C.E.C. Fisch. (CS) and Caralluma stalagmifera C.E.C. Fisch. var. longipetala  Karupp. & Pull. (CSL) and as well as two species of Boucerosia Wight & Arn. such as Boucerosia lasiantha Wight. (BL) and Boucerosia umbellata (Haw.) Wight & Arn.  (BU). The antioxidant efficacy was evaluated by ability of antioxidant molecules in the extract to scavenge ROS produced by normal metabolism by cells, observed by the oxidation of 2, 7- Dichloro fluorescein diacetate to dichlorofluorescein, followed by decrease in fluorescence intensity. Results: Cellular antioxidant activity was demonstrated by the inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The percentage ROS inhibition in Raw 264.7 cells when treated with different concentrations of methanolic extracts showed variations among selected species. Conclusion: The plant extracts were shown to be effective for antioxidant potential and can be a promising source of natural antioxidants.
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(1): 83-87
      PubDate: 2014-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Isolation, Characterization and investing the Industrial Applications of
           Thermostable and Solvent Tolerant Serine Protease from Hot Spring Isolated
           Thermophililic Bacillus licheniformis U1

    • Authors: Pravin Dudhagara, Sunil Bhavasar, Anjana Ghelani, Shreyas Bhatt
      Abstract: Protease is the largest selling enzyme in the world due to its various applications in the making of detergent, food and leather, meat tenderisation and pharmaceutical industries. The aim of the study is to isolate and identify thermophilic Bacillus licheniformis U1 strains for thermostable protease production. The partial purified enzyme was characterized under different conditions using Anson-Hagihara’s method. Casein as a substrate in the concentration of 0.6 % w/v optimum for enzyme activity and tolerant up to 2.0% casein concentration. An optimum enzyme activity was reported at pH 7 and decreased with increasing in pH, while temperature optimum was found at 50 °C. The enzyme was stable at 40 °C to 50 °C for half an hour and nearly 50% residual activity was indicated at 60 °C. NaCl was not required for catalysis.  Stability of enzymes in the presence of various organic solvents and different detergents was remarkable. The enzyme was stable up to 3 days into various solvents and slowly denatured with prolonged incubation. The result of the washing performance with detergent was clearly indicated. Moreover the removal of blood stains and dehairing in goat skin suggests the crucial application in the commercial production at large scale.
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(1): 75-82
      PubDate: 2014-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Biotherapeutic Activity of Boerhaavia diffusa against Oxidized Cholesterol
           Induced Lipid Peroxidation and Anti-Oxidant Status in Hypercholesterolemic

    • Authors: Puneet Kumar Singh, Sanjay Kumar Ojha, Snehasish Mishra, Satish Kumar, Amir Khan, Subodh Kumar Chauhan
      Abstract: Present days, herbal medicines are widely practiced to treat cardio vascular diseases (CVD) and heart care management in most of the Asian countries. The present study was to evaluate the hypercholesterolemic and antioxidative effect of Boerhaavia diffusa root extract (BD) on oxidized cholesterol induced hypercholesterolemia in rats. The root extract was prepared in 70% ethanolic medium by soxhlet extraction procedure.  Experiment was designed to carry out with 18 male albino rats which are equally divided into 3 groups for four week experiment. All experimental animals provided rat chow and water ad libitum. Group II and III received oxidized cholesterol through gastric intubation at the dose of 1mg/rat/day, where as in group III followed by BD at the dose of 1ml/rat/day for 4 weeks. Parameters like lipid peroxidation, total cholesterol and antioxidant status in plasma along with catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (Gred) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in liver tissue were analyzed on oxidized cholesterol supplemented rats with and/or without treatment of BD. The total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG) and LDL levels in plasma of group II remained high compared to the counterparts. But in group III showed significant decrease in TC, TG and LDL levels by 34.39%, 42.13% and 48.30%, respectively. The based on findings, it seems very levelheaded to believe that this greener way of formulation of herbal medicines is not just a utilization of naturally occurring medicinal herbs but also to make it available for the betterment of the society at low cost.
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(1): 69-74
      PubDate: 2014-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Kinetics of acetylcholinesterase inhibition by an aqueous extract of
           Cuminum cyminum seeds.

    • Authors: Suresh Kumar, Suman Chowdhury
      Abstract: The cholinergic hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has provided the rationale for the current pharmacotherapy of this disease. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are currently the only approved therapy for the symptomatic treatment of AD. The current drugs available in the market has shown various side effect which prompted scientist to search for new and potent AChE inhibitors which exerts minimal side effect in AD patient. In present study, an aqueous extract of Cumin cyminum was tested for in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity based on Ellman’s method. C. cyminum showed maximum inhibition of 76.90±0.003% in an aqueous extract at 50μg/ml final concentration. Further studies were conducted to elucidate the mode of AChE inhibition by kinetic studies. Competitive inhibition was observed at lower concentrations (12.5μg/ml & 25μg/ml) and mixed inhibition was observed at higher concentrations (50μg/ml & 100μg/ml).
      DOI :   Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 2(1): 64-68
      PubDate: 2014-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Seasonal Variation of Arsenic Concentration in Ground Water of Nawalparasi
           District of Nepal

    • Authors: Rajib Shrestha, Dipak Regmi, Bhim P. Kafle
      Abstract: Ground water of southern part of Nepal, also known as Terai region where population density is relatively very high, has been contaminated with poisonous element Arsenic. This study has been carried out to determine variability of the level of arsenic contamination in groundwater with seasons of Pathkhauli village of Devgaun VDC and Mahuwa village of Manari VDC in Nawalparasi district, the western Terai district. Hydride Generation Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (HG-AAS) and UV-visible Spectrophotometry was used for analysis. Total 55 groundwater samples in post-monsoon season and 45 groundwater samples in pre-monsoon season were collected. The level of arsenic contamination in groundwater was found above the Nepal interim standard of 50 ppb. Of the total 42 water samples from each pre- and post- monsoon seasons analyzed, 28 water samples (67.67%) showed higher As-concentration in pre-monsoon season. 
      DOI :   Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 2(1): 59-63 
      PubDate: 2014-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Hepatoprotective Activity of Herbal Preparation (Hp-4) against Alcohol
           Induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice

    • Authors: P. Padmanabhan, S. N. Jangle
      Abstract: Free radicals include both Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS).When free radicals are produced in a regulated manner in a healthy human body it is scavenged efficiently by antioxidant defense system. But excess generation of pro-oxidants by continuous chain reaction in the form of ROS and RNS cause several human diseases. The shift of the balance in the favour of pro-oxidants results in a condition called “oxidative stress”. Alcohol is primarily metabolized in the liver to generate ROS and RNS, leading to diseases such as cirrhosis, fatty liver and chronic hepatitis. Alcohol induced damage is associated with oxidative stress. The excess generation of prooxidants and reduced antioxidant levels provide an effective model of Hepatotoxicity which is noteworthy. Recent trend is to discover polyherbal formulation of medicinal plants which have hepatoprotective function. In the present study 80% alcoholic extract of leaves of Aloe vera, Bacopa monniera, Moringa oleifera and rhizome of Zingiber officinale were utilized to prepare Herbal Preparation or HP-4.Further the hepatoprotective effects of HP-4 was tested in alcohol induced Hepatotoxicity in mice. Silymarin is a well known hepatoprotective drug was used as a standard for comparison. Biochemical and histopathological studies provided ample evidence that HP-4 provided a hepatoprotective role in alcohol induced hepatotoxicity which was comparable to drug Silymarin. The presence of phytochemicals in HP-4 provided a synergistic, supra-additive and co-operative effects in the hepatoprotective function in alcohol induced hepatotoxicity mice model.
      DOI : Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 2(1): 50-58
      PubDate: 2014-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Enhanced Production of Ethanol from Red Potatoes Grown in Hilly Regions of
           Nepal Using Various Nitrogen Sources

    • Authors: Jarina Joshi
      Abstract: Ammonium sulphate, ammonium phosphate, sodium nitrate, urea and glycine were the five different commonly available nitrogen sources used at different concentration ranging from 0.5 to 4% w/v to produce ethanol in batch culture. Potato paste made from red potatoes grown in hilly regions of Nepal was used as carbon source. Prior to fermentation all carbon sources were saccharified enzymatically using α- amylase at pH 5 and temperature 55oC. Maximum yield of ethanol 5.2% was obtained at a temperature of 30oC and pH 5.0 without exogeneous supply of nitrogen. There is slight decrease in concentration when temperature is decreased to 25oC but a drastic decrease in concentration when temperature is increased beyond optimum. All the exogeneously supplied nitrogen sources found to enhance ethanol production and cell viability when yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae isolated from brewer’s yeast was used. Ammonium sulphate was found as best nitrogen supplement among them. Maximum ethanol percentage of 8.3 was observed at pH 5.0 and temperature 30oC with Ammonium sulphate concentration of 2%.
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(1): 41-44
      PubDate: 2014-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Biomonitoring of Pollution by Microalgae Community in Aquatic System with
           Special Reference to Water Quality of River Kolong, Nagaon, Assam, India

    • Authors: Bharat Banti Buragohain, Farishta Yasmin
      Abstract: With growing urbanization and industrialization India faces the challenge of providing clean and safe drinking water. In the name of economic growth most rivers and streams are turning into sewers. Pollution effect is equally damaging both biotic and abiotic components. Microalgae play an interesting role in forecasting changing environment. Pollution in aquatic environment like changing pH; addition of oil, heavy metals; increase of organic matter and chemical fertilizers can be traced by studying algal community. Abundant growth of particular algae, drastic change in species diversity and depletion of long inhabitant algal flora indicates the pollution in a very initial stage. In the present study, attempt has been made to point out some indicator algae of Kolong River which is getting polluted day by day and in placed among the 71 most polluted stretch of river in the country. In our investigation, we have found microalgae mainly from groups Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae and Desmidiaceae which can be identified as indicator species in biomonitoring purpose.
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 2(1): 45-49
      PubDate: 2014-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • An Investigation on principle biochemical components, photosynthetic
           pigments, nucleic acid and enzymatic activities of axenic culture of
           Scytonema sp. treated with two PAHs: Acenapthene and Fluoranthene

    • Authors: Miral Patel, Nirmal Kumar J.I, K. K. Tiwari
      Abstract: The fresh water cyanobacteria Scytonema sp. was cultivated in a laboratory scale in the presence of various concentrations (2.5, 5, 10, 20 ppm) of two polycyclic hydrocarbons in order to assess the influence of the pollutant on the growth and certain physiological responses of the cyanobacteria. The algal cells were analyzed for chlorophyll a, carotenoids, phycobilliproteins, proteins, amino acid, nucliec acid, C/N ratio and elemental composition, carbohydrate and different enzymes at four days interval up to 16 days. According to our results, Scytonema sp. was significantly affected by the pollution with regard to the different physiological parameters examined, and this significance may be negative, positive or variable. The effect of the pollutant on carbohydrate, and the total amount of amino acids, proteins was negative, however, the composition of the phenol increase with raise in PAHs concentration. A positive effect of the pollutant on cellular C/N ratio was observed up to certain doses of PAHs.
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(1): 34-40
      PubDate: 2014-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) in Cattle: Epidemiology
           and Zoonotic Implications

    • Authors: Lok Raj Joshi, Shiva Prasad Devkota
      Abstract: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has emerged as a significant public health problem both in human and veterinary medicine. Strains of S. aureus resistant to β-lactam antibiotics are known as Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Overuse of antibiotics has been ascribed for MRSA emergence. MRSA in cattle was first reported in 1975. Since then, many literatures describing MRSA in cattle have been published. MRSA causes incurable intra-mammary infection and skin diseases in cattle. In severe cases, it causes deep-seated infections like endocarditis and osteomyelitis.  MRSA got zoonotic importance when scientists suggested the possibility of cattle serving as reservoirs for human MRSA infection. In this article, we review the current knowledge of MRSA in cattle and its zoonotic implications.
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(1): 29-33
      PubDate: 2014-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Role of Omega-3 Polyunsaturated fatty acids in Inflammation and rheumatoid
           arthritis disorders

    • Authors: Mohammad Asif
      Abstract: Reviewing the relationships between polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) with inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis disorders, the PUFAs containing ω-3, ω-6 and ω-9, these ω-3FAs levels were correlated with ω-6: ω-3 ratios including arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Based on previously-reports, the levels of ω-3 FAs considered being as a 'lower risk' category for inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis. Certain PUFAs ratios may aid in inflammation and rheumatoid arthritis-related risk assessment. PUFA are the most effective for the production of oil with high concentration of DHA and EPA content significantly.
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(1): 3-17
      PubDate: 2014-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • A Critical Self Evaluation

    • Authors: Umesh Prasad Shrivastava
      Abstract: No abstract
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(1): 1-2
      PubDate: 2014-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Biology and Management of Eggplant Fruit and Shoot Borer, Leucinodes
           orbonalis Guenee (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)

    • Authors: Ram Prasad Mainali
      Abstract: Eggplant (Solanum melongena Linnaeus) is one of the most economically important vegetable of tropics having hot-wet climate. The key pest, eggplant fruit and shoot borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee found to be most destructive and first ranked threat especially in South Asia, hence become hot issue for research in this region. It inflicts sizeable damage up to 80 percent in terms of fruit and content of vitamin-C. This situation refrained the farmers growing eggplant, hence relevant literature were gleaned and overviews regarding biology and management of borer with supportive facts and figure for safe and healthy eggplant production. As integrated approaches of pest management have been gaining popularity nowadays, this article outlines all the components of IPM including use of resistant varieties, sex pheromones, cultural methods, physical and mechanical barriers, bio-pesticides and bio-control agents, botanical and chemical means of management including basic biological parameters associated with management.
      DOI : J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 2(1): 18-28
      PubDate: 2014-03-24
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
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