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Journal Cover Journal of Food Science and Technology Nepal
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1816-0727
   Published by Nepal Journals Online Homepage  [74 journals]
  • Interactions of Bio-macromolecules During Processing of Instant Asian
           Noodles: A Review

    • Authors: Pratiksha Shrestha, Krishna Prasad Rai, Anil Kumar Anal
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: The review focuses on how the protein, fats, carbohydrates and water interact and form the complexes during different stages of processing of instant noodles. Moisture is needed for dough formation and chemical interactions therein. Appropriate moisture content is required for proper gelatinization of noodle strand during steaming and eventually moisture is evaporated
      off by drying and frying to increase its shelf life. Frying oil may undergo degradation process invited by high frying time and temperature, high moisture in oil and polyvalent metals. Various intermediate products like dimers and polymers accelerate the oil degradation finally changing the physiochemical properties of oil rendering it unacceptable for processing. Gliadin
      and glutenin gives noodle its viscoelastic character. The polymeric glutenin network develops throughout the process of mixing, resting and subsequent stages of sheeting. Protein content and amylose content in noodle are inversely proportional to the oil uptake ratio. Another possibility is the non-enzymatic browning reaction during frying of instant noodles.
      PubDate: 2016-12-19
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2016)
       
  • Postharvest Handling and Prevalence of Aflatoxin Contamination in Nepalese
           Maize Produce

    • Authors: Prashanta Pokhrel
      Pages: 11 - 19
      Abstract: In Nepal maize is produced and consumed in significant amount. Summer maize contributes about seventy percent of the total maize production but has high possibility of fungal infection before and during harvest. Traditional practices of post harvest operations and outdoor storage structures are supportive for insect infestation, mold growth and development of mycotoxins. Several studies have shown that the incidence of afl atoxin contamination in maize is high and average prevalence is about 50%. Department of Food Technology and Quality Control (DFTQC), a governmental body reports that about 20% of the maize samples contain aflatoxin greater than the ML (20ppb) as set by the government. On the basis of available data, a simple deterministic exposure assessment for total afl atoxin via maize shows that the situation is alarming and needs immediate attention. In Nepal aflatoxin concern in maize demands a need to further investigation and a risk assessment for revealing the existing situation. This review aims to fi nd out the current situation of aflatoxin contamination in maize produce of Nepal and provide possible ways to reduce the contamination.
      PubDate: 2016-12-19
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2016)
       
  • Identification of the Microbial Consortium in Sri Lankan Buffalo Milk Curd
           and their growth in the Presence of Prebiotics

    • Authors: Sriyanie Indrika Abeygunawardena
      First page: 20
      Abstract: The production and consumption of traditionally fermented buffalo milk curd provides many economical and food security benefits to both producers and consumers in the country. To improve this traditional product as a value-added product, an investigation was conducted to elucidate the microbial consortium associated with curd using culturable techniques and the microbial load was quantified in the presence of prebiotics. Twenty six samples of curd were analyzed to isolate microorganisms. The two major LAB groups present in the samples were characterized as Lactobacillus and Streptococcus. LABs were further identified as Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis, L. planatarum, L. helviticus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and L. casei subsp casei, Streptococcus thermophiles and S. lactis.  Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Micrococcus spp., and Bacillus spp. were also present in this microbial consortium  The addition of two types of commercially available prebiotics improved the counts of Lactobacillus in curd samples, despite the difference in the prebiotic compounds.
      PubDate: 2016-04-08
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2016)
       
  • Effect of Different Dress Weight Categories on Yield Part Percentage and
           Relationship of Live and Dress Weight of Broiler Carcasses Slaughter at
           Different Conditions

    • Authors: R. A. U. J. Marpana
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Commercially reared mixed sex broilers were utilized to determine the effect of dress carcass weight on percentage yield of broiler parts, breast meat yield in weight category of <1.0, 1.0-1.2, 1.2-1.4, 1.4-1.6, 1.6-1.8, 1.8-2.0 and >2.0 kg. Then  pH, cooking yield and moisture content of the breast meat with different time intervals (0 hours, 12 hours, 24 hours, 36 hours, 48 hours) and proximate compositions of meat were measured. Percentage yield of whole leg, thigh, breast, back  and rib, neck, wings, gizzards, heart, liver, drumstick and total giblet were significantly affected by dress carcass weight at p<0.05. Yield of body components changed with the increasing body weight. pH values was significantly affected by time after slaughtering and finally it's reduced up to 5.69 at 48 hr after slaughtering. Suitable processing weight of broiler carcass to gain maximum breast yield is >2.0 kg which could be obtained highest fillet yield. To gain highest cooking yield (83.55%), carcass should be cooked immediately after slaughtering. Regression analyses revealed that linear relationship between live weight and dress weight of broiler carcass at different transport distance, starvation period, life time, and cage system at p<0.01 except >150 kg transport distance. Based on the dressing percentage, weight of total edible meat, it may be concluded that broiler chickens are optimally slaughtered up to 2.0 kg live weight. Live and dress weight had highly significant relationship with the transport distance, starvation period, life time, cage system and live weight category.
      PubDate: 2016-04-08
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2016)
       
  • Comparative Evaluation of the Levels of Minerals and Mineral Safety Index
           of Raw, Roasted and Cooked Treculia Africana Seed Flours

    • Authors: Adeolu Jonathan Adesina, Emmanuel Ilesanmi Adeyeye
      First page: 39
      Abstract: The raw, cooked and roasted seed parts of Treculia africana commonly called “afon” in Yoruba and “ukwa” in Ibo languages were investigated for the mineral composition using standard methods. Calculations of Ca/P, Na/K, [K/(Ca+Mg)], Ca/Mg ratios and mineral safety index were also carried out. In the mineral composition, raw samples were best in Na and K; roasted samples were highest in Ca and Mg; cooked samples  were highest in Zn, Fe,  Mn and P; in all the samples, Ca/P was generally lower than the 0.5 recommended for favourable absorption of calcium in the intestine  for bone formation;  the samples were all good in Na/K in that they were all lower than 0.6 recommended as the  highest limit ratio that prevent high blood pressure; both the raw and processed samples were high in [K/(Ca+Mg)] and non of the sample type was good in Ca/Mg. In the mineral safety index (MSI) values:  Fe with  standard MSI of  6.7 recorded negative values of -3.20 and -4.20 in roasted seeds testa and cooked testa flours respectively whereas in all other sample parts positive values were recorded. The statistical analysis results (linear correlation) on a pair-wise comparison showed that the mineral contents in raw/roasted and raw/cooked were significantly different at ? = 0.05, df=n-1. The research has provided nutritional information with respect to processing methods on the minerals in the various parts of the seeds analyzed and that levels of nutritive minerals were more positively enhanced in the roasted seeds flour than in the cooked sample flours.  
      PubDate: 2016-04-08
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2016)
       
  • Quality Assessment of Some Rice Varieties Newly Adopted in NARC

    • Authors: Ujjwol Subedi, Achyut Mishra, Man Bahadur Shrestha
      First page: 48
      Abstract: Five rice varieties newly adopted in NARC were studied for their varietal differences in relation to quality characteristics such as physicochemical and cooking qualities. In physical analysis bulk density, density, thousand kernel weight and length to breadth ratio were recorded as highest in ‘Lumle-2’ (0.602gm/ml), ‘Lumle-2’ (27.789gm), ‘UPLRI-5’ (1.361gm/ml) and ‘IET-16775’ (4.710) varieties respectively. The milling and head rice recovery were recorded maximum in ‘Lumle-2’ (78.821%) and ‘UPLRI-5’ (78.282%) respectively. Protein, fat, amylose, crude-fiber and total-ash were ranged from 8.292-13.346%, 1.147-1.872%, 24.541-27.396% and 0.707-1.379% respectively. Iron, phosphorous and calcium content were estimated in the range 1.016-2.325mg/100g, 204.036-336.532mg/100g and 16.189-29.813mg/100g respectively. From organoleptic test, ‘IET-16775’ variety was scored as strongest aroma. ‘Lumle-2’, ‘Chhomrong’, ‘Machapuchhre-3’ varieties were shown as intermediate gelatinization-temperature and ‘UPLRI-5’ and ‘IET-16775’ varieties were recorded as high gelatinization-temperature. Water uptake ratio, cooking time, elongation ratio and gruel loss were found in the range 1.696-2.667, 18-25minutes, 1.252-1.428, and 2.477-6.188% respectively. 
      PubDate: 2016-04-08
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2016)
       
  • Physicochemical properties of sorghum malt and Bambara groundnut based
           extrudates

    • Authors: Kalep Bulus Filli
      Pages: 55 - 65
      Abstract: Extrusion cooking has beenused as an important technique for the manufacture and modification of widevariety of food products such as expanded snack foods, ready-to-eat cerealswhich are made from foods with high starch and protein. Although starchy foodsare the predominant structure forming agents, their utilization as food hasbeen limited by their poor protein quality and quantity. The supplementationwith legumes improves the essential amino acid content of the food. Bambaragroundnut has balanced amino acid content and can supplement the quality ofamino acids in sorghum. Starch from sorghum flour has been found to beresistant to extrusion. This makes the modification of functional propertiesvery difficult. Malting of the sorghum has been adopted for the modification ofthe starch quality. The nutrient and functional properties of food play majorrole in their application and use as food. This work has studied the effect offeed moisture (20%, 25%, and 30%) and barrel temperature (100o C,110OC and 130o C) on the chemical composition andfunctional properties of sorghum malt and Bambara groundnut blends. From theresults of the analyses, protein content varied from 11.07% to 11.75%. Increasein barrel temperature decreased the protein content while feed moistureincrease favoured the retention of proteins. The expansion index (EI), waterabsorption index (WAI) and effect of quantity of water on swell volume (EQWSV)varied from 1.88 to 3.88, 570% to 660% and 13.7 seconds to 33.4 secondsrespectively. These properties are negatively affected by increase in feedmoisture but they improve with increases in barrel temperature. The values forwater solubility index (WSI), bulk density and Wettability ranged from 2.2% to8.4%, 0.2g/cm3 to o.7g/cm3 and 14.3 seconds to 37.3seconds respectively. The increase in feed moisture has positive influence onthese parameters while temperature increased affected them negatively. 
      PubDate: 2016-12-19
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2016)
       
  • Determination of Caffeine and Taurine Contents in Energy Drinks by HPLC-UV

    • Authors: Krishna Prasad Rai, Hasta Bahadur Rai, Santosh Dahal, Saroj Chaudhary, Suraj Shrestha
      Pages: 66 - 73
      Abstract: Energy drinks are non-alcoholic beverage intended to enhance the psycho-physiological responses in human, which is especially popular among young generation in Nepal. It is normally high caffeinated drink added with other ingredients such as carbohydrates, amino acids, B-group of vitamins etc. In this study, 10 brands of energy drink available in Nepalese markets were taken then analyzed for quantitative determination of Caffeine and Taurine by HPLC-UV method. From the result obtained, pH and TSS values of energy drinks were found in the range of 2.96-3.81 and 6.64-18.21 respectively. Likewise, the Caffeine and Taurine content in same samples were found in the range of not detected (ND) to 35.78 mg/100 ml and ND to 387.5 mg/100 ml respectively. Only the 6 samples out of 10 were confi rmed caffeine content as per claimed in label, while only 3 samples were confi rmed for Taurine content as per label claimed. Based on this pilot study, the majority of samples did not meet the label claims in term of Caffeine and Taurine, which apparently indicated the misbranding of such drinks. Since, there is no any regulation for such energy drinks in Nepal, it seems to be a great challenge for regulation of their safety and misbranding.
      PubDate: 2016-12-19
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2016)
       
  • A simple HPLC Method for the Determination of Caffeine Content in Tea and
           Coffee

    • Authors: Prashanta Pokhrel, Suraj Shrestha, Som Kanta Rijal, Krishna Prasad Rai
      Pages: 74 - 78
      Abstract: A simple HPLC-UV method was developed and validated for the determination of Caffeine content in tea and coffee samples of different local brands commercially available at Kathmandu and Kaski, Nepal. Water extracted caffeine was separated through c-18 column (ODS 5 μm, internal diameter 4.6 nm and length 150 mm) using methanol and water (40:60) as a mobile phase. The peak response time for caffeine was observed at 2.66 minutes using UV detector set at 275 nm. Method validation parameters viz. linearity, sensitivity (LOD & LOQ), repeatability and recovery were assessed for the detection of caffeine. Linear dynamic range was 2-10μg/ml with correlation coeffi cient (R2) of 0.9928. The LOQ and LOD were found to be 0.7 and 0.2μg/ml respectively. Relative standard deviation for retention time for intraday repeatability was 0.9 and for inter-day 1.63%. Recovery was measured by spiking blank tea samples and the results of recovery were greater than 97%. The validated method was fi nally adapted to determinate caffeine content in Nepalese tea and coffee samples. The average caffeine contents in tea and coffee were found in the range of (2.5-3.53) % and (1.17-1.34) % on dry basis respectively.
      PubDate: 2016-12-19
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2016)
       
  • Study on the Preparation of Biscuit and Cake from Amaranthus and Sorghum

    • Authors: Roman Karki
      Pages: 79 - 84
      Abstract: Biscuit and cake are prepared from amaranthus and sorghum flour at the proportion of 20, 30, 40 and 50% with wheat flour. Sensory evaluation was carried out and there is no significant difference (p≤0.05) in texture in the different biscuit made from amaranthus flour. However there is significant difference in color, taste, smell and overall acceptance in amaranthus biscuits. In case of sorghum biscuit there is significant difference in texture and no significant difference  in color, taste, smell and overall acceptance. Similarly, there is significant difference in color, texture, smell, taste and overall acceptance between amaranthus cakes. However, there is significant difference in color of sorghum cake and the difference is insignificant in texture, taste, smell and overall acceptance.
      PubDate: 2016-12-19
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2016)
       
  • Effect of Mixing Pumpkin Puree With Wheat Flour on Physical, Nutritional
           and Sensory Characteristics of Biscuit

    • Authors: Bina Gurung, Pravin Ojha, Dilip Subba
      Pages: 85 - 89
      Abstract: Physical, nutritional and sensory quality characteristics of semi sweet type biscuit made by mixing wheat flour and pumpkin puree were studied. Wheat flour and pumpkin puree were mixed in the ratio of 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30 and 60:40. Diameter and thickness of biscuit decreased and bulk density increased as the amount of pumpkin increased. The nutritional quality of biscuit was positively influenced by the incorporation of pumpkin. Pumpkin increased protein, crude fibre, calcium, carotene and vitamin C of biscuit. The sensory quality of biscuit made from the mixed flour containing 70 parts of wheat flour and 30 parts of pumpkin puree was best. The biscuit made fromthe flour of this composition contained 2.53% moisture, 9.7% protein, 12% fat, 0.51% crude fiber, 0.81% total ash, 76.98% carbohydrate, 13.01 mg/100g carotene, 1.04 mg/100g Vitamin C, 1.88 mg/100g iron, 35.6 mg/100g calcium and energy value of 454.72 Kcal/100g dry matter.
      PubDate: 2016-12-19
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2016)
       
  • Development, Quality Evaluation and Storage Study of Chicken Meat Pickle

    • Authors: Sunil Rajbanshi, Bhaskar Mani Adhikari, Dilip Subba
      First page: 90
      Abstract: A study was undertaken to develop shelf stable intermediate moisture type chicken meat pickle and evaluate its quality and storage stability. Pre-cooked and fried lean minced chicken meat was mixed with salt, spices and vinegar and packed air tight in glass jar. The product had appreciable sensory quality and low total microbial, yeast and mould counts. Salmonella, Staphylococci and E. coli were found absent in the product. Microbial count and peroxide value lay within the acceptable levels for sixty days.  
      PubDate: 2016-04-16
      Issue No: Vol. 9 (2016)
       
 
 
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