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Journal Cover International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2091-2609
   Published by Nepal Journals Online Homepage  [74 journals]
  • Basics of Bioinformatics in Biological Research

    • Authors: Ashwini Kamble, Rajesh Khairkar
      Pages: 425 - 429
      Abstract: The concept of laboratory rat is giving way to the computer mouse arose after the famous handshake between Clinton-Blair for the completion of the human genome in April 2003. Bioinformatics is defined as the application of computational techniques to understand and organize the information associated with biological macromolecules.There is availability of large databases of genomic information which has enabled research efforts for discovering methods for diagnosis and treatment of human diseases using DNA microarrays and proteomics experiments. But there are various problems while doing this like it’s always challenging  to develop proper and sophisticated analysis method  which can properly use genomic data bases considering its and heterogeneity of the data.The main purpose of this first paper is to explore and explain Bioinformatics in a more scientific way, and try highlighting applications of bioinformatics in the medical sector.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(4): 425-429
      PubDate: 2017-01-06
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Investigations on Temperature Effects and Germ Recovery for Solar Water
           Disinfection (SODIS)

    • Authors: Michael Sift, Sophia Wagner, Martin Hessling
      Pages: 430 - 435
      Abstract: In many developing countries no infrastructure for providing people with microbiological safe drinking water exists. This demands for decentralized water disinfection that is inexpensive and requires no consumables. The casualties are often recommended the application of SODIS for drinking water treatment. There are numerous scientific studies on this disinfection method, which however are still leaving questions on the mode of functioning which is often reduced to the effect caused by the UV part of the solar radiation and there is almost no discussion in the literature what happens to the disinfected water after the SODIS treatment.In this paper disinfection experiments with Escherichia coli in isotonic saline solutions and real surface water are performed for a set of realistic conditions for UVA irradiation and for heating but separated from each other. The results confirm that SODIS is based on the combined effect of UVA radiation and increased temperature. Further experiments lead to the recommendation that once disinfected water should be consumed without a large delay, otherwise the germ concentration rises again.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(4): 430-435
      PubDate: 2017-01-06
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Isolation and Characterization of Microcystin Degrading Bacteria from Holy
           Ponds in India

    • Authors: Vikram Pal Gandhi, Anil Kumar
      Pages: 436 - 447
      Abstract: Microcystins (MCs) are toxic cyclic heptapeptides produced by few toxic cyanobacteria and generally form blooms in eutrophic surface fresh water bodies. They cause acute to chronic poisoning and other health related problems mainly by irreversible inhibition of protein phosphatases (PP1 and PP2A) and increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS).  Due to limitation of non-biological methods of water treatments the exploration of MCs degrading bacteria is emerging at a quite pace to address, through bioremediation, the problems posed by MCs in water and water-bodies. Report and study of MCs biodegrading bacteria from India were lacking. However it was evident, from our previous study, that microcystin degradation can be achieved by indigenous microcystin degrading bacterial population in its natural place where microcystin producing blooms occur. This study has presented isolation and characterization of indigenous microcystin degrading bacteria from holy ponds in Utter Pradesh of India. Overall 20 bacterial isolates were isolated from Microcystis infested different ponds. Out of these 13 isolates were mlrA positive by PCR and were found to be distinct isolates by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). However, ARDRA analysis revealed overall four bacterial groups. On the basis of 16S-rRNA gene sequence the Gram-positive-rod isolate PM1 was identified, with 99% identity, as Bacillus licheniformis which was shown earlier to cluster with microcystin degrading bacterium B. subtilis. Thus the present study revealed, for the first time, probable microcystin degrading bacteria in water-bodies from India. The potential and the metabolic pathway of PM1 and other mlrA positive isolates need to be further studied and validated to confirm their application in microcystin bioremediation. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(4): 436-447
      PubDate: 2017-01-06
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Genomic DNA Extraction Protocol for Artemisia Annua L. Without Using
           Liquid Nitrogen and Phenol

    • Authors: Ankit Agrawal, Anjana Sharma, Narmada Prasad Shukla
      Pages: 448 - 451
      Abstract: Artemisia annua is an important medicinal plant, used for curing various diseases especially malaria. It secretes verities of secondary metabolites which hinders in the DNA extraction. This investigation describes an efficient DNA extraction protocol for A. annua based upon the Cetyl Trimethyl Ammonium Bromide (CTAB) extraction method without using hazardous chemicals i.e. liquid nitrogen and phenol. The developed protocol is simple, reliable and operative in normal laboratory condition yielding intact DNA having good quantity (502.7 to 1288.5 ng/µl) and quality (A260/280 ratio - 1.82 to 1.85) in two working days. Proper amplification of extracted DNA indicates its suitability for the various molecular biological applications. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(4): 448-451 
      PubDate: 2017-01-06
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Comparative Studies on Effect of Carbon and Nitrogen Sources on L
           -Asparaginase Production

    • Authors: M. Mohamed Mahroop Raja, A. Raja, S. Mohamed Salique, P. Gajalakshmi
      Pages: 452 - 457
      Abstract: Marine actinomycetes sediment samples were collected from Gulf of Mannar costal region, Kayalpatinam, located at Tuticorin district, Tamilnadu, India. Marine actinomycetes were isolated and evaluated for activity of L-asparaginase production. A total of 10 marine actinomycetes strains were isolated. Among 10 isolates, six were belongs to Streptomyces sp, three were belongs to Micromonospora sp and one was to Micropolyspora sp. Based on phenotypic characteristics, actinomycetes strains were screened for L-asparaginase production. Streptomyces sp KPMS5 and Micromonospora sp KPMS10 were showed large pink coloration on L-asparaginase production medium. The strains were further studied for maximum production and characterizations of culture condition of L-asparaginase enzyme were evaluated. Effect of substrate on L-asparaginase production was evaluated by enzyme assy. Maximum enzyme assay (1.4 mM) was observed on glucose followed by starch (1.12Mm) by Micromonospora sp KPMS10. In Streptomyces sp KPMS5 showed maximum of 1.25mM of enzyme assay on glucose substrate followed by lactose 1.17mM. Yeast extract was effectively used as substrate for maximum production of L-asparaginase by submerged fermentation. Further studies on purification and characterization are required to support the application of enzyme. The finding concludes isolates belongs to non-Streptomyces sp like Micromonospora sp is a potential novel source for L-asparaginase production.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(4): 452-457
      PubDate: 2017-01-06
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Preparation of Land Use Zoning Maps of Chaumala VDC, Kailali

    • Authors: Devraj Chalise, Abhasha Joshi, Bikesh Twanabasu, Nabin Rawal, Saroj Amgai
      Pages: 458 - 463
      Abstract: To characterize soils of different land uses and to prepare land use zoning maps, a field survey was conducted in August, 2014 in Chaumala VDC, Kailali. Main objective was to prepare scientific land resource inventory at VDC level to delineate land use based on land types, associated soils and land capability classes to formulate sustainable land use planning. The maximum area is allocated in forest zone (66.62%) followed by agriculture zone (20.83%). Area allocated as public use is 9.48%, for residential is 2.91%, and for commercial is 0.15% whereas industrial area covers the minimum (0.01%). Detailed land resource inventory is utmost for better land use planning and formulating best land use policies.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(4): 458-463
      PubDate: 2017-01-06
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Comparative Study on Plant Growth Promotion by Endophytic Pseudomonas Spp.
           and Bacillus Spp. of Solanum Lycopersicum

    • Authors: Sampada Mishra, Saroj Kumar Mahato, Sabin Basi, Shradha Basi-Chipalu
      Pages: 464 - 469
      Abstract: Minimization of deleterious effects of chemical fertilizers on health, ecosystem and economy can only be achieved by finding healthy, eco-friendly and cheap alternatives. Naturally selected symbiotic relationship between the endophytic bacteria and their host plants makes them an ideal candidate as biofertilizer. They can synthesize various plant growth hormones as well as assist their host in uptake of nutrients from soil.The study was designed to compare plant growth promotion of Solanum lycopersicum by Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas spp. and total endophytic community isolated from roots of S. lycopersicum, grown in the soil samples collected from various locations of Kathmandu valley of Nepal. Tomato seeds were inoculated with mixtures of eight endophytic strains of Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp., and crude endophytes obtained from each location separately.Endophytic treatments, except Pseudomonas spp., inhibited seminal root growth during 12-days germination period. However, after plantation, root and shoot biomass was enhanced by the endophytes, with no significant differences among the bacterial treatments. The shoot height was also enhanced, among which Pseudomonas spp. had the strongest effect. In phosphate solubilization assay, out of seventy-two isolates each of Bacillus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. tested, twenty-four isolates of Pseudomonas spp. and sixteen isolates of Bacillus spp. could solubilize phosphate. Higher number of phosphate solubilizing isolates of Pseudomonas spp. might provide a possible explanation for the greater enhancement of shoot height by Pseudomonas spp. as compared to Bacillus spp.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(4): 464-469
      PubDate: 2017-01-06
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Evaluation of Water Quality Index of Water Bodies Channarayapatna Taluk,
           Karnataka Region, India

    • Authors: H. R. Bharathi, S. Manjappa, T. Suresh, B. Suresh
      Pages: 475 - 482
      Abstract: Present communication deals with a study of Physico-chemical parameters such as pH, Temperature, Total Suspended Solids, Turbidity, Dissolved Oxygen, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, Nitrate and Phosphate in water samples of Channarayapatna, Janivara, Anekere and Baghur water bodies in Channarayapatna taluka, Karnataka state of India. The water quality of the samples was compared with standard values given by World Health Organization (WHO) and United State Salinity Laboratory for drinking and irrigation purposes. Water Quality Index (WQI) was also calculated to know the overall quality of water samples. Water quality index (WQI) of Surface water body of various Sampling locations of Channarayapatna taluka, Karnataka ranged between 61.82 and 68.27 indicates the fair quality of water. The water quality index is calculated by indicator (100-point scale) shows that water is suitable for drinking purposes only after pretreatment like filtering, boiling, reverse osmosis and electro dialysis. WQI can play a big role in justifying the water pollution problems after encountered in different surface water bodies. Application of Water Quality Index (WQI) in this study has been found useful in assessing the overall quality of water and to get rid of judgment on quality of the surface water.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(4): 475-482
      PubDate: 2017-01-06
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Diversity Assessment of Foxtail Millet (Setaria Italica L. Beauv)
           Accessions Collected from Different Locations of Nepal

    • Authors: Manoj Sapkota, Madhav Prasad Pandey, Dhruba Bahadur Thapa, Mukesh Kumar Yadav, Sapana Ghimire, Dipak Timalsina
      Pages: 483 - 488
      Abstract: Foxtail millet (Setaria italica L. Beauv) categorized as an underutilized crop in Nepal persist a large diversity among different germplasms and accessions found in the country. Ten foxtail millet accessions were collected from different parts of Nepal and were evaluated for assessing the diversity in different characters at Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Rampur, Chitwan. The accessions were experimented in Randomized Complete Block Design with three replications. Observations were taken for qualitative traits i.e. tip of first leaf, anthocyanin at leaf base, lobe compactness, length of bristles, anthocyanin presence, leaf blade altitude, flag leaf color, lobe in panicles, panicle lodging, inflorescence compactness, overall color, panicle anthocyanin, panicle shape and growth habit. Shannon Weiner index and Evenness were calculated to assess the diversity in the accessions under study. The maximum number of diversity in traits of lobe compactness of panicle (1.3624) followed by panicle lodging (1.1595), inflorescence compactness (1.1235) and length of bristles (1.0681). Least diversity was observed in trait of growth habit (0.3926) followed by panicle anthocyanin coloration (0.4505) and lobes in panicles (0.5799). The finding of existence of wide diversity in the studied accessions could be a pivotal information for further study of genetic variation of foxtail millet germplasms.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(4): 483-488
      PubDate: 2017-01-06
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Response of the Most Promising Wheat Genotypes with Different Nitrogen

    • Authors: N. Rawal, D. Chalise, N. Khatri
      Pages: 489 - 497
      Abstract: Field experiments were conducted during winter seasons of 2013 and 2014 on the alkaline and silty loam soils of NWRP, Bhairahawa to study the interaction of the most promising wheat genotypes with different nitrogen levels under different agro-ecological zones and recommend the appropriate dose of nitrogen for newly released varieties. The experiment was laid out in split plot design: four nitrogen levels (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg/ha) as a whole plot and six wheat genotypes (BL 3623, BL 3629, BL 3872, NL 1008, NL 1055 and Vijay) as a sub-plot which were replicated three times. There was significant effect of varieties and nitrogen levels on plant height, number of spikes, thousand grain weight and grain yield in both the years. In first year, the highest grain yield of 3.35 t/ha was obtained from the application of nitrogen @ 150 kg/ha with the genotype BL 3872 which is followed by the genotypes BL 3623 (3.15 ton/ha) and NL 1055 (3.05 ton/ha). Similarly in second year, the genotype NL 1055 gave the highest grain yield of 4.01 ton/ha followed by genotypes BL 3629 (3.83 ton/ha) and BL 3623 (3.81 ton/ha) from the application of nitrogen @ 150 kg/ha. Based on two years results, it can be concluded that N was a limiting factor in the productivity of wheat. Nitrogen @ 150 kg per ha produced higher yield and yield attributing characters. Similarly, the wheat genotypes NL 1055, BL 3629, BL 3623 and BL 3872 were superior among the genotypes.
      PubDate: 2017-01-06
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Varietal Improvement of Normal Season Irrigated Rice for Eastern Terai
           Region of Nepal

    • Authors: Hari Kumar Prasai, Rudra Bhattarai, Jivan Shrestha
      Pages: 489 - 497
      Abstract: The coordinated and regional varietal trial of normal season irrigated rice was carried out at Regional Agricultural Research Station (RARS), Tarahara, Nepal in 2014 & 2015. Out of the tested genotypes, NR 2157-166-1-3-5-1, Cieharang and NR 2157-166-2-1-1-1 identified as promising with potential grain yield of 4313, 4290 and 4239 kg/ha respectively in over year analysis (2014-15) under coordinated varietal trial (CVT). These genotypes recorded 25 to 27 percent higher grain yield than national rice productivity and 4 to 6 percent more than check variety, Sabitri. The differences in grain yield among the tested genotypes and between the years were found significant, but interaction of genotypes to year was found non-significant. Similarly, KARAJAT-3 recorded the highest grain yield (4897 kg/ha) followed by NR 1190-24-4-2-2-2-3-2 (4861 kg/ha) in over year analysis (2014-15) of regional varietal trial (RVT), similarly, identified as promising genotypes. These promising genotypes recorded 43 and 8 percent higher grain yield than national rice yield and to the check variety, Sabitri, respectively in over year analysis. The differences in grain yield among genotypes and year were found significant whereas it was non-significant for interaction of genotypes and to the tested years.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(4): 489-497
      PubDate: 2017-01-06
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Ectopic Overexpression of Barley PIP2;4 Confers Salt Tolerance in

    • Authors: Jayeeta Mitra, Jay Prakash Awasthi, Sanjib Kumar Panda
      Pages: 498 - 512
      Abstract: In the present study HvPIP2;4 was overexpressed in Arabidopsis thaliana to engineer enhanced salt tolerance. Barley Aquaporin was selected since barley shows fairly good tolerance to drought, salt stress and low temperature compared to many other crops including rice, and it was thought that analysis of barley aquaporin will provide a good insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in transport of water & their efficacy during abiotic stress condition. Arabidopsis line expressing HvPIP2;4 from annual crop plant Hordeum vulgare (Barley) under the control of constitutive promoter was used to analyze the expression of HvPIP2; 4 and its efficacy during salt stress when NaCl concentration gradually increased. The pattern of expression of HvPIP2; 4 were found to be NaCl dose dependent during salt stress. The constitutive expression of HvPIP2;4 enhanced salt stress tolerance in Arabidopsis. HvPIP2;4 played a dominant role in improving plant salt tolerance. It may be very well presumed that overexpression of HvPIP2;4 in crop plant might benefit them by enhancing their salt tolerance capacity.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(4): 498-512
      PubDate: 2017-01-06
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Growth Promoting Effects of Vermiwash and Panchagavya on Dolichus Lablab
           under Field Experimental Conditions

    • Authors: V.N. Maheswari, M.P. Srikumaran, G.S. Rekha, D. Elumalai, P.K. Kaleena
      Pages: 513 - 518
      Abstract: The present study explores the growth promoting effects of vermiwash and panchagavya on Dolichus lablab. Vermiwash was obtained from the vermicomposting unit and panchagavya was prepared using cow products such as milk, curd, urine, ghee and dung. Different concentrations of vermiwash and panchagavya (5:2%, 10:3% and 15:4%) were applied to the bean plants once in every week for 90 days. The exo-morphological characters such as shoot length, internode length, diameter of the internode, number of leaves, leaf surface area and chlorophyll content were recorded prior to every treatment in all the groups. Interestingly, 10:3% vermiwash and panchagavya treated lablab beans showed better growth promoting effects than the other plants. Thus, the results of the present study clearly suggest that 10:3% vermiwash and panchagavya could be used as effective foliar spray in the near future.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(4): 513-518
      PubDate: 2017-01-06
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Varietal Improvement of Wheat for Eastern Terai of Nepal

    • Authors: Hari Kumar Prasai
      Pages: 519 - 524
      Abstract: The regional varietal experiments of wheat were composed by selecting promising genotypes from coordinated varietal trial. Both early and late sown experiments of wheat regional varietal trial (RVT) were seeded in Regional Agricultural Research Station, Tarahara, Sunsari, Nepal in 2014 and 2015. Late sown experiment was seeded after 15 days of early seeding experiment to identify suitable genotypes for delay seeding condition. Amongst the tested genotypes in RVT early of 2014 and 2015, the highest grain yield was produced by BL 3555 (3351 kg/ha) and BL 4018 (3309 kg/ha). Similarly BL 4012, BL 3978, BL 3264 and BL 4406 genotypes also recorded 12-18 percent higher grain yield than the yield of standard check variety, Aditya. All tested characters except spikes/m2 included in over year analysis of RVT early was found significantly different due to genotypes. Similarly out of the tested genotypes in RVT (late) of 2014 and 2015, NL 1177 (2933 kg/ha) and BL 3555 (2764 kg/ha) were found high yielding genotypes in combined analysis over year and grain yield of other tested genotypes was observed at par with check variety.  Days to heading, maturity, plant height and yrain yield of RVT (late sown) experiment were observed significantly different due to genotypes in over year analysis.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(4): 519-524
      PubDate: 2017-01-06
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Madhuca Longifolia Flowers for High Yields of Bio-Ethanol Feedstock

    • Authors: Ravi Gedela, Ravi Teja Naidu, Srinivasao Rachakonda, Asiri Naidu
      Pages: 525 - 528
      Abstract: Fermentation process, the production of bio-ethanol from Madhuca longifolia (Mahua) flowers by using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Mahua flowers, collected from Eastern Ghats region of Andhra Pradesh, India). The evaluated results showed that, 1000 ml of acidic fermented media at pH-4, 5 and 5.7, produced the average quantity of bio-ethanol in test-1 (S.cerevisiae + Mahua flowers + Media), test -2 (Mahua flowers + Media) and control (media) ≈ 170.03 ml, ≈ 142.3 ml and ≈ 127.7 ml respectively. The percentage of bio-ethanol was confirmation by using Alcohol meter, the analysis results showed that in test-1, test-2 and control ≈ 46.6 %, ≈ 24.6 % and ≈ 0% respectively. The presence of bio-ethanol were verified by using Spectrophotometer at 204-240 nm.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(4): 525-528
      PubDate: 2017-01-06
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
  • Study on Genotypic Response and Correlation Analysis of the Yield and
           Yield Attributing Traits of Different Barley (Hordeum Vulgare) Genotypes

    • Authors: Deepak Vitrakoti, Sheetal Aryal, Santosh Rasaily, Bishnu Raj Ojha, Raju Kharel, Manoj Sapkota
      Pages: 529 - 536
      Abstract: Barley, being a tremendous opportunities crop, we are far back regarding study, research and utilization. An experiment was conducted 2014-2015 to evaluate the barley genotypes for their yield attributing traits and correlation and causation. Eleven yield contributing traits viz., days to booting, heading and flowering; peduncle length, spike length, plant height, flag leaf area, flag leaf-1 area, thousand grain weight, biological weight and yield per hectare were recorded. High significant variation among genotypes was found for traits under study. Genotypes SBYT3-13#1115 (1960 kg), 14-SB-NAK-MR#17 (1760 kg) and AM POP#26 (1660 kg) were found to be superior for their per se performance based on grain yield per hectare, yield attributing and other quantitative traits. Thousand grains weight (0.333) had positively highest significant correlation with grain yield per hectare followed by spike length (0.310). Grain yield per hectare showed negative highly significant correlation with days to flowering (-0.796) followed by days to heading (-0.761) and days to booting (-0.663). Peduncle length (0.229), plant height (0.226), biological weight (0.181) and flag leaf area (0.032) were positively correlated with grain yield per hectare while flag leaf-1 area(-0.029) was negatively correlated. Thus, selection for genotypes with higher thousand grain weight and spike length accommodating earlier days to flowering, heading and booting is a prerequisite for attaining improvement in grain yield per hectare.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 4(4): 529-536
      PubDate: 2017-01-06
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
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