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  International Journal of Applied Sciences and Biotechnology
  [3 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2091-2609
   Published by Nepal Journals Online Homepage  [61 journals]
  • Weather Impact on Nursery Diseases of Mango Saplings in Bangladesh

    • Authors: M. A. H. Khan, I. Hossain, M. S. M. Chowdhury, M. U. Ahmad
      Abstract: The study was carried out during the period of July 2010 to April 2012 to find out the effect of weather prevalence of seedling diseases ofmango in different areas of Bangladesh. The locations were Mymensingh Dinajpur, Rajshahi and Khagrachari. Altogether 12 nurseries in fourdistricts of Bangladesh were surveyed and mango seedling diseases were recorded. Incidence and severity of important seedling diseases ofhas been studied under different geographical locations (viz. Mymensingh, Dinajpur, Rajshahi and Khagrachari) of Bangladesh. The effects oftemperature, rainfall, and relative humidity on the incidence and severity of noted diseases were observed the aforesaid locations of Bangladesh.The studied diseases were anthracnose, leaf spot, red rust, powdery mildew, scab, bacterial leaf blight and malformation of mango seedlings.The graphs of weather parameters and incidence and severity of diseases were performed to determine the relationship between differentcomponents of climatic factor and seedling diseases of mango.
      DOI :   Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 3(1): 42-49 
      PubDate: 2015-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
  • Effect of Integration of Organic and Inorganic Sources of Nitrogen on
           Growth, Yield and Nutrient Uptake by Maize (Zea mays L.)

    • Authors: Sagar Kafle, P. K. Sharma
      Abstract: A field study was conducted at Agronomy Research Farm of Punjab Agricultural University during kharif 2013 to evaluate the effect of organicand inorganic sources of nitrogen on maize. Experiment was laid out in split plot design with four replications comprising three farmyardmanure levels (0, 15 and 20 t/ha) in main-plots and five nitrogen levels 0, 75, 100, 125 and 150% of recommended dose (125 kg/ha) throughinorganic fertilizer in sub-plots. Plant growth and yield characters and nutrient content as well as uptake were recorded. Number of leaves, leafarea index, chlorophyll content and leaf nitrogen content at periodic intervals increased significantly with the application of farmyard manureand nitrogen. Increase in nutrient uptake viz., nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake along with micronutrient uptake by grain was alsoobserved with incremental farmyard manure and nitrogen levels. Growth variables were correlated positively with each other and with grainyield. A fairly negative correlation was observed between micronutrient content and growth and yield variables.
      DOI : Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 3(1): 31-37      
      PubDate: 2015-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
  • Influence of Pseudomonas fluorescens as Biofertilizer in Secondary
           Hardening of Tissue Cultured Banana Var. Poovan

    • Authors: Y. Ramesh, V. Ramassamy
      Abstract: The present study brings out the effects of Pseudomonas fluorescens in secondary hardening of tissue cultured banana var.Poovan. Two concentrations (1% & 2%) of liquid medium grown Pseudomonas fluorescens (3×109 cells/ml) were used in borewell water and the growth performance of the banana plantlets was assessed. Seven different growth parameters were studiedviz. shoot weight, height and girth, leaf length, leaf width, no. of leaves and chlorophyll content. Best results were obtained in1%Pseudomonas fluorescens (T2) treatment with average of 10.79gm for weight, 10.25cm for height, 5.3 for no. of leaves, 1.3mmfor girth, 14.96cm for leaf length and 36.6 spad units of chlorophyll content per plantlet compared to treatment (T3) with 2%liquid Pseudomonas fluorescens.
      DOI :   Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 3(1): 38-41      
      PubDate: 2015-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
  • Effect of Drought Stress in Various Enzymes of Pennisetum glaucum

    • Authors: Minakshi Choudhary, Jayanand Manjhi, Anvesha Sinha
      Abstract: Introduction: Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) is an important cereal of traditional farming systems that has the natural ability to withstandvarious abiotic stresses such as drought, which is one of the most important manifestations of abiotic stress in plants. These plants havehowever evolved mechanisms that allow them to adapt and survive prolonged periods of water deficit at some level or form of plant structure,if not at the whole plant level. The hostile conditions augment the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) during physiological stresses inplants which are combated by various enzymatic and non-enzymatic mechanisms. The present study aims at examining the role of fourimportant enzymes namely Ascorbic peroxidase (APX), Peroxidase (POX), Catalase (CAT) and Superoxide Dismutase(SOD) expressed duringdrought stress in pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum). Method: 12 and 22 days old seedlings of Pennisetum cultivar HHB-68 were subjectedto drought stress by treatment of 30% Polyethylene glycol for different time periods 30min (T1), 2hr (T2), 4hr (T3), 8hr (T4), 16hr (T5), 24hr(T6) and 48hr (T7) respectively, monitored by examining RWC of seedlings. The treatment seedlings were then used for investigating thelevels of enzymes activity in response to prolonged dehydration periods of 22 days. The enzyme activity of POX, APX, CAT and SOD wereassayed. Result: Enzymes expression was assayed for each treatment sets at both time intervals. Drought stress was observed to causeremarkable increase in POX, APX and SOD activity while incidence of CAT enzyme decreased with the increasing period of water deficit.Conclusion: Prolonged periods of water deficiency causes significant variations in expression of various enzymes in Pennisetum glaucum,known to be involved in ROS scavenging and drought stress management. The study provides a sturdy validation of the role of these enzymesas potent mechanisms undertaken by drought resistant plants for successful management of drought stress, which can be used for thedevelopment of more efficient and economic drought resistant cultivars.
      DOI :       Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 3(1): 134-138 
      PubDate: 2015-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
  • Heritability, Correlation and Path Coefficient Analysis in Fifty Seven
           Okra Genotypes

    • Authors: K.U. Ahamed, B. Akter, N. Ara, M.F. Hossain, M. Moniruzzaman
      Abstract: A study was undertaken to analyses the heritability, correlation and path co-efficient for growth and fruit characteristics in fifty seven okra(Abelmoschus esculentus Lam) genotypes grown at Plant Genetic Resources Centre, Regional Agricultural Research Station, BangladeshAgricultural Research Institute during kharif season of 2013. The highest range of variation was recorded in average fruit weight (18.25-25.41g), followed by yield per plant (98.90 – 1650.00g). The highest GCV (46.70 %) and PCV (47.72 %) were recorded for fruit yield perplant while both were lowest for days to maturity (8.07 % and 8.25 %). High heritability coupled with high or moderate degree of geneticadvance was estimated in plant height (99.82 % and 205.06), number of fruits per plant (99.53% and 203.63%), number of leaves per plant(99.57% and 204.49%), number of seeds per fruit (99.73% and 205.44%), leaf length (98.22% and 198.52%), leaf diameter (98.91% and203.76%), 100-seed weight (98.12% and 202.13%) and yield per plant (95.76 % and 197.26%). The highest positive correlation were observedbetween number of fruits per plant and yield per plant (r = 0.99**) and between number of fruits per plant and 100-seed weight (r = 0.44**).Also results showed that significantly positive correlation were between 100-seed weight and yield per plant (r = 0.44**), 100-seed weight andleaf length (r =0.42**), 100-seed weight and leaf diameter (0.38**), number of leaves per plant and 100-seed weight (r = 0.28*), 100-seedweight and plant height(r =0.40**), 100-seed weight and fruit length (r =0.28*). Significantly positive correlations were also observed for plantheight and number of fruits per plant, number of leaves per plant and yield per plant. The path coefficient analysis was done to determine directand indirect effects of traits on fruit yield. Direct significant positive and negative effect of number of fruits per plant (-0.091), 100-seed weight(0.174), number of seeds per plant (-0.213), average fruit yield (-0.310) towards yield.
      DOI :      Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 3(1): 127-133 
      PubDate: 2015-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
  • Some Socio-Religious Flora of Rupandehi District, Western Nepal

    • Authors: Chandra Bahadur Thapa
      Abstract: The present study was carried out to document the indigenous knowledge of local people regarding the use of plant species on socio-religiousactivities during the year of 2012-2013. The indigenous knowledge was documented by using semi-structured interview, focus group discussionand informal discussion with the local people, religious persons and aged people. Altogether 32 plant species belonging to 23 family and 30genera have been documented in Rupandehi district. Among them, 13 species were herbs, 5 species shrubs, 13 species trees and 1 speciesclimber. Use of these plant species in socio-religious activities has helped people to conserve the faith of deities as well as to conservebiodiversity in the area.
      DOI :     Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 3(1): 123-126 
      PubDate: 2015-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
  • Status of Thyroid Disorders in Central Nepal: A Tertiary Care Hospital
           Based Study

    • Authors: RV Mahato, B Jha, KP Singh, BK Yadav, SK Shah, M Lamsal
      Abstract: Background: Nepal is a Himalayan, landlocked country surrounded by India and China. It is endemic for iodine deficiency disease. Thyroiddysfunction is major health problem among the Nepalese people. Its prevalence increases with age. Screening of thyroid disease is advised inhigh risk population. Objectives: To find out the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction among subjects who attended Biochemistry Departmentof Tribhuwan University Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal. Material and Methods: This is a hospital based retrospective studyconducted in the Department of Biochemistry Tribhuwan University Teaching Hospital, Institute of Medicine. This study was designed toinvestigate status of thyroid dysfunction in central Nepal. A total of 5230 cases from all over Nepal were studied in a single year. Blood sampleswere collected, serum separated and thyroid hormones (fT3, fT4 and TSH) were assayed by Vitros ECIQ analyser Ortho Clinical DiagonosticsUSA. Result and discussion: Among 5230 subjects prevalence of thyroid dysfunction was 29.0% with subclinical hypothyroidism17%,hypothyroidism 8%, hyperthyroidism 3%, subclinical hyperthyroidism1% and euthyroidism 71%.Higher prevalence was seen in the age group31-45. Conclusion: This study revealed that subclinical and overt hypothyroidism is preponderant followed by sub clinical hyperthyroidism.Females are more vulnerable to the thyroid dysfunction. Since it is a hospital based study, the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction may not beapplicable. So an extensive demographic survey should be done to provide accurate data of thyroid dysfunction in the general population
      DOI :     Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 3(1): 119-122 
      PubDate: 2015-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
  • Survey of Some Medicinally Important Leafy Vegetables in Rupandehi
           District of Western Nepal

    • Authors: Anant Gopal Singh
      Abstract: Green leafy vegetable is a major source of vitamins and micronutrients for people using only vegetarian diets rich in carbohydrates. In remoterural settlements where vegetable cultivation is not practiced and market supplies are, not organized, local inhabitants depend on indigenousvegetables, both cultivated in agricultural fields or kitchen gardens and wild for enriching the diversity of food. Knowledge of such food ispart of traditional knowledge, which is largely transmitted through participation of individuals of households. The purpose of this study was todocumentation of plants used as vegetables by the people of Rupandehi district of Lumbini zone of western Nepal. This paper revealed total51 plant species belong to 45 genera under 32 Families of vascular plants. Out of 32families, 24 families belong to dicot, 4 families to monocotand 4 families belong to ferns.
      DOI :    Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 3(1): 111-118 
      PubDate: 2015-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
  • Phytotoxicity of Profenofos 50% EC (curacron 50 EC) to Vigna radiata,L.
           seedlings: II. Studies on Biochemical Parameters

    • Authors: I.P. Mishra, G. Sabat, Bijaya Kumar mohanty
      Abstract: Profenofos 50% EC (curacron 50 EC) is a hazardous pesticide commonly used in agriculture is also an important contaminant of environment.Its presence in biological system has gained importance due to bioaccumulation in food chain. The phyto-toxic effect of profenofos wasassessed based on the biochemical parameters (Shoot and Root) of seedlings (Amino acids, Protein, Sugar, DNA and RNA) of the test species,Vigna radiata,L. The concentrations of pesticide chosen were based on EC50 and are in the range of 0.02, 0.05, 0.08, 0.1 and 0.2 % ofprofenofos. The biochemical parameters like Amino acid, Sugar, DNA and RNA were significantly reduced with increase in pesticideconcentration whereas Protein concentration increased with the profenophos treatment. The increase in amino acid was more pronounced inShoot of the seedlings than root.
      DOI :    Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 3(1): 101-105 
      PubDate: 2015-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
  • In Vitro Inhibition of Cellulolytic Enzymes of Fusarium Oxysporum by
           Trichoderma spp and Pseudomonas Fluorescens on Arachis Hypogaea L

    • Authors: P. Rajeswari
      Abstract: In an attempt to develop biocontrol system for management of Fusarium wilt in groundnut, Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma harzianum,and Pseudomonas fluorescens were evaluated for their antagonistic activity against Fusarium oxysporum in vitro. .Fusarium wilt diseasescaused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum lead to significant yield losses of crops. Experiments were conducted on the effect of culture filtratesof T.viride (1%), T. harzianum (1.5%), and P. fluorescens (2%) on the in vitro inhibition of cellulolytic enzymes of Fusarium oxysporum. Theactivity of 1,4 endoglucanases, 1,4exoglucanase Cellobiase produced by Fusariumoxysporum was higher, when compared to control.Maximum inhibition of above Cellulolytic enzymes (1, 4 endoglucanases, 1,4exoglucanase, Cellobiase) was shown by T. viride treatment wasfollowed by T. harzianum and P. fluorescens. Of all the treatments, T. viride treatment showed higher rate of inhibition of Cellulolytic enzymesof Fusarium oxysporum followed by that of T. harzianum and P. fluorescens.This present study indicates that culture filtrate of T.viride(1%)is the best biocontrol agent in the inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum causing Fusarium wilt of Arachis hypogaea .L
      DOI :    Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 3(1): 106-110 
      PubDate: 2015-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
  • Factors Affecting the Production of Poly Methyl Galacturonase Enzyme by
           Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc

    • Authors: Shridha Chaurasia, Amit Kumar Chaurasia, Subha Chaurasia, Sushmita Chaurasia
      Abstract: The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of different culture conditions on the production of poly methyl galacturonase enzyme bySclerotium rolfsii and their optimization. Activity of poly methyl galacturonase enzyme was assayed by viscometric method. Culture conditionslike culture media, incubation period, temperature and pH greatly influenced the production of poly methyl galacturonase enzyme. Out of tenculture media, only six media were proved to be producer of poly methyl galacturonase enzyme. Amongst them, Elliot’s medium was foundto be the best for the maximum production of poly methyl galacturonase enzyme. Analyzing the different incubation period, the production ofpoly methyl galacturonase enzyme was found rapid (3 days incubation) in Sclerotium rolfsii. Whereas, production of poly methyl galacturonaseenzyme, gradually increased with increasing the length of incubation period up to 18 days and further increase in length of incubation up to 10days, did not show any effect on the production of poly methyl galacturonase. The nine days incubation has found to be the best incubationperiod for the maximum production of poly methyl galacturonase enzyme. The Sclerotium rolfsii was also able to produce the poly methylgalacturonase enzyme at wide range of temperatures (from 15ºC to 35ºC), but 30ºC temperature was found to be the best suitable for themaximum production of poly methyl galacturonase enzyme. Among the wide range of pH tested (pH 3.0 to 9.0), the pH 5.0 was proved to bethe best for the maximum production of poly methyl galacturonase enzyme in Sclerotium rolfsii when it was cultured in the same medium. Onthe basis of overall experimental results it could be concluded that Sclerotium rolfsii has potential to produce poly methyl galacturonase enzymeconstitutively.
      DOI :     Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 3(1): 89-95   
      PubDate: 2015-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
  • Assessment of Genetic Variability for Agro-Morphological Important Traits
           in Aman Rice (Oryza Sativa L.)

    • Authors: Golam Sarwar, Md. Sarowar Hossain, Md.Harun -Ur- Rashid, Shahanaz Parveen
      Abstract: The present study was conducted in the experimental farm, Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University (SAU), Dhaka during July 2013-December2013. The analysis of variance revealed significant deviation for all the characters studied and indicated the existence of variation among thegenotypes. The PCV values were slightly higher than the respective GCV values for all the characters except unfilled grains per panicleindicating that the characters were less influenced by the environment. Total tillers per plant, effective tillers per plant, filled grains per panicle,unfilled grains per panicle and yield per plant showed high heritability coupled with high genetic advance percentage of mean which indicatedthe preponderance of additive gene action and such characters could be improved through selection. High heritability along with low geneticadvance as percentage of mean was found for plant height, days to 50% flowering, panicle length, days to maturity and thousand grains weightwhich indicated the non additive gene action for expression of these characters. Considering the genetic parameters and other agronomicperformances, the genotypes Special from AL-29, AL-36, PP-4B(i), AL-17(iii)B, AL-17(iii), AL-17(ii)A, Special from-129, Special from17(iv), AL-44(i), AL-17, Special from AL-36(D), PP-48, IR-25B, Special from AL-33, IR-25B (Tall), P-5B (ii) might be considered betterparents for future hybridization programme.
      DOI :    Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 3(1): 73-79 
      PubDate: 2015-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
  • Influence of Organic Manures (Biofertilizers) on Soil Microbial Population
           in the Rhizosphere of Mulberry (Morus Indica L.)

    • Authors: L. Christilda Louis Mary, R. Sujatha, A. J. Chozhaa, P. Mohideen Askar Navas
      Abstract: The effect of different kinds of organic manures on soil microbial population and mulberry production was assessed. A field experiment wascarried out at Periyar EVR College, Tamil Nadu, India in basic soil to study the influence of organic manures on soil bacterial population andmulberry production. The 4 groups of mulberry plants of MR2 variety were biofertilized with FYM, Azospirillum, Phosphobacteria andVermicompost respectively. The biofertilizers lodged bacteria on the rhizosphere of mulberry plants. When the root microorganism areanalyzed Farm yard manure biofertilized mulberry plant root tips had Gluconacobacter diazotrophicus, Bacillus pumilus, Pseudomonas putida,Bacillus coagulans, Bacillus sonorensis, Azotobacter chrococcum; Azospirillum biofertilized mulberry plants root tips had Bacillus coaculans,Azotobactor chrococcum, Azotobactor vinelandii, Bacillus subtilis and Azospirillum brasilense. Phosphobacteria biofertilized mulberry plantroot tips had Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Brevibacillus borslelansis and Streptomycies thermonitrificans andvermicompost biofertilized mulberry plant root tips had lodged bacterias like Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Gluconacobacterdiazotrophicus, Pseudomonas putida, Azotobacter chrococcum, Azotobacter vinelandi, Bacillus stearothermophilus, Brevibacillus borslelansisand Bacillus sonorensis. Microbiology work reveals luxuriant growth of bacteria in all the biofertizer treated rhizosphere in the order FYM <Azospirillum < Phosphobacteria < Vermicompost. Increased availability of NPK and other micronutrients were noticed in T4 treated plantscompared to other treatments.
      DOI :    Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 3(1): 61-66 
      PubDate: 2015-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
  • Effect of Planting Dates on the Yield and Quality of True Seeds of Onion

    • Authors: M. R. A. Mollah, M. A. Ali, M. Ahmad, M. K. Hassan, M. J. Alam
      Abstract: The present study was stimulated by the problem of onion seed production where seed production is possibly only winter period after whichrapid increase in temperature as well as early shower adversely affect the quality of seed. To overcome this situation a field experiment wasundertaken to find out the optimum planting time for maximizing quality true seeds of onion. The experiment was laid out in a randomizedcomplete block design with four replications. The treatments were five planting dates viz. 1 October, 15 October, 30 October, 15 Novemberand 30 November to achieve the objective. The research work was done at On-Farm Research Division, BARI, Bogra during September, 2010to June, 2011. The results revealed that the growth parameters, seed yield components, health and quality of harvested seeds were significantlyinfluenced by the different treatments. Results showed that among different planting dates, 15th November was the best for seed and quality.
      DOI :     Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 3(1): 67-72 
      PubDate: 2015-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
  • Screening of Rice Varieties against Brown Leaf Spot Disease at Jyotinagar,
           Chitwan, Nepal

    • Authors: P. B. Magar
      Abstract: A field experiment was conducted on fourteen rice varieties to determine the level of resistance against brown leaf spot (Bipolaris oryzae)disease at Karma Research and Development Center, Jyotinagar, Chitwan during summer in 2013. Design used was randomized completeblock design with three replications. Disease severity, total AUDPC value, thousand grain weight and grain yield were highly significant amongthe rice varieties. Disease severity and total AUDPC value ranged from 21.73% to 58.07% and 614.8 to 1827 respectively. None of thesevarieties were found either resistant or highly resistant to disease. Only HJ-G1 and HJ-G2 were moderately resistant with grain yield of 5.10t/ha and 4.25 t/ha respectively. HJ-G1 variety had the highest grain yield 5.10 t/ha and lowest disease severity (21.73%) as well as total AUDPCvalue (6148). From this experiment, it can be concluded that HJ-G1 variety can be used for higher grain yield purpose under similar fieldcondition because it has highest yield and also tolerant to disease.
      DOI :   Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 3(1): 56-60 
      PubDate: 2015-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
  • Performance of Garlic (Allium sativum L) Genotypes after Transplant Aman
           Rice Harvest under Zero Tillage Mulched Condition

    • Authors: M. R. Islam, M. K. Uddin, M. A. K. Mian, R. Zaman, J. Hossain
      Abstract: The selected garlic varieties/lines viz., BARI Roshun-1, BARI Roshun-2, GC0018, GC0024, GC0027, GC0034 and one local cultivar wereevaluated under zero tillage mulched condition to find out the suitable varieties/lines. There were significant differences among genotypes forall studied characters except number of leaves per plant. The advanced lines GC0018, GC0027 and GC0034 were graded as the highest bulbyield and it was more than 10 t/ha. But numerically the highest bulb yield (10.89 t/ha) was produced in GC0034 line while the local varietyproduced only 6.82 t/ha. GC0027 genotype was produce the longest plant (60.53 cm) and largest bulb diameter (3.94 cm), while local cultivarwas the minimum. Simple correlation analysis showed that there were positive and significant correlation among bulb yields with all theparameters except plant height and leaves per plant. Highest water use efficiency 44.63 kg ha-1 mm-1 was obtained from GC0034 line. In respectof monetary return GC0034 produced the maximum gross return (Tk. 653400/ha), gross margin (Tk. 515125/ha) and benefit cost ratio (4.73).The finding of this study could be useful for improving garlic production after transplant aman rice harvest under zero tillage mulched condition.
      DOI : Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 3(1): 26-30 
      PubDate: 2015-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
  • Physico Chemical Analysis of Sapota (Manilkara zapota) Coated by Edible
           Aloe Vera Gel

    • Authors: N. Padmaja, S. John Don Bosco, J. Sudhakara Rao
      Abstract: The physical and chemical characteristics of the fruit have immense significance as they ultimately affect the quality of processed productsprepared from them. Over ripening of Sapota (Manilkara zapota) fruits at the post-harvest stage usually results in dramatic decline in quality.In the present study, physico chemical analysis (which includes Weight loss, Colour, Texture, TSS, pH, TA and Ascorbic acid content) ofedible Aloe vera gel coated Sapota fruits packed in LDPE and stored at 15 ± 2? were studied at regular intervals of 5 days i.e., 0th,5th, 10th,15thand 20th days. The dip treatment of Aloe vera gel coating 1:2, 7 minutes had best retained the physico chemical characteristics than the othertreatments performed and was found to be the most effective treatment in maintaining the fruit quality attributes along with the shelf lifeextension of about 20 days.
      DOI : Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 3(1): 20-25      
      PubDate: 2015-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
  • In Vitro Antagonism between Phytopathogenic Fungi Sclerotium rolfsii and
           Trichoderma Strains

    • Authors: H. J. Parmar, Mohamed M. Hassan, N. P. Bodar, V. V. Umrania, S.V. Patel, H.N. Lakhani
      Abstract: Six Trichoderma strains (collected from IARI, New Delhi and MTCC, Chandigarh) were tested for their ability to inhibit soil born pathogenof groundnut mainly Sclerotium rolfsii (causing stem rot on groundnut). Morphological observations of Trichoderma strains as well asphytopathogenic fungi S. rolfsii were made from culture grown at 28 0C for about one week on PDA media. The radial growth, fastest growthand coiling of test fungus of various Trichoderma strains on plant pathogenic fungi S. rolfsii were examined under LEICA phase contrastbinocular light microscope. In vitro percent growth inhibition of S.rolfsii by various Trichoderma strain was recorded at 5 days after inoculationat 28 oC in the 90 cm petriplates. Results obtained from the antagonism study indicated that Trichoderma viride (NBAII Tv 23) inhibited 61%growth of phytopathogenic fungi S. rolfsii followed by T. harzianum (NBAII Th1) (55% growth inhibition of pathogen). This suggested thatamong different Trichoderma strains, T. viride was the best bio-control agent to inhibit in vitro growth of phytopathogen S.rolfsii whichotherwise cause stem rot disease in groundnut.
      DOI :  Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 3(1): 16-19      
      PubDate: 2015-03-25
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
  • Zeolite Catalyzed Aldol Condensation Reactions

    • Authors: Adedayo I. Inegbenebor, Raphael C. Mordi, Oluwakayode M. Ogunwole
      Abstract: The review is based on the description of zeolite structure, uses, synthesis, and catalytic aldol reaction in aldol condensation. An internal aldolcondensation reaction has been achieved over ZSM-5 zeolite with high silica-alumina ratio at 350oC. It therefore follows that zeolite canfunction as a catalyst in aldol type condensation reactions and that weak acid sites as well as a small number of active sites favor the aldolcondensation reaction of carbonyl compounds. However, the mixed condensation product was found to be favored at temperatures above 300oCand the self-condensation of ethanal to crotonaldehyde was favored at temperatures below 300oC. It has also been suggested that both Brønstedand Lewis acids are involved in aldol reactions with Lewis acid sites the most probable catalytic sites. The zeolite group of minerals has founduse in many chemical and allied industries.
      DOI :  Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 3(1): 1-8 
      PubDate: 2015-03-15
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
  • Heavy Metal Accumulation as Phytoremediation Potential of Aquatic
           Macrophyte, Monochoria vaginalis (Burm.F.) K. Presl Ex Kunth

    • Authors: Tulika Talukdar, Dibyendu Talukdar
      Abstract: Bioaccumulation potential of six ecotypes, collected from six different industrial zones of lower Indo-Gangetic basin of West Bengal, India,of Monochoria vaginalis, commonly known as oval-leafed pondweed has been investigated based on chromium (Cr), cadmium (Cd) andCopper (Cu) accumulation pattern in different plant organs. Bioaccumulation potential was assessed by bioaccumulation factors (BFs-leavesmetal concentration/soil metal concentration), bioconcentration factors (BCFs- roots metal/soil metal), transfer factors (TFs-leaves +rhizomes/roots) and enrichment factors (EFs-metals in edible parts/soil metal). Accumulation pattern significantly differed among ecotypes,and accumulation in plant organs was highly metal-specific. BFs for Cr and Cd were >>1 in most of the ecotypes while high TFs (>>1) werenoticed in six ecotypes for Cr and Cu. BCFs was >>1 in all the ecotypes for Cd accumulation only. EFs values for the three metals hoveredaround 1 but it was > 1.0 for Cu in all the six ecotypes. The results suggested that Cr and Cu predominantly accumulated in leaves and rhizomeswhile Cd was predominantly sequestered in roots of M. vaginalis ecotypes. Cu, a redox active metal, showed higher capability than Cd and Crto accumulate in edible parts. In the present study, potential plant parts in M. vaginalis have been identified as bioaccumulation organs withoutany apparent symptoms of toxicity which can be used as phytoremediation of heavy metal contamination in aquatic ecosystems of lower Indo-Gangetic basin of India.
      DOI : Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 3(1): 9-15        
      PubDate: 2015-03-09
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
  • Prevalence of Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV infected patients
           presenting with diarrhea and their association with CD4+ Counts

    • Authors: Desh D Singh, Vinod Singh
      Abstract: Introduction: Intestinal parasitic infection has been an important problem in HIV patients, worldwide. Hence, this study was undertaken toestablish the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among people with and without HIV infection and its association with diarrhea andCD4 T-cell count. we aimed to measure the prevalence and identify the factors associated with intestinal parasitic infection in peopleinfected with HIV. Methodology: An analytical cross-sectional study in 1490 HIV-infected people attending for CD4 T-cell count wasconducted. Results: The incidence of intestinal parasitic infection was 22.4% (95% CI 29.25 to 38.25). In univariate investigation, age, sex,longer time because diagnosis of HIV, CD4 T-cell count of <200/μL, diarrhoea, wedded status, and individual under tuberculosis (TB)treatment were drastically related with increased chances of intestinal parasite infection. Nevertheless, in the logistic malfunctionrepresentation, only the CD4 T-cell count of <200/μL (accustomed OR=6.3, 95% CI 3.75 to 10.5), diarrhoea (accustomed OR=4.2,95% CI 2.7 to 6.45) and individual under TB cure (adjusted OR=4.35, 95% CI 2.7 to 6.45) remain as significant predictors. Onstratification, CD4 T-cell count of <200/ μL was independently associated with higher odds of protozoal as well as helminthes infection. Theparasites Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora were observed only in participants with CD4 T-cell counts <200/μL. Conclusions: HIV infectionincreased the risk of having intestinal parasites and diarrhoea. Therefore, raising HIV positive’s immune status and screening for intestinalparasites is important. This study showed that Immunodeficiency increased the risk of having opportunistic parasites and diarrhea. Therefore;raising patient immune status and screening at least for those treatable parasites is important.
      DOI :     Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 3(1): 96-100 
      PubDate: 2015-02-27
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
  • Eco-Friendly Management of Rice Diseases

    • Authors: Md. Amanut Ullah Razu, Ismail Hossain
      Abstract: Comparative efficacy of BAU-Biofungicide (2%), a product of Trichoderma harzianum, Garlic (Allium sativum) clove extract (5%), Allamanda(Allamanda cathartica) leaf extract (5%), Bion (25ppm), Amistar (0.1%) and Tilt 250EC (0.1%) were evaluated for eco-friendly managementof diseases of rice cv. BRRI Dhan-49 under field and laboratory conditions from July,2013 to March,2014. The field experiment was carriedout following Randomised Complete Block Design and the laboratory experiments were done following Completely Randomized Design.Brown spot, Narrow brown leaf spot, Bacterial leaf blight and Sheath blight were recorded in the field. The lowest incidence of brown spotand narrow brown leaf spot was observed in plots treated with BAU-Biofungicide and that of bacterial leaf blight was observed in plots sprayedwith Allamanda leaf extract. In case of sheath blight, the lowest incidence was observed in BAU-Biofungicide sprayed plots. The highest grainyield (3680.34kg/ha) was recorded in plots sprayed with BAU-Biofungicide which is 40.56% higher over control. The highest seed germination(%) was recorded when seeds were treated with Garlic clove extract (89.29%) followed by BAU-Biofungicide (87.30%). The prevalence ofseed-borne fungi was investigated by blotter method. The identified seed-borne fungal species were Bipolaris oryzae, Fusarium oxysporum,Fusarium moniliforme, Curvularia lunata, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus. Maximum reduction of seed-borne infection of pathogenswas obtained by treating seeds with BAU-Biofungicide (2% of seed weight).
      DOI :    Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 3(1): 80-88 
      PubDate: 2015-02-26
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
  • Simultaneous Bioremediation of Phenol and Cr (VI) from Tannery Wastewater
           Using Bacterial Consortium

    • Authors: Amrik Bhattacharya, Anshu Gupta, Amarjeet Kaur, Darshan Malik
      Abstract: In the present study a consortium of four naturally isolated bacterial strains was evaluated as remediation tool for simultaneous removal ofphenol and Cr (VI) from tannery effluent. Application of bacterial consortia to effluent (pH 4.6) resulted in 100 and 78% removal of initial 47mg L-1 phenol and 16 mg L-1 Cr (VI), respectively at 96 h of treatment. The consortium was also active in removal of contaminants with lowerremoval rate in presence of extraneous higher concentrations of both phenol and Cr (VI). Treatment in static mode also resulted in removal ofpollutants, however with increase in agitation speed simultaneous reduction of contaminants becomes faster. Overall it can be inferred fromthe study that the above formulated bacterial consortium could effectively be used for treatment of phenol and Cr (VI) laden tannery and otherindustrial effluents.
      DOI :   Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol, Vol. 3(1): 50-55      
      PubDate: 2015-02-15
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2015)
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