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Journal Cover   Cosmetics
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2079-9284
   Published by MDPI Homepage  [140 journals]
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 48-65: Main Benefits and Applicability of Plant
           Extracts in Skin Care Products

    • Authors: Ana Ribeiro, Marilene Estanqueiro, M. Oliveira, José Sousa Lobo
      Pages: 48 - 65
      Abstract: Natural ingredients have been used for centuries for skin care purposes. Nowadays, they are becoming more prevalent in formulations, due to consumers’ concerns about synthetic ingredients/chemical substances. The main benefits reported for plant extracts, used in skin care, include antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and tyrosinase inhibition effect. In this review, some examples of plants from Portuguese flora, whose extracts have shown good properties for skin care are presented. However, despite the known properties of plant extracts, few studies reported the development of formulations with them. More work in this field can be accomplished to meet consumer demand.
      PubDate: 2015-04-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2020048
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 66-81: Topical Benefits of Two Fucoidan-Rich
           Extracts from Marine Macroalgae

    • Authors: J. Fitton, Giorgio Dell'Acqua, Vicki-Anne Gardiner, Samuel Karpiniec, Damien Stringer, Emma Davis
      Pages: 66 - 81
      Abstract: Two concentrated and well-characterized fucoidan-rich extracts were investigated to determine their benefits in topical applications. An Undaria pinnatifida extract, containing 85% fucoidan, and a Fucus vesiculosus co-extract, containing 60% fucoidan and 30% polyphenol, were assessed in a number of in vitro assays to measure the effect of the extracts on enzyme inhibition, glycation, antioxidant activity and Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) protein expression. Double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies were also conducted to measure soothing, protection, wrinkle depth, brightness and skin spot intensity. Both extracts demonstrated marked inhibitory effects on processes linked to skin aging, including the increased expression of SIRT1 in vitro. Clinical testing established the efficacy of the extracts in a range of the tested applications, relative to placebo. The Fucus vesiculosus extract with high polyphenol content demonstrated additional in vitro antioxidant activity, as well as improved efficacy in skin brightening applications, relative to placebo. The major effects of the Undaria pinnatifida extract aided skin immunity, soothing and protection, while the Fucus vesiculosus extract most significantly affected age spot reduction and increased brightness, soothing and protection.
      PubDate: 2015-04-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2020066
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 82-92: New Trends in Cosmetics: By-Products of
           Plant Origin and Their Potential Use as Cosmetic Active Ingredients

    • Authors: Ani Barbulova, Gabriella Colucci, Fabio Apone
      Pages: 82 - 92
      Abstract: In recent years, the amount of waste deriving from industrial processes has increased substantially. Many industries produce different types of disposable by-products, rich in valuable compounds. Their characterization and valorization could not only convert them into high value products with application in diverse biotechnological fields, such as Pharmaceutics, Food or Cosmetics, but would also reduce the waste environmental impact and the related treatment costs. There are many examples of cosmetic active ingredients deriving from fish, meat and dairy products, but in the present review we would like to focus on the potentialities and the current use of compounds and extracts deriving from agronomical disposable wastes in the cosmetic field. These types of products are effective, inexpensive and bio-sustainable, and thus represent a valid alternative to the regular plant derived extracts, more commonly adopted in cosmetic formulations. Moreover, if the waste products come from organic farming, they are certainly an even more valuable source of safe extracts for Cosmetics, since they lack any residual pesticide or potentially toxic chemical.
      PubDate: 2015-04-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2020082
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 93-109: Risk of Children’s Dermal Exposure
           to Galaxolide through Personal Care Products

    • Authors: Patrícia Correia, Agostinho Cruz, Lúcia Santos, Arminda Alves
      Pages: 93 - 109
      Abstract: Galaxolide is the most used fragrance since the early 1990s, and it has been largely detected in environmental and biological matrices. This polycyclic musk is present in almost all of our daily products, so the risk of human exposure is substantial, as it had been proved by its detection in human tissues and fluids. Due to the lack of information about the concentrations found in consumer products, monitoring data is needed for exposure assessment purposes. Dermal contact, mostly by personal care products, seems to be the major route of human exposure to galaxolide, and, due to the immaturity of young children’s skin, exposure consequences can be worse in this population. The main objective of this study was to evaluate galaxolide levels in personal care products used by children of Oporto (Portugal), aged 0–5 years, and relate it with consumer habits. Consumer patterns were obtained through 250 questionnaires to caregivers of Oporto children. The 79 most used products were extracted by a dispersive solid phase extraction methodology known as QuEChERS and galaxolide was determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. The concentrations ranged between 0.001 ± 0.001 mg·kg−1, on a baby wipe, and 300.480 ± 8.819 mg·kg−1, on glycerin soap, which may correspond to an estimated daily dermal exposure of 277.10 ± 0.02 µg·day−1 on the population of Oporto children. This value is in the range of the results observed for adults, although no information of toxicological risk for children is available.
      PubDate: 2015-04-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2020093
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 110-126: Types of Hair Dye and Their Mechanisms
           of Action

    • Authors: Simone da França, Michelli Dario, Victoria Esteves, André Baby, Maria Velasco
      Pages: 110 - 126
      Abstract: Hair color change by dye application is a common procedure among women. Hair dyes are classified, according to color resistance, into temporary, semipermanent, demipermanent and permanent. The first two are based on molecules which are already colored. Temporary dyes act through dye deposition on cuticles, but semipermanent may penetrate a little into the cortex and so the color resists up to six washes. Demipermanent and permanent dyes are based on color precursors, called oxidation dyes, and the final shade is developed by their interactions with an oxidizing agent, but they differ from the alkalizing agent used. In oxidation systems, there is an intense diffusion of the molecules into the cortex, what promotes a longer color resistance. Dyes and color precursors present differences related to chromophore groups, hair fiber affinity, water solubility, and photo stability. The aim of this review is to discuss the differences among hair dye products available in the market and their action mechanisms, molecular structures, application methods, and some aspects of formulations.
      PubDate: 2015-04-22
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2020110
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 127-135: The Optimization of the Oiling Bath
           Cosmetic Composition Containing Rapeseed Phospholipids and Grapeseed Oil
           by the Full Factorial Design

    • Authors: Michał Górecki, Anna Kurek-Górecka, Marian Sosada, Beata Pasker, Monika Pająk, Paweł Fraś
      Pages: 127 - 135
      Abstract: The proper condition of hydrolipid mantle and the stratum corneum intercellular matrix determines effective protection against transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Some chemicals, improper use of cosmetics, poor hygiene, old age and some diseases causes disorder in the mentioned structures and leads to TEWL increase. The aim of this study was to obtain the optimal formulation composition of an oiling bath cosmetic based on rapeseed phospholipids and vegetable oil with high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In this work, the composition of oiling bath form was calculated and the degree of oil dispersion after mixing the bath preparation with water was selected as the objective function in the optimizing procedure. The full factorial design 23 in the study was used. The concentrations of rapeseed lecithin ethanol soluble fraction (LESF), alcohol (E) and non-ionic emulsifier (P) were optimized. Based on the calculations from our results, the optimal composition of oiling bath cosmetic was: L (LESF) 5.0 g, E (anhydrous ethanol) 20.0 g and P (Polysorbate 85) 1.5 g. The optimization procedure used in the study allowed to obtain the oiling bath cosmetic which gives above 60% higher emulsion dispersion degree 5.001 × 10−5 cm−1 compared to the initial formulation composition with the 3.096 × 10−5 cm−1.
      PubDate: 2015-04-30
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2020127
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 136-145: Significant Reduction of Body Odor in
           Older People with a pH 4.0 Emulsion

    • Authors: Michael Kemper, Stephan Bielfeldt, Ulrich Knie, Klaus-Peter Wilhelm, Christoph Abels
      Pages: 136 - 145
      Abstract: The impact of increasing age on body odor has become an important issue as our understanding of underlying skin changes in older people has increased. Therefore, cosmetic skin products especially for the needs of the elderly are of growing importance. This randomized single-blind crossover study assessed the deodorizing efficacy of two cosmetic products with different pH values on the age-specific odor of an elderly female subject panel (≥60 years). The two test products, adjusted to pH 4.0 and pH 5.8 were applied to the axillae once daily for three consecutive days after standardized washing of the axillae. The untreated axilla was used as a control. Six odor judges evaluated the efficacy of both products. Additionally, bactericidal and fungicidal activity was investigated with in vitro microbiologic tests. The pH 4.0 water in oil (W/O) emulsion significantly reduced axillary malodor in 44 elderly subjects at 8 and 24 h after treatment, compared with controls (untreated axillae) (p < 0.001 after 8 and 24 h), whereas pH 5.8 emulsion had no effect (p = 0.441 after 8 h; p = 0.425 after 24 h). Moreover, the pH 4.0 emulsion reduced axillary malodor at 8 and 24 h after treatment, compared with the pH 5.8 emulsion just narrowly missing statistical significance (p = 0.078 after 8 h; p = 0.053 after 24 h). Microbiologic in vitro tests showed that the pH 4.0 emulsion reduced the levels of odor-producing bacteria S. epidermidis and C. minutissimum after 1 h (2.98 log and 4.25 log). After 24 h, levels of S. aureus (>5.50 log), P. acnes (>5.30 log) and E. coli (>5.46 log) were further reduced whereas no effect was observed for pH 5.8. A pH 4.0 emulsion significantly reduced axillary malodor for up to 24 h after application in females aged at least 60 years. This reduction in malodor is very likely due to a reduction of odor-producing bacteria.
      PubDate: 2015-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2020136
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 146-161: Stimulation of the Fibrillar Collagen
           and Heat Shock Proteins by Nicotinamide or Its Derivatives in
           Non-Irradiated or UVA Radiated Fibroblasts, and Direct Anti-Oxidant
           Activity of Nicotinamide Derivatives

    • Authors: Neena Philips, Jovinna Chalensouk-Khaosaat, Salvador Gonzalez
      Pages: 146 - 161
      Abstract: In skin aging, from intrinsic factors or exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, there is loss of structural fibrillar collagen and regulatory heat shock proteins. Phenolic compounds, with hydroxyl groups attached to an aromatic ring, have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Nicotinamide is an amide derivative of niacin or vitamin B3, with an amide linked to an aromatic ring, with UV absorptive, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cell death/apoptosis properties. The goal of this research was to investigate the anti-skin aging mechanism of nicotinamide and its derivatives, 2,6-dihydroxynicotinamide, 2,4,5,6-tetrahydroxynicotinamide, and 3-hydroxypicolinamide (collectively niacin derivatives), through the stimulation of fibrillar collagens (type I, III and V, at protein and/or promoter levels) and the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP)-27, 47, 70, and 90 in non-irradiated or UVA radiated dermal fibroblasts; and from its direct antioxidant activity. UVA radiation inhibited the expression of types I and III collagen, and HSP-47 in dermal fibroblasts. The niacin derivatives significantly and similarly stimulated the expression of types I (transcriptionally), III and V collagens in non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts indicating predominant effects. The 2,6-dihydroxynicotinamide had greater stimulatory effect on types I and III collagen in the non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts, as well as greater direct antioxidant activity than the other niacin derivatives. The niacin derivatives, with a few exceptions, stimulated the expression of HSP-27, 47, 70 and 90 in non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts. However, they had varied effects on the expression of the different HSPs in non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts indicating non-predominant, albeit stimulatory, effect. Overall, nicotinamide and its derivatives have anti skin aging potential through the stimulation of fibrillar collagen and HSPs.
      PubDate: 2015-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2020146
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 11-20: Hormetins as Novel Components of
           Cosmeceuticals and Aging Interventions

    • Authors: Suresh Rattan
      Pages: 11 - 20
      Abstract: A promising strategy for maintaining a healthy and youthful phenotype during aging is that of mild stress-induced beneficial hormesis. The basis of hormesis lies in the molecular pathways of stress response, which are essential for the survival of a biological system by activation of maintenance and repair mechanisms in response to stress. Moderate physical exercise is the best example of a hormetin that brings about a wide range of health beneficial hormesis by first challenging the system. Similarly, other natural and synthetic hormetins can be incorporated in cosmeceutical formulations, and can help achieve benefits including maintenance of the skin structure and function. Several polyphenols, flavonoids and other components from spices, algae and other sources are potential hormetins that may act via hormesis. Stress response pathways that can be analyzed for screening potential hormetins for use in cosmetics and cosmeceuticals include heat shock response, autophagy, DNA damage response, sirtuin response, inflammatory response and oxidative stress response.
      PubDate: 2015-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2010011
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 21: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Cosmetics in

    • Authors: Cosmetics Office
      Pages: 21 - 21
      Abstract: The editors of Cosmetics would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2014:[...]
      PubDate: 2015-01-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2010021
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 22-32: New Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    • Authors: An Goossens
      Pages: 22 - 32
      Abstract: Allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and immunologic contact urticaria are potential immune-mediated adverse effects from cosmetics. Fragrance components and preservatives are certainly the most frequently observed allergens; however, all ingredients must be considered when investigating for contact allergy.
      PubDate: 2015-02-04
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2010022
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 33-34: Open Peer Review: A New Challenge for

    • Authors: Enzo Berardesca
      Pages: 33 - 34
      Abstract: Dear Readers, As part of a continued effort to improve the quality of our papers and the transparency of the publication process, Cosmetics will introduce in the near future the possibility for the
      Authors to choose an Open Peer Review process (OPR). OPR is as a process in which the names of the authors and reviewers may be known to each other, and where review reports are published alongside the final manuscript, with the aim to facilitate discussion and clarity between the authors and the reviewer(s).
      PubDate: 2015-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2010033
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 35-47: Effects of Lipids and Emulsifiers on the
           Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Cosmetic Emulsions Containing
           Vitamin E

    • Authors: Lucia Montenegro, Lucia Rapisarda, Carmen Ministeri, Giovanni Puglisi
      Pages: 35 - 47
      Abstract: Sensory properties are fundamental in determining the success of a cosmetic product. In this work, we assessed the influence of different oils and emulsifiers on the physicochemical and sensory properties of anti-ageing cosmetic O/W emulsions containing vitamin E acetate as active ingredient. No clear correlation between physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics was evidenced. Sensorial evaluation of these formulations pointed out that the emulsifier systems affected the perceived oiliness and absorbency during application of the product, thus influencing its acceptance. These results suggest the need for more detailed studies on the physicochemical factors involved in determining the consumers’ acceptance.
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2010035
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 1-10: Green Polymers in Personal Care Products:
           Rheological Properties of Tamarind Seed Polysaccharide

    • Authors: Alessandra Semenzato, Alessia Costantini, Giovanni Baratto
      Pages: 1 - 10
      Abstract: Tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP) is a xyloglucan of vegetable origin, recently proposed for the cosmetic and pharmaceutical market as a “green” alternative to hyaluronic acid. In this study, TSP water dispersions, at different concentrations, were characterized by means of rheological measurements, both in continuous and oscillatory flow conditions. The results were compared with those of hyaluronic acid of two different molecular weights. The results pointed out the close rheological behaviors between TSP and hyaluronic acid with comparable molecular weight. Afterwards, the structural features of binary and ternary polysaccharide associations prepared with TSP, hyaluronic acid (very high MW) and dehydropolysaccharide gum, a modified xanthan gum, with high stabilizing properties, were investigated. The rheological properties were significantly affected by the polysaccharide ratios in the mixture, suggesting that the combination of TSP with other polymers can lead to a modulation of the texture and functional properties of cosmetics.
      PubDate: 2014-12-23
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2010001
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2014)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 1, Pages 222-231: Influence of Temperature and Ultrasonic
           Treatment on Preparation of Titanium Phosphates and Their Powder

    • Authors: Hiroaki Onoda, Syohei Fujikado
      Pages: 222 - 231
      Abstract: Catalytically active titanium dioxide is conventionally used as a white pigment for cosmetics, but undesirably induces a certain degree of decomposition of sebum on the skin on exposure to ultraviolet radiation in sunlight. In this work, titanium phosphates were prepared as a novel white pigment for cosmetics using titanium sulfate and phosphoric acid at various temperatures, with/without ultrasonic treatment. The chemical composition, powder properties, photocatalytic activity, color phase, moisture retention, and smoothness of the phosphates were evaluated. These titanium phosphates had less photocatalytic activity than titanium dioxide, which should be beneficial for protecting sebum on the skin. Samples prepared with ultrasonic treatment had lower visible light absorption than those not subjected to ultrasonication. The sample prepared at 40 °C with ultrasonic treatment had higher moisture retention capacity than those prepared under other conditions. Samples prepared at 40 °C had lower slipping resistance than samples prepared at 7 °C.
      PubDate: 2014-10-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics1040222
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 4 (2014)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 1, Pages 140-158: Chitin-Hyaluronan Nanoparticles: A
           Multifunctional Carrier to Deliver Anti-Aging Active Ingredients through
           the Skin

    • Authors: Pierfrancesco Morganti, Marco Palombo, Galina Tishchenko, Vladimir Yudin, Fabrizio Guarneri, Maria Cardillo, Paola Del Ciotto, Francesco Carezzi, Gianluca Morganti, Giuseppe Fabrizi
      Pages: 140 - 158
      Abstract: The paper describes the process to produce Chitin Nanofibril-Hyaluronan nanoparticles (CN-HA), showing their ability to easily load active ingredients, facilitate penetration through the skin layers, and increase their effectiveness and safety as an anti-aging agent. Size and characterization of CN-HA nanoparticles were determined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Zetasizer, while encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity of the entrapped ingredients were controlled by chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods. Safeness was evidenced on fibroblasts and keratinocytes culture viability by the MTT (Methylthiazol) assay; anti-aging activity was evaluated in vitro measuring antioxidant capacity, anti-collagenase activity, and metalloproteinase and pro-inflammatory release; efficacy was shown in vivo by a double-blind vehicle-controlled study for 60 days on 60 women affected by photo-aging. In addition, the CN-HA nanoparticles have shown interesting possibility to be used as active ingredients, for designing and making advanced medication by the electrospinning technology, as well as to produce transparent films for food packaging, by the casting method, and can be used also in their dry form as tissues or films without adding preservatives. These unusual CN-HA nanoparticles obtained from the use of raw materials of waste origin may offer an unprecedented occasion for making innovative products, ameliorating the quality of life, reducing pollution and safeguarding the environment’s integrity.
      PubDate: 2014-07-02
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics1030140
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 3 (2014)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 1, Pages 159-170: In Vitro Cytotoxicity and Phototoxicity
           Assessment of Acylglutamate Surfactants Using a Human Keratinocyte Cell

    • Authors: Abhay Kyadarkunte, Milind Patole, Varsha Pokharkar
      Pages: 159 - 170
      Abstract: In the current study, human keratinocyte cell line was used as in vitro cell culture model to elucidate the effects of the fatty acid chain length of acylglutamate (amino acid-based surfactant) namely, sodium cocoyl glutamate, sodium lauroyl glutamate, and sodium myristoyl glutamate on their cytotoxicity and the ultraviolet B induced phototoxicity. The endpoint used to assess toxicity was a tetrazolium-based assay whereas, the phototoxic potential of acylglutamate surfactants was predicted using two models namely, the Photo-Irritation Factor and Mean Photo Effect. The results of this study showed that the fatty acid chain length of acylglutamate greatly influences toxic effects on human keratinocyte cells. In addition, all the acylglutamate surfactants tested on human keratinocyte cells demonstrated significantly less cytotoxicity (when irradiated and non-irradiated with ultraviolet B light; p < 0.05) and no phototoxic potential was observed in any of the acylglutamate surfactants, when compared with the positive control chlorpromazine. In conclusion, the in vitro studies confirm the suitability of sodium lauroyl glutamate destined for the synthesis and stabilization of lipid nanoparticles.
      PubDate: 2014-07-14
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics1030159
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 3 (2014)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 1, Pages 171-201: In-Vial Micro-Matrix-Solid Phase
           Dispersion for the Analysis of Fragrance Allergens, Preservatives,
           Plasticizers, and Musks in Cosmetics

    • Authors: Maria Celeiro, Juan Lamas, Maria Llompart, Carmen Garcia-Jares
      Pages: 171 - 201
      Abstract: Fragrance allergens, preservatives, plasticizers, and synthetic musks are usually present in cosmetic and personal care products formulations and many of them are subjected to use restrictions or labeling requirements. Matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) is a very suitable analytical technique for the extraction of these compounds providing a simple, low cost sample preparation, and the possibility of performing both extraction and clean-up in one step, reducing possible contamination and analyte losses. This extraction technique has been successfully applied to many cosmetics ingredients allowing obtaining quantitative recoveries. A new very simple micro-MSPD procedure performing the disruption step in a vial is proposed for the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of 66 chemicals usually present in cosmetics and personal care products. The method was validated showing general recoveries between 80% and 110%, relative standard deviation (RSD) values lower than 15%, and limits of detection (LODs) below 30 ng·g−1. The validated method was applied to a broad range of cosmetics and personal care products, including several products intended for baby care.
      PubDate: 2014-07-22
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics1030171
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 3 (2014)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 1, Pages 202-210: Liquid Crystal Gel Reduces Age Spots by
           Promoting Skin Turnover

    • Authors: Mina Musashi, Ariella Coler-Reilly, Teruaki Nagasawa, Yoshiki Kubota, Satomi Kato, Yoko Yamaguchi
      Pages: 202 - 210
      Abstract: Studies have shown that liquid crystals structurally resembling the intercellular lipids in the stratum corneum can beneficially affect the skin when applied topically by stimulating the skin’s natural regenerative functions and accelerating epidermal turnover. In the present study, the effects of applying low concentrations of a liquid crystal gel of our own creation were evaluated using epidermal thickening in mouse skin as an assay for effective stimulation of epidermal turnover. A liquid crystal gel was also applied topically to human facial skin, and analysis was conducted using before-and-after photographs of age spots, measurements of L* values that reflect degree of skin pigmentation, single-layer samples of the stratum corneum obtained via tape-stripping, and measurements of trans-epidermal water loss that reflect the status of the skin’s barrier function. The results suggested that cost-effective creams containing as low as 5% liquid crystal gel might be effective and safely sold as skin care products targeting age spots and other problems relating to uneven skin pigmentation.
      PubDate: 2014-07-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics1030202
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 3 (2014)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 1, Pages 211-221: Evaluation of Elastin/Collagen Content
           in Human Dermis in-Vivo by Multiphoton Tomography—Variation with
           Depth and Correlation with Aging

    • Authors: Jean-Christophe Pittet, Olga Freis, Marie-Danielle Vazquez-Duchêne, Gilles Périé, Gilles Pauly
      Pages: 211 - 221
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the depth of the dermis on the measured collagen and elastin levels and to establish the correlation between the amount of these two extracellular matrix (ECM) components and age. Multiphoton Microscopy (MPM) that measures the autofluorescence (AF) and second harmonic generation (SHG) was used to quantify the levels of elastin and collagen and to determine the SAAID (SHG-to-AF Aging Index of Dermis) at two different skin depths. A 50 MHz ultrasound scanner was used for the calculation of the Sub Epidermal Non Echogenic Band (SENEB). The measurements of the skin mechanical properties were done with a cutometer. All measurements were performed on two groups of 30 healthy female volunteers. The MPM showed a decrease of the quantity of collagen and elastin as a function of depth of the dermis as well as age. The SAAID was lower for the older skin in the deeper dermis. Ultrasound imaging revealed a significant decrease of SENEB as a function of aging. The mechanical properties confirmed a loss of cutaneous elasticity and firmness. Although multiphoton microscopy is a powerful technique to study the characteristics of the dermis and its age-related damage, the location of the measurements (depth) remains very important for the validation of these variations. These variations do not seem to be homogeneous according to the part of the dermis that is studied.
      PubDate: 2014-08-20
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics1030211
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 3 (2014)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 1, Pages 75-81: The Efficiency and Safety of
           Leuphasyl—A Botox-Like Peptide

    • Authors: Anca Dragomirescu, Mihaiela Andoni, Daniela Ionescu, Felicia Andrei
      Pages: 75 - 81
      Abstract: Peptides of synthesis are a very new strategy in cosmetic science and technology for at least two reasons: (1) they are small molecules, easily penetrable in the skin and (2) they are able to induce a very specific action, because all skin cells (keratinocytes, fibroblasts, nervous cells) have membrane receptors for peptides. This group of cosmeceutics includes the botox-like peptides, represented by acetyl hexapeptide 3 (Argireline) and pentapeptid-3 (Leuphasyl). The latter is less known and has been less studied. This substance inhibits the neuromuscular synapses in the mimic muscles, acting as enkephalins. It links the enkephalin receptor to nervous cells, thereby modulating the release of acetylcholine in synaptic space. This cellular activity will be translated in vivo in a relaxation of the muscle and a reduction of expression wrinkles. The aim of our study is to evaluate the optimal concentration of Leuphasyl for skin application at the mimic muscle level, the efficiency and the safety of this peptide. We formulated three emulsions of different concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 2%) which were applied to the skin, at the level of mimic muscles (1) at the eyebrows zone (above the corrugator supercilii muscle) and (2) at the periorbital zone (above the orbicularis oculi muscle). We evaluated the regression of the wrinkles between the eyebrows using an imagistic method: pro-derm Analyser. The study is of interest to discussions concerning how to apply these kinds of cosmetic products at the mimic muscle skin level and not at the level of the wrinkles.
      PubDate: 2014-04-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics1020075
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 2 (2014)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 1, Pages 82-93: Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography
           Tandem Mass Spectrometry Measurement of Caffeine in Caffeine-Laced Pants
           and in Urine and Skin of a Pants User

    • Authors: Manuela Pellegrini, Daniela De Orsi, Carmine Guarino, Maria Rotolo, Rita di Giovannandrea, Roberta Pacifici, Simona Pichini
      Pages: 82 - 93
      Abstract: A fast and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the measurement of caffeine in caffeine-laced pants and in urine and skin of a pants user. The substance and its internal standard (N-ethylnorcotinine) were separated by reversed phase chromatography with 5 mM ammonium formate pH 3.0 and 0.3% formic acid in acetonitrile mobile phase (83:17 v/v) by isocratic elution and detected by tandem mass spectrometry operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode via positive electrospray ionization. Linearity was studied from 1.4 to100 ng/mL range for urine, from 5 to 100 ng/cotton swab for skin caffeine and from 1.3 to 100 µg/samples for 4 cm2 textile samples. Good determination coefficients (r2 = 0.99) were found in all cases. At three concentrations spanning the linear dynamic ranges of different samples mean recoveries of caffeine were always higher than 80% and intra-assay and inter-assay imprecision and inaccuracy were always better than 105%. For the first time, caffeine content in this cosmetotextile was determined together with the measurement of caffeine released on the user skin, the absorbed amount with resulting urinary concentrations.
      PubDate: 2014-04-15
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics1020082
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 2 (2014)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 1, Pages 94-104: Plant Cell Cultures as Source of Cosmetic
           Active Ingredients

    • Authors: Ani Barbulova, Fabio Apone, Gabriella Colucci
      Pages: 94 - 104
      Abstract: The last decades witnessed a great demand of natural remedies. As a result, medicinal plants have been increasingly cultivated on a commercial scale, but the yield, the productive quality and the safety have not always been satisfactory. Plant cell cultures provide useful alternatives for the production of active ingredients for biomedical and cosmetic uses, since they represent standardized, contaminant-free and biosustainable systems, which allow the production of desired compounds on an industrial scale. Moreover, thanks to their totipotency, plant cells grown as liquid suspension cultures can be used as “biofactories” for the production of commercially interesting secondary metabolites, which are in many cases synthesized in low amounts in plant tissues and differentially distributed in the plant organs, such as roots, leaves, flowers or fruits. Although it is very widespread in the pharmaceutical industry, plant cell culture technology is not yet very common in the cosmetic field. The aim of the present review is to focus on the successful research accomplishments in the development of plant cell cultures for the production of active ingredients for cosmetic applications.
      PubDate: 2014-04-22
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics1020094
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 2 (2014)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 1, Pages 105-116: Evaluation of the Activity and
           Tolerability of a Cosmetic Treatment for the Periocular Area on the Aging
           Face: Controlled Clinical and Instrumental Evaluation vs. Placebo

    • Authors: Adele Sparavigna, Beatrice Tenconi, Ileana De Ponti, Giancarlo Guglielmini
      Pages: 105 - 116
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate clinically and by non invasive instrumental evaluations the efficacy and tolerability of a cosmetic treatment containing an innovative active ingredient, ethyl ximenynate, in the prevention of dark circles under the eyes and blemishes of skin aging on the eye profile. Evaluations were performed at baseline and after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment on 22 volunteers; the study was planned as a double blind half-face trial. Data showed a trend towards a lifting of the eyelid skin; all investigator scores (eye puffiness, skin smoothness, roughness and dryness) decreased. In addition, profilometric results confirmed the anti-wrinkles efficacy of the active product and its lifting action, while those related to spectrophotometry underlined the decongestant effect on dark circles that appeared, at the end of the study, to be less marked. The improvement of skin microcirculation and capillary resistance and vascular tone in the eye area underlines a general mitigation of all relevant skin imperfections and blemishes of skin aging on the eye profile. The active ingredient was shown to be effective for the cosmetic treatment of the periocular area.
      PubDate: 2014-05-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics1020105
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 2 (2014)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 1, Pages 117-127: The Age Factor in the Cosmetic
           Management of Biophysical Skin Parameters

    • Authors: Claudia Cartigliani, Adriana Bonfigli, Sara Brancato, Luigi Rigano
      Pages: 117 - 127
      Abstract: In this study we investigated the correlation between the basal skin hydration data, elasticity and surface roughness and the age of volunteers. Then, we analyzed the variations obtained at the end of the treatments with anti-age cosmetic products for the face. The aim was to investigate the susceptibility to improvement of volunteers from different age groups. Data were collected in our testing laboratory based in Milan over a 6-year long activity. We only considered measurements performed on the face of a female population aged between 18 and 70 years of age. Values were subdivided in age groups for each considered parameter and were statistically compared. As expected, skin roughness increased and R2 elasticity parameter decreased with ageing, while hydration values resulted to be higher in older women. Apparently, this unaccountable result is probably due to the fact that elderly women living in urban areas tend to take appropriate care of their skin, thus improving skin hydration effectively. Interestingly, as for skin hydration, the analysis showed that women aged 61–70 were the most susceptible to improvement induced by several types of cosmetic treatments. However, when considering the skin roughness values, women over 50 years old seemed to react better to cosmetic treatment. As for skin elasticity, the highest improvement values were found with women between 31 and 50 years of age.
      PubDate: 2014-06-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics1020117
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 2 (2014)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 1, Pages 128-139: Influence of Titanium Dioxide Particle
           Size on the Photostability of the Chemical UV-Filters Butyl Methoxy
           Dibenzoylmethane and Octocrylene in a Microemulsion

    • Authors: Jutta Kockler, Michael Oelgemöller, Sherryl Robertson, Beverley Glass
      Pages: 128 - 139
      Abstract: Sunscreen products often contain combinations of ultraviolet (UV)-filters in order to achieve broad spectrum protection from exposure to sunlight. The inclusion of both chemical and physical UV-filters in these products, however, increases the possibility for both photolytic and photocatalytic reactions to occur. This study investigated the effect of titanium dioxide (TiO2) particle size on the photostability of the chemical UV-filters butyl methoxy dibenzoylmethane (BMDM) and octocrylene (OC) formulated in a microemulsion. The International Conference on Harmonisation (ICH) Guideline Q1B for photostability testing of new active substances and medicinal products was applied. BMDM and OC in the microemulsion were irradiated with simulated sunlight in the presence of nano- (<25 nm) and micro-TiO2 (~0.6 μm) and their concentrations determined using a validated high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. For the combination of BMDM and OC, the photodegradation for BMDM was found to be 12% higher in the presence of nano-TiO2 as compared to that of the micro-TiO2. This enhanced photodegradation is attributed to the larger surface area of the nano-TiO2 and the increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Because of these findings, sunscreen products containing chemical UV-filters and nano-TiO2 should be regarded with caution, due to the potential loss of photoprotection.
      PubDate: 2014-06-11
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics1020128
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 2 (2014)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 1, Pages 14-28: Bio-Guided Targeting for Preservative and
           Anti-Ageing Cosmetic Ingredient Development

    • Authors: Emilie Destandau, Isabelle Krolikiewicz-Renimel, Saida El Abdellaoui, Perrine Cancellieri, Laetitia Fougère, Alix Toribio, Ludovic Landemarre, Patrice André, Claire Elfakir
      Pages: 14 - 28
      Abstract: To develop a new antioxidant, antibacterial and natural cosmetic ingredient without cytotoxicity to skin cells, bioactive molecules contained in Kalanchoe pinnata leaf methanolic extract were targeted using semi-preparative HPLC fractionation linked to biological activity tests. Chromatographic effluent was collected at the column outlet into a 96 deep-well microplate, filling successively all the wells. After freeze-drying, the microplate was ready to use for different biological tests such as antimicrobial activity on microorganisms, skin cell viability and antioxidant activity on human keratinocyte cells. The injection of only 2.64 mg of crude extract into the HPLC system reveals a good correlation between the chromatographic peaks and the different biological activities. One fraction is mainly of interest since good antibacterial and antioxidant activities without cytotoxicity are observed. The analysis of this fraction using mass spectrometry allows the identification of glycoside derivatives of quercetin, isorhamnetin and kaempferol. Thus, a correlation between biological activity and the presence of these flavonoids is obtained. This screening method allows a rapid fractionation associated with a biological activity evaluation and a first molecular identification, saving time by limiting sample treatments and solvent consumption.
      PubDate: 2014-01-02
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics1010014
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2014)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 1, Pages 29-36: In Vivo Cosmetic Product Efficacy Testing
           by Analyzing Epidermal Proteins Extracted from Tape Strips

    • Authors: Marie Westman, Tamara Al-Bader, Eve Merinville, Kevin Cattley, Virginie Lafon-Kolb, Josephine Darbon, Alain Mavon, Aurelie Laloeuf
      Pages: 29 - 36
      Abstract: The objective of this in vivo pilot study was to investigate whether differential biomarker analysis from skin tape strips could be used, not only to evaluate the difference between treated and untreated skin, but also to evaluate the effect of different product treatments. Ten volunteers were included in the study, applying two different basic formulations on their forearms. After four weeks of product application, and also after one week of treatment remission, tape strips were collected from the different treatment sites, as well as from untreated skin. The biomarkers investigated were selected to cover different aspects of epidermal differentiation and in connection with moisturization and barrier function. Levels of Involucrin were increased in both treatments, compared to untreated skin, whereas the levels of Keratin-6 were decreased for both treatments. In addition, a pattern for increased levels of Hornerin and Claudin-1 was also detected. There were no significant differences between the two treatments, only for treatment compared to untreated, but there were tendencies for different effect on some of the biomarkers investigated, differences that may reach significance with increased sample size. The major differences between the two treatments in this study were seen after one week of product remission, although due to too small sample size these differences were not significant.
      PubDate: 2014-02-14
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics1010029
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2014)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 1, Pages 37-43: In Vivo Non-Invasive Evaluation of Actinic
           Keratoses Response to Methyl-Aminolevulinate-Photodynamic Therapy
           (MAL-PDT) by Reflectance Confocal Microscopy

    • Authors: Marina Venturini, Arianna Zanca, Piergiacomo Calzavara-Pinton
      Pages: 37 - 43
      Abstract: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL) is an approved non-invasive treatment option for actinic keratoses (AKs). In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) is a non-invasive tool for real-time imaging of epidermis and superficial dermis in vivo that has been previously reported to facilitate the in vivo evaluation of skin lesions, including AKs. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of in vivo RCM in evaluating AKs response to MAL-PDT. For this reason a total of 10 biopsy-proven AKs were treated by MAL-PDT, according to standard PDT protocol for AKs. RCM investigation was performed before and after PDT and RCM-guided punch biopsies was taken at 3 months in all patients for histopathologic examination. At 3 months follow-up, complete clinical response was observed by clinical examination in 9 out of 10 lesions and a partial clinical response in 1 lesion. In vivo RCM detected two residual AKs in subclinical form, missed by clinical examination. Histological analysis confirmed these results. In vivo RCM may be a new alternative tool for the non-invasive diagnosis of AKs and evaluation of AKs response to non-invasive treatments, as MAL-PDT, improving the ability of dermatologists to diagnose AKs even in subclinical stage.
      PubDate: 2014-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics1010037
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2014)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 1, Pages 44-50: Tenskinmetric Evaluation of Surface Energy
           Changes in Adult Skin: Evidence from 834 Normal Subjects Monitored in
           Controlled Conditions

    • Authors: Camilla Dal Bosco, Davide Rossi, Andrea Brunetta, Antonio Bettero
      Pages: 44 - 50
      Abstract: To evaluate the influence of the skin aging critical level on the adult skin epidermal functional state, an improved analytical method based on the skin surface energetic measurement (TVS modeling) was developed. Tenskinmetric measurements were carried out non-invasively in controlled conditions by contact angle method using only a water-drop as reference standard liquid. Adult skin was monitored by TVS Observatory according to a specific and controlled thermal protocol (Camianta protocol) in use at the interconnected “Mamma Margherita Terme spa” of Terme Euganee. From June to November 2013, the surface free energy and the epidermal hydration level of adult skin were evaluated on arrival of 265 male and 569 female adult volunteers (51–90 years of age) and when they departed 2 weeks later. Sensitive measurements were carried out at 0.1 mN/m. High test compliance was obtained (93.2% of all guests). Very interesting results are obtained. The high sensitivity and discrimination power of tenskinmetry combined with a thermal Camianta protocol demonstrate the possibility to evaluate at baseline level the surface energetic changes and the skin reactivity which occurs on adult skin.
      PubDate: 2014-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics1010044
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2014)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 1, Pages 51-60: l-Ergothioneine Protects Skin Cells
           against UV-Induced Damage—A Preliminary Study

    • Authors: Karolina Bazela, Aleksandra Solyga-Zurek, Renata Debowska, Katarzyna Rogiewicz, Ewa Bartnik, Irena Eris
      Pages: 51 - 60
      Abstract: Many changes related to aging at the cellular level may be due to the physiological condition of mitochondria. One of the most common types of damage of mtDNA is the so-called “common deletion” referring to a deletion of 4977 base pairs. In the skin cells this phenomenon probably is caused by oxidative damage of mtDNA induced by UV. The present study was aimed at evaluating the effect of the antioxidant l-ergothioneine on UV-induced damage in skin cells. The effect of l-ergothioneine on the reduced glutathione level was studied. The presence of the “common deletion” in human fibroblasts irradiated with UVA and treated with l-ergothioneine was evaluated by a polymerase chain reaction. We have demonstrated that l-ergothioneine enhanced the level of reduced glutathione and protected cells from the induction of a photoaging-associated mtDNA “common deletion”. In view of our results, l-ergothioneine could be an effective skin care and anti-photoaging ingredient.
      PubDate: 2014-03-20
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics1010051
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2014)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 1, Pages 61-74: Safety Evaluation of Cosmetic Ingredients:
           In Vitro Opportunities for the Identification of Contact Allergens

    • Authors: Emanuela Corsini, Angela Papale, Valentina Galbiati, Erwin Roggen
      Pages: 61 - 74
      Abstract: Irritant and allergic contact dermatitis are undesired side effects in the development of drugs and cosmetics as well as after contact with environmental or industrial chemicals. Over the last decades, a great deal of progress has been made in the development of alternative In vitro test to assess these issues. Driven by the 7th Amendment to the European Cosmetic Directive, the EU policy on chemicals (the registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemicals (REACH) system), the update of the European legislation on the protection of animals used in research, and emerging visions and strategies for predicting toxicity, in vitro methods are likely to play a major role in the near future. On 12 December 2013, the European Union Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM, part of the European Commission Joint Research Centre) published its Recommendation on the Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay (DPRA) for skin sensitization, capable of distinguishing sensitizers from non-sensitizers. Other assays (i.e., KeratinoSens™ assay) will follow shortly. While a number of methods are at various stages of development and use, currently it is not possible to rank chemicals for their sensitizing potency, an issue that is important for a full safety assessment. It is expected that a predictive method to totally replace animal testing will be in the form of a test battery comprising molecular, cell-based, and/or computational methods, the so-called “Integrated Approaches to Testing and Assessment”. This review aims to discuss the state-of-the-art in the field of in vitro assessment of contact sensitizers.
      PubDate: 2014-03-20
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics1010061
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2014)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 1, Pages 1-2: Cosmetics: A New Open Project

    • Authors: Enzo Berardesca
      Pages: 1 - 2
      Abstract: It is my great pleasure to announce a newly launched open access journal, Cosmetics, published by MDPI, dedicated to this fascinating world. Do we need a new journal in this area' This was the question I had in mind before starting the project and I will try to answer in the following paragraphs. [...]
      PubDate: 2013-05-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics1010001
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2013)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 1, Pages 3-13: Dimeric Surfactants: Promising Ingredients
           of Cosmetics and Toiletries

    • Authors: Naveen Kumar, Rashmi Tyagi
      Pages: 3 - 13
      Abstract: Surfactants are an essential ingredient for cosmetic, toiletries and personal care products for enhancing their performance. Dimeric surfactants demonstrate superiority compared to conventional surfactants in all areas of application. Dimeric surfactants are extremely promising for utilization in various cosmetic formulations viz. shampoo, lotions, creams, conditioners etc. These surfactants possess extremely unique surface properties viz. lower surface tension, unique micellization, low critical micelle concentration (CMC) and antimicrobial activity, higher solubilization etc. Dimerics enhance the performances of cosmetics in an extraordinary manner and provide eco-friendly preparations for human epidermis.
      PubDate: 2013-11-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics1010003
      Issue No: Vol. 1, No. 1 (2013)
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