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Journal Cover Bulletin of Emergency And Trauma
  [1 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2322-2522 - ISSN (Online) 2322-3960
   Published by Shiraz University Homepage  [17 journals]
  • Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE)-based Assessment of the
           Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) Course in Iran

    • Authors: Hamid Reza Abbasi, Mitra Amini, Shahram Bolandparvaz, Shahram Paydar, Jameel Ali, Sepideh Sefidbakht
      Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the effect of advance trauma life support (ATLS®) training on general surgery residents clinical reasoning skills using the national boards-style objective structured clinical examination (OSCE).Methods: This cross-sectional single-center study was conducted in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences including 51 surgery residents that participated in a mandatory national board style OSCE between May 2014 and May 2015. OSCE scores of two groups of general surgery residents including 23 ATLS® trained and 28 non-ATLS® trained were compared using Mann-Whitney U test. The exam was graded out of 20 points and the passing score was ≥14 including 40% trauma cases.Results: There were 8(15.7%) women and 43(84.3%) men among the participants with mean age of 31.12 ± 2.69 and 33.67 ± 4.39 years in women and men respectively. Overall 7 (87.5%) women and 34 (79.07%) men passed the OSCE. The trauma section OSCE score was significantly higher in the ATLS® trained participants when compared to non-ATLS®(7.79 ± 0.81vs.6.90 ± 1.00; p=0.001). In addition, the total score was also significantly higher in ATLS® trained residents (16.07 ± 1.41 vs. 14.60 ± 1.40; p=0.001). There was no association between gender and ATLS® score (p=0.245) or passing the OSCE (p=0.503).Conclusion: ATLS® training is associated with improved overall OSCE scores of general surgery residents completing the board examinations suggesting a positive transfer of ATLS learned skills to management of simulated surgical patients including trauma cases.
      PubDate: 2016-04-01
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 APR (2016)
  • Psychiatric Emergency Triage in Iran; the Need for a Specific Tool

    • Authors: Amin Daemi, Mohammad Reza Sheikhy-Chaman
      PubDate: 2016-04-01
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 APR (2016)
  • Post-Traumatic Balint's Syndrome: A Case Report and Review of the

    • Abstract:  Balint’s syndrome is a rare neurological disorder associated with bilateral parieto-occipital damage which was described by Rezsö Bálint in 1909.The syndrome is manifested clinically by the presence of a hemispatial negligence. The lesion is usually inside parietooccipital region bilaterally in most cases but may also be compromised angular convolutions, the dorsolateral area of the occipital lobe as the superior parietal lobule. We herein report a 61-year-old man with traumatic brain injury who was diagnosed to have right parieto-occipital contusion in radiologic evaluation. Physical examination was consistent with Balint's syndrome. The patient was followed for 12 months post-injury and received 4-months of outpatient rehabilitation. Patient showed improvement of Balint’s syndrome 8 months after the starts of symptoms. 
      PubDate: 2016-04-01
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 APR (2016)
  • Trans-Scaphoid Perilunate Fracture Dislocation; A Technical Note

    • Authors: Hossein Aslani, Mohammad Reza Bazavar, Ali Sadighi, Ali Tabrizi, Asghar Elmi
      Abstract: Carpal fracture-dislocation is regarded as an unusual orthopedic injury and, thus, orthopedic surgeons are less experienced in dealing with and treating these fractures and dislocations. We report a 20-year-old worker man suffering from an unusual carpal fracture-dislocation. There was trans-scaphoid fracture and lunate dislocation with other carpal proximal bones toward volar of the wrist. Two volar and dorsal approaches were used to treat and stabilize the fracture. It was completely stabilized after open reduction and fixation using several pins. After two days, neural symptoms were completely recovered and the patient was discharged. Postoperative radiographies revealed complete restitution of lesser and greater arcs and normalization of Gilula's line. Scapholunate and lunatocapitate angles reached to less than 60° and 10°, respectively. The combined approach had favorable results for treatment of this unusual type of carpus fracture dislocation. However longer follow up is need to evaluate the arthritis and degenerative changes in wrist.
      PubDate: 2016-04-01
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 APR (2016)
  • Craniocerebral Gunshot Injuries; A Review of the Current Literature

    • Authors: Hernando Raphael Alvis-Miranda, Andres M. Rubiano, Amit Agrawal, Alejandro Rojas, Luis Rafael Moscote-Salazar, Guru Dutta Satyarthee, Willem Guillermo Calderon-Miranda, Nidia Escobar Hernandez, Nasly Zabaleta-Churio
      Abstract:  Craniocerebral gunshot injuries (CGI) are increasingly encountered by neurosurgeons in civilian and urban settings. Unfortunately, more   prevalent condition in developing countries, with major armed conflicts which is still persisting, since the main trigger is violence at the national or state level. Management goals of CGI should focus on aggressive resuscitation and correction of coagulopathy; those with stable vital signs should undergo CT scan head at the earliest possible opportunity. Neuroimaging is vital for   planning of surgical management, especially to determine the type of surgery, routes of the approach to the surgical target area and   extraction of the impacted foreign bodies, however, surgical management is not always indicated. Although subset of such cases   may be managed even with non-surgical management. The treatment comprises of immediate life salvaging resuscitative measures including control of the  persistent bleeding, care of associated injury,   management of raised intracranial pressure, prevention of cerebrospinal fistula formation by primary watertight dural repair and  prevention of infection, through extensive debridement of   contaminated, macerated or ischemic tissues; preservation of nervous tissue   and restoration of anatomic structures through the hermetic sealing of dural and scalp defect. Recently, only few studies of craniocerebral penetrating injuries are published that too involving   smaller   patients sample sizes; although classic studies in the military and civil situation noticed associated relatively very high mortality and morbidity and psychological as well as economic impact on the   affected individual, the family and the health system in providing ongoing care to the sufferers and society at large.  Currently various measures are advocated with aim to reduce the incidence of CGI especially in civilian populations. It is highly necessary and immensely urgent to promote research in a neurocritical care of CGI to provide positive impact on improvement of    the quality of life and further providing better care and reduction of overall health care cost.
      PubDate: 2016-04-01
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 APR (2016)
  • Blunt Abdominal Wall Disruption by Seatbelt Injury; A Case Report and
           Review of the Literature

    • Authors: Maarten Philip Cornelissen, Jesse van Buijtenen, Baukje van den Heuvel, Frank Bloemers, Leo Geeraedts Jr.
      Abstract: With the introduction of the use of seatbelts in cars, mortality following motor vehicle crashes has decreased significantly. However, two patterns of injuries, the ‘seatbelt sign’ and ‘seatbelt syndrome’ have emerged. Injuries may consist of traumatic abdominal wall disruption. We present two cases of severe abdominal wall disruption caused by a seatbelt injury and treated with primary repair. A review of the literature is provided. Two patients were brought in after a high velocity Motor Vehicle Collision. Both presented with an acute abdomen and a seatbelt sign upon which the decision was made to perform emergency laparotomies. Both patients had an abdominal wall disruption along the seatbelt sign. These disruptions were primarily closed and during six months of follow-up no complications occurred. A disruption of the abdominal wall is a rare complication. However, it is a diagnosis that may not be missed as patients have a higher risk of morbidity and mortality. CT-scanning is an accurate method to detect disruptions. Closure of blunt traumatic abdominal wall disruption can be done primarily with sutures or addition of a mesh. In both cases of the severe abdominal wall disruption, primary repair without mesh in the acute phase was successful. When a laparotomy is not indicated, the abdominal wall must be assessed for disruption. If there is a disruption primary repair is a good option.
      PubDate: 2016-04-01
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 APR (2016)
  • Short-term Results of Muscle-Pedicle Bone Grafting with Tensor Fascia Lata
           for Delayed Femoral Neck Fractures; Case Series and Literature Review

    • Authors: Kuldip Salgotra, Sarabjeet Kohli, Nilesh Vishwakarma
      Abstract: Neglected, untreated and delayed femur neck fractures are commonly encountered and the treatment dilemma arises especially when the patient is physiologically young and osteosynthesis is the preferred option. Controversy exists in the current literature as the various head salvage surgeries like valgus subtrochanteric osteotomy, non-vascularized fibular bone grafting, muscle pedicle bone grafting (Tensor fascia lata and Quadratus femoris graft) and vascularized bone grafting do not have clear lines of indications. The current study is a case series of 7 patients with femur neck fractures with delayed presentation beyond the vascular emergency period who were treated with osteosynthesis with muscle pedicle bone graft (MPBG) using tensor fascia lata muscle pedicle graft. Patients were followed clinical and radiologically at 6 weeks, 3 and 6 months, 1 year and 3 years and patients were regularly followed. The mean age of the patients was 47 ± 1.1 ranging from 38 to 55 years. There were 6 (85.7%) men and 1 (14.3%) women among the patients. Overall 5 (71.5%) patients had transcervical and 2 (28.5%) had subcapital fractures. At the end of 6 months, 6 (85.7%) patients were pain free and on plain radiographs fracture union was noted. One (14.3%) patient developed collapse and persistent nonunion. Younger group less than 50 years presenting with neglected fracture neck femur should always be give an option of head salvage surgery in selected cases. Muscle pedicle bone grafting has been proven although inconsistently as a valid option for fracture neck femur. We encourage osteosynthesis with the use of tensor fascia lata muscle pedicle grafting along with cancellous cannulated screws as a first option in selected cases of neglected femur neck fractures.
      PubDate: 2016-04-01
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 APR (2016)
  • Assessment and Availability of Trauma Care Services in a District Hospital
           of South India; A Field Observational Study

    • Authors: Pallavi Sarji Uthkarsh, Gopalkrishna Gururaj, Sai Sabharish Reddy, Mandya Siddalingaiah Rajanna
      Abstract: Objective: To assess the availability of trauma care services in a district referral hospital of Southern India.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study being performed during 2013 in a tertiary healthcare centre in Southern Indian. A detailed assessment of trauma care services was done in a 400 bed speciality hospital which is an apex referral hospital in the public health system using a check list based on WHO guidelines for evaluation of essential trauma care services, along with in-depth interviews of hospital stake holders and key informants.Results: The hospital had physical infrastructure in terms of emergency room, inpatient wards, operation theatres, intensive care unit and blood bank facilities. The recently constructed designated building for trauma care services was not operational and existing facilities were used beyond capacity. A designated trauma team was lacking and speciality services for managing polytrauma were deficient and thus, existing personnel were performing multiple tasks. Neurosurgeons and rehabilitative nursing staff were unavailable, and a radiographer was not available on a 24/7 basis. Existing nursing personnel had not received any formal training in trauma care and standard operating protocols were not available for trauma care. Resources for acute resuscitation were partially adequate. The hospital lacked adequate resources to manage head, abdomen, chest and spine injuries, and most of the polytrauma cases were referred to nearby city hospitals.Conclusion: District hospital, the only referral hospital in public health system for trauma victims of that region, had inadequate resources to manage trauma victims, which was probably responsible for delay in trauma care, improper referrals, high cost of care and poor outcomes.
      PubDate: 2016-04-01
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 APR (2016)
  • Evaluation of Sensorimotor Nerve Damage in Patients with Maxillofacial
           Trauma; a Single Center Experience

    • Authors: Behnaz Poorian, Mehdi Bemanali, Mohammad Chavoshinejad
      Abstract: Objective: To evaluate sensorimotor nerve damage in patients with maxillofacial trauma referring to Taleghani hospital, Tehran, IranMethods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during a 2-year period from 2014 to 2012 in Taleghani hospital of Tehran. We included a total number of 495 patients with maxillofacial trauma referring to our center during the study period. The demographic information, type of fracture, location of fracture and nerve injuries were assessed and recorded in each patients. The frequency of sensorimotor injuries in these patients was recorded. Data are presented as frequencies and proportions as appropriate.Results: Overall we included 495 patients with maxillofacial trauma with mean age of 31.5±13.8 years. There were 430 (86.9% men and in 65 (13.1%) women among the patients. The frequency of nerve injuries was 67.7% (336 patients). The mean age of the patients with nerve injuries was 33.4 ± 3.7 years. Marginal mandibular branch of facial nerve was the most common involved nerve being involved in 5 patients (1%). Regarding trigeminal nerve, the inferior alveolar branch (194 patients 39.1%) was the most common involved branch followed by infraorbital branch (135 patients 27.2%). Mandibular fracture was the most common injured bone being reported in 376 patient (75.9%) patients followed by zygomatic bone in 100 patient (20%).Conclusion: The most frequent fracture occurred in mandible followed by zygoma and the most injured nerve was inferior alveolar nerve followed by infraorbital branch of trigeminal nerve. In facial nerve the marginal branch was the most involved nerve. The frequency of nerve injury and the male to female ratio was higher in the current study compared to the literature.
      PubDate: 2016-04-01
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 APR (2016)
  • Local Effect of Heparin Binding Neurotrophic Factor Combined With Chitosan
           Entubulization on Sciatic Nerve Repair in Rats

    • Authors: Ali Mehrshad, Ashkan Seddighnia, Mohammadreza Shadabi, Alireza Najafpour, Rahim Mohammadi
      Abstract: Objective: To assess the effect of heparin binding neurotrophic factor (HBNF) on sciatic nerve regeneration in animal model of rat.Methods: Seventy-five male Wistar rats were divided into five experimental groups randomly (each group containing 15 animals): Sham operation group (SHAM), autograft group (AUTO), transected control (TC), chitosan conduit (CHIT) and heparin binding neurotrophic factor treated group (CHIT/HBNF). In AUTO group a segment of sciatic nerve was transected and reimplanted reversely. In SHAM group sciatic nerve was exposed and manipulated. In transected group left sciatic nerve was transected and stumps were fixed in adjacent muscle (TC). In treatment group defect was bridged using a chitosan conduit (CHIT) filled with 10 µL (0.1 mg/mL) HBNF (CHIT/HBNF). Each group was subdivided into four subgroups of five animals each and nerve fibers were studied in a 12-week period.Results: Behavioral, functional, biomechanical, electrophysiological and gastrocnemius muscle mass findings and morphometric indices confirmed faster recovery of regenerated axons in treatment group than in CHIT group (P=0.001). Immunohistochemical reactions to S-100 in treatment group were more positive than that in CHIT group.Conclusion: Local administration of HBNF improved functional recovery and morphometric indices of sciatic nerve. It could be considered as an effective treatment for peripheral nerve repair in practice.
      PubDate: 2016-04-01
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 APR (2016)
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