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Journal of Food Science and Technology Nepal
   Journal TOC RSS feeds Export to Zotero Follow    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
     ISSN (Print) 1816-0727
     Published by Nepal Journals Online Homepage  [60 journals]
  • Sweetest Protein -Thaumatin

    • Authors: Nawa Raj Dahal, XM Xu
      Abstract: Thaumatin, commercially available under the trade name Talin, is known as a sweetest compound (100,000 times sweeter than sucrose on molar basis) which can be used not only as a sweetener but also as a flavor enhancer. This sweetener is a protein found in plant Thaumatococcus daniellii. Biotechnology has also seen as alternative method of production of thaumatin. The plant source of this protein is limited and very expensive. Although the sweetener is the sweetest one, its application is not so common because of its liquorice taste and delayed sweetness. This article reviews brie y on the property, production, application and safety aspects of Thaumatin which is known as a sweetest compound till date.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jfstn.v7i0.11210 J. Food Sci. Technol. Nepal, Vol. 7 (112-118), 2012  
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2014)
       
  • Importance of Goat Milk

    • Authors: Rewati Raman Bhattarai
      Abstract: Goats are important component of livestock industry having adaptability to harsh climates which make them suitable for landless and marginal farmers. The contribution of goats in supplying milk and milk products is high and it has significant role in rural economy and health. Goat milk contains higher amount of Ca, Mg and P than cow and human milk. Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCT) which are more in goat milk have been recognized as unique lipid with unique health benefits. The soft curd of goat milk may be an advantage for adult humans suffering from gastrointestinal disturbances and ulcers. Goat milk is recommended for infants, old and convalescent people. The consumer acceptance of goat milk and its products is reported to be excellent. Goat cheese production in Nepal is coming up in a big way which will prove to be a boon to Nepalese cheese industry. Despite this fact, goat has remained neglected in research and development. Universally recognized as ‘poor man’s cow’, goat now has to be fully exploited to get maximum benefits, particularly meat, milk and milk products having medicinal values.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jfstn.v7i0.11209   J. Food Sci. Technol. Nepal, Vol. 7 (107-111), 2012  
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2014)
       
  • Processing Effect on Phytic Acid and Inorganic Phosphorus Content of
           Soybean (Glycine max, Brown var.)

    • Authors: Somkanta Rijal, Babita Adhikari
      Abstract: The objective of this research was to study the effect of some processing methods on phytic acid (a prominent anti-nutritive substance) and inorganic phosphorous content of the king legume soybean. The processing treatments viz. soaking and subsequent germination; kinema fermentation and heating were applied. It was observed that soaking for 12 hrs at room temperature under citric acid solution, distilled water and sodium bicarbonate solution significantly (p <0.05) lowered the phytic acid content of soybean by 7.99%, 6.38% and 7.20% respectively and also correspondingly lowered the inorganic phosphorous by 21.8%, 27.55% and 30.75% . Maximum destruction of phytic acid (35.1% reduction) occurred during germination for 120 hrs in 0.1% citric acid solution. This was further confirmed by increase of inorganic phosphorous content (196.22%) in corresponding treatments. A 46.07% significant reduction (p < 0.05) of phytic acid content over the control was noticed after 72 hrs of kinema fermentation. On the same interval, inorganic phosphorous content also significantly increased by 180%. Autoclaving was found more effective than dry heating and boiling also could reduce the phytic acid content of soybean. Autoclaving (121ºC for 15 min), dry heating (200ºC for 5 min) and boiling (100ºC for 30 min) significantly lowered (p< 0.05) soybean phytate by 20.76%, 12.84% and 14.84% respectively. In other hand, inorganic phosphorous content were increased significantly by 80.56%, 43.8% and 63.55% at the same time.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jfstn.v7i0.11208   J. Food Sci. Technol. Nepal, Vol. 7 (102-106), 2012
      PubDate: 2014-10-01
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2014)
       
  • Effect of Pasteurization Temperature on the Quality of Goat Cheese

    • Authors: Smita Gutung, Baidya Nath Prasad Sah
      Abstract: The research was carried to study quality and yield of goat cheese by varying pasteurisation conditions; 63°C for 30min (Sample A), 80°C for 10min (Sample B) and 90°C for 60sec (Sample C). Titrable acidity, pH, moisture, fat, protein and ash, total plate count, Coliform count of goat milk, cheese samples A, B, and C were measured. There were fat recoveries of 67.23%, 67.72%, and 70.15% while protein recoveries of 71.15%, 66.88, and 69.32 respectively in the samples A, B, and C. The samples A, B, and C had moisture content of 59.72%, 63.15%, and 64.3%. The samples were subjected to sensory evaluation in term of color, flavor, texture, taste and overall acceptability on a 9-point hedonic rating scale. The data obtained were analysed statistically (p<0.05). Sample C was ranked the best.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jfstn.v7i0.10616 J. Food Sci. Technol. Nepal, Vol. 7 (93-97), 2012   
      PubDate: 2014-06-16
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2014)
       
  • A Study on Standard of Buffalo Meat Hygiene in Dharan

    • Authors: Bhaskar Mani Adhikari, Rajendra Prasad Subedi, Dilip Subba
      Abstract: Hygiene standard of buffalo meat in Dharan was assessed by microbiological analyses and field survey method. Ten samples of buffalo meat, knives, chopping board and hands of butchers were examined for total plate count (TPC), total coliforms, E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella and Shigella. Average of TPC, Coliforms, E. coli and S. aureus counts in meat were 3.59×107, 2.06×104, 1.69×103 and 9.67×103 cfu/g respectively. Salmonella was detected in 80% samples and all samples were Shigella positive. The average TPC count of chopping board, knives and hands were found to be 3.15×104, 3.47×103 and 2.01×104 cfu/ cm2 respectively. The average Coliform, E. coli and S. aureus counts of chopping board were found to be 1.11×103, 9.8× 101 and 6.2×102 cfu/cm2. The average Coliform, E. coli and S. aureus counts of knives were found to be 1.31×103, 1.66×102 and 2.83×102 cfu/cm2. The average Coliform, E. coli and S. aureus counts of the palms of butchers were found to be 1.95×103, 1.66×102 and 1.77×102 cfu/cm2. Two chopping boards, three knives and three hands were found Salmonella free. Five chopping boards, three knives and two hands were detected for Shigella. The field survey of 31 meat shops showed that the hygiene condition of meat sold in Dharan was found unsatisfactory.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jfstn.v7i0.10617   J. Food Sci. Technol. Nepal, Vol. 7 (99-101), 2012  
      PubDate: 2014-06-16
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2014)
       
  • Microbiological Analysis of Ice-cream Sold in Kathmandu Valley

    • Authors: Krishtina Thapa, Sonu Shrestha
      Abstract: Different types of ice cream samples were collected from three different local vendors of Kathmandu (i.e. Samakhusi, Jawalakhel and Chabahil) for the microbial examination. Study explored that the ice cream samples from Chabahil showed the presence of highest number of mesophilic microorganisms with an average of 2.16×107 CFU/ml and 27.4 CFU/100ml of Coliform followed by samples collected from Jawalakhel and Samakhusi. The samples have been found to be contaminated with Coliforms (Enterobacter spp., Escherichia spp., Klebsiella spp., Citrobacter spp.), Salmonella (Salmonella typhi, Salmonella paratyphi, Salmonella enteritidis), Shigella (Shigella boydii, Shigella flexneri, Shigella sonnei, Shigella dysenteriae) and Staphylococcus aureus. These findings indicated that not only the unhygienic practices of handling by the vendors but also the carelessness of manufacturers during processing of ice creams.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jfstn.v7i0.10615   J. Food Sci. Technol. Nepal, Vol. 7 (90-92), 2012  
      PubDate: 2014-06-16
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2014)
       
  • Millet (Eleusine coracana) Flour Fortification in Composite Bread

    • Authors: Ishwar Subedi, Christina Harnisch, Gerhard Kater, Tulashi Adhikari
      Abstract: Composite bread prepared by wheat our (550 types, moisture 10.85%) and millet (Eleusine coracana) flour (moisture 10.8%) were determined to evaluate bread qualities by 2 methods. The first method included application of raw millet flour, where as the second methods included cooked (gelatinized) millet flour before baking. The breads were named as (0MB) only from wheat flour followed by (10CCMB), (20CCMB) and (30CCMB) using 10, 20 and 30 % coarse (669µm) cooked millet flour respectively where as (10FCMB) and (10FUMB) were named as fine (431µm) sized millet flour. The former was gelatinized where as the later wasn’t. These composite breads were made from a blend of 90, 80 and 70 parts of wheat flour with 10, 20 and 30 parts of millet flour respectively. The bread with 10, 20 and 30% composite flour were similar in crumb porosity, texture, smell and taste where as 30% millet flour had higher dough and bread yield.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jfstn.v7i0.10614  J. Food Sci. Technol. Nepal, Vol. 7 (86-89), 2012
      PubDate: 2014-06-16
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2014)
       
  • Common Pests and Pesticides used in High Value Crops: A Case Study on Some
           Selected Districts of Nepal

    • Authors: Pramod Koirala, Ananda Shova Tamrakar
      Abstract: This study was carried out in eight districts of Nepal to explore the pests, pesticides and other agro-chemicals used in high value  crops viz. tea, coffee, honey and vegetables (tomato and brinjal). The study carried out districts for tea were Jhapa and Illam, whereas for vegetables Bara and Kavre. Similarly, honey was studied in Chitwan and Nawalparasi, whereas coffee in Gulmi and Lalitpur. The results revealed that different type of pests were found to be problematic in high value crops production. Loopers  were the major pests in tea, borers in coffee, fruit fly in vegetables and mites in beekeeping. Different pesticides and some other agro-chemicals have been found to be used for pest management. Additionally, pesticide residues analysis for selected pesticides was carried out using GC-MS technique. The result of analysis showed that non of pesticides was found at the detection level of 0.7 parts per million.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jfstn.v7i0.10608 J. Food Sci. Technol. Nepal, Vol. 7 (64-69), 2012
      PubDate: 2014-06-15
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2014)
       
  • Study on the Extension of Shelf-life by Activation of Inherent
           Lactoperoxidase System in Raw Cow Milk

    • Authors: Prashanta Pokhrel, Suman Kumar Lal Das
      Abstract: Effectiveness of lactoperoxidase in raw cow milk was studied to observe the increase in shelf-life. Lactoperoxidase system was activated within two hours after milking by the addition of hydrogen peroxide and potassium thiocyanate, then milk was kept at different conditions viz. refrigerated condition (5±2)°C, room temperature (25±3)°C and at (35±2)°C. The keeping quality of raw milk was determined by the acidity, which when reached 0.18 % as lactic acid, was considered spoiled. Results indicated that the lactoperoxidase system (LP-s) increased the shelf-life of raw cow milk kept at room temperature (25±3)°C and refrigeration temperature (5±2)°C significantly (p<0.05);however no significant increase in shelf-life was observed between the control and LP-s treated raw milk sample held at (35±2)°C.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jfstn.v7i0.10606   J. Food Sci. Technol. Nepal, Vol. 7 (57-60), 2012   
      PubDate: 2014-06-15
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2014)
       
  • Study on the Level of Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Raw and Processed Milk
           Marketed in Kathmandu Valley

    • Authors: Pratap Kafle, Damodar Sedai, Krishna Prasad Rai, Bishow Bandhu Pokharel
      Abstract: Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the principal hydroxylated AFB1 metabolite mainly present in milk. In this study the levels of Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in Raw and Pasteurized milk marketed in Kathmandu valley was estimated. Altogether 32 milk samples (Raw 16, Pasteurized 16) obtained from different areas of Kathmandu valley were analysed for AFM1 by Thin Layer Chromatography. The milk samples were analyzed according to the official AOAC methods, which included extraction of toxin using chloroform, clearing by silica gel column chromatography, qualitative analysis by Thin Layer Chromatography and quantification by Visual comparison of the spots. AFM1 was found in 14 (43.75%) of milk samples examined. The levels of AFM1 in 7 (21.87%) samples were higher than the maximum tolerance limit (0.05 µg/l) accepted by some European countries while none of the samples exceeded the prescribed limit of US regulations. The mean concentration of AFM1 was higher in Raw milk (0.030 ± 0.042 µg/l) compared to pasteurized (0.022 ± 0.039) but the difference was not statistically significant (p>0.05). This finding reflects that milk marketed in Kathmandu valley contains residual level of Aflatoxin M1 and pose public health risk. Therefore, milk and milk products have to be screened for AFM1 contamination periodically.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jfstn.v7i0.10598   J. Food Sci. Technol. Nepal, Vol. 7 (52-56), 2012  
      PubDate: 2014-06-15
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2014)
       
  • Optimization of Physical Parameters for Cereals-Pulses Combination Based
           Extrudates Using Sequential Response Surface Methodology

    • Authors: Sanjeev Kumar Garg, Daya Shankar Singh
      Abstract: Plant proteins in the form of flour, grits etc. are not in the palatable form as such due to lack of meat like texture, flavour and appearance. Thus the present need exists to prepare a palatable inexpensive vegetable based high protein foods. The extrusion cooking process converts the protein in its amorphous defatted flour form to fibrous structures. An extruded snack from Bengal gram brokens-sorghum blends was prepared by using Wenger X-5 extruder. The properties of the extrudates were studied at three different moisture levels (15, 20 and 25% w.b.) and three levels of barrel temperature (80, 90 and 100°C) with 5 levels of blending ratio of Bengal gram brokens-sorghum blends (10, 15, 20, 25 and 30%). All the physical parameters were optimized to have the best quality extrudates by RSM. The best quality extruded snack was obtained at 80°C barrel temperature, 15% moisture content of feed and 10% blending ratio followed by 15% moisture content of feed and 10% blending ratio at 100°C barrel temperature. Texture analysis of the optimized extrudate was also done for crispiness test and hardness test to have an idea of the resistance that the snack may offer on first bite to the consumer. The maximum value of crispness and minimum hardness was obtained at 15% moisture content, 100°C temperature.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jfstn.v7i0.10607 J. Food Sci. Technol. Nepal, Vol. 7 (61-63), 2012  
      PubDate: 2014-06-15
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2014)
       
  • Study on Use of Naked Barley (Hordeum vulgare var. Solu Uwa) Malt and Mold
           Bran as Enzyme Source for Preparation of Whisky

    • Authors: Dev Raj Acharya, Babita Adhikari
      Abstract: Naked barley (Hordeum Vulgare L.) of Solu uwa variety having highest &beta-amylase activity (645 unit/gdm), total soluble solid and fermentable nitrogen germinated at 15 ºC for 96 h and mold bran prepared from Aspergillus oryzae in wheat bran isolated from murcha having highest α-amylase activity (904 unit/gdm) incubated at 30 ºC for 168h were selected as enzyme source. Mold bran, naked barley malt and white maize flour (undertailed through 1.18×1.18 mesh size as substrate) were mixed to prepare four samples: 15% naked barley malt+ 85% maize flour (Sample A), 15% mold bran + 85% maize  our (Sample B), 10% naked barley malt + 5% mold bran + 85% maize  flour ( Sample C) and 5% naked barley malt+ 10% mold bran + 85% maize (Sample D). All samples were mashed separately to prepared wort, fermented using brewery yeast (Saccharomyes cerevisiae) to prepare beer and distilled to prepare whisky and compared with wort, beer and whisky prepared from mixture of 15% commercial barley malt and 85% maize  our (Sample E). Total soluble solid, specific gravity, real extract, apparent extract, fusel oil, aldehyde, esters, titrable acidity, volatile acidity contents and sensory scores with respect to  avor, mouthfeel after taste and overall acceptability were significantly better (p<0.05) in sample A than other samples B, C and D but comparable with sample E whereas fermentable nitrogen, viscosity, alcohol, original extract contents and real degree of fermentation were found signi cantly better in sample B. However, sensory scores of samples were signi cantly lower ( p< 0.05) in all samples than market whisky (Signature). Hence, without scarifying chemical and sensory scores sample D can be used to prepare whisky commercially. But harsh and pungent characteristics can be improved by maturation.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jfstn.v7i0.10597   J. Food Sci. Technol. Nepal, Vol. 7 (44-51), 2012
      PubDate: 2014-06-15
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2014)
       
  • Effect of Combinative Pretreatments on Cellulose-to-Glucose Conversion of
           Empty Palm Fruit Bunch (EFB)

    • Authors: Yakindra Prasad Timilsena, Nicolas Brosse
      Abstract: Various methods of pretreatments were investigated to their effect on cellulose to glucose conversion efficiency on enzymatic hydrolysis of a tropical agro-industrial waste residue (empty palm fruit bunch, EFB). Four different kinds of combinative pretreatments (autohydrolysis with and without naphthol, dilute acid prehydrolysis, soda prehydrolysis and enzymatic prehydrolysis) were tested for delignification during the first and the second steps of pretreatment. Each prehydrolysis step was seconded by the organosolv delignification with the same conditions of pretreatment. It was observed that all the combinative methods were far more efficient in delignification and enzymatic hydrolysis ability as compared to its one step counter parts. The combinative pretreatment method involving dilute acid prehydrolysis followed by organosolv delignification revealed the best result with respect to lignin removal and enzymatic hydrolysis. The resultant pulp contained very low Klason lignin (~5%) with high sugar conversion ratio (64% total reducing sugars).
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jfstn.v7i0.10613   J. Food Sci. Technol. Nepal, Vol. 7 (81-85), 2012  
      PubDate: 2014-06-15
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2014)
       
  • Formulation of High Fiber Breakfast Food and Estimation of its Functional
           Qualities

    • Authors: Sabitri Sharma, Bhupendra Paudyal
      Abstract: This study aims to develop high fiber breakfast food rich in nutritional and functional components (β-glucan, antioxidants, and insoluble fiber) and identify the future possibilities of commercial product. Based on the 15 days survey carried out on Kathmandu, an optimum formulation (86% cereal, 5% nuts, 7% dried fruits and 2% pumpkin seed) of product was found at first 3 trails. Formulated sample was found to be superior in terms of nutritional qualities (protein %- 13.82±0.67, crude fiber %- 7.8±0.96, β-glucan%- 3.13±0.35, total polyphenol GAE- 458.33±10.4) and sensory qualities (color, flavor, size, shape, texture, overall acceptance) than market sample (Protein%- 12.39±1.54, crude fiber%- 5.18±0.9, β-glucan%- 1.18±0.07, total polyphenol GAE- 163.3±58.6). The product was further developed by varying processing methods (germinating, non-germinating wheat and instant (60°C) and gradual drying (50°C, 55°C, 60°C, 70°C)). Formulation having germinated wheat and instant dried (60°C) was found to be superior in terms of color, texture,  avor and overall acceptance. The product was further subjected to chemical and functional analysis, cost analysis (Rs.42), microbiological analysis (TPC-1.8x103, Yeast count- 400cfu/g, Mold count- 300cfu/g), storage stability test (aw=0.113). Statistical analysis showed no significance difference among products of varying drying pattern but difference among germinated and non-germinated products. Consumer perceptibility test showed 64% of the consumer accepted muesli as the best product than commercial breakfast cereals.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jfstn.v7i0.10612   J. Food Sci. Technol. Nepal, Vol. 7 (76-80), 2012   
      PubDate: 2014-06-15
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2014)
       
  • Study of Functional Property of Bread Based on Buckwheat and Green Tea

    • Authors: Shraddha Bhattarai, Pravin Ojha, Krishna Prasad Rai
      Abstract: A study was conducted to formulate and observe the functional properties of bread based on buckwheat and green tea. The physiochemical and functional properties of the raw materials used and that of the best sample were also analyzed. The TPC in BWF and GT were found to be 51 GAE and 95 GAE respectively. In other hand, antioxidant activity was found to be 7.1% and 39.2% respectively. From the sensory evaluation, the sample with 60:40 ratio of BWF: WF and 3% GTB incorporated was found to be superior. Furthermore, iron, calcium, tannin content, total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity of the best product were found to be 3.133 mg /100g, 315.56mg/100g, 0.0000084%, 71GAE and 5.6% respectively. Additionally, a comparative proximate composition analysis of the best sample and market product was analyzed and the result showed the protein content of the lab sample was about 3 times more than that of the market product. Therefore, the lab prepared bread was found to be highly nutritious with functional characteristics with acceptable sensory qualities and shelf-life.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jfstn.v7i0.10610   J. Food Sci. Technol. Nepal, Vol. 7 (70-75), 2012  
      PubDate: 2014-06-15
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2014)
       
  • Determination of Organic Acids in Wine and Spirit Drinks by Fourier
           Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectroscopy

    • Authors: Umesh Regmi, Krishna Prasad Rai, Miguel Palma
      Abstract: This study outlines the use of FTIR with partial least square (PLS) method and data obtained from the reference method is used to establish a full calibration model for tartaric acid, malic acid, lactic acid, succinic acid, citric acid and acetic acid using all matrix. It was not possible to obtain only one calibration for all analysed samples, but in some cases individual calibrations for specific samples were needed. It was due to the different matrixes in the studies samples: 12-15% ethanol (wines), 30-40% ethanol (spirits). Due to this reason, a calibration model was developed for each acid in red and white wine, and acetic acid in spirit drinks. During validation, strong correlation with the reference values and great accuracy were demonstrated for the higher concentration range (>0.6 g/L) in all acids while inferior result was obtained in low range (<0.6 g/L). But good result was obtained in lower concentration level both in wine and spirits in acetic acid, which explains that calibration and validation of the FTIR spectrometry depends very strongly on the composition of the sample set and on the quality of the reference analysis. The correlations for organic acids could further be improved with a more complete well distribution data base and optimizing wavelengths.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jfstn.v7i0.10564   J. Food Sci. Technol. Nepal, Vol. 7 (36-43), 2012
      PubDate: 2014-06-07
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2014)
       
  • Proteins Play Important Role in Intercellular Adhesion Affecting on Fruit
           Textural Quality

    • Authors: Khem Bahadur Adhikari, Ilan Shomer
      Abstract: Fruit textural quality is becoming a major quality parameter for export, postharvest preservation, handling and processing. The main determinant of textural quality is intercellular adhesion (ICA) as attributed by the cell wall (CW) and its components. The importance of CW protein in ICA strengthening was exemplified in Medjoul date (Phoenix dactylifera L.) fruit, as a model. Fruit mesocarp sensitively responded to culture environment which was assayed in vitro at pH 3.5(< pKa) and pH 6.5(> pKa) in presence of organic acid molecules. The max penetration force, as a measure of ICA strength, of pH 3.5 (< pKa) incubated mesocarp (~10.5 N) was signi cantly higher than that of pH 6.5 (> pKa) incubated fruits (~2 N). The protein bands at ~29 kDa, ~75 kDa, ~32 kDa and 87 kDa were exclusively or prominently found in ICA strengthened fruits (pH 3.5< pKa) compared to texturally injured fruits (pH 6.5 > pKa).
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jfstn.v7i0.10564 J. Food Sci. Technol. Nepal, Vol. 7 (31-35), 2012
      PubDate: 2014-06-07
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2014)
       
  • Chemical Composition, Anti-neuraminidase, and Anti-atherogenic Activities
           of the Essential Oil from two Varieties of Alpinia zerumbet Leaves

    • Authors: Atul Upadhyay, Jamnian Chompoo, Rizwan Ahmad, Shinkichi Tawata, Luc Pieters
      Abstract: The present study describes the chemical composition and neuraminidase (NA) enzyme inhibition and anti-atherogenic properties of the essential oils (EO) of two varieties of Alpinia zerumbet (alpinia) leaves. A total of forty eight compounds were identified using GC-MS studies, which showed that tairin variety contained more compounds than shima variety. The EO inhibited NA in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 values of 41.5 ± 2.7 and 62.3 ± 3.1 μg/ml for tairin and shima varieties, respectively. Furthermore, the kinetic studies of NA inhibitions revealed that tairin EO exhibited slow, time-dependent and mixed type of inhibitions. It seems that the minor components of tairin EO have better inhibitory properties. In order to assess the anti-atherogenic activities of EO, inhibitions of 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation were investigated. The results also showed that tairin EO had better activities against 15-LOX and LDL oxidation (IC50 = 235 ± 7, and 133 ± 3 g/ml), than shima EO (IC50 = 465 ± 12, and 195 ± 5 μg/ml). Finally, the acute toxicity analysis using Caenorhabditis elegans showed that LC50 values were more than 2500 μg/ml. These findings suggest that tairin EO could be a possible candidate for further investigations in search for bioactive compounds against neuraminidase.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jfstn.v7i0.10563   J. Food Sci. Technol. Nepal, Vol. 7 (22-30), 2012
      PubDate: 2014-06-07
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2014)
       
  • A Review on Current Food Allergy

    • Authors: Ganiesha de Silva, RAUJ Marapana
      Abstract: Nowadays food allergy is recognized as an important food safety issue and it is widely debated world-wide. So, the food industry necessity takes the greatest care to assist those, who suffer allergies to select a suitable diet with confidence. Food allergy might be true food allergy or pseudo-allergy (food intolerance). The prevalence of food allergy is estimated much lower than are perceived by the public. That occurrence of food allergy has been estimated recently at 3-4% for adults and approximately 6-8% for young children and infants in the past decade. The most common food allergens are milk, egg, tree nut, soya, fish, some fruit (pineapple, citrus) and vegetables (tomato, mushroom) other than that food containing histamine, preservative, antioxidant, colouring, flavouring and whitening agents also cause food allergic reactions in some persons. Food allergy symptoms are unique to individual and common symptoms are nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting, diarrhea and itching. If someone misunderstanding about food allergy could result unnecessary food restriction. So, it is important to know the proper facts about this condition. The main aim of this review is to discuss the recent literature on overview discussion of current food allergy.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jfstn.v7i0.10562 J. Food Sci. Technol. Nepal, Vol. 7 (14-21), 2012  
      PubDate: 2014-06-07
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2014)
       
  • Scientific Background of Dairy Protein Digestibility: A Review

    • Authors: Ashok Kumar Shrestha
      Abstract: Recent advances have shown that differences in compositional, structural and physical properties of caseins and whey proteins affect their digestion and absorption behavior, hormonal response, satiety effect and other physiological effects. For example, the ingestion of whey protein cause fast, high and transient increase of amino acids ‘fast protein’, whereas casein induce slower, lower and prolonged increase of ‘slow protein’ in the gut. Knowledge of, and control over, the rate and nature of digestive breakdown of dairy proteins provides a potential basis for product/process innovation through identifying ingredients and formulations that provide desired nutrient delivery profiles. With this background, the aim of our current review paper is to understand the digestion behavior of various protein-rich milk powders and their potential use in formulation of dairy foods for controlled release of amino acids and energy. Currently available in vitro protein digestibility methods to measure or predict the dairy protein digestibility were also investigated. The author has also presented the preliminary results of ongoing study on in vitro digestion of various commercial proteins powders.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jfstn.v7i0.10560 J. Food Sci. Technol. Nepal, Vol. 7 (1-8), 2012
      PubDate: 2014-06-07
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2014)
       
  • Replacement of Saturated Animal Fats in Meat Products: A Review

    • Authors: Anup Halwai
      Abstract: Meat is still the most valuable food in the world. The quality aspect of meat is decided by the nutritional and sensory values. Consumers. awareness on diet and health increased the demand for healthy food, specially, meat. Meat is high in saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). SFA are found to elevate cholesterol which is associated with cardiovascular diseases and other chronic diseases. Replacing or reducing animal fat in meat products could create a better image for the industry, but, sensory quality as well as product stability could be affected. Animal fat can be replaced or reduced by adding more water in the product or by substituting with vegetable fats and/or oils, or by adding hydrocolloids like dextrins, starches, fibers, gums in the product. Marine oils and vegetable oils are used to replace animal fat in meat product but the technological procedures have to be adjusted to produce the similar product due to their different chemical characteristics from animal fats.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jfstn.v7i0.10561 J. Food Sci. Technol. Nepal, Vol. 7 (9-13), 2012
      PubDate: 2014-06-07
      Issue No: Vol. 7 (2014)
       
 
 
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