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Journal Cover   Bulletin of Emergency And Trauma
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2322-2522 - ISSN (Online) 2322-3960
   Published by Shiraz University Homepage  [11 journals]
  • Tube Thoracostomy (Chest Tube) Removal in Traumatic Patients: What Do We
           Know' What Can We Do'

    • Authors: Shahram Paydar, Zahra Ghahramani, Hamed Ghoddusi Johari, Samad Khezri, Bizhan Ziaeian, Mohammad Ali Ghayyoumi, Mohammad Javad Fallahi, Mohammad Hadi Niakan, Golnar Sabetian, Hamid Reza Abbasi, Shahram Bolandparvaz
      Pages: 37 - 40
      Abstract: Chest tube (CT) or tube thoracostomy placement is often indicated following traumatic injuries. Premature movement of the chest tube leads to increased hospital complications and costs for patients. Placement of a chest tube is indicated in drainage of blood, bile, pus, drain air, and other fluids. Although there is a general agreement for the placement of a chest tube, there is little consensus on the subsequent management. Chest tube removal in trauma patients increases morbidity and hospital expense if not done at the right time. A review of relevant literature showed that the best answers to some questions about time and decision-making have been long sought. Issues discussed in this manuscript include chest tube removal conditions, the need for chest radiography before and after chest tuberemoval, the need to clamp the chest tube prior to removal, and drainage rate and acceptability prior to removal.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 APR (2015)
  • Analgesic Effects and Safety of Desmopressin, Tramadol and Indomethacin in
           Patients with Acute Renal Colic; A Randomized Clinical Trial

    • Authors: Mehdi Shirazi, Mehdi Salehipour, Mohammad Amin Afrasiabi, Alireza Amin Sharifi
      Pages: 41 - 45
      Abstract: Objective: To compare the efficacy of desmopressin (DDAVP), tramadol and indomethacin on pain intensity of patients with acute renal colic caused by urolithiasis.Methods: This prospective, randomized clinical trial was conducted between July 2005 and July 2006 including120 patients (70 men and 50 women, mean age 38.2±5.8 years) referring to emergency room of Shahid Faghihi hospital with renal colic caused by urolithiasis without any previous treatment. The patients were randomly assigned to three groups: group A received tramadol 50mg intramuscularly (n=40), group B received desmopressin40 µg intranasally (n=40) and group C received indomethacin 100mg rectally (n=40). The pain was assessed both on admission and 30 minutes after the intervention. The pain intensity and the side effects were compared between two study groups.Results: There was no significant difference between two study groups regarding the baseline characteristics. The intensity of pain of presentation was almost similar in all groups. In group A, 30 patients (75%), in group B, 15 patients (37.5%) and in group C, 19 patients (47.5%) had complete pain relief. The pain intensity decreased significantly after the intervention within all three groups ( p<0.001).Conclusion: According to the results of the current study, rectal indomethacin, intramuscular tramadol and intranasal desmopressin are effective and safe routs of controlling pain in acute renal colic secondary to urolithiasis. Tramadol was the most effective agent in controlling the pain.Clinical Trial Registry: The current study is registered with Iranian Registry for Clinical Trials (; IRCT2015030919470N18)
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 APR (2015)
  • Analgesic Effects of Inhalation of Nitric Oxide (Entonox) and Parenteral
           Morphine Sulfate in Patients with Renal Colic; A Randomized Clinical Trial

    • Authors: Hamid Kariman, Alireza Majidi, Sara Taheri, Ali Shahrami, Hamid Reza Hatamabadi
      Pages: 46 - 52
      Abstract: Objective: To compare the analgesiceffects of Nitrous oxide and morphine sulfate in patients with acute renalcolic due to urolithiasis.Methods: This  was randomized clinical trial being performed in Imam Hossein hospital affiliated with Shahid Beheshti University  of Medical Sciences during a 1-year period from May2013 to May2014.  A  total of number of 100 patients, with an age range of 20-50 years, who presented with renal colic secondary to urolithiasis confirmed by ultrasonography were randomly assigned to receive morphine sulfate injection (0.1 mg/kg)  with100 mg diclofenac suppository (n=50) or Entonox exhalation (50% nitric oxide and 50% oxygen)for 30-minutes with 100 mg diclofenac suppository (n=50). Quantitative measurement was of pain was performed according to a visual  analogue scale (VAS), before, 3, 5, 10 and 30-minute after the intervention. The pain severity and side effects were measured between two study groups.Results: The baseline characteristics of the patients in two study groups were comparable. The frequencies of pain persistence (at least 50%) at 3-, 5-, 10- and 30-minute intervals in morphine sulfategroup were 96%, 80%,50% and 8%, respectively; these frequencies in Entonex were 82%, 42%, 12% and 2%, respectively (p<0.001). Cox regression modeling showed that use of Entonox was the only effective agent in the success of treatment, compared to the use of morphine, i.e. use of Entonox increased the success of treatment up to 2.1 folds compared to the use of morphine (HR=2.1; 95% CI: 1.2-3.6; p=0.006).Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrate that inhalation of Entonox is an effective and safe analgesic regimen for acute renal colic. It acts more rapidly and is more potent in relieving renal colic when compared to morphine sulfate.Entonox can be regarded as an appropriate alternative to analgesics like opioids in this ground.Clinical Trial Registry: The current study is registered with Iranian Registry for Clinical Trials (; IRCT2014120215620N4)
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 APR (2015)
  • Diagnostic Accuracy of Peripheral White Blood Cell Count, Fever and Acute
           Leukocutosis for Bacterial Meningitis in Patients with Severe Traumatic
           Brain Injury

    • Authors: Hosseinali Khalili, Golnaz Yadollahikhales, Mohammad Isaee
      Pages: 53 - 58
      Abstract: Objective: To determine the diagnostic value of serum white blood cell (WBC) count, fever (>38˚C) and WBC rise (>10%) for bacterial meningitis in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI).Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Shahid Rajaei hospital affiliated with Shiraz University of Medical Sciences during a 1-year period from 2013 to 2014. We included consecutively all the patients with severe TBI admitted to our center during the study period who were febrile (>38˚C orally) and underwent lumbar puncture (LP) and analysis and culture of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Laboratory analysis of CSF and blood were performed within 2 hours of LP. CSF culture was considered the gold standard for diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value (PPV, NPV) of peripheral blood WBC count, fever (>38˚C) and WBC rise (>10%) was determined according to the CSF culture.Results: Overall we included242 consecutive patients with severe TBI. The mean age of the participants was 32.8 ± 17.4 years. Acinetobacter was the most common organism found in the CSF cultures. The sensitivity and specificity of peripheral WBC count (>10,000)was 48.4% (95% CI: 0.42-0.56) and 47% (95% CI: 0.37-0.58) respectively. The PPV and NPV was 13.1% (95% CI: 0.33-0.52) and 84.8% (95% CI: 0.42-0.61), respectively. The AUC for WBC count was 0.478 (95% CI: 0.37-0.58) indicating low accuracy for the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. The AUC for WBC rise (>10%) and temperature >38˚C was0.460 (95% CI: 0.351-0.569) and 0.517 (95% CI: 0.410-0.624) respectively, both indicating low accuracy for diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. Conclusion: The results of the current study indicates that peripheral blood leukocyte count, fever (>38˚C) and WBC rise (>10%) is a non-reliable marker for diagnosis of bacterial meningitis in patients with severe TBI.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 APR (2015)
  • Characteristics of Pseudoaneurysms in Southern India; Risk Analysis,
           Clinical Profile, Surgical Management and Outcome

    • Authors: Hafeezulla Lone, Farooq Ahmad Ganie, Ghulam Nabi Lone, Abdul Majeed Dar, Mohammad Akbar Bhat, Shyam Singh, Khursheed Ahmad Parra
      Pages: 59 - 64
      Abstract: Objective: To determine the risk factors, clinical characteristics, surgical management and outcome of pseudoaneurysm secondary to iatrogenic or traumatic vascular injury.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study being performed in department of cardiovascular and thoracic surgery skims soura during a 4-year period. We included all the patients referring to our center with primary diagnosis of pseudoaneurysm. The pseudoaneurysm was diagnosed with angiography and color Doppler sonography. The clinical and demographic characteristics were recorded and the risk factors were identified accordingly. Patients with small swelling (less than 5-cm) and without any complication were managed conservatively. They were followed for progression and development of complications in relation to swelling. Others underwent surgical repair and excision. The outcome of the patients was also recorded.Results: Overall we included 20 patients with pseudoaneurysm. The mean age of the patients was 42.1±0.6 years. Among them there were 11 (55%) men and 9 (45%) women. Nine (45%) patients with end stage renal disease developed pseudoaneurysm after inadvertent femoral artery puncture for hemodialysis; two patients after interventional cardiology procedure; one after femoral embolectomy; one developed after fire arm splinter injury and one formed femoral artery related pseudoaneurysm after drainage of right inguinal abscess. The most common site of pseudoaneurysm was femoral artery followed by brachial artery. Overall surgical intervention was performed in 17 (85%) patients and 3 (15%) were managed conservatively.Conclusion: End stage renal disease is a major risk factor for pseudoaneurysm formation. Coagulopathy, either therapeutic or pathological is also an important risk factor. Patients with these risk factors need cannulation of venous structures for hemodialysis under ultrasound guide to prevent inadvertent arterial injury. Patients with end stage renal disease who sustain inadvertent arterial puncture during cannulation for hemodialysis should receive compression dressings for 5 to 7 days.                                     

      PubDate: 2015-04-01
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 APR (2015)
  • The Diagnostic Value of Surface Markers in Acute Appendicitis; A
           Diagnostic Accuracy Study

    • Authors: Naser Mohammad Gholi Mezerji, Mohammad Rafeie, Zahra Shayan, Ghasem Mosayebi
      Pages: 65 - 69
      Abstract: Objective: To determine the diagnostic value of blood cells surface markers in patients with acute appendicitis. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 71 patients who underwent appendectomy following a diagnosis of appendicitis were recruited during a one-year period. The patients were divided into two groups: patients with histopathologically confirmed acute appendicitis and subjects with normal appendix. Blood cell surface markers of all patients were measured. Univariate and multivariate analytical methods were applied to identify the most useful markers. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves were also used to find the best cut-off point, sensitivity, and specificity.Results: Overall we included 71 patients with mean age of 22.6±10.7 years. Of the 71 cases, 45 (63.4%) had acute appendicitis while 26 (36.6%) were normal. There was no significant difference between two study groups regarding the age ( p=0.151) and sex ( p=0.142). The initial WBC count was significantly higher in those with acute appendicitis ( p=0.033). Maximum and minimum area under the ROC curve in univariate analysis was reported for CD3/RA (0.71) and CD38 (0.533), respectively. Multivariate regression models revealed the percentage of accurate diagnoses based on the combination of g/d TCR, CD3/RO, and CD3/RA markers to be 74.65%. Maximum area under the ROC curve (0.79) was also obtained for the same combination.Conclusion: the best blood cell surface markers in the prediction of acute appendicitis were HLA-DR+CD19, α/b TCR, and CD3/RA. The simultaneous use of g/d TCR, CD3/RA, and CD3/RO showed the highest diagnostic value in acute appendicitis. 
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 APR (2015)
  • Giant Fecaloma Causing Small Bowel Obstruction: Case Report and Review of
           the Literature

    • Authors: Mosin Mushtaq, Mubashir A Shah, Aijaz A Malik, Khurshid A Wani, Natasha Thakur, Fazl Q Parray
      Pages: 70 - 72
      Abstract: Fecaloma is a mass of hardened feces being impacted mostly in rectum and sigmoid. The most common sites of the fecaloma is the sigmoid colon and the rectum. There are several causes of fecaloma and have been described in association with Hirschsprung’s disease, psychiatric patients, Chagas disease, both inflammatory and neoplastic, and in patients suffering with chronic constipation. Up to now several cases of giant fecaloma has been reported in the literature most of them presenting with megacolon or urinary retention. We herein report a case of giant fecaloma leading to bowel obstruction who was successfully treated by surgery. A 30-yrar-old man presented with sign and symptoms of acute bowel obstruction. He underwent exploratory laparotomy and enterotomy. He was found to have a giant fecaloma causing bowel obstruction in the jejunum. He was discharged after the operation with good condition. Jejunal fecaloma is extremely rare condition.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 APR (2015)
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