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  Journal of Food Science and Technology Nepal
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1816-0727
   Published by Nepal Journals Online Homepage  [62 journals]
  • Histamine in Foods: Its Safety and Human Health Implications

    • Authors: Krishna Prasad Rai, Hare Ram Pradhan, Bal Kumari Sharma, Som Kant Rijal
      First page: 1
      Abstract: This article reviews the overall aspects of histamine, one of the most potent biogenic amine, which is formed by decarboxylation of histidine protein rich foods in fish and fish products, dairy products, meat and meat products, fermented vegetables and soy products, and alcoholic beverages such as wine and beer. Normally, three basic conditions i.e. high content of free histidine, bacterial histidine decarboxylase activity and high temperature storage environment elevates the level of histamine in foods. Several chromatographic methods utilizing thin layer chromatography (TLC), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography (GC) and colorimetry, fluorimetry and ELISA technique have been developed for the analysis of biogenic amine including histamine. Histamine usually exceeding 1000 mg/kg has been implicated with scombrotoxicosis. Several government authorities including Codex Alimentarious Commission has also set the level of histamine in different food products varying from 5 to 40 mg/100g. Proper technical regulations and surveillance mechanism as well as hygienic and bio-technological advancement in food manufacturing establishment could be the good preventive measures of low histamine foods in future. 
      DOI : J. Food Sci. Technol. Nepal, Vol. 8 (1-11), 2013
      PubDate: 2014-12-15
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2014)
  • Effect of Batter Ageing on Microbial, Physiochemical Changes and Sensory
           Quality of Sel-roti

    • Authors: Santosh Dahal, Surendra Bahadur Katawal
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Sel-roti is a deep-fat fried, puffed, circular spongy doughnut like indigenous,non- alcoholic fermented cereal product of Nepal. A study was conducted to study the effect of batter ageing on physiochemical and microbial changes and its impact on sensory quality of Sel-roti.Ten samples of batters were aged for 9 h at 3 h interval at temperatures30°C, 40°C and 50°C.After ageing, acidity as lactic acid, reducing sugar and total sugar contents of the batter had increased significantly (P<0.05). The total sugar content of the batter started to decrease after 6 h of ageing. During the ageing period of 3 hour bulk density of products were decreased significantly (p<0.05) for all temperatures of ageing but after 3 hours of ageing it was increased slightly for 40°C. Fat uptake of sel-rotifound to decrease as ageing proceeds. Lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and mold co-existed in sel-rotibatter. LAB and yeast count at the end of 9 hour of aging was higher at 30°C than at 40°C. LAB and yeast count at 50°C was markedly decreased during 9 hour of ageing of batter. Mold count in the samples of batter during aging was decreased at all temperatures. Among study time and temperature of ageing quality of sel-roti prepared from batter aged at 30°C for 6 hour was found to be good in terms of sensory quality and cost effectiveness. 
      DOI : J. Food Sci. Technol. Nepal, Vol. 8 (12-17), 2013
      PubDate: 2014-12-15
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2014)
  • Grape Dryer Using Infrared Radiation : An Experimental Study

    • Authors: Joshi Snehal Santosh, Joshi Santosh Vishnu
      First page: 18
      Abstract: Preserving fruits by drying is an important operation continued from prehistoric period. Infrared radiation can be used for grape drying purpose. It is unique process and distinctly different from conventional or natural drying. The infrared radiations accelerate drying process with a better control to achieve uniform drying, reduced drying time and ultimately improved product quality. Besides, it requires less floor space and compact system are the additional advantages. In this paper existing natural grape drying process is modified with suitable enclosure containing IR radiators and allied system. Appropriate sensors are used to measure parameters like humidity, temperature and weight of sample. Experimental analysis done with the help of dryer proves the uniform drying of the grapes with the help of infrared radiation. The original color of grapes is better conserved as the drying takes place at low temperature. The drying time is reduced to a significant level as compared to natural drying process. 
      DOI : J. Food Sci. Technol. Nepal, Vol. 8 (18-22), 2013
      PubDate: 2014-12-15
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2014)
  • Characterization and Comparison of Soy Milk and Buffalo Milk Based
           Synbiotic Product

    • Authors: Tika Karki, Shilva Shrestha, Binita Bohara, Ujwal Jyakhwa
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Today consumers prefer foods that not only provide basic nutrition but also contain compounds that confer health benefits. Among the functional food, synbiotic products are showing a promising future. Soy based synbiotic products using different probiotics: A1B and MgA (lactobacillus strains) and L.rhamanosus ATCC 9595 and prebiotics: lactulose, sunfibre and inulin were prepared and its antiradical activities along with other characteristics were studied. The study also aimed to determine the most suitable prebiotics and probiotics. Furthermore, the prebiotics and the organisms were also cultured in buffalo milk to compare its properties with synbiotic soy yoghurt. Synbiotic soy yoghurt showed highest anti-radical activity with % inhibition at the range of 41-45 % and the one with probiotic L.rhamnosus and prebiotic inulin was found to be the most suitable product.
      DOI :   J. Food Sci. Technol. Nepal, Vol. 8 (23-29), 2013
      PubDate: 2014-12-15
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2014)
  • Microbial Quality of Selected Commercial Fresh Fruit Juices Sold in Mysore

    • Authors: S Divyashree, Prakash Jamuna, N Brabahavanthis
      First page: 30
      Abstract: Fruit juices are common man’s beverages and sold at public places. Since they are known for carrying heavy microbial load, the present investigation was undertaken to enumerate and identify the microorganisms in fruit juices (sweet lime, orange and pineapple) selected from three different street vended shops (source A, B and C) in Mysore. The juices were analyzed for the microbial quality for type of organisms and number of colonies by serial dilution technique, pour plate method,gram’s staining method and staining for fungi; and physico-chemical properties. Results showed that the pineapple juice from two sources was highly contaminated with bacterial pathogens (25×104CFU/mland 20×104CFU/ml). All samples were contaminated with faecal streptococci. In source-B and C, all juices showed high counts of fungal colonies (Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium and yeast). It is contended that contamination was mainly due to poor quality of water used for dilution as well as prevailing unhygienic conditions related to washing of utensils and maintenance of the premises. The result showed the poor hygienic quality of street vended fruit juices and the possible risk to the consumers.
      DOI : J. Food Sci. Technol. Nepal, Vol. 8 (30-34), 2013
      PubDate: 2014-12-16
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2014)
  • Study on Traditional Technology of Nepalese Fried Snack Woh

    • Authors: Bhaskar Mani Adhikari, Karishma Dangol
      First page: 35
      Abstract: Woh is a deep oil fried spongy Nepalese indigenous product. This work was done to find out the basics of woh and to prepare best from different formulations using unlike particle size and different frying media. Green gram and black gram in a ratio of 100:0, 50:50, 60:40, and 70:30 were mixed and ground on stone grinder and mixer grinder for different particle sizes. Batter mixed with spices were whipped and deep fried in mustard, soybean and sunflower oil separately at 204 ± 2ºC for 2.5 ± 0.5 minutes. Woh with 60:40 combination having 103 μm particle size fried in soybean oil was found to be nutritious with less oil uptake and less anti nutritional factors.
      DOI : J. Food Sci. Technol. Nepal, Vol. 8 (35-39), 2013
      PubDate: 2014-12-16
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2014)
  • Formulation and Quality Evaluation of Extruded Product From Composite
           Blend of Maize, Sorghum and Ricebean

    • Authors: Bandana Lamichhane, Pravin Ojha, Bhupendra Paudyal
      First page: 40
      Abstract: This research work was based on formulation of cereal based extruded product utilizing the underutilized grains of Nepal i.e. sorghum (white variety) and ricebean (yellow variety). The formulation having 76% maize, 15% sorghum and 9% ricebean was found best through sensory analysis. While further variation in grit particle size ranging from 550 μm to 1190 μm, the product formulated with average particle size of 1090 μm was found to have best. The optimum grit size was selected by sensory analysis, chemical analysis and physico-chemical analysis. The expansion value for product of 1090 μm grit size was maximum 3.88±0.36, and minimum value 3.02±0.14 for smaller particle size 550 μm. The density was minimum, 80.46±12.72 kg/m3 for product of 1090 μm grit size and maximum, 175.33±11.89 kg/m3 for product of 550 μm grit size. The soluble fiber, β-glucan, WAI (water absorption index) and WSI (water soluble index) were found to be 6.52±0.61 % (db), 9.77±0.52 and 21.48±0.82 respectively for final product of grit size 1090 μm.
      DOI : J. Food Sci. Technol. Nepal, Vol. 8 (40-45), 2013
      PubDate: 2014-12-16
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2014)
  • Study on Phenolic Compounds and Effect of Time-Temperature Treatment on
           Amylase Activities of High Hill Buckwheat in Nepal

    • Authors: Pradeep Kaji Poudel, Dhan B. Karki
      First page: 46
      Abstract: Two varieties of buckwheat, mithe, Fagopyrum esculentum and tite, Fagopyurum tataricum,were collected from Mustang district, Nepal, and their proximate composition was analyzed. Total flavonoids, Tannin and Total phenolics were significantly higher (p<0.05) in tite than in mithe buckwheat. Samples of Buckwheat were steeped in water for 12 h and germinated for 48, 72, 96, 120, and 144 h at eachtem perature of 15, 20, 23 and 27 ºC. The germination inhibited by stepwise drying from 50 to 80 ºC. Effect of germination time and buckwheat variety on amylase activity was studied. Germination time had a significant effect on amylase activity of buckwheat malts. Tite and mithe buckwheat were grown under four different temperatures at 15, 20, 23 and 27 ºC for 48, 72,96, 120 and 144 h. However, mithe buckwheat was not germinated at 27 ºC. The maximum amylase activity was observed at 23ºC for 96 h. At this temperature mithe and tite buckwheat had alpha and beta amylase activity 13.87 and 268.97 units/gdry malt and 13.18 and 275.96 units/g dry malt,respectively. Due to high amylase activity of tite buckwheat was selected and malted in bulk quantity.
      DOI : J. Food Sci. Technol. Nepal, Vol. 8 (46-51), 2013
      PubDate: 2014-12-16
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2014)
  • Development and quality assessment of functional probiotic yoghurt drink
           from sweet cream buttermilk

    • Authors: Kshiteej Chapagain, Tika Bahadur Karki, Pravin Ojha
      First page: 52
      Abstract: A new functional yoghurt drink consisting of banana and honey was developed from Sweet Cream Buttermilk (SCBM)and its physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics were assessed with respect to plain and skim milk yoghurt drinks. Storage stability of drinks prepared by using standard probiotic culture of lactobacillus acidophilus (La5) was determined in terms of acidity, strain viability and consumer acceptability of final products. In corporation of banana and honey decreased post acidification and increased the carbohydrate (13.15-13.37%), proteins (2.23-2.25%) and ash content (0.53%). It was observed that the total solid content was increased from 5.72±0.17 % in plain yoghurt drink (PYD) to 16.39±0.07% in skim milk based drink (SYD) and 16.38±0.04% in buttermilk based drink (BYD). Greater count of probiotic cells was observed in Buttermilk based yoghurt drink (5.9*108 CFU/ml) than in Skim milk based yoghurt drink (1.4*108 CFU/ml) at the end of 30 days of refrigerated storage. Fifty percent of the consumer preferred refrigerated Buttermilk based yoghurt drink for 27 days.
      DOI :   J. Food Sci. Technol. Nepal, Vol. 8 (52-59), 2013
      PubDate: 2014-12-16
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2014)
  • Sulfonamides and Penicillin Residue in Market Milk

    • Authors: Manish Thapaliya, Tika B. Karki, Damodar Sedai
      First page: 60
      Abstract: The present study was conducted at laboratory of Veterinary Standards and Drug Administration Office, Tripureshwor, Kathmandu in the month of October to December 2007 with aim of determining the prevalence and level of sulfonamide and penicillin residue semi-quantitatively in market milk samples from Kathmandu, Lalitpur, Bhaktapur and Kavrepalanchowk districts. All the samples were processed using standard procedure given in the protocol of the rapid residue test kit provided by the Division of Food, Department of Medical Sciences, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand. The prevalence of antibiotic residue was found to be 17.3% (n=26) of the total of 150 samples collected. Out of the total samples 12% (n=18) were found to contain penicillin residue and 5.3% (n=8) were found to contain sulfonamide residue. Sulfonamide residue was detected in the range of 0-1 ppb in 6 samples and 2-4 ppb in 2 samples. Similarly, penicillin residue was found in the range of 0-1 ppb in 14 of the samples and 2-4 pbb in 4 samples. The residues level detected were below their MRLs as set by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. The occurrence of the antibiotic residue in the tested milk samples was compared whether it differs from district to district. Statistically, there was no significant difference on the occurrence of the antibiotic residue in the tested milk from district to district.
      DOI : J. Food Sci. Technol. Nepal, Vol. 8 (60-64), 2013   
      PubDate: 2014-12-16
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2014)
  • Optimization of Cultural Conditions for the Production of Pectinase from
           Selected Fungal Strain

    • Authors: Rajiv Dhital, Om Prakash Panta, Tika Bahadur Karki
      First page: 65
      Abstract: Pectinase are the group of enzymes that catalyze the degradation of pectin substances through de-polymerisation and de-esterification. This study is concerned on the isolation, screening and selection of suitable strain of pectinolytic organism and optimization of cultural conditions for the biosynthesis of pectinase. From the soil samples collected from Lalitpur, Kathmandu, Gulmi, Manang and Dang, 18 fungal colonies were isolated on the basis of halozone formation on Potato dextrose agar and identified. Enzyme production was carried out by submerged state fermentation. The partially purified enzymes showing higher pectinolytic activity were characterized on the basis of temperature of incubation, substrate concentration and pH of the substrate by Dinitro salicylic acid assay (DNSA) method. The fungal isolate showing highest enzyme activity was subjected to optimization of culture medium for the production of enzymes. On optimization, it was found that MG1 (Aspergillus niger) was the most potent strain at 1.5% substrate (pectin) concentration, pH 4.5 and temperature of 30°C. On the enzyme application, the yield of the orange juice, Total Soluble Solid and absorbance increased as the concentration of the enzyme increased and hence increasing the possibility of being used commercially for maximum pectinase production.
      DOI : J. Food Sci. Technol. Nepal, Vol. 8 (65-70), 2013
      PubDate: 2014-12-16
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2014)
  • Knowledge and Practice on Breastfeeding among Mothers of Infant

    • Authors: Tulashi Adhikari, Ishwar Subedi
      First page: 71
      Abstract: This descriptive explorative study was carried out with the aim of finding out the current status on breastfeeding among mothers of infants in Kanti Children Hospital, Maharajgunj, Kathmandu. A total of 100 mothers attending maternal and child health (MCH) Clinic of Kanti Children’s hospital were selected on the first come first basis. A semi- structured questionnaire was used to collect data that assess the knowledge and actual practices of mothers regarding breastfeeding. The study finding revealed that 52% responded has correct meaning of exclusive breastfeeding. Regarding the initiation of breastfeeding only 41% respondents fed their babies correctly within 1 hour. Twenty six percent of them had given Prelacteal feeding from 52.6% of mothers from rural and 20.8% mothers from urban area. Only 12% of respondents had knowledge about expressing breast milk (EBM) and among them only 8.3% practiced it. Regarding the duration of exclusive breastfeeding (EBF), 34% respondents had given EBF up to 6 months, 26% had given prelacteal feed and 26% respondents did not practice EBF from 1st day of life.
      DOI : J. Food Sci. Technol. Nepal, Vol. 8 (71-74), 2013
      PubDate: 2014-12-16
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2014)
  • Utilisation of Lemon Juice in the Preparation of Tofu from Black Soyabean

    • Authors: Ghanendra Gartaula, Santosh Pokharel, Ganesh Dawadi
      First page: 75
      Abstract: The present study was undertaken to study the effect of lemon juice on the quality of tofu prepared from black soyabean. Soymilk tofu coagulated with three different coagulants viz. calcium chloride, calcium sulphate and lemon juice were compared in terms of yield and sensory attributes. The yield percentage and overall acceptability of lemon juice tofu was significantly higher than calcium chloride tofu but no significant change was observed with calcium sulphate tofu. The crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber and ash content of the lemon juice tofu was found to be 51.58%, 13.45%, 6.88% and 3.15 % in dry basis, respectively.
      DOI : J. Food Sci. Technol. Nepal, Vol. 8 (75-77), 2013 
      PubDate: 2014-12-16
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2014)
  • Effects of Mild Ingestion of Used Fried Rapeseed Oil (Mustard Oil) on
           Hepatic Tissues in Long-Evans Rats

    • Authors: M H Rahman, S Akter, T Begum, M. S.I. Khan, M. S. Islam, M R Begum
      First page: 78
      Abstract: Rapeseed oil (mustard oil), the commonly used cooking oil in rural areas of Bangladesh, contains serucic acid (22:1 n-9) that causes harmful effects to human health. The study was conducted on Long-Evans rats to observe the hepatic effect mustard oil. The first group rat used as control fed with flour, while experimental groups 1 and 2 were treated with fried mustard oil (2g flour + 9 g oil daily) and erucic acid free mustard oil (2g flour + 9 g oil daily) respectively for 5 weeks. Serum indices for three hepatic enzymes Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT) and Alanine Phosphatase (ALP), used as the indicator of hepatic activity were analyzed by Dade-Behring auto analyzer. Significant difference of AST, ALT and ALP activity was observed in control and group 2 with group 1. Therefore erucic acid of mustard oil has a toxic effect on the hepatic tissue.
      DOI : J. Food Sci. Technol. Nepal, Vol. 8 (78-80), 2013
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2014)
  • Contamination of Street Food by Salmonella in Chittagong City

    • Authors: M. S. I. Khan, M. R. Haque, D E Jhorna, M. R. Begum
      First page: 81
      Abstract: The study was conducted to determine the contamination of Salmonella for different types of street foods in different places of Chittagong city area. A total of 76 shops from where 120 food samples of ten types were collected. Microbiological examination of Salmonella was done after dividing the foods into two categories of dry and wet foods where overall about 28% samples were positive. In case of wet food, salad shows the highest contamination of 58% flowed by water, chicken raw meat and raw milk makes up 50%, 42% and 33% respectively. For wet food, vegetable role and egg chop show the same 25% contamination where kabab and beef stick were not contaminated. A chi-square (χ2) test was used to examine the equality of observed proportions for each item of food where significant difference among the observed proportion for Salmonella (Chi-square = 82.67; p-value<0.01) for different items of food were observed and an odds ratio (OR) was measured of association between an exposure and an outcome where the probability of contamination of Salmonella in dry food was lower than wet food (OR=0.17 and CI: 0.07 to 0.44). The comparatively high bacteria in wet samples indicated contamination from water, practice of inadequate hygienic measures, mishandling, improper storage, inadequate cooking and above all unhygienic condition of the retail shops.
      DOI : J. Food Sci. Technol. Nepal, Vol. 8 (81-83), 2013
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2014)
  • Use of Higher Ethylene Generating Fruits for Ripening as an Alternative to

    • Authors: Prashant Pokhrel
      First page: 84
      Abstract: Every fruit has its own best eating quality upon natural ripening. But not all fruits are allowed to ripen on the plant. Ripe fruits cannot withstand the postharvest handling system when shipped long distance. They are likely to become soft and mealy with insipid flavour after traveling long. Climacteric fruits are often picked at the maturity stage so that they can withstand the postharvest handling hazards. Likewise to ripen them, ethylene gas is generally used. In most of the countries calcium carbide is used as a source of acetylene (alternative to ethylene) for ripening. However it has been banned in many countries including Nepal. And for those who produce organic fruits, natural ripening can bring a physico-chemical hazard during postharvest handling. Ripe climacteric fruits produce ethylene gas in amounts higher than the threshold level required to induce the ripening process of such fruits. So as a solution to the above problem, ripe fruits can be taken to ripen the mature climacteric fruits.
      DOI : J. Food Sci. Technol. Nepal, Vol. 8 (84-86), 2013
      PubDate: 2014-12-17
      Issue No: Vol. 8 (2014)
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