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Journal Cover International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology
  [2 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2091-2609
   Published by Nepal Journals Online Homepage  [69 journals]
  • Ostrich (Struthio camelus ) Egg Embryonic Death During Artificial
           Incubation

    • Authors: Aisha E. Faki, E.A.E. Obeid, Hagir I.M. Osman, A.E Amin
      Pages: 566 - 578
      Abstract: Intensification of ostrich farming revealed that egg hatchability was remarkably lower than the wild. This review considers the factors leading to, as pertaining to the ostrich, egg and incubator. Ostrich genotype, age, season and congenital problems affect clutch and egg sizes and egg quality- fertility to lead a successful hatch. Egg treatment prior incubation can later reduce hatchability, affected by storage conditions and duration. Most detrimental factors lie in the incubator and hatcher management. Egg correct positioning and turning in the appropriate incubator humidity and temperature are likely to yield high hatch. Variability in egg size, shell quality, pore sizes and numbers govern the water loss and exchange of gases. The hatcher management is important when chicks need intervention. Dead-in-shell embryos, early or late were likely to be affected by all of the above factors plus egg microbial contamination or be merely nutritional.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(4): 566-578
      PubDate: 2015-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
       
  • Challenges of Freshwater Fisheries in Nepal: A Short Overview

    • Authors: Nawaraj Gautam
      Pages: 579 - 583
      Abstract: Abundant freshwater resources originated from Himalayas and high geographical variations in Nepal are two factors which might be positive benefits to improve the aquaculture in land locked country. Low labor cost is also another plus point to get better management in fisheries sector. Freshwater fisheries in Nepal are mostly dominated by catch up fisheries of indigenous fish species available in rivers, lakes and paddy fields but exotic and sophisticated species been also introduced in small scales. Beside these, poly cultural pond fish farming is most viable. Carp fishes are the major species and uncontrolled unmanaged capture fisheries dominants over systematic aquaculture. Poor technological implementations, poor budgetary plan, not proper management strategies, lack of quality fish feed and fingerlins, lower market availability are some of the major challenges of Nepalese freshwater fisheries. Long-term sustainable plan, scientific and technological study on indigenous fish species, proper hygiene management and better disease control might improve the current aquaculture status of Nepal.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(4): 579-583
      PubDate: 2015-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
       
  • A spectrophotometric method for the determination Co-EDTA complexes

    • Authors: Arunachalam Paraneeiswaran, Sudhir K Shukla, V.S. Sathyaseelan, Toleti Subba Rao
      Pages: 584 - 587
      Abstract: A precise quantification of Co(II)EDTA complex is required to develop bioremediation approaches for Co(III)EDTA complex that is generated in various industrial processes. It is cumbersome to quantify Co(II)EDTA in a mixture of Co(II)EDTAand Co(III)EDTAby normal UV-visible spectrophotometric methods as both the complexes absorb significantly at 490 nm, which is the λ max of Co(II)EDTA. Whereas other sophisticated techniques such as gas chromatography, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy can measure individual species of Co(II)EDTA or Co(III)EDTA when present alone but are ineffective to measure the Co(II)EDTAprecisely when it is mixed with Co(III)EDTA. Hence, an attempt has been made to develop a spectrophotometric method for its quantification. This paper describes the development of a simple and economic dual wavelength spectrophotometric method for the determination of Co(II)EDTAin a mixture of Co(II)EDTA and Co(III)EDTA complexes. The wavelength pair, 490-580 nm was optimized for the measurement of absorbance for this dual wavelength method of determination of Co(II)EDTA in the presence of Co(III)EDTA. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(4): 584-587
      PubDate: 2015-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
       
  • Extraction, Modelling and Purification of Flavonoids from Citrus Medica
           Peel

    • Authors: M. Parvathi Nandan, Vangalapati Meena
      Pages: 588 - 591
      Abstract: Soxhlet extraction technique is widely employed for the extraction and separation of chemical constituents in the medicinal plants. Citrus medica L commonly called as Citron belongs to family Rutaceae, is a slow-growing shrub. It is mainly cultivated for the production of edible fruits which are sour in taste like lime and lemon and the main content of a citron fruit is the thick rind, which is very adherent to the segments. From the phytochemical analysis the peel extract is rich source of phenols, flavonoids and alkaloids. The objective of present work is to develop a modelling equation for quercetin, rutin and kaempferol and the crude extract obtained by soxhlet extraction was further purified by solvent-solvent extraction and Column chromatography. Extraction was carried out by 80% methanol as a solvent Soxhlet extractor. Soxhlet extraction with methanol was carried out with varying time intervals, to evaluate modelling equation. The proposed modelling equation was Es = 0.0849(t) + 7.0286 for Quercetin and Es = 0.0912(t) + 25.971 for rutin, and Es = 0.0267(t) + 7.3714 for Kaempferol. High yield was obtained for 180min of Soxhlet extraction with 80% methanol. Yield of quercetin, rutin and kaempferol after solvent-solvent extraction and column chromatography was 22.6µg/ml, 43.7µg/ml and 10.8µg/ml respectively. The proposed model showed good agreement with the experimental data. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(4): 588-591
      PubDate: 2015-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
       
  • Optimization of Process Variables by Response Surface Methodology

    • Authors: Kashipeta Ravinder
      Pages: 592 - 598
      Abstract: In the present study optimisation of the growth medium for the production of Cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase) was carried out using response surface methodology. Four important parameters namely starch, yeast extract, K2HPO4 and MgSO4 concentrations were selected as the independent variables and the enzyme activity (CGTase activity U/mL) was the dependent response variable. Each of these independent variables was studied at five different levels as per central composite design (CCD) in four variables with a total of 28 experimental runs. The optimal calculated values of tested variables for maximal production of CGTase were found to be comprised of: starch, 2.16 %; yeast extract, 0.6 %; K2HPO4, 0.62 %; MgSO4, 0.04 % with a predicted CGTase activity of 150 U/ml. These predicted optimal parameters were tested in the laboratory and the final CGTase activity obtained was very close to the predicted value at 148.2 U/ml.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(4): 592-598
      PubDate: 2015-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
       
  • Studies on Characterization of Molecular Variability Using RAPD Markers in
           Rhizoctonia solani Isolated from Different Gerographical Regions of South
           India

    • Authors: Krishna Kumari
      Pages: 599 - 603
      Abstract: Molecular techniques have become reliable and are highly suitable tools for identifying pathogen species and for genetic variation. The molecular marker is a useful tool for assessing genetic variations. RAPD (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) markers have been used to characterize the numerous filamentous fungi collected from different fields of experimental mycology. Rhizoctonia solani is a plant pathogenic fungus which cause sheath blight in rice. Present work focused on polymorphic identification and characterization of Rhizoctonia solani isolate. Twenty eight samples were collected from different locations of South India and Punjab. Rhizoctonia solani (teleomorph: Thanatephorus cucumeris) were isolated and used polymorphic examination by molecular markers. Molecular analysis was done with OPC-5, OPC-2, OPA-8 and OPA-11primers and the variability of isolated fungus DNA, allowed the visualization of 265 polymorphic bonds with molecular weight ranging from 0.5kb to 20kb significant differences in RAPD profiles of 28 isolates of R. Solani were found with two primers OPC-5 and OPC-2. To analyze the resolving ability of these primers, cumulative RAPD profiles generated by the primers were analyzed by UPGMA. The dendrogram constructed using 265 polymorphic bonds obtained from 28 isolates with 5 primers was divided into 7 clusters. Based on these results it was concluded that there was a molecular variability among the isolates of R. solani was depicted.
      PubDate: 2015-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
       
  • Resource Use Efficiency of Mustard Production in Chitwan District of Nepal

    • Authors: S.C. Dhakal, P.P. Regmi, R.B. Thapa, S.K. Sah, D.B. Khatri-Chhetri
      Pages: 604 - 608
      Abstract: The study was conducted to determine the profitability and resource use efficiency of mustard production in Chitwan. The study used 159 mustard growers from 300 farmers adopting different pollinator friendly practices. Descriptive and statistical tools including Cobb-Douglas production function were used to analyze data which were collected from structured interview schedule. The benefit cost ratio (1.43) indicates that mustard production was profitable with productivity of 0.81 ton per ha. The magnitude of regression coefficients of mustard implied that use of human labor, tractor, nutrient and irrigation and pesticides costs had significant positive effect on gross return with estimated increasing return to scale (1.03). According to estimated allocative efficiency indices, it is suggested to increase use of tractor labor, seed, nutrient and irrigation plus pesticides cost by about 47%, 82%, 84% and 94%, respectively. Extension of modern technologies with adjustment on resource use is to be encouraged for increase in productivity and profit from mustard production which indirectly promotes and ensure forage for pollinators.  Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(4): 604-608
      PubDate: 2015-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
       
  • Novel Keratinolytic Activity of Cyberlindnera fabianii Nrc3 Aza as A Plant
           Growth Promoting Agent (PGPA)

    • Authors: Azza M. Abdel-fattah, EL-Shahat H. A. Nashy, El-Tahir A. Sabiel, Manal M. Hussien, Ahmed S. Attia
      Pages: 609 - 618
      Abstract: Two field experiments had been conducted in Nubaria sandy soil, Behaira Governate, Egypt to show the effect of keratinase enzyme produced by the novel microbial isolate (Cyberlindnera fabianii NRC3 Aza) on plants.The trials had been conducted in the two successive summer seasons (2011/2012 and 2012/2013) to show the effect of keratinase enzyme from degraded feather–waste on the morphology and chemical composition of peas pods (Pisumsativum L.)–family Fabaceae (Leguminasae). In 2011/2012 season, only the chemical analysis of the dried powdered beads was studied. In 2012/2013 season, the morphological studies of the yield were considered beside the chemical ones. The results depicted significant effects of the sprayed enzyme (keratinase) on peas as plant growth promoting agent (PGPA), compared with the blank (sprayed with water). Electrophoreses and amino acid analysis were carried out for the characterization of the partial pure keratinase enzyme. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(4): 609-618
      PubDate: 2015-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
       
  • Azolla as an Economic Substitute to Soybean Based Feed for Poultry

    • Authors: Dev Raj Paudel, Pramila Dhakal, Kailash P. Timsina, Ananta Dahal
      Pages: 619 - 625
      Abstract: A study on azolla as an economical substitute to soybean based poultry feed was conducted. The experiment consisted of four treatments laid out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with five replications. Each experimental unit consisted of three birds. For this purpose, eight-day old, unsexed Hubbard broiler chicks were weighed and randomly assigned to each treatment. Four different levels of azolla meal were incorporated in the starter and finisher ration at a level of 0%, 10%, 15%, and 20% respectively. Body weight, weight gain, feed consumption, and feed efficiency were measured. The average cumulative weekly body weight for all weeks were found to be significantly different (P<0.05) for the various treatments. Maximum cumulative body weight (1360 g) was found in broiler fed T2 ration in 5th week. Similar trend was also observed in 6th week showing highest cumulative weight (1882 g) in control diet (T1) which was at par with T2 (1841 g). Significantly highest (420.3 g) live weight gain was observed in T2 diet during 5th week. Overall mean of weekly feed consumption was recorded highest (784.33 g) in T2 diet. The economic analysis of net income/kg live weight was the highest (Rs 18.86) in T1 which was at par with T2 (Rs 18.35). Likewise, cost of production/bird was highest (Rs 124.5) in T1 and lowest (Rs 112.2) in T4. The results show that azolla meal could be utilized to substitute up to 10% soybean meal from overall production and economic point of view.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(4): 619-625
      PubDate: 2015-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
       
  • Yield and Quality of Kenaf Seed as Influenced by De-Topping and Spacing
           Under Transplanting Method

    • Authors: A.F. Mollah, M. M. Rahman, M. Z. Tareq, M.M. Hasan, A.B.M.Z. Hoque
      Pages: 626 - 634
      Abstract: An experiment was conducted at the Bangladesh Jute Research Institute (BJRI), Regional Station, Kishoreganj, Bangladesh during July to December 2010 and 2011 to study the effect of spacing and time of de-topping on yield and quality of kenaf seed cv. HC-95 grown under transplanting method. The experiment comprised three plant spacing (viz.,  40 cm × 15 cm, 30 cm × 15 cm and 20 cm × 15 cm) and five de-topping (viz., no de-topping, de-topping at transplanting, de-topping at 15, 30 and 45  days after transplanting (DAT) in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The highest yield of kenaf seed was obtained from planting at 30 cm × 15 cm spacing. The best quality seed in respect to germination and vigour was also obtained from transplanting at 30 cm × 15 cm spacing. The highest seed yield, germination and vigour of seed were obtained for de-topped at 30 DAT. The study concludes that late season kenaf produces highest seed yield with best quality when planted at 30 cm x 15 cm spacing and for de-topping at 30 DAT. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(4): 626-634
      PubDate: 2015-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
       
  • Antibiotic Susceptibility in Biofilms of Mycobacterium smegmatis

    • Authors: Tarun Kumar Sachan, Virendra Kumar
      Pages: 635 - 641
      Abstract: In the present article we observed the quantification and morphological, ultrastructural features of biofilms of fast growing clinical isolates M. smegmatis in presence of first line antibacterial drug streptomycin, isoniazid rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide. Biofilm of M. smegmatis was found to be unaffected at concentration of drugs that inhibited growth of planktonic bacilli .Thus, the biofilm growth modus appears to be a strategy for replicating bacilli to evade the trap of antibacterials. Planktonic and biofilm cells had similar intrinsic antibiotic susceptibility. Electron microscopy revealed that control (no drug) biofilms consisted primarily of bacterial clusters and fibrillar elements. The extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) material was less abundant in antibiotic-treated than in control biofilms beacause in the presence of high antibiotic concentrations at MIC level. The study is explored that the effect of drug on biofilm is time dependent means if the drugs were added at initial phase of biofilm, significant inhibitory effect were observed.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(4): 635-641
      PubDate: 2015-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
       
  • Effect of Drought on Antioxidant System at Seedling and Vegetative Stage
           of Eleusine coracana

    • Authors: Shipra Sharma, Sandeep Arora, Pushpa Lohani
      Pages: 642 - 650
      Abstract: Adverse environmental factors like drought stress result in increased levels of ROS that adversely affect the growth and productivity of plants. The alleviation of oxidative damage and increased resistance to environmental stresses is correlated with an efficient antioxidant system. Antioxidant non enzymatic system as well as enzymatic system neutralize the effects of these reactive oxygen species and help plants to survive in stress conditions. The study was carried out with the aim to understand the effect of drought on antioxidant system in seedling and vegetative stages of drought tolerant as well as sensitive genotypes of Eleusine coracana. Drought was imposed by withholding water for 8 days at seedling and vegetative stages of drought tolerant ie PRM-6107 and sensitive ie PES-400 genotypes of E. coracana. Different enzyme assays and biochemical analysis were performed in leaf samples by following the standard protocols. With the induction of drought, an increment in the level of ascorbate, flavonoid, phenol and proline was recorded in PRM-6107 whereas no significant increase was observed in PES-400. The level of these antioxidants was more in seedling stage than at vegetative stage. Similarly the level of antioxidant enzymes like ascorbate peroxidase, catalase, guaicol peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase was high in tolerant genotype as compared to sensitive genotype under unstressed condition. Under stress condition, the level of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and guaicol peroxidase increased at seedling stage while the levels of glutathione reductase and superoxide dismutase increased significantly at vegetative stage of both the genotypes. These results show that PRM-6107 is drought tolerant because the level of antioxidants as well as antioxidative enzymes is high in this genotype in seedling and vegetative stages. Also, the elevated levels of antioxidants and antioxidative enzymes at seedling stage show that plant start combating drought more strongly at seedling stage than at vegetative stage. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(4): 642-650
      PubDate: 2015-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
       
  • Effect of Planting Dates on the Yield of Mustard Seed

    • Authors: M.J. Alam, K.S. Ahmed, M.R.A. Mollah, M.Z. Tareq, J. Alam
      Pages: 651 - 654
      Abstract: The experiment was conducted at Shibganj upazila under Bogra district during October, 2014 to January, 2015 to observe the effect of planting dates on the yield of mustard seed. There were five planting dates viz. 25 October, 30 October, 05 November, 10 November and 15 November. Significant variations due to different planting dates were observed in plant height, number of leaves plant-1, number of siliqua plant-1, number of seed siliqua-1, 1000 weight plot-1, yield plot-1and yield ha-1of mustard. Results showed that the highest seed yield was1.50 t ha-1 obtained from 30 October. The lowest seed yield was 1.0 t ha-1 from 15 November. From the results, the best planting date of mustard is on 30 October in the northern parts of Bangladesh.  Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(4): 651-654
      PubDate: 2015-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
       
  • Ascorbic Acid and/or 24-Epibrassinolide Trigger Physiological and
           Biochemical Responses for the Salt Stress Mitigation in Potato (Solanum
           tuberosum L.)

    • Authors: Chandrama Prakash Upadhyaya, Deepak Singh Bagri, Devanshi Chandel Upadhyay
      Pages: 655 - 667
      Abstract: In the present study, we examined the role of ascorbic acid (AsA, vitamin C) and/or 24-epibrassinolide (EBL, an active BR) in mitigation of salt-induced stress in potato (Solanum tuberousum L). The 10-d-old plants were exposed to 150 mM NaCl and they were subsequently treated by ASA and/or EBL. The salt stress reduced significantly the plant growth, tuber yield, total chlorophyll and increased proline content and electrolyte leakage in the leaves. Toxic effects induced by salt stress were completely overcome by the combined exogenous application of AsA and EBL. The AsA and/or EBL treatments improved the growth parameters of the salt treated plants, such as shoot length, tuber number and size, fresh and dry mass and other physiological parameters. Our data also indicated that applications of AsA and EBL up-regulated the stress regulating plant hormone such as IAA, IBA and activities of the antioxidant enzymes, such as catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX), superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and under salt stress. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(4): 655-667
      PubDate: 2015-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
       
  • A Role of Calcium Signaling Genes in Heterokaryon Incompatibility in
           Neurospora crassa

    • Authors: Ravi Gedela, Ranjan Tamuli
      Pages: 668 - 679
      Abstract: We have studied the Ca2+-signaling knockout mutants for their role in mating-type-associated heterokaryon incompatibility in Neurospora crassa.  The found results showed on heterokaryons homokaryosis for DNCU05225, DNCU06366, DNCU06650, DNCU07075, and ∆NCU07966 Ca2+-signaling knockout mutants (Neurospora crassa unit number, NCU) displayed heterokaryon het compatibility; however heterokaryons heterokaryosis for DNCU05225, DNCU063665, DNCU06650, DNCU07075, and ∆NCU07966 mutants displayed het incompatibility like the wild-type control.  In addition to that Two Ca2+-signaling knockout mutants DNCU02283, and DNCU09655 were tested for mating-type-associated heterokaryon incompatibility; these results showed, heterokaryons homokaryosis and heterokaryons heterokaryosis for DNCU02283, DNCU09655 mutants displayed het incompatibility.  Cell death and hyphal compartmentation due to mating type associated incompatibility were confirmed by uptake of vital dye Evan’s blue.  Thus, these results of NCU05225, NCU06366, NCU06650, NCU07075, and NCU07966 Ca2+-signaling gene products could play a role in mating-type-associated heterokaryon incompatibility in N. crassa.  In this article, we are reporting initially screened Ca2+-signaling gene deletion mutants of these five acts as recessive suppressors of mating type associated vegetative incompatibility in N. crassa.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(4): 668-679

      PubDate: 2015-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
       
  • Establishment of an Efficient Regeneration System Amenable to
           Agrobacterium Mediated Transformation of Two Elite Indica Rice Varieties
           of North East India

    • Authors: Mohitosh Dey, Sanjib Kumar Panda, Lingaraj Sahoo
      Pages: 680 - 686
      Abstract: An efficient plant regeneration system from embryogenic callus of two elite indica rice (Oryza sativa spp. indica) varieties of Northeast India, Ketokijoha and Monoharsali is established. The effect of auxin, 2,4-dicholorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D) on callus induction was optimized. Friable, nodular and creamish-white embryogenic calli were induced from mature seeds on NB medium supplemented with 2.5 mg/l 2,4-D. Plants were regenerated from 40-50 days old embryogenic callus on NB medium containing 0.5 mg/l BAP (6-benzylaminopurine) and 0.25 mg/l ABA (abscisic acid). Regenerated plants with multiple tillers were rooted on half strength MS medium and rooted plants were acclimatized with 94% survival rate. Higher frequency of callus induction as well as plant regeneration was recorded in Ketokijoha as compared to Monoharsali. The calli of both the varieties were found amenable to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation as evident from strong GUS (β-glucuronidase) expression. The results may find wide application for genetic improvement for valuable traits these elite indica rice varieties of Northeast India. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(4): 680-686
      PubDate: 2015-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
       
  • Control Strategies of Papaya Mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and
           Willink in the Laboratory Condition

    • Authors: M.J.H. Biswas, M.A.M. Khan, K.S. Ahmed
      Pages: 687 - 691
      Abstract: The laboratory experiment was conducted at the laboratory of the Department of Entomology, Bangladesh Agricultural University to determine the effectiveness of polythene band, predatory ladybird beetles (available species found in Bangladesh viz. Coccinella transversalis (F.), Micraspis discolor (F.), Menochilus sexmaculatus (F.), Cyclonida sanguinea, Adalia bipunctata, Coccinella novemnotata and Illeis koebelei), four chemical insecticides and three botanical oils in controlling papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink. The chemical insecticides were Sevin 85 SP, Dimethoate 40 EC, Fipronil 50 EC, Deltamethrin 2.5 EC, and the botanical oils were Neem oil, Mahogany oil and Karanja oil. In the laboratory experiment, polythene banding failed to prevent the plant from the infestation of papaya mealybug. Seven commonly available species of ladybird beetles in Bangladesh did not provide any control to papaya mealybug. Among the chemical insecticides, Sevin 85 SP and Dimethoate 40 EC showed significant mortality of papaya mealybug. Deltamethrin 2.5 EC and Neem oil (2%) provided moderate control of the pest. The remaining insecticides and botanical oils were less effective to control papaya mealybug. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(4): 687-691
      PubDate: 2015-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
       
  • Effect of Number of Seedlings Hill-1 and Rate and Time of Nitrogen
           Application on the Yield of Late Transplant Aman Rice (cv. Br23)

    • Authors: N.A.M.Y. Ali, M.A.R. Sarkar, S.K. Paul
      Pages: 692 - 698
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted at the Agronomy Field Laboratory, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh to examine the effect of number of seedlings hill‑1 and rate and time of nitrogen application on the yield of late transplant Aman rice (cv. BR23). The experiment comprised three levels of number of seedlings hill-1 viz. 2, 4, and 6, three nitrogen rates viz. 0, 60 and 120 kg N ha-1 and three levels of time of nitrogen application viz. nitrogen application in two equal splits at 15 DAT and early tillering stage (ET); nitrogen application in three equal splits at 15 DAT, ET and panicle initiation (PI) stage; nitrogen application in four equal splits at 15 DAT, ET, PI and flowering (F) stages. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Number of effective tillers hill‑1, grain yield and straw yield were the highest when 6 seedlings were transplanted hill‑1 while all yield contributing characters, grain and straw yields were the highest at 120 kg N ha-1. In case of interaction, the highest grain yield was recorded in combination of 6 seedlings hill-1 × 120 kg N ha-1 and 120 kg N ha-1 × three times of nitrogen applications (15 DAT + ET + PI). The highest number of effective tillers hill-1 and grain yield were recorded in 6 seedlings hill-1 × 120 kg N ha-1 × three times N application (15 DAT + ET + PI) and thus this practice appears as the promising one for late transplant Aman rice ( cv. BR23) cultivation.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(4): 692-698
      PubDate: 2015-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
       
  • Utilization of Dairy Wastewater for Pollutants Removal and High Lipid
           Biomass Production by a Newly Isolated Microalgal Strains Chloromonas
           playfairii and Desmodesmus opoliensis

    • Authors: Mahendraperumal Guruvaiah, Madhuri Narra, Ekta Shah, Jisha James, Anil Kurchania
      Pages: 699 - 707
      Abstract: Two new unicellular microalgal species from milk processing unit situated at Anand, India were screened and tested for their growth rate and nutrient removal capability under dairy wastewater at outdoor conditions in a simple column aeration photobioreactor. Results of 18s rRNA sequence analysis indicated that these strains have a close relationship with Chloromonas playfairii and Desmodesmus opoliensis named as SBC 2 and SBC 3, respectively. Both the strains removed more than 92% of ammonical nitrogen and 99% of total phosphorus, whereas COD and BOD reductions were found to be more than 95%. Maximum biomass production was 1.7 and 1.2 g L-1 and lipid content was 15 and 12%, respectively from SBC 2 and SBC 3 after 15 d cultivation. This study demonstrates the potential of algae based biofuel production by coupling wastewater treatment with microalgae cultivation for high lipid containing biomass production using Chloromonas playfairii and Desmodesmus opoliensis.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(4): 699-707
      PubDate: 2015-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
       
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension & Associated Factor’s among
           students of Jazan in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    • Authors: Yahya Hasan Hobani, Shiju Mathew, Hassan Ali Samsam
      Pages: 708 - 713
      Abstract: Background: Health-related issues has been one of the major factor of concern for the death since the last three decades in Saudi Arabia which includes diabetes mellitus, hypertension and other associated factors are considered as major risk factors. The investigation on the prevalence of Diabetes, Hypertension and associated factors among students of Jazan, Saudi Arabia is an alarm for the hidden possible health threat among the students in the younger age. Methods: The study aimed to assess the prevalence of Diabetes, Hypertension and associated factors in fifty students of Jazan in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Data were collected through interview using a structured questionnaire followed by clinical examination. Clinical practice methods were followed to estimate Cholesterol, Body Mass Index (BMI), weight, Diabetes and Hypertension from the sample. Results: A high percentage of participants i.e. 70% are pre diabetes, which is partly due to a more sedentary lifestyle and smoking and weight gain. 62% of participants reported no physical exercise in daily life. Habit of smoking is present among 44% of the participants over weight and obesity showed as 24% and 16% respectively. The high blood pressure among the participants was 36% and 64% were prehypertensive. Obesity and weight assessed by using Body Mass Index. The result showed 52% among the participants were in normal weight, 24% were overweight and 16% were obese. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of Smoking, physical inactivity, obesity and cholesterol level were associated with the risk of Pre-hypertension, hypertension, pre-diabetics and diabetics.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(4): 708-713
      PubDate: 2015-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
       
  • Monitoring and Varietal Screening Cucurbit Fruit Fly, Bactrocera
           cucurbitae Coquillett (Diptera: Tephritidae) on Cucumber in Bhaktapur and
           Kathmandu, Nepal

    • Authors: Ranju Maharjan, Rajendra Regmi, Kapil Poudel
      Pages: 714 - 720
      Abstract: Monitoring of cucurbit fruit fly by using four different types of traps was conducted in Sipadole VDC of Bhaktapur district during 2012 to observe the population dynamics. Three different types of fruit flies were recorded, in which the number of B. cucurbitae dominated to other species. Only B. cucurbitae damaged the cucumber, which was trapped 92.68%, 87.05%, 90.61%, and 69.38% in cue-lure, banana pulp bait, sticky traps and fly catcher, respectively. The highest number of fruit flies (167.5 male fruit flies/3traps) was recorded in cue-lure trap during the first week of September, which coincided with 85.45% RH and 21.67°C and 25.04°C minimum and maximum temperature, respectively. Positive relation of temperature, relative humidity and fruit fly catches was observed. Thus, cue-lure was the most effective traps for monitoring of fruit fly population. In varietal screening, among the six different varieties of cucumber, i.e. Kathmandu local, Kusle, Kamini, Malini, Kasinda and Mahyco Green Long, they were highly significant difference in yield. Kamini gave the highest marketable fruit 26.66 mt/ha yield and the lowest by Kusle (5.05 mt/ha). All the varieties were affected by cucurbit fruit fly. The highest number of unmarketable fruit set was observed in Kamini (22.29 fruits/plant). Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(4): 714-720
      PubDate: 2015-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
       
  • An Assessment of Major Nutritional Components and Some Secondary
           Metabolites of In-Vitro Propagated Stevia Rebaudiana (Cultured in
           Bangladesh) Plant Leaves Dry Powder

    • Authors: Md. Moinul Abedin Shuvo, Mohammad AL - Mamun, Tuhina Chowdhury, Nurul Absar, Md. Hasanuzzaman
      Pages: 721 - 726
      Abstract: Stevia rebaudiana, belongs to the family of Asteraceae, is a perennial and medicinal shrub. It’s leaves dry powder widely used as a natural sweetener which has no calories but reported to be 50– 300 times sweetener as sweet as sugar, that are said to be having insulin balancing properties without any side effects. This research was first time conducted in Bangladesh where a quantitative analysis were performed for determining the major constituents of in vitro propagated Stevia rebaudiana plant leaves dry powder that was prepared through oven dry after sun dry. The analysis revealed the powder as mild acidic (PH 5.345). Total chlorophyll contents were found to be 0.845mg% where chlorophyll–a and -b were 0.088 and 0.761 mg% respectively.  The major macro nutrients such as ash, crude fiber, total carbohydrate, total protein and fat were determined at the amount of 7.05, 10.5, 53.52, 13.13 and 3.55 gm% respectively where the micro nutrients like Iron (Fe), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Phosphorus (P) and Chloride (Cl) were found at the amount of 34.2, 184.3, 2500, 534.43, 465.34, 304.7 and 49.6 mg% accordingly.  Screening for secondary metabolites showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and tannins as the amount of 2.83, 17.20, 6.69 and 5.84 mg% respectively in dry powder. These findings also have been compared with the other reported values on Stevia from different countries of the world.   Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(4): 721-726
      PubDate: 2015-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
       
  • Field Bio-Efficacy of Newer Insecticides against Eggplant Fruit and Shoot
           Borer, Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee

    • Authors: Ram Prasad Mainali, Ram Babu Peneru, Padma Pokhrel, Yagya Prasad Giri
      Pages: 727 - 730
      Abstract: Eggplant fruit and shoot borer (EFSB), Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is a key insect pest of eggplant in all eggplant growing areas of Nepal. A field experiment was carried out in Khumaltar, Lalitpur during summer season of 2014 using eight treatments as, i) Abamectin 1.9 EC @ 1.5 ml/lit; ii) Spinosad 45 SL @ 0.25 ml/lit; iii) Emamectin Benzoate 5 SG @ 0.3 gm/lit; iv) Tozen @ 0.33 ml/lit; v) Karanjin 2 EC @ 2ml/lit; vi) Borer Gourd (Bacillus thuringiensis var. Kurstaki 108 CFU/ml + Beauveria bassiana 108 CFU/ml + Verticillium lecanii 108 CFU/ml + Metarhizium anisopliae 108 CFU/ml) @ 2 ml/lit; vii) Chlorantraniliprole 18.5 EC @ 0.25 ml/lit and viii) Untreated check to test efficacy of newer bio-rational insecticides against L. orbonalis. The treatments were arranged in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. The result showed that the fruit infestation percent on number and weight basis was significantly the lowest in Chlorantraniliprole (6.57 and 6.31) and Spinosad (12.08 and 11.15) treated plots as compared to other treatments. The Chlorantraniliprole treated plot recorded the maximum marketable yield (32.03 mt/ha) followed by Spinosad (30.93 mt/ha) with 34.39 percent and 29.77 percent increase in marketable fruit yield over untreated check, respectively. Hence, the use of Chlorantraniliprole and Spinosad could be one of the better options for effective management of L. orbonalis.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(4): 727-730
      PubDate: 2015-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
       
  • Physico-chemical Evaluation of Some Introduced Date Fruits Cultivars grown
           under Sudanese conditions

    • Authors: Islam K. Saeed, Fatima A. El-Rauof, H.D. Dawoud
      Pages: 731 - 736
      Abstract: Fruit samples of five date cultivars, three cultivars of them were introduced from Emirates Tissue culture Laboratory-Alien Abu Dhabi and cultivated in Haj-Bashir orchard - Khartoum region were collected at the beginning of the Tamar stages. The present study was aimed to investigate the physical and chemical properties. The results showed that the physical characteristics like fruit weight, length, flesh thickness, seed weight differed significantly (P < 0.05) between the various cultivars. Chemical analysis indicated small amounts of crude fiber, crude protein, Fat and ash, while sugars predominated. In general the majority of date cultivars investigated was found to be of the soft date type characterized by the dominance of reducing sugars. The performance of introduced cultivars was well when compared with the indigenous cultivar of most physical, chemical characteristics and general evaluation.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(4): 731-736
      PubDate: 2015-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
       
  • Effect of Different Pollinator Attractant Crops for Seed Setting and
           Maximizing Seed Yield of Onion

    • Authors: Md. Kalim Uddin, M. M. Kamal, M. M. Akand, M. M. Hasan, M. N. A. Chowdhury
      Pages: 737 - 743
      Abstract: The experiment was conducted at the Spices Research Centre, Shibgonj, Bogra during rabi season, 2010-11and 2011-12 to identify the suitable pollinator attractant crops for increasing the vigilance of pollinators and higher seed settings and thereby increasing seed yield of onion. In 2010-11, the highest seed setting was recorded in onion + fennel (69.88%) which was statistically identical to Onion + coriander (67.45 %) and Onion + black cumin (64.15 %) while the highest seed setting was recorded in Onion + Fennel (73.70 %) which was identical to Onion + Dill (70.50%) and Onion + Coriander( 72.37%) during 2011-12. In 2010-11, the highest seed yield (865.5 kg/ha) was obtained from Onion + fennel which was identical to Onion + coriander (838.1 kg/ha) but in 2011-12, the highest seed yield (1165.34 kg/ha) was recorded from Onion + fennel which was identical to Onion + coriander (1064.59 kg/ha). In both the years, percent seed setting was lowest in Sole onion (55.93 % in 2010-11and 57.73% in 2011-12). Accordingly, the lowest seed yield was also recorded from Sole onion (623.3 kg/ha in 2010-11 and 685.44 kg/ha in 2011-12). Dill and Fennel was the better attractant crop for pollination while coriander acted as intermediate. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(4): 737-743
      PubDate: 2015-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
       
  • Cecocolic Intussusception in an Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus) in Sri
           Lanka Associated with Chronic Hepato-Intestinal Schistosomiasis: A Case
           Report

    • Authors: A.C. Karawita, R.C. Rajapakse, P.G.I.D. Amarasiri, R.M.T.M. Ramanayake, W.R. Jayaweera, Trent K. Bollinger, G.S.P.De.S. Gunawardena
      Pages: 744 - 746
      Abstract: A 25 year old female captive Asian elephant weighing approximately 3000kgs died and was subjected to a complete necropsy within 5 hours post mortem. Grossly, the elephant had sub-cutaneous edema, cecocolic intussusception and ascites. Histopathological examination revealed multifocal, granulomatous, portal phlebitis in the liver, multifocal, granulomatous, peri-portal hepatitis with marked portal and perisinusoidal fibrosis, and multifocal granulomatous colitis with intralesional Schistosoma eggs. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cecocolic intussusception in an Asian elephant associated with Schistosoma infection. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(4): 744-746
      PubDate: 2015-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
       
  • Spatially Distribution of Quercus semecarifolia in Rasuwa District Using
           GIS and RS

    • Authors: Ila Shrestha
      Pages: 747 - 749
      Abstract: The paper is based on the case study of Rasuwa district, is a land of geographical extremes, ranging from 600 m Betrabati river to 7234 m Langtang Lirung, the highest point in the northwest. The study was carried out on the detection of Quercus semecarifolia J.E.Smith using Remote-Sensing and Geographic Information System technique. SPOT Image and ERDAS Software have used for the image processing. The program has detected the different types of ecological parameters in tropical to alpine zone and specified the plant species in the study after ground truthing.Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol 3(4): 747-749

      PubDate: 2015-12-30
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
       
 
 
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