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Journal Cover Cosmetics
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2079-9284
   Published by MDPI Homepage  [157 journals]
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 5, Pages 3: What Makes Indian Women Look Older—An
           Exploratory Study on Facial Skin Features

    • Authors: Eve Merinville, Cyril Messaraa, Carla O’Connor, Gemma Grennan, Alain Mavon
      First page: 3
      Abstract: It remains important to investigate skin ageing signs across different skin types for targeted solutions. Limited data is available on Indian skin changes throughout ageing, hence three fields were investigated: skin features during the ageing process, their relationship with perceived age and self-declared skin ageing concerns. Photographs, skin topography, colour and biophysical measurements of 202 Indian female volunteers, 30–65 years old, were collected. Another panel of 693 naïve graders, 20–65 years old, estimated the age of photographs previously collected. Associations between 28 skin features and real/perceived age were assessed using linear correlation coefficients. Skin feature scores of an older perceived group were compared versus the scores of a younger perceived group, to establish skin features that lead to an older appearance. Additionally, the naïve graders were asked to rank 12 skin ageing concerns by importance. Twenty-four features correlated with real and perceived age. The ages of the volunteers were overestimated, especially those in their 30s. Skin features related to skin brightness suggested an older look for volunteers in their 30s. From the 40s onwards, wrinkles around the eye area, glabellar and corner of the mouth were also drivers for looking older. In the 50s, features such as upper lip wrinkles, hydration and roughness on the crow’s feet were worse in the older perceived group, while nasolabial folds suggested an older appearance in the 60s. By having identified skin features that worsen with age and contribute to an older perceived face, this research will facilitate the creation of tailored products and communication for Indian women to look after their skin concerns throughout the ageing process.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics5010003
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 5, Pages 4: The Impact of Pollution on Skin and Proper
           Efficacy Testing for Anti-Pollution Claims

    • Authors: Jadwiga Rembiesa, Tautgirdas Ruzgas, Johan Engblom, Anna Holefors
      First page: 4
      Abstract: Exposure to pollution can cause oxidative stress, premature ageing, inflammation, and diseases. Since most of us are exposed to pollution, protection is important. This can be achieved through skin protection or through protection with respect to food and food supplements. There is a wide range of products on the market with anti-pollution claims. However, it is important that these claims are thoroughly validated by proper efficacy testing. When skin cells are exposed to pollution factors, changes in a number of skin properties can be observed, such as lipid composition, lipid and protein oxidation, pH, sebum secretion rate, oxidative stress, inflammation markers, and collagen and elastin levels. These can be measured and used as markers to verify anti-pollution claims. In the present review, we summarize some of the most important in vitro and in vivo tests that are used to determine if an ingredient or formulation has anti-pollution efficacy.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2018-01-02
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics5010004
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 5, Pages 5: Coffee Silverskin: A Review on Potential
           Cosmetic Applications

    • Authors: Sílvia Bessada, Rita C. Alves, M. P. P. Oliveira
      First page: 5
      Abstract: Coffee silverskin, the major coffee-roasting by-product, is currently used as fuel and for soil fertilization. However, there are several studies reporting silverskin as a good source of bioactive compounds that can be extracted and further used by cosmetic industry. Its high antioxidant potential may be due to the synergistic interaction of chlorogenic acids (1–6%), caffeine (0.8–1.25%), and melanoidins (17–23%), among other antioxidant compounds. The bioactive compounds of silverskin can answer to the new fields of cosmetic industry on natural active ingredient resources that improve health skin appearance, counteract skin aging and related diseases, in an environmentally friendly approach. Skin aging is a complex process associated with oxidative metabolism and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. ROS production increase matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), as well as pro-inflammatory mediators, resulting in consequent skin damage and aging. To counteract this process, cosmetic industry is looking for compounds able to increase MMP inhibitory activities, hyaluronidase inhibitory activity, expression of collagen and elastase inhibitory activity, as potential bioactive ingredients with anti-aging purposes. This review focuses on skin aging factors and the potential anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, anti-cellulite and anti-hair loss activity, as well as protection against UV damage, of coffee silverskin and their bioactive compounds.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2018-01-03
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics5010005
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 5, Pages 6: New Oils for Cosmetic O/W Emulsions: In
           Vitro/In Vivo Evaluation

    • Authors: Giovana Sousa, Isabelle de Souza Dantas, Davi de Santana, Leila Leal
      First page: 6
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to design new cosmetic formulations containing oils from catolé, licuri and spent coffee grounds, and to evaluate their immediate and long-term effects on skin barrier function and skin hydration. Nonionic oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions were prepared and physicochemically characterized. The effects of the formulations were assessed by volunteers and by measuring the water content of the epidermis (WCE) and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) both two hours and 20 days after daily application. The irritation potential was evaluated using three different methods: the Hen’s egg chorioallantoic membrane test (HET-CAM); the observation of undesirable effects after skin formulation application, and by using the L*a*b* system to verify changes in skin coloring. The results obtained showed that the formulations containing 10% of these oils presented promising characteristics in the improvement of hydration and skin barrier function when compared to the baseline values and with the placebo cream. According to the sensory evaluation performed, all creams were found to have great acceptability.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2018-01-04
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics5010006
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 5, Pages 7: Multi-Response Optimization in the Formulation
           of a Topical Cream from Natural Ingredients

    • Authors: Gertrude DJIOBIE TCHIENOU, Roli TSATSOP TSAGUE, Therese MBAM PEGA, Vera BAMA, Albert BAMSECK, Selestin DONGMO SOKENG, Martin NGASSOUM
      First page: 7
      Abstract: The aim of this research was to study the effect of local raw materials on the formulation of a base cream formulation and determine the optimum proportion of each material that gives the required properties. Physicochemical properties of cream formulations can be affected by their viscosity, spreadability, and particle size. The quality of the base cream is directly linked to the basic material used in the formulation. Screening of independent factors, namely oil phase (sesame oil, soybean oil, and liquid paraffin), aqueous phase (Aloe vera gel, propylene glycol, and glycerol), and surfactant (soy lecithin, tween, and soy lecithin/tween) was done to choose the best raw material required for the preparation of the base cream. Based on the screening criteria, sesame oil, Aloe vera gel, and soy lecithin were chosen as the best local raw materials. Using a multi-response optimization, the mixing fractions of sesame oil, Aloe vera gel, and soy lecithin were found to be 24%, 28%, and 10%, respectively. This base cream can be used as a suitable matrix for formulation in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2018-01-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics5010007
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 5, Pages 8: Potential Use of Spin Traps to Control ROS in
           Antipollution Cosmetics—A Review

    • Authors: Prashant Sawant
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Pollution from air and sunlight has adverse effects on human health, particularly skin health. It creates oxidative stress, which results in skin diseases, including skin cancer and aging. Different types of antioxidants are used as preventative actives in skin-care products. However, they have some limitations as they also scavenge oxygen. Recently, spin traps are being explored to trap free radicals before these radicals generating more free radicals (cascading effect) and not the oxygen molecules. However, not all spin traps can be used in the topical cosmetic skin-care products due to their toxicity and regulatory issues. The present review focuses on the different pathways of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation due to pollution and the potential use of spin traps in anti-pollution cosmetics to control ROS.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2018-01-07
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics5010008
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 5, Pages 9: Significance of Ubiad1 for Epidermal
           Keratinocytes Involves More Than CoQ10 Synthesis: Implications for Skin
           Aging

    • Authors: Florian Labarrade, Gopinathan Menon, Laura Labourasse, Catherine Gondran, Karine Cucumel, Nouha Domloge
      First page: 9
      Abstract: The significance of Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) as an anti-oxidant barrier of the skin, as well as a key component in anti-aging strategies for skin care products, has been firmly established. Biosynthesis of CoQ10 in the mitochondria is well known, but there is only limited information on the non-mitochondrial synthesis of CoQ10 in the skin. Recent findings in zebrafish identified that a tumor suppressor, Ubiad1, is also a key enzyme in the non-mitochondrial synthesis of CoQ10. The purpose of this study was to investigate expression of Ubiad1 in human skin, and its implication in the skin’s cutaneous response to oxidative stress. We observed Ubiad1 localization in the epidermis, particularly a subcellular localization in the Golgi apparatus. Ubiad1 modulation by a pentapeptide was associated with an observed reduction in ROS/RNS stresses (−44%/−19% respectively), lipid peroxidation (−25%) and preservation of membrane fluidity under stress conditions. Electron microscopy of keratinocytes revealed a significant degree of stimulation of the Golgi complex, as well as significantly improved mitochondrial morphology. Given the importance of CoQ10 in mitigating the visible signs of skin aging, our findings identify Ubiad1 as an essential component of the defensive barriers of the epidermis.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2018-01-09
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics5010009
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 5, Pages 10: Personal Care Products Are Only One of Many
           

    • Authors: Thomas Bucheli, Bjarne Strobel, Hans Hansen
      First page: 10
      Abstract: The special issue “A Critical View on Natural Substances in Personal Care Products” is dedicated to addressing the multidisciplinary special challenges of natural ingredients in personal care products (PCP) and addresses also environmental exposure. In this perspective article, we argue that environmental exposure is probably not so much dominated by PCP use, but in many cases by direct emission from natural or anthropogenically managed vegetation, including agriculture. In support of this hypothesis, we provide examples of environmental fate and behaviour studies for compound classes that are either listed in the International Nomenclature of Cosmetics Ingredients (INCI) or have been discussed in a wider context of PCP applications and have been classified as potentially harmful to humans and the environment. Specifically, these include estrogenic isoflavones, the carcinogenic ptaquiloside and pyrrolizidine alkaloids, saponins, terpenes and terpenoids, such as artemisinin, and mycotoxins. Research gaps and challenges in the domains of human and environmental exposure assessment of natural products common to our currently rather separated research communities are highlighted.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2018-01-09
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics5010010
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 5, Pages 11: Essential Oils and Their Single Compounds in
           Cosmetics—A Critical Review

    • Authors: Asja Sarkic, Iris Stappen
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Essential oils are widely incorporated in cosmetic products, perfumes and related household products due to the variety of their properties but mainly due to their pleasant odour. The composition of these volatile natural complex mixtures may vary depending on the quality of plant material from which they were obtained and the extraction method by which they were derived. These factors are also important in ensuring the safe use of essential oils in personal care products. As they contain compounds with varied chemical structure and effects, skin sensitivity and irritations as well as other symptoms may arise after their application. Although essential oils are considered as safe and nontoxic when used at low concentrations, available scientific literature indicates that essential oils and their compounds may possess a strong allergy potential. This review focuses on side effects and allergy contact dermatitis caused by selected essential oils and their single compounds in cosmetic products, summarizing data from the most recent scientific literature.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2018-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics5010011
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 5, Pages 12: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Cosmetics in
           2017

    • Authors: Cosmetics Editorial Office
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Peer review is an essential part in the publication process, ensuring that Cosmetics maintains high quality standards for its published papers. In 2017, a total of 57 papers were published in the journal.[...]
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2018-01-12
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics5010012
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 5, Pages 1: Cutaneous Permeation and Penetration of
           Sunscreens: Formulation Strategies and In Vitro Methods

    • Authors: Silvia Tampucci, Susi Burgalassi, Patrizia Chetoni, Daniela Monti
      First page: 1
      Abstract: Sunscreens are the most common products used for skin protection against the harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation. However, as frequent application is recommended, the use of large amount of sunscreens could reflect in possible systemic absorption and since these preparations are often applied on large skin areas, even low penetration rates can cause a significant amount of sunscreen to enter the body. An ideal sunscreen should have a high substantivity and should neither penetrate the viable epidermis, the dermis and the systemic circulation, nor in hair follicle. The research of methods to assess the degree of penetration of solar filters into the skin is nowadays even more important than in the past, due to the widespread use of nanomaterials and the new discoveries in cosmetic formulation technology. In the present paper, different in vitro studies, published in the last five years, have been reviewed, in order to focus the attention on the different methodological approaches employed to effectively assess the skin permeation and retention of sunscreens.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2017-12-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics5010001
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 5, Pages 2: Macroalgae-Derived Ingredients for Cosmetic
           Industry—An Update

    • Authors: Filipa Pimentel, Rita Alves, Francisca Rodrigues, M. P. P. Oliveira
      First page: 2
      Abstract: Aging is a natural and progressive declining physiological process that is influenced by multifactorial aspects and affects individuals’ health in very different ways. The skin is one of the major organs in which aging is more evident, as it progressively loses some of its natural functions. With the new societal paradigms regarding youth and beauty have emerged new concerns about appearance, encouraging millions of consumers to use cosmetic/personal care products as part of their daily routine. Hence, cosmetics have become a global and highly competitive market in a constant state of evolution. This industry is highly committed to finding natural sources of functional/bioactive-rich compounds, preferably from sustainable and cheap raw materials, to deliver innovative products and solutions that meet consumers’ expectations. Macroalgae are an excellent example of a natural resource that can fit these requirements. The incorporation of macroalgae-derived ingredients in cosmetics has been growing, as more and more scientific evidence reports their skin health-promoting effects. This review provides an overview on the possible applications of macroalgae as active ingredients for the cosmetic field, highlighting the main compounds responsible for their bioactivity on skin.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2017-12-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics5010002
      Issue No: Vol. 5, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 37: Improving Skin Hydration and Age-related
           Symptoms by Oral Administration of Wheat Glucosylceramides and
           Digalactosyl Diglycerides: A Human Clinical Study

    • Authors: Valérie Bizot, Enza Cestone, Angela Michelotti, Vincenzo Nobile
      First page: 37
      Abstract: Ceramides are known to play a key role in the skin’s barrier function. An age-dependent decrease in ceramides content correlates with cutaneous clinical signs of dryness, loss of elasticity, and increased roughness. The present placebo-controlled clinical study aims to evaluate if an oral supplementation with glucosylceramides (GluCers) contained in a wheat polar lipids complex (WPLC) was able to improve such skin conditions. Sixty volunteers presenting dry and wrinkled skin were supplemented during 60 days with either a placebo or a WPLC extract in oil or powder form (1.7 mg GluCers and 11.5 mg of digalactosyldiglycerides (DGDG)). Skin parameters were evaluated at baseline and after 15, 30, and 60 days of supplementation. Oral intake of WPLC significantly increased skin hydration (p < 0.001), elasticity, and smoothness (p < 0.001), and decreased trans epidermal water loss (TEWL) (p < 0.001), roughness (p < 0.001), and wrinkledness (p < 0.001) in both WPLC groups compared to placebo. In both WPLC treated groups, all parameters were significantly improved in a time-dependent manner compared to baseline. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the positive effect of oral supplementation with GluCers on skin parameters and could reasonably reinforce the observations made on mice that orally-supplied sphingolipids can reach the skin.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2017-09-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4040037
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 38: Amino Carbonylation of Epidermal Basement
           Membrane Inhibits Epidermal Cell Function and Is Suppressed by
           Methylparaben

    • Authors: Haruka Morimoto, Lihao Gu, Haifeng Zeng, Kazuhisa Maeda
      First page: 38
      Abstract: This study investigated the effect of amino carbonylation (Maillard reaction) on the function of the epidermal basement membrane (BM) by analyzing epidermal cell proliferation and keratinization and stratum corneum barrier function using a three-dimensional human epidermal BM model treated with glyceraldehyde. Intracellular ATP levels were lower in cells cultured on amino-carbonylated epidermal BM as compared to those in normal epidermal BM (control). Moreover, trans-epidermal water loss was increased by culturing on amino-carbonylated BM relative to the control; this was accompanied by downregulation of filaggrin, transglutaminase-1, and serine palmitoyltransferase 2 mRNA levels. p-Hydroxybenzoic acid methyl ester (methylparaben) abrogated the decrease in ATP production and filaggrin expression in human keratinocytes induced by amino-carbonylated collagen. Thus, amino carbonylation of the epidermal BM inhibits moisture retention, keratinization, and ceramide synthesis and disrupts the barrier function of the stratum corneum. These findings suggest that methylparaben can be an effective additive to cosmetics for improving epidermal function that is compromised by amino carbonylation.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2017-09-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4040038
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 39: Cosmetic Potential of Marine Fish Skin
           Collagen

    • Authors: Ana Alves, Ana Marques, Eva Martins, Tiago Silva, Rui Reis
      First page: 39
      Abstract: Many cosmetic formulations have collagen as a major component because of its significant benefits as a natural humectant and moisturizer. This industry is constantly looking for innovative, sustainable, and truly efficacious products, so marine collagen based formulations are arising as promising alternatives. A solid description and characterization of this protein is fundamental to guarantee the highest quality of each batch. In the present study, we present an extensive characterization of marine-derived collagen extracted from salmon and codfish skins, targeting its inclusion as component in cosmetic formulations. Chemical and physical characterizations were performed using several techniques such as sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), Fourier Transformation Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy rheology, circular dichroism, X-ray diffraction, humidity uptake, and a biological assessment of the extracts regarding their irritant potential. The results showed an isolation of type I collagen with high purity but with some structural and chemical differences between sources. Collagen demonstrated a good capacity to retain water, thus being suitable for dermal applications as a moisturizer. A topical exposure of collagen in a human reconstructed dermis, as well as the analysis of molecular markers for irritation and inflammation, exhibited no irritant potential. Thus, the isolation of collagen from fish skins for inclusion in dermocosmetic applications may constitute a sustainable and low-cost platform for the biotechnological valorization of fish by-products.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2017-10-12
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4040039
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 40: Sea Buckthorn Oil—A Valuable Source for
           Cosmeceuticals

    • Authors: Marijana Koskovac, Snezana Cupara, Mihailo Kipic, Ana Barjaktarevic, Olivera Milovanovic, Ksenija Kojicic, Marija Markovic
      First page: 40
      Abstract: Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L., Elaeagnaceae.) is a thorny shrub that has small, yellow to dark orange, soft, juicy berries. Due to hydrophilic and lipophilic ingredients, berries have been used as food and medicine. Sea buckthorn (SB) oil derived from berries is a source of valuable ingredients for cosmeceuticals. The unique combination of SB oil ingredients, in qualitative and quantitative aspects, provides multiple benefits of SB oil for internal and external use. Externally, SB oil can be applied in both healthy and damaged skin (burns or skin damage of different etiology), as it has good wound healing properties. Due to the well-balanced content of fatty acids, carotenoids, and vitamins, SB oil may be incorporated in cosmeceuticals for dry, flaky, burned, irritated, or rapidly ageing skin. There have been more than 100 ingredients identified in SB oil, some of which are rare in the plant kingdom (e.g., the ratio of palmitoleic to γ-linolenic acid). This review discusses facts related to the origin and properties of SB oil that make it suitable for cosmeceutical formulation.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2017-10-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4040040
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 41: Efficiency of Nisin as Preservative in
           Cosmetics and Topical Products

    • Authors: Elisabete Maurício, Catarina Rosado, Maria Duarte, Joana Verissimo, Sara Bom, Laura Vasconcelos
      First page: 41
      Abstract: Nisin is a bacteriocin synthesized by certain species of Lactococcus lactis, that has been recently employed as a preservative in the food industry. Taking into account its potential as a natural preservative, its applicability in cosmetics and topical products was probed, aiming to replace or reduce the use of synthetic preservatives currently used in these products. In vitro susceptibility tests were performed using the plate diffusion method and the “Challenge Test”. The action of nisin was tested when applied alone and in synergy with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid tetrasodium salt (EDTA) and similar synthetic preservatives, Abiol® (INCI-Imidazolidinyl urea) and Microcare PM2 (Phenoxyethanol, Ethylparaben, Methylparaben). The results of this study demonstrate that nisin is effective in inhibiting gram-positive microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus sp. However, for other tested microorganisms, only the combination of nisin, EDTA and synthetic preservatives, respectively at 125 ppm/0.1/0.35%, showed antimicrobial activity in compliance with criterion A from ISO 11930. With this study, it is concluded that nisin can be a viable alternative when associated with other preservatives, reducing the use of higher doses of chemical/synthetic preservatives that are often associated with sensitivity and allergic reactions.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2017-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4040041
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 42: Instrumental Evaluation of the Depigmenting
           Efficacy of an Oral Supplementation Containing Peptides and Chrysanthemum
           Extract for the Treatment of Melasma

    • Authors: Min Gui, Juntao Kan, Di Qu, Yinbei Chen, Rong Luo, Yumin Liu, Jun Du
      First page: 42
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of an oral supplement (CP) containing collagen peptide, soy peptide, and chrysanthemum extract in Chinese female adult volunteers with melasma. The approval of the Institutional Ethics Committee of the third affiliated hospital, Sun-Yat Sen University, was obtained before the study. A signed consent was obtained from each volunteer prior to study to enable the volunteer to appreciate the aim of the study and the consequences of her consent. Sixty-two female volunteers aged 30–60 years were included in the study, and were randomized into a treatment group or a placebo group. The skin tone of the pigmented spots was evaluated using Chromameter, and pigment density was evaluated using Mexameter before and after the treatment. Significant changes in skin tone parameters of L value and ITA° (individual typology angle) were detected in the lesion area after the treatment (P < 0.01). When compared with placebo group, the treatment group achieved significant improvement in the brightness of the pigmented spots at the 45 and 60-day time points. A significant decrease in the level of melanin was observed in the treatment group when compared with the placebo group (p < 0.01). All data demonstrated through non-invasive in vivo instrumental measurement that daily oral intake of CP had clinical efficacy of reducing melasma severity.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2017-10-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4040042
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 43: Degradation of Tyrosinase by Melanosomal pH
           Change and a New Mechanism of Whitening with Propylparaben

    • Authors: Haifeng Zeng, Akane Harashima, Koichi Kato, Lihao Gu, Yosuke Motomura, Ryoichi Otsuka, Kazuhisa Maeda
      First page: 43
      Abstract: Many active cosmetic ingredients formulated as medicated whitening products (quasi-drugs) achieve their effect through inhibition of tyrosinase activity, but no products can achieve this effect through degradation of intramelanosomal tyrosinase. Melanin is synthesized by tyrosinase, which is localized to the membrane of melanosomes in melanocytes. It has been reported that the optimal pH of tyrosinase activity is nearly neutral and decreases under acidic conditions. The environment in melanosomes that tyrosinase acts on has attracted attention from researchers. We found that tyrosinase was degraded by acidification of melanosomes, thereby decreasing its activity. We found that both inhibitors of aspartic protease and cysteine protease decreased the degradation of tyrosinase. It is thought that aspartic protease and cysteine protease are participating in the degradation of tyrosinase in acid melanosome. Melanosomal pH is regulated by Na+/H+ exchangers and V-ATPase. We investigated the mechanisms of the inhibitory effect of melanin production of propylparaben using B16 melanoma cells. The expression level of mRNA of tyrosinase and related proteins (Trp-1 and Dct) was not affected by propylparaben; however, the protein levels in melanosomes decreased. We investigated the mechanisms of the inhibitory effect of propylparaben on melanin production using B16 melanoma cells. The effects of propylparaben on the mRNA expression of Na+/H+ exchangers and Na+/Ca2+ exchangers, as well as the melanosome pH levels were examined. Propylparaben decreased gene expression in both exchangers. It was confirmed that propylparaben decreased melanosomal pH by staining using an intracellular pH indicator. The results suggest that propylparaben down-regulated melanin production through acidification of melanosomes.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2017-10-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4040043
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 44: Non-Invasive Assessment of Skin Barrier
           Properties: Investigating Emerging Tools for In Vitro and In Vivo
           Applications

    • Authors: Emer Duffy, Keana De Guzman, Robert Wallace, Ronan Murphy, Aoife Morrin
      First page: 44
      Abstract: There is increasing interest in the development of non-invasive tools for studying the properties of skin, due to the potential for non-destructive sampling, reduced ethical concerns and the potential comparability of results in vivo and in vitro. The present research focuses on the use of a range of non-invasive approaches for studying skin and skin barrier properties in human skin and human skin equivalents (HSE). Analytical methods used include pH measurements, electrical sensing of the epidermis and detection of volatile metabolic skin products. Standard probe based measurements of pH and the tissue dielectric constant (TDC) are used. Two other more novel approaches that utilise wearable platforms are also demonstrated here that can assess the electrical properties of skin and to profile skin volatile species. The potential utility of these wearable tools that permit repeatability of testing and comparability of results is considered through application of our recently reported impedance-based tattoo sensors and volatile samplers on both human participants and HSEs. The HSE exhibited a higher pH (6.5) and TDC (56) than human skin (pH 4.9–5.6, TDC 29–36), and the tattoo sensor revealed a lower impedance signal for HSEs, suggesting the model could maintain homeostasis, but in a different manner to human skin, which demonstrated a more highly resistive barrier. Characterisation of volatiles showed a variety of compound classes emanating from skin, with 16 and 27 compounds identified in HSEs and participants respectively. The continuing development of these tools offers potential for improved quality and relevance of data, and potential for detection of changes that are undetectable in traditional palpable and visual assessments, permitting early detection of irritant reactions.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2017-10-24
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4040044
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 45: Non-Targeted Secondary Metabolite Profile
           Study for Deciphering the Cosmeceutical Potential of Red Marine Macro Alga
           Jania rubens—An LCMS-Based Approach

    • Authors: Dhara Dixit, C. R. K. Reddy
      First page: 45
      Abstract: This study aims to unveil the cosmeceutical traits of Jania rubens by highlighting its mineral composition, antioxidant potential, and presence of bioactive molecules using non-targeted metabolite profiling. This study showed that among minerals, (macro), Ca (14790.33 + 1.46 mg/100 g dry weight (DW)) and in (micro) Fe (84.93 + 0.89 mg/100 g DW) was the highest. A total of 23 putative metabolites in the +ESI (Electrospray Ionization) mode of LCMS-TOF (Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectrometry-Time of Flight) were detected. Two anthocyanins—malonylshisonin and 4′′′-demalonylsalvianin (m/z 825.19; anti-aging, antioxidant, anticancer properties) were detected. Two flavonoids, viz, medicocarpin and agecorynin C, 4′-O-methylglucoliquiritigenin—a flavonoid-7-O-glycoside, and 5,6,7,8,3′,4′,5′-heptamethoxyflavone, a polymethoxygenated flavone (m/z 415.15), were detected. Maclurin 3-C-(2″,3″,6″-trigalloylglucoside) (m/z 863.15) (antioxidant, antimicrobial and anticancer traits) and theaflavonin (m/z 919.18), belonging to the class of theaflavins (whitening and anti-wrinkle agent), were obtained. Pharmacologically active metabolites like berberrubin (m/z 305.1; antitumor activity), icaceine (m/z 358.24; anticonvulsant properties), agnuside (m/z 449.15; constituent for treatment of premenstrual syndrome), γ-coniceine (m/z 108.12; formulations to treat breast cancer), eremopetasitenin B2, and eremosulphoxinolide A (m/z 447.18; therapeutic effect of allergy and asthma) were observed. 6-O-Methylarmillaridin (m/z 445.18) (antimicrobial and antifungal) and simmondsin 2-ferulate, (m/z 534.21) (insecticidal, antifungal and antifeedant) were detected. Aromatic lignans, viz, 8-Acetoxy-4′-methoxypinoresinol, sesartemin, and cubebinone (m/z 413.16), in addition to an aromatic terpene glycoside, tsangane L3 glucoside (m/z 357.23), were detected. Zizybeoside I, benzyl gentiobioside, and trichocarposide were also detected. The determination of antioxidant potential was performed through assays such as like DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl), FRAP (Ferric Ion Reducing Antioxidant Power), ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)), and total antioxidants. Therefore, this study progresses the probability for the inclusion of J. rubens as an ingredient in modern day cosmetic formulations.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2017-10-30
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4040045
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 46: The Potential Use of Marine Microalgae and
           Cyanobacteria in Cosmetics and Thalassotherapy

    • Authors: M. Mourelle, Carmen Gómez, José Legido
      First page: 46
      Abstract: The use of microalgae and cyanobacteria for nutritional purposes dates back thousands of years; during the last few decades, microalgae culture has improved to become one of the modern biotechnologies. This has allowed high amounts of algal biomass to be obtained for use in different applications. Currently, the global production of microalgae and cyanobacteria is predominately aimed at applications with high added value given that algal biomass contains pigments, proteins, essential fatty acids, polysaccharides, vitamins, and minerals, all of which are of great interest in the preparation of natural products, both as food and in cosmetics. Hence, the bioactive components from microalgae can be incorporated in cosmetic and cosmeceutical formulations, and can help achieve benefits including the maintenance of skin structure and function. Thalassotherapy involves using seawater and all related marine elements, including macroalgae, however, there has been limited use of microalgae. Microalgae and cyanobacteria could be incorporated into health and wellness treatments applied in thalassotherapy centers due to their high concentration of biologically active substances that are of interest in skin care. This paper briefly reviews the current and potential cosmetic and cosmeceutical applications of marine microalgae and cyanobacteria compounds and also recommends its use in thalassotherapy well-being treatments.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2017-11-01
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4040046
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 47: New Method of Measurement of Epidermal
           Turnover in Humans

    • Authors: Kazuhisa Maeda
      First page: 47
      Abstract: This report describes a new and simple technique to detect alterations in the rate of turnover in the epidermis without using any toxic chemical, such as a radiolabeled material. The method involves measuring the time course of the decrease of darkening of an ultraviolet A-irradiated site, compared with a non-irradiated control site. The turnover time of the persistent pigmentation on the inner side of the male forearm was 36.2 ± 6.2 days (age: 37.3 ± 11.3 years, mean ± standard deviation, n = 6), which is in reasonable agreement with the epidermal turnover time previously measured by injecting [3H] thymidine into human skin.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2017-11-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4040047
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 48: 10-Hydroxy-2-Decenoic Acid in Royal Jelly
           Extract Induced Both Filaggrin and Amino Acid in a Cultured Human
           Three-Dimensional Epidermis Model

    • Authors: Lihao Gu, Haifeng Zeng, Kazuhisa Maeda
      First page: 48
      Abstract: Royal jelly (RJ) is a natural product which the honeybee secretes as a special diet for a queen bee. It is one of the natural products in which various functionalities, such as antibacterial effects, immunomodulating properties, and estrogen-like action, were reported. We investigated the effect of the RJ extract on the moisturizing effect by topical application in humans. The stratum corneum moisture was increased significantly after four weeks by using the RJ extract lotion compared to placebo lotion. RJ extract contained a characteristic ingredient, 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10H2DA) and 10-hydroxydecanoic acid (10HDAA), etc. However, the mechanism of stratum corneum moisture and its contributing ingredient have not yet been elucidated. We have investigated the effects of 10H2DA and 10HDAA on the free amino acids content in the stratum corneum using a cultured human three-dimensional epidermis model. Additionally, the effect of 10H2DA and 10HDAA on the amounts of filaggrin (FLG) and aquaporin 3 (AQP3) were investigated at the mRNA level and by immunohistochemistry using a cultured human epidermis model. It was determined that 10H2DA increases the free amino acids in the stratum corneum of the cultured human epidermis model, and that it increased FLG on both the mRNA and protein levels. On the other hand, these actions are not observed by treatment of 10HDAA. The mRNA and protein level of AQP3 did not increase with 10H2DA or 10HDAA use. It was thought that the increase in the amount of FLG and the increase in the free amino acids of the epidermis and the stratum corneum, respectively, by 10H2DA were participating in the moisturizing function of the stratum corneum by the continuous use of RJ extract lotion.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2017-11-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4040048
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 49: Large Melanosome Complex Is Increased in
           Keratinocytes of Solar Lentigo

    • Authors: Kazuhisa Maeda
      First page: 49
      Abstract: Solar lentigo (SL) is characterized by macular lesions exhibiting epidermal hyperplasia combined with hyperpigmentation along with irregular elongation of epidermal rete ridges. This study was conducted to assess the melanosomes in keratinocytes and the activation state of melanocytes in SL lesions on the backs of healthy Japanese individuals. Large melanosome complexes were increased in keratinocytes, and tyrosinase (TYR) activity, as well as immunohistochemical reactivity, for premelanosome protein 17 (Pmel17) in the SL lesions increased compared to the perilesions of five volunteers with SL. The levels of TYR, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), and KIT mRNAs, but not stem cell factor (SCF) mRNA, were significantly increased in the SL lesions compared to the perilesions for all samples. Additionally, keratinocytes became immunoreactive to KIT in the rete ridge hyperplasia and basal layers of the SL lesions. These results suggested that the hyperpigmentation of SL arises primarily from increased melanogenesis of existing melanocytes in the basal layer of the epidermis, as well as increased large melanosome complexes in keratinocytes, which probably arise via an increase in KIT signaling in the epidermis.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2017-11-11
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4040049
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 50: Castanea sativa Bur: An Undervalued
           By-Product but a Promising Cosmetic Ingredient

    • Authors: Diana Pinto, Nair Braga, Francisca Rodrigues, M. Oliveira
      First page: 50
      Abstract: Castanea sativa fruit processing generates high amounts of by-products, mostly bur. Currently, the cosmetic industry has a great interest in natural extracts as antioxidant sources. In the present study, C. sativa bur extract was used as the active ingredient, in different amounts, in topical hydrogels. The formulations were characterized regarding total phenolic and flavonoid contents (TPC and TFC, respectively), antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP)) and technological and microbiological properties. The same parameters were evaluated after 30 days of storage at 4 °C (T30/4 °C) and 20 °C (T30/20 °C). At time 0 (T0), the TPC ranged between 0.79 and 9.65 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/g gel, while TFC varied from 0.05 to 1.23 mg of catechin equivalents (CAE)/g gel. Antioxidant activity was high for both assays, with values at T0 ranging between 98.41 and 1013.43 µmol of ferrous sulphate equivalents (FSE)/g gel and varying between 431.96 and 990.84 µg of Trolox equivalents (TE)/g gel for FRAP and DPPH assays, respectively. No formulation exceeded the defined criteria in microbiological counts. All formulations showed similar technological profiles but particular attention should be given to pH. The gel with 50% of extract (F3) was selected as the best one for potential cosmetic applications.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2017-11-24
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4040050
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 51: Whitening Agents from Reseda luteola L. and
           Their Chemical Characterization Using Combination of CPC, UPLC-HRMS and
           NMR

    • Authors: Pauline Burger, André Monchot, Olivier Bagarri, Philippe Chiffolleau, Stéphane Azoulay, Xavier Fernandez, Thomas Michel
      First page: 51
      Abstract: Skin whitening agents occupy an important part of the dermo-cosmetic market nowadays. They are used to treat various skin pigmentation disorders, or simply to obtain a lighter skin tone. The use of traditional skin bleachers (e.g., hydroquinone, corticoids) is now strictly regulated due to their side effects. When considering this and the growing consumers’ interest for more natural ingredients, plant extracts can be seen as safe and natural alternatives. In this perspective, in vitro bioassays were undertaken to assess cosmetic potential of Reseda luteola, and particularly its promising whitening activities. A bioguided purification procedure employing centrifugal partition chromatography, Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-HRMS) and NMR was developed to isolate and identify the whitening agents (i.e., luteolin and apigenin) from aerial parts of R. luteola. UPLC-HRMS also enabled the characterization of acetylated luteolin- and apigenin-O-glycosides, which occurrence is reported for the first time in R. luteola.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2017-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4040051
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 52: New Biological Activities of Lythrum
           salicaria L.: Effects on Keratinocytes, Reconstructed Epidermis and
           Reconstructed Skins, Applications in Dermo-Cosmetic Sciences

    • Authors: Glorianne Jouravel, Samuel Guénin, François-Xavier Bernard, Claire Elfakir, Philippe Bernard, Franck Himbert
      First page: 52
      Abstract: The perennial and widespread herb Lythrum salicaria L., also called purple loosestrife, is a plant that is traditionally used in European medicine. Purple loosestrife is known for its ability to treat internal disorders, such as gastrointestinal issues or hemorrhages. Our objective was to take another look on this natural source of ellagitannins in terms of biological activities. Exploration of the phytochemical content of an extract of aerial parts of Lythrum salicaria L. was completed before initiating research on its biological effects towards keratinocytes, reconstructed epidermis, and skins. The potential of the natural compounds were evaluated by topical treatment of reconstructed tissues. The extract and one of its major compounds were able to act as pro-differentiating and protecting agents towards skin cells by stimulating the expressions of markers taking part in the structure of epidermis and dermis. Also, the extract showed beneficial effects on the global morphology of the skin. Thus, Lythrum salicaria L. constitutes a new natural source for the development of active ingredients for the dermo-cosmetic field.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2017-11-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4040052
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 53: The Bioactivity Study of Active Compounds in
           

    • Authors: Supannee Tipnee, Aranya Jutiviboonsuk, Paveena Wongtrakul
      First page: 53
      Abstract: Wolffia globosa is a small plant found in the lagoons in tropical zones. The aim of our study was to examine the biological compounds found in W. globosa and their activities. The substances in W. globosa were extracted, isolated, and their chemical structures ascertained by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy. The extract was tested for bioactivity, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytotoxic activities. The results showed that the isolated compounds in fraction two were mainly β-sitosterol and stigmasterol. The sterols found in the extract were able to inhibit nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, which implied an anti-inflammatory activity. The extract was found to be non-toxic to human dermal fibroblast cells with an IC50 of 106.38 ± 37.0 µg/mL.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2017-11-30
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4040053
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 54: Cosmetic Potential of a Liotropic Liquid
           Crystal Emulsion Containing Resveratrol

    • Authors: Laura Bonato Alves Oliveira, Rafaela Oliveira, Camila Oliveira, Nádia Raposo, Marcos Brandão, Anderson Ferreira, Hudson Polonini
      First page: 54
      Abstract: Resveratrol is a natural substance that has been the target of many researchers over the years since it presents a variety of potential applications in the areas of cosmetics and medicine as a treatment for some diseases. Due to its high antioxidant capacity but low bioavailability, we evaluated the antiaging potential of resveratrol as a liotropic liquid crystal emulsion. Initially, we performed in vitro assays to quantify both the organoleptic characteristics and stability of the emulsion. Next, an in vivo trial was performed on the faces of 30 volunteers to determine the cream’s cosmetic potential and to measure porphyrins, skin barrier function, skin pigmentation, expression lines, and porosity. The emulsion maintained its characteristics during the in vitro assays and, in the in vivo trial, it had some effect only on pore size in forehead, without any significant effects on the other parameters. We had 6 dropouts throughout the study, then the final number of volunteers was 24. Most volunteers did not show any changes in skin pigmentation throughout the study. Similarly, there was not any noticeable improvement on any other parameters evaluated. However, volunteers related a high level of satisfaction with the product.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2017-12-07
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4040054
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 55: Action Spectrum on UVA Irradiation for
           Formation of Persistent Pigmentation in Normal Japanese Individuals

    • Authors: Kazuhisa Maeda
      First page: 55
      Abstract: The minimum exposure required to produce persistent pigmentation (PP) on the skin of normal Japanese subjects was evaluated by means of monochromatic irradiation on the back using a high-intensity monochromator. PP was induced within the range of wavelengths up to 468 nm, with a peak from 330 to 370 nm, but it was not observed at 482 or 497 nm. When the PP production curve was obtained taking the spectral distribution of sunlight into account, it showed a peak at 340 nm centering in the UVA region and extending into the region up to 396 nm. Thus, it appears that solar UVA participates in PP formation.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2017-12-15
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4040055
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 56: Optimized Culture Conditions for the
           Detection of Selected Strains of Bacillus in Eye Creams

    • Authors: Nadine Yossa, Gabriela Arce, James Smiley, Mei-Chiung Huang, Lanlan Yin, Rebecca Bell, Sandra Tallent, Eric Brown, Thomas Hammack
      First page: 56
      Abstract: Although eye area cosmetics contain preservatives, contamination can still occur during or after manufacture or through use. Understanding the likelihood of bacterial survival in eye creams begins with sensitive and accurate methods for the detection of bacterial contamination; therefore, we investigated optimal culture conditions, including neutralizers, dilution broths, and selective media for the detection of Bacillus in eye cream. Samples of three different brands of eye creams were first mixed with Tween 80, Tween 20, or a blend of Tween 60 and Span 80, then neutralized and non-neutralized samples were individually inoculated with B. cereus strains, B. mycoides, a mislabeled B. megaterium, B. subtilis or B. thuringiensis at a final concentration of 5 log CFU/g. The inoculated samples, with and without neutralizers, were spiral-plated and incubated at 30 °C for 24 h to 48 h. Presumptive colonies of Bacillus were enumerated on U. S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA-BAM) referenced agars Bacillus cereus rapid agar (BACARA) and mannitol-egg yolk-polymixin agar (MYP). Our results show significant differences among the neutralizers, plates, and products. The combination of Tryptone- Azolectin-Tween and Tween 80 (TAT and T80) produced higher levels of Bacillus, estimated at 4.18 log CFU/g compared to growth on Modified letheen broth and Tween 80, which produced 3.97 log CFU/g (P < 0.05). Colony counts of B. cereus cells on MYP agar were significantly higher, than those on BACARA agar, showing an average of 4.25 log CFU/g versus 3.84 log CFU/g, respectively (P < 0.05). The growth of the strain mislabeled B. megaterium ATCC 6458 on B. cereus selective agars BACARA and MYP agar led us to further investigations. We identified bi-pyramidal crystals among colonies of the strain, and subsequent PCR identified the cry 1 gene, indicating that strain was actually B. thuringiensis subps. kurstaki.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2017-12-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4040056
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 57: Guidelines for Formulating Anti-Pollution
           Products

    • Authors: Niraj Mistry
      First page: 57
      Abstract: Anti-pollution skin care and cosmetic products are witnessing a significant growth in the last couple of years due to worsening air quality across the world, and increasing awareness and concern regarding the adverse impact of various environmental pollutants on skin. The various pollutants, like particulate matter, oxides of nitrogen and sulphur, ozone, and polyaromatic hydrocarbons damage skin by different mechanism resulting in skin dryness, loss of firmness, dark spots, uneven skin tone, fine lines and wrinkles, aggravation of acne, and inflammation. The task of developing globally harmonized products is very challenging due differences in skin types according to ethnicity, variation in seasonal weather pattern, differences in benefit expectations, and variances in personal care and cosmetics usage habits of consumers in different regions of the world. However, an increasing understanding about the mechanism by which various pollutants damage the skin manifesting into various extrinsic signs of skin damage and development of various actives that counter the impact of different environmental aggressors has helped formulators to develop different products and to establish efficacy by in vitro and in vivo tests. The article summarizes approaches for formulation development, and a list of few actives classified based in their mechanism action is given. A representative list of products based on their mechanism of action is also given and few potential opportunities for the future are suggested.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2017-12-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4040057
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 4 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 21: Ascorbyl Tetraisopalmitate Inclusion into
           Υ-Cyclodextrin and Mesoporous SBA-15: Preparation, Characterization and
           In Vitro Release Study

    • Authors: Maria Bastianini, Michele Sisani, Annarita Petracci
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Ascorbic acid or vitamin C is a strong antioxidant widely used in cosmetic and food fields. This vitamin is very unstable and rapidly undergoes degradation. In order to solve this problem and to obtain a stable ascorbic acid, Nikkol Group has developed ascorbyltetraisopalmitate (VC-IP). This raw material is an oil phase, already well-known and employed in the cosmetic market. The objective of this study is to obtain VC-IP in micro-powder form, in order to produce a new raw material that is easily dispersible in oil and water phases and useful for make-up and color cosmetic applications. Various types of drug carriers were studied and considered in order to support VC-IP and obtain the conversion in powder. Υ-cyclodextrin and mesoporous silica SBA-15 were chosen as the best candidates. A white powder of supported VC-IP was obtained with each carrier (VC-IP@cyclodextrin, VC-IP@SBA-15). The systems underwent physicochemical characterization and in vitro release tests were carried out. Based on the conducted study, it can be concluded that by supporting VC-IP on Υ-cyclodextrin and SBA-15, it is feasible to obtain a new raw material in powder form. The two carriers possess different release profiles, adding the possibility to finely tune the release of the active component in smart formulations.
      PubDate: 2017-07-01
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4030021
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 22: Lipase-Catalyzed Synthesis of Kojic Acid
           Derivative in Bioreactors and the Analysis of Its Depigmenting and
           Antioxidant Activities

    • Authors: Ahmad Lajis, Muhajir Hamid, Syahida Ahmad, Arbakariya Ariff
      First page: 22
      Abstract: In this study, 7-O-kojic acid monopalmitate (7-O-KAP) was synthesized using palmitic acid and kojic acid where the yield and biological activities were analyzed. The highest yield of 7-O-KAP (43%) can be obtained at molar ratio of 1:1, enzyme loading of 5% (w/v), temperature of 70 °C, using immobilized lipase N435 in solvent-free system. Stirred tank reactor (STR) provides better mixing of the substrates and biocatalyst with better yield of 7-O-KAP, compared to fluidized tank reactor (FTR) and packed bed reactor (PBR). The 7-O-KAP exhibited pseudoplastic behavior with flow behavior index (n) being less than 1. The 7-O-KAP showed better depigmenting activity with the reduction of melanin content in Danio rerio embryo to 18.70%, significantly lower than the positive control, kojic acid (60.39%) at highest concentration tested (250 μg/mL). Intracellular tyrosinase in Danio rerio embryo was also reduced when treated with 7-O-KAP (12.53%), compared to kojic acid (37.36%) at concentration of 250 μg/mL. In FRAP assay, 7-O-KAP had antioxidant activity of 8156 AAE/mL, which was higher than kojic acid (6794 AAE/mL) at concentration of 2 mg/mL. The 7-O-KAP also reduced peroxidation activity to 12.21%, which was better compared to kojic acid (31.68%) at 2 mg/mL. Moreover, it was found that lipid peroxidation activity of 7-O-KAP (12.21%) was comparable to BHT (11.56%) at 2 mg/mL. Based on this study, 7-O-KAP could be an alternative compound for whitening agent and antioxidant compared to kojic acid and BHT, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-07-04
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4030022
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 23: Evaluation of Genotoxic and DNA
           Photo-Protective Activity of Bryothamnion triquetrum and Halimeda
           incrassata Seaweeds Extracts

    • Authors: Ángel Sánchez-Lamar, Maribel González-Pumariega, Fabiana Fuentes-León, Marioly Vernhes Tamayo, André Schuch, Carlos Menck
      First page: 23
      Abstract: The ultraviolet (UV) component of sunlight is high on the earth surface, especially at low latitudes, raising the risk of skin diseases, including cancer. The use of natural compounds is a strategy to protect people against UV damage. Seaweeds are becoming increasingly influential in the food industry, and are also used in the pharmacy and cosmetic industries, due to several bioactive demonstrated properties. This work analyzed the genotoxic and photoprotective effects of the aqueous extracts of two seaweed species: Bryothamnion triquetrum and Halimeda incrassata. A cell-free plasmid DNA assay was employed, allowing detection of DNA breaks. The plasmids were exposed to increasing concentrations of aqueous extracts. DNA break was produced at concentrations of 2.0 and 4.0 mg/mL in both seaweed extracts and, consequently, a genotoxic effect is postulated. This effect arises with higher exposure times. Additionally, different combinations of plasmid DNA, restriction enzymes (Eco RI, Bam HI, and Pvu II) and extracts were assayed. The extracts did not produce an interference effect in the reconnaissance of the specific restriction target sequences of each enzyme. Photoprotective activity of the extracts was evaluated in UVC-irradiated plasmids. None of the extracts displayed DNA protective effects in this assay.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2017-07-13
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4030023
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 24: Safety and Efficacy of Nail Products

    • Authors: Harleen Arora, Antonella Tosti
      First page: 24
      Abstract: Over the past several decades, the commercialization of nail cosmetics has increased. From nail polishes to artificial nails, different methods of nail beautification have become popularized. However, the impact of these products remains largely unknown. Governments have passed legislation in attempts to regulate nail cosmetics, but these regulations may not be adequate and are difficult to enforce. Knowledge of the safety and efficacy of nail products remains limited due to the relative dearth of literature published on the topic. This review serves to summarize and interpret the data available regarding common nail products and their safety and efficacy. Nail products such as nail polish, nail polish removers, and artificial nails have shown to have some adverse effects through case reports and studies. Harmful substances such as toluenesulfonamide-formaldehyde resin and methacrylates have been identified in commercial nail products, leading to several adverse effects, but in particular, allergic contact dermatitis. Exposure to substances such as acetonitrile found in removers may have more toxic and caustic effects, especially if ingested. In addition, for nail technicians there are negative effects linked with occupational exposure. Compounds used in nail products may become aerosolized and lead to asthma, eye and throat irritation, and even neurocognitive changes.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2017-07-15
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4030024
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 25: Revisiting Amazonian Plants for Skin Care and
           Disease

    • Authors: Bruno Burlando, Laura Cornara
      First page: 25
      Abstract: This review concerns five species of trees and palm trees that occur as dominant plants in different rainforest areas of the Amazon region. Due to their abundance, these species can be exploited as sustainable sources of botanical materials and include Carapa guianensis Aubl., family Meliaceae; Eperua falcata Aubl., family Fabaceae; Quassia amara L., family Simaroubaceae; and Attalea speciosa Mart. and Oenocarpus bataua Mart., family Arecaceae. For each species, the general features, major constituents, overall medicinal properties, detailed dermatological and skin care applications, and possible harmful effects have been considered. The major products include seed oils from A. speciosa and C. guianensis, fruit oil from O. bataua, and active compounds such as limonoids from C. guianensis, flavonoids from E. falcata, and quassinoids from Q. amara. The dermatologic and cosmetic applications of these plants are growing rapidly but are still widely based on empiric knowledge. Applications include skin rehydration and soothing; anti-inflammatory, antiage, and antiparasite effects; hair care; burn and wound healing; and the amelioration of rosacea and psoriasis conditions. Despite a limited knowledge about their constituents and properties, these species appear as promising sources of bioactive compounds for skin care and health applications. An improvement of knowledge about their properties will provide added value to the exploitation of these forest resources.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2017-07-26
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4030025
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 26: Cosmeceuticals Properties of Sea Cucumbers:
           Prospects and Trends

    • Authors: Evi Siahaan, Ratih Pangestuti, Hendra Munandar, Se-Kwon Kim
      First page: 26
      Abstract: Cosmeceutical, a new term in the cosmetic industry, refers to cosmetic products that contain active ingredients and have medicinal benefits. Cosmeceuticals have attracted increased attention because of their beneficial effects on human health. Sea cucumbers, belonging to the class Holothuroidea, marine invertebrates, are rich in bioactive compounds, including saponin, chondroitin sulphate, collagen, amino acids, and phenols. These bioactive compounds have diverse functional roles as a secondary metabolite and these properties can be applied to the developments of novel cosmeceuticals. This review provides an overview the application of sea cucumber derivatives for cosmeceuticals. Further, prospects and trends of sea cucumber in cosmeceuticals industry were also discussed. The proper development of sea cucumber bioactive compounds will be helpful in cosmeceutical product development and industry.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2017-08-04
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4030026
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 27: Assessment of Functional Stability of
           Photoprotective Formulations Containing Rutin Succinate

    • Authors: Carla Moraes, Elizabeth Arêas, Maria Velasco
      First page: 27
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate physicochemical and functional stability of two different self-emulsified oil/water (O/W) systems. Each system contained 0.4% w/w rutin succinate, which was associated or not with the photo-unstable chemical (7.5% w/w of 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate and 3.0% w/w of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone) or physical filters (3.0% w/w titanium dioxide). A Normal Stability Test was carried out with the formulations containing rutin succinate (S) associated either with sunscreens (MS) or not (M) for 90 days. The formulation systems were assessed for organoleptic, functional, physicochemical and rheological behavior parameters. The MS formulation was found to be homogenous and had no significant alterations of pH, hysteresis area, antiradical activity or Sun Protection Factor values. Such stability was mainly observed when the formulation was incorporated into base cream A. The ability of chemical filters to resist degradation caused by UV radiation in the presence of rutin succinate preventing lipid peroxidation by entrapment of initiator radicals is a mechanism that might explain the results. The combination of rutin succinate to chemical filters improved formulation functionality, as it led to a more stable formulation which maintained the effectiveness of the added sunscreens. Consumer acceptance could be improved, considering that film formation and rheological spreadability characteristics of the tested formulation are better than those of traditional formulations.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2017-08-07
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4030027
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 28: Safety and Efficacy of Dextran-Rosmarinic
           Acid Conjugates as Innovative Polymeric Antioxidants in Skin Whitening:
           What Is the Evidence'

    • Authors: Ortensia Parisi, Rocco Malivindi, Fabio Amone, Mariarosa Ruffo, Rosella Malanchin, Federica Carlomagno, Cristiana Piangiolino, Vincenzo Nobile, Vincenzo Pezzi, Luca Scrivano, Francesco Puoci
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Background: Melanins are high molecular weight pigments responsible for the mammalian skin and hair colour and play a key role in skin protection from UV radiation; however, their overproduction and excessive accumulation lead to pigmentation problems including melasma, freckles, uneven colouring, and age spots. Therefore, the modulation of melanin synthesis represents a critical issue in medicine and cosmetology. In the present study, an innovative polymeric antioxidant to be used as skin whitening agent is developed by the conjugation of dextran with rosmarinic acid. Methods: Dextran-rosmarinic acid conjugates (DEX-RA) were synthesized in a one-pot method starting from Origanum vulgare aqueous leaf extract and dextran. The total polyphenol content and the antioxidant activity were assessed by Folin-Ciocalteau assay and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) and bleaching tests, respectively. The efficacy of DEX-RA was evaluated by inhibition of tyrosinase activity, in vitro diffusion and stability studies and in vivo studies. The biocompatibility of the conjugates was investigated by 3-[4,5-Dimethylthiaoly]-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) and EPISKIN™ model. Results: Efficacy and safety studies confirmed the antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities and the biocompatibility of the synthesized conjugates. Conclusion: The polymeric conjugates, comparing to the free antioxidant, show a long-lasting efficacy combined to an enhanced stability resulting in an improved performance of the cosmetic formulations prepared using this innovative whitening agent as a bioactive ingredient.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2017-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4030028
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 29: Evaluation of the Effect of Plant Mixture
           Ethanol Extracts Containing Biota orientalis L. Extract on Suppression of
           Sebum in Cultured Sebocytes and on Stimulation of Growth of Keratinocytes
           Co-cultured with Hair Papilla Cells

    • Authors: Haifeng Zeng, Lihao Gu, Kazuhisa Maeda
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Biota orientalis L. leaf extract (BOLE) is used medically to improve strength and arrest hemorrhage. In China, BOLE has been used in traditional medicine for its antibacterial properties and for hair restoration. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of hair restoration by BOLE from the point of view of the sebum suppressant effect and hair loss prevention. BOLE at 25 or 50 μg/mL final concentrations, a hair growth plant ethanol extract (HGPEE), and a hair growth plant water extract (HGPWE) (the latter two each containing BOLE and other plant compounds), were used to study: (1) the sebum suppressant effect in sebocytes from normal golden hamster ear pinna origin; (2) the effect on the growth of human fetal epidermal keratinocytes; and (3) the effect on gene expression related to hair growth stimulation, with (2) and (3) studied in human fetal epidermal keratinocytes and hair papilla cells. BOLE had a sebum depletion effect in cultured sebocytes; moreover, the amounts of mRNA of the hair growth factors, KGF, VEGF, and G3PDH analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction in human hair papilla cells were increased by HGPEE. The amount of mRNA of Wnt10b in cultured epidermal keratinocytes was increased by the addition of BOLE, and the growth of the cultured epidermal keratinocytes was promoted by HGPEE in a two-layer culture system of hair papilla cells and epidermal keratinocytes. HGPEE had a hair growth promotion/hair restoration effect and a sebum suppression effect. Hair restorers containing HGPEE may be useful for stimulating hair growth and suppressing excess scalp sebum in males and females.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2017-08-14
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4030029
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 30: Alternative Methods to Animal Testing for the
           Safety Evaluation of Cosmetic Ingredients: An Overview

    • Authors: Maria Vinardell, Montserrat Mitjans
      First page: 30
      Abstract: The safety of cosmetics sold in Europe is based on the safety evaluation of each individual ingredient conducted by those responsible for putting the product on the market. However, those substances for which some concern exists with respect to human health (e.g., colorants, preservatives, UV-filters, nanomaterials) are evaluated at the European Commission level by a scientific committee, currently called the Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS). According to the Cosmetics Regulation (European Commission, 2009), it is prohibited in the European Union (EU) to market cosmetic products and ingredients that have been tested on animals. However, the results of studies performed before the ban continue to be accepted. In the current study, we evaluated the use of in vitro methods in the dossiers submitted to the SCCS in the period between 2013 and 2016 based on the published reports issued by the scientific committee, which provides a scientific opinion on these dossiers. The results of this evaluation were compared with those of an evaluation conducted four years previously. We found that, despite a slight increase in the number of studies performed in vitro, the majority of studies submitted to the SCCS is still done principally in vivo and correspond to studies performed before the ban.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2017-09-02
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4030030
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 31: In Vitro Methods for Predicting Chemical
           Leukoderma Caused by Quasi-Drug Cosmetics

    • Authors: Lihao Gu, Haifeng Zeng, Tomomi Takahashi, Kazuhisa Maeda
      First page: 31
      Abstract: Skin care cosmetics frequently contain whitening or lightening agents. The present study aimed to establish in vitro methods for predicting chemical leukoderma caused by whitening agents in cosmetics. The risks of chemical leukoderma were predicted based on percutaneous absorption rates, toxic concentrations, and toxicity mechanisms. Thus, in vitro skin permeation rate and cytotoxic concentrations of whitening agents were studied using excised skin and cultured B16 melanoma cells. Pigment cell toxicity was observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The levels of hydroxyl radical (∙OH) were measured and the location of ∙OH generation sites were determined in cultured B16 melanoma cells. Pigment cells cultured under conditions with high tyrosinase activity developed cytotoxicity when exposed to compounds known to cause leukoderma, while those cultured under conditions with low tyrosinase activity did not. Phenolic compounds that cause leukoderma were applied to the pigment cells at the concentration absorbed percutaneously under conditions with high tyrosinase activity. Cells that were observed using TEM demonstrated a large number of vacuolar degenerations in intracellular melanosomes after treatment with phenolic compounds that are known to cause leukoderma. Hydroxyl radical generation during the tyrosinase reaction was examined, as the whitening agents that inhibit tyrosinase activity serve as tyrosinase substrates. Only phenolic compounds that cause leukoderma generated high amounts of hydroxyl radicals. Thus, the hydroxyl radical is a melanocyte-specific toxin that disrupts tyrosinase-containing melanosomes. Whitening agents that generate high amounts of hydroxyl radicals may cause leukoderma. The in vitro method being reported here can predict the potential of a drug to cause leukoderma and whether the use of a specific whitening agent poses a risk.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2017-09-02
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4030031
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 32: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation of
           Nanoemulsion Containing Vegetable Extracts

    • Authors: Pedro Rocha-Filho, Marcio Ferrari, Monica Maruno, Odila Souza, Viviane Gumiero
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Oil/Water nanoemulsions were obtained, employing PEG castor oil derivatives/fatty esters surfactant, babassu oil, and purified water from a study based on phase diagrams. The nanoemulsions had been prepared by a low energy process inversion phase emulsion. Different parameters, such as order of addition of the components, temperature, stirring speed, and time, were studied to prepare O/W nanoemulsions. The influence of vegetable extract addition on size distribution of nanoemulsions was also analyzed. Evaluation of the nanoemulsions was studied in vitro by HET-CAM and RDB methods. Stable transparent bluish O/W babassu oil nanoemulsion were obtained with surfactant pair fatty ester/PEG-54 castor oil, in an HLBrequired value = 10.0 and with a particle droplet size of 46 ± 13 nm. Vegetable extract addition had not influenced nanoemulsion’s stability. The results obtained for in vitro and in vivo nanoemulsion evaluation, based on the hydration and oiliness, and pH of the skin, shows O/W nanoemulsions as potential vehicle for topical application.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2017-09-07
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4030032
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 33: Water-Soluble Organic Germanium Promotes Both
           Cornified Cell Envelope Formation and Ceramide Synthesis in Cultured
           Keratinocytes

    • Authors: Megumi Kato, Haifeng Zeng, Lihao Gu, Kazuhisa Maeda
      First page: 33
      Abstract: We investigated whether 3-(trihydroxygermyl) propionic acid increases the formation of cornified cell envelopes and the level of ceramide in cultured epidermal keratinocytes and in a three-dimensional human epidermis model. The activity and mRNA expression of transglutaminase were increased when 3-(trihydroxygermyl) propionic acid was added to the cell cultures. The formation of cornified cell envelopes in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes was increased in the presence of 3-(trihydroxygermyl) propionic acid. Ceramide levels were increased in the presence of 3-(trihydroxygermyl) propionic acid. The activity of serine palmitoyltransferase and mRNA levels of serine palmitoyltransferase 2 were also increased when 3-(trihydroxygermyl) propionic acid was added to the cultures. The extent to which ceramide levels were increased in the presence of 3-(trihydroxygermyl) propionic acid appeared dependent on serine palmitoyltransferase 2 upregulation. These results suggest that 3-(trihydroxygermyl) propionic acid can promote cornified cell envelope formation by inducing transglutaminase expression and ceramide synthesis via the induction of serine palmitoyltransferase activity, thereby improving the barrier function and moisture of dry, rough skin.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2017-09-09
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4030033
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 34: Anti-melanogenic Activity of Auraptene via
           ERK-mediated MITF Downregulation

    • Authors: Min-Jin Kim, Sang Kim, Kyung-Jin Park, Hyun An, Young Choi, Nam Lee, Chang-Gu Hyun
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Auraptene is the most abundant naturally occurring geranyloxycoumarin. It is primarily isolated from plants belonging to the Rutaceae family, many of which, such as citrus fruits, are used as food in many countries. Auraptene is a biologically active secondary metabolite that possesses valuable properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro inhibitory effects of auraptene on melanogenesis and the enzymes associated with it, such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-1, and TRP-2, in B16F10 murine melanoma cells. We found that auraptene significantly attenuated melanin synthesis and reduced the activity of intracellular tyrosinase, which was the rate-limiting melanogenic enzyme. Western blotting analysis showed that auraptene decreased tyrosinase and TRP-2 protein expression. In addition, auraptene significantly decreased the expression of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), a key regulator of melanogenesis. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation has been reported to be involved in the inhibition of melanogenesis. Thus, we next investigated if the hypopigmentary effects of auraptene were related to the activation of ERK. Auraptene was found to induce phosphorylation of ERK in a dose-dependent manner. Our results suggest that auraptene inhibits melanogenesis by activating the ERK pathway-mediated suppression of MITF and its downstream target genes, including tyrosinase. Therefore, auraptene may be used as a whitening agent in the development of functional cosmetics.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2017-09-13
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4030034
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 35: Applications for Marine Resources in
           Cosmetics

    • Authors: Jean-Baptiste Guillerme, Céline Couteau, Laurence Coiffard
      First page: 35
      Abstract: Marine resources represent an interesting source of active ingredients for the cosmetics industry. Algae (macro and micro) are rich in proteins, amino acids, carbohydrates, vitamins (A, B, and C) and oligo-elements such as copper, iron and zinc. All those active principles play roles in hydration, firming, slimming, shine and protection. Marine organisms inhabit a wide spectrum of habitats. Photo-protective compounds can be obtained from organisms subjected to strong light radiation, such as in tropical systems or in shallow water. In the same way, molecules with antioxidant potential can be obtained from microorganisms inhabiting extreme systems such as hydrothermal vents. For example, marine bacteria collected around deep-sea hydrothermal vents produce complex and innovative polysaccharides in the laboratory which are useful in cosmetics. There are many properties that will be put forward by the cosmetic industries.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2017-09-15
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4030035
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 36: Evaluation of Sebostatic Activity of
           Juniperus communis Fruit Oil and Pelargonium graveolens Oil Compared to
           Niacinamide

    • Authors: Justyna Kozlowska, Anna Kaczmarkiewicz, Natalia Stachowiak, Alina Sionkowska
      First page: 36
      Abstract: As a facial skin condition, oily skin causes cosmetic problems, such as large pores, shiny appearance, and the feeling of greasiness and heaviness. Furthermore, extensive sebum production leads to common skin disorders such as acne vulgaris or seborrheic dermatitis. This study investigated the efficacy of sebum control tonics containing Juniperus communis fruit oil, Pelargonium graveolens oil, or niacinamide. The effects of Juniperus communis fruit oil, Pelargonium graveolens oil, and niacinamide on sebum excretion rates were investigated using Sebumeter®. Sebum measurements (Sebumeter® SM 815, Courage & Khazaka®, Köln, Germany) were made on the skin surface in three places by applying the sebumeter probe to the forehead after 10, 60, and 120 min from application of the tonic. The results indicated that the application of the tonic maintained a lower sebum secretion 10 min and 60 min after the application of the cosmetic, compared to those before it. However, a visible sebum-reducing efficacy after 2 h was reported only for tonic containing 0.25% Pelargonium graveolens oil and for the tonic with the addition of 3% niacinamide. After 2 h, the values of sebum measurements were 44 ± 5.13 a.u. and 58 ± 9.07 a.u., respectively. Our results show that the tonic with the addition of 0.25% Pelargonium graveolens oil is the most effective in reducing sebum production.
      Citation: Cosmetics
      PubDate: 2017-09-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4030036
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 11: Cosmetic Ingredients as Emerging Pollutants
           of Environmental and Health Concern. A Mini-Review

    • Authors: Claudia Juliano, Giovanni Magrini
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Cosmetic and personal care products are used in huge quantities throughout the world; as a result of their regular use, they are continuously released into the environment in very large amounts. Many of these products are biologically active and are characterized by persistence and bioaccumulation potential, posing a threat to ecosystem and human health. On the basis of the most recent scientific literature available on this subject, this paper provides an overview of some cosmetic ingredients that are considered environmental emerging pollutants of particular concern such as UV filters, some preservatives (parabens, triclosan), and microplastics.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4020011
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 12: Comparative Analysis of Four Facial
           Foundation Lotions with Reference to Its Antioxidant Richness and
           Bio-Safety

    • Authors: Mukesh Singh, Pallavi Seth, Shamayita Poddar
      First page: 12
      Abstract: The market these days is a hub of a variety of commercially available cosmetic products, and foundation makeup to be precise, containing various types of important bioactive compounds both from natural and synthetic sources. The current study explores the usage of foundation lotions among undergraduate female students of an engineering college in West Bengal, India, and its antioxidant potential such as free radical scavenging, anti-lipid peroxidation, and reducing power. Red Blood Corpuscles hemolysis assay was also tested for evaluating it safety measures. Results confirmed the presence of antioxidant-related bioactive components and hence the antioxidant property in each brand tested, albeit in varying degrees. Free radical scavenging, anti-lipid peroxidation, and reducing power were also exhibited by all samples tested. Hemolytic activity was not significantly noted among the foundations, though each exhibited different results. Lotion with the least bioactive components exhibited high hemolytic activity. The findings of this study reveal the secret behind the usefulness of foundation lotions on the basis of antioxidant contents and free radical scavenging activity. The results of this study confirmed that it is very unlikely that all the essential qualities of a good cosmetic product will be present all at once.
      PubDate: 2017-05-03
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4020012
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 13: Efficacy of Phoenix dactylifera L. (Date
           Palm) Creams on Healthy Skin

    • Authors: Sidra Meer, Naveed Akhtar, Tariq Mahmood, Joanna Igielska-Kalwat
      First page: 13
      Abstract: The date palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L. Arecaceae) is used in most of the countries of the world and is an essential part of the diet, especially in many Arabian countries. Phoenix dactylifera L. fruits are a rich source of sugars (glucose and fructose), vitamins (A, C, and B complex), fibers, minerals, and phenolic compounds having antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study is designed to explore the Phoenix dactylifera L. fruit for skin care. A single-blinded, placebo control trial was conducted, including 11 healthy female volunteers after their informed consent. The efficacy of the Phoenix dactylifera L. extract (4%) was evaluated in cream form after one, two, three, four, six, and eight weeks of treatment compared with the baseline. Prior to the study, the composition of the extract was analyzed to understand the underlying mechanisms by which the extract affects skin. Treating facial skin with the Phoenix dactylifera L. extract significantly improved all parameters investigated, such as skin elasticity, pigmentation, redness, brightness, and hydration and led to the improvement of the facial skin. There were no adverse reactions noted during the course of the patch test, demonstrating that the extract could be safe to apply on the skin. The Phoenix dactylifera L. fruit extract serves as a skin care ingredient that significantly improves characteristics important for perception of skin ageing and health. The efficacy of the treatment is possibly due to a combination of numerous active substances found in the Phoenix dactylifera L. extract.
      PubDate: 2017-05-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4020013
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 14: Meta Analysis of Skin Microbiome: New Link
           between Skin Microbiota Diversity and Skin Health with Proposal to Use
           This as a Future Mechanism to Determine Whether Cosmetic Products Damage
           the Skin

    • Authors: Christopher Wallen-Russell, Sam Wallen-Russell
      First page: 14
      Abstract: There is a skin allergy epidemic in the western world, and the rate of deterioration has increased significantly in the past 5–10 years. It is probable that there are many environmental contributing factors, yet some studies have linked it primarily to the rise in the use of synthetic chemical ingredients in modern cosmetics. Our challenge, therefore, was to find a mechanism to determine the effect these substances have on skin health, and whether they really are a primary cause of long term damage to the skin. The first problem is the lack of any definitive way to measure skin health. Motivated by the overwhelming evidence for a link between deficient gut flora and ill health, we decided to look at whether our skin microbiota could similarly be used as an indicator of skin health. Our research illustrates how microbiota diversity alone can predict whether skin is healthy or not, after we revealed a complete lack of conclusive findings linking the presence or abundance of particular species of microbe to skin problems. This phenomenon is replicated throughout nature, where high biodiversity always leads to healthy ecosystems. ‘Caveman’ skin, untouched by modern civilisation, was far different to “western” skin and displayed unprecedented levels of bacterial diversity. The less exposed communities were to western practices, the higher the skin diversity, which is clear evidence of an environmental factor in the developed world damaging skin. For the first time we propose benchmark values of diversity against which we can measure skin to determine how healthy it is. This gives us the ability to be able to predict which people are more likely to be prone to skin ailments, and start to test whether cosmetic ingredients and products are a main cause of the skin allergy epidemic.
      PubDate: 2017-05-14
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4020014
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 15: The New Sunscreens among Formulation
           Strategy, Stability Issues, Changing Norms, Safety and Efficacy
           Evaluations

    • Authors: Nicola Lionetti, Luigi Rigano
      First page: 15
      Abstract: The sun-and-skin interactions have controversial sides. Besides important beneficial effects, we need to take into consideration also some serious harmful results. In particular, these are connected to the portion of the solar spectrum traditionally identified as ultraviolet type A and B. The topical application of sunscreens (and the avoidance of extreme exposure to sun rays) is worldwide recognized as the best strategy to avoid sunburn and oedema. Moreover, such strategy can efficiently prevent the onset of skin cancer. Therefore, the first aim of sunscreen products is to efficiently minimize all damage of sun exposure, while, at the same time, keeping good skin tolerability, avoiding safety problems and developing pleasant sensorial properties. Sunscreens, i.e., substances able to reflect and/or absorb, at a partial or complete extent, UV radiation are the key actors in skin protection. They are used to implement the level of primary photoprotection against UV rays. This means that when they absorb the radiation energy, their molecules pass to an excited state and successively re-emit energy in other forms (vibrational, rotational, infrared radiation) to come back to the ground state.
      PubDate: 2017-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4020015
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 16: Topical Peptide Treatments with Effective
           Anti-Aging Results

    • Authors: Silke Schagen
      First page: 16
      Abstract: In the last two decades, many new peptides have been developed, and new knowledge on how peptides improve the skin has been uncovered. The spectrum of peptides in the field of cosmetics is continuously growing. This review summarizes some of the effective data on cosmeceutical peptides that work against intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Some peptides have been proven in their efficacy through clinical skin trials. Well-known and documented peptides like copper tripeptide are still under research to obtain more details on their effectiveness, and for the development of new treatments. Palmitoyl pentapeptide-4 and Carnosine are other well-researched cosmeceuticals. Additionally, there are many more peptides that are used in cosmetics. However, study results for some are sparse, or have not been published in scientific journals. This article summarizes topical peptides with proven efficacy in controlled in vivo studies.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4020016
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 17: Thermosensitive Hydrogel Mask Significantly
           Improves Skin Moisture and Skin Tone; Bilateral Clinical Trial

    • Authors: Anna Quattrone, Anna Czajka, Sara Sibilla
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Objective: A temperature-sensitive state-changing hydrogel mask was used in this study. Once it comes into contact with the skin and reaches the body temperature, it uniformly and quickly releases the active compounds, which possess moisturizing, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and regenerative properties. Methods: An open label clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of the test product on skin hydration, skin tone and skin ageing. Subjects applied the product to one side of their face and underwent Corneometer® and Chromameter measurements, Visual assessment of facial skin ageing and facial photography. All assessments and Self-Perception Questionnaires (SPQ) were performed at baseline, after the first application of the test product and after four applications. Results: After a single treatment we observed an increase in skin moisturisation, an improvement of skin tone/luminosity and a reduction in signs of ageing, all statistically significant. After four applications a further improvement in all measured parameters was recorded. These results were confirmed by the subjects’ own perceptions, as reported in the SPQ both after one and four applications. Conclusion: The hydrogel mask tested in this study is very effective in improving skin hydration, skin radiance and luminosity, in encouraging an even skin tone and in reducing skin pigmentation.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4020017
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 18: Anti-Skin-Aging Activity of a Standardized
           Extract from Panax ginseng Leaves In Vitro and In Human Volunteer

    • Authors: Seoungwoo Shin, Jung-A Lee, Dahee Son, Deokhoon Park, Eunsun Jung
      First page: 18
      Abstract: Ginseng leaves contain high saponin composition and content, but are used less often than the root part. To develop a use for the leaves that exploits their properties, we studied ginseng leaves as the raw material of anti-aging cosmetics. This study highlights an assessment of the cellular factivity and clinical efficacy of ginseng leaf extract, providing necessary information relevant to the development of new cosmetic products. Panax ginseng leaf purified extracts (PGLE) were shown to have high contents of Rb3 and Rb2. Rb3, the major chemical components of PGLE, promoted collagen synthesis though the activation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in human skin fibroblast cells. In addition, the possibility of PGLE as an anti-skin-aging agent has also been clinically validated. Our analysis of the crow’s feet wrinkle showed that there was a decrease in the depth of deep furrows in the region of interest (RI) treated with PGLE lotion over an eight-week period. Based on these results, we suggest the possibility that PGLE, having high levels of Rb3, be considered as an attractive, wrinkle-reducing candidate for topical application.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4020018
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 19: Sensory Evaluation and Oxidative Stability of
           a Suncream Formulated with Thermal Spring Waters from Ourense (NW Spain)
           and Sargassum muticum Extracts

    • Authors: Elena Balboa, Enma Conde, Astrid Constenla, Elena Falqué, Herminia Domínguez
      First page: 19
      Abstract: The purpose of this work was to evaluate four thermal spring waters from Ourense and a Sargassum muticum extract as cosmetic ingredients for the preparation of a suncream. The thermal spring waters were tested for their suitability as an aqueous phase main component, and the algal extract was added as an antioxidant instead of using synthetic preservatives in the cosmetic formula. The emulsion was tested for lipid oxidation during a period of 9 months and for consumer acceptance by performing a sensory test on controls and blanks. Further, color parameters were considered, and a pH determination was performed. The S. muticum extract protected from primary and secondary oxidation as efficiently as Fucus sp. or α-tocopherol extracts. In addition, the sensorial test revealed that consumers preferred suncreams prepared with the S. muticum extract and with thermal spring water from O Tinteiro and A Chavasqueira. The pH of the suncreams varied with the selection of the ingredients, and no oscillations in colorimetric values were visually observed. Our results indicate that the algal extract and the thermal spring waters from Ourense are potential cosmetic ingredients, since they showed effectiveness as antioxidant ingredients, and the suncreams were well accepted by consumers.
      PubDate: 2017-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4020019
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 20: Toxic Evaluation of Cymbopogon citratus
           Chemical Fractions in E. coli

    • Authors: Fabiana Fuentes-León, Maribel González-Pumariega, Marioly Vernhes Tamayo, Carlos Menck, Ángel Sánchez-Lamar
      First page: 20
      Abstract: Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf is consumed as a popular decoction owing to its nice flavor and hypotensor property. Its aqueous extract radioprotector and antimutagenic properties have been experimentally demonstrated. In addition, its DNA protective activity against UV light has been proved in plasmid DNA and bacterial models. The fractioning process is important in order to identify phytocompounds responsible for this activity. In this work, the toxicity of three fractions obtained from Cymbopogon citratus (essential oils, butanolic and aqueous fractions) were tested using the SOS Chromotest in Escherichia coli. Cymbopogon citratus chemical fractions possess cytotoxic properties in E. coli in the following order butanolic > aqueous > essentials oils. Genotoxic properties were detected in any of the fractions.
      PubDate: 2017-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4020020
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 1: Cosmetics Europe Guidelines on the Management
           of Undesirable Effects and Reporting of Serious Undesirable Effects from
           Cosmetics in the European Union

    • Authors: Gerald Renner, Francoise Audebert, Jens Burfeindt, Bénédicte Calvet, Madalina Caratas-Perifan, Martha Leal, Roberto Gorni, Amanda Long, Emma Meredith, Úna O’Sullivan, Marc Paye, Clémentine Perriere, Kordula Schlotmann
      First page: 1
      Abstract: The European Union (EU) Cosmetics Regulation (EC) No. 1223/2009 requires companies to collect and assess reports of adverse health effects from the cosmetic products (undesirable effects) they market. Furthermore, undesirable effects that are considered as serious need to be reported to the national competent authorities. Cosmetics Europe, representing the European cosmetics industry, has developed these guidelines to promote a consistent practical approach for the management of undesirable effects and the notification of serious undesirable effects. Following these guidelines allows companies concerned to demonstrate due diligence and compliance with the legal requirements.
      PubDate: 2017-01-03
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4010001
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 2: In Vitro Methodologies to Evaluate the Effects
           of Hair Care Products on Hair Fiber

    • Authors: Robson da Gama, André Baby, Maria Velasco
      First page: 2
      Abstract: Consumers use different hair care products to change the physical appearance of their hair, such as shampoos, conditioners, hair dye and hair straighteners. They expect cosmetics products to be available in the market to meet their needs in a broad and effective manner. Evaluating efficacy of hair care products in vitro involves the use of highly accurate equipment. This review aims to discuss in vitro methodologies used to evaluate the effects of hair care products on hair fiber, which can be assessed by various methods, such as Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, Optical Coherence Tomography, Infrared Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Protein Loss, Electrophoresis, color and brightness, thermal analysis and measuring mechanical resistance to combing and elasticity. The methodology used to test hair fibers must be selected according to the property being evaluated, such as sensory characteristics, determination of brightness, resistance to rupture, elasticity and integrity of hair strain and cortex, among others. If equipment is appropriate and accurate, reproducibility and ease of employment of the analytical methodology will be possible. Normally, the data set must be discussed in order to obtain conclusive answers to the test.
      PubDate: 2017-01-03
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4010002
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 3: Relative Free Radicals Scavenging and
           Enzymatic Activities of Hippophae rhamnoides and Cassia fistula Extracts:
           Importance for Cosmetic, Food and Medicinal Applications

    • Authors: Barkat Khan, Naveed Akhtar, Bouzid Menaa, Abder Menaa, Valdir Braga, Farid Menaa
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Hippophae rhamnoides L. and Cassia fistula L. extracts have great potential as food, medicinal, or cosmetic ingredients. The aim of our study was to assess their relative antioxidant activities and key enzymatic activities. Thereby, H. rhamnoides’ fruit and C. fistula’s pod extracts were evaluated by spectrophotometry, based on their respective total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) ferric-reducing power, capacity in nitric oxide, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals scavenging, as well as on their β-glucuronidase, α-glucosidase and α-tyrosinase inhibition activities. H. rhamnoides and C. fistula extracts exhibited similarly high TPC levels, hydroxyl ion [OH•] quenching activity, and α-glucosidase and α-tyrosinase IC50 values (p > 0.05). However, their respective DPPH radical, nitric oxide radical [NO•], and superoxide anion [O2−•] scavenging activities, as well as their IC50 values for β-glucuronidase, significantly differed (p ≤ 0.05), with results showcasing the highest values in C. fistula extracts. In sum, our in vitro data explicitly suggest that the pod extracts of C. fistula exert better antioxidant and enzymatic properties than those exhibited by the fruit extract of H. rhamnoides. They also implicitly encourage performing multiple in vitro assays in order to thoroughly select a plant extract destined to a given medicinal, dietetic, or esthetic application.
      PubDate: 2017-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4010003
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 4: Oxidative Stress and Ageing: The Influence of
           Environmental Pollution, Sunlight and Diet on Skin

    • Authors: Khimara Naidoo, Mark Birch-Machin
      First page: 4
      Abstract: Skin ageing is a complex process that is determined by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, which leads to a progressive loss of structure and function. There is extensive evidence indicating that oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species plays an important role in the process of human skin ageing. Mitochondria are the major source of cellular oxidative stress and are widely implicated in cutaneous ageing. Extrinsic skin ageing is driven to a large extent by environmental factors and external stressors such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR), pollution and lifestyle factors which have been shown to stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species and generate oxidative stress. The oxidative damage from these exogenous sources can impair skin structure and function, leading to the phenotypic features of extrinsic skin ageing. The following review highlights the current evidence surrounding the role of mitochondria and oxidative stress in the ageing process and the influence of environmental factors such as ultraviolet radiation, pollution and diet on skin ageing.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4010004
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 5: Contact Allergy to Castor Oil, but Not to
           Castor Wax

    • Authors: Michel Verheyden, Sven Rombouts, Julien Lambert, Olivier Aerts
      First page: 5
      Abstract: Ricinus communis (castor) seed oil (CAS 8001-79-4), a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of Ricinus communis, is widely used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, and may be a cause of allergic contact dermatitis from these products. We present two patients with allergic contact dermatitis from cosmetics containing castor oil, in whom a correct diagnosis was achieved by patch testing castor oil ‘as is’. PEGylated and/or hydrogenated derivatives (the latter formerly also available from patch test allergen suppliers) and/or cosmetics containing these specific derivatives did not result in contact allergy or allergic contact dermatitis. This observation might be relevant for the manufacturing of cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. In the future, further research into the allergenicity of castor oil and its numerous derivatives, and their optimal patch test concentrations, may be desirable.
      PubDate: 2017-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4010005
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 6: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Cosmetics in
           2016

    • Authors: Cosmetics Editorial Office
      First page: 6
      Abstract: The editors of Cosmetics would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016. [...]
      PubDate: 2017-01-17
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4010006
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 7: Benefits of Anti-Aging Actives in Sunscreens

    • Authors: Karl Lintner
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Sunscreens are functional, utilitarian, cosmetic products. The criteria of purchase are different from those for skin care and make-up. Companies are trying to add glamour and value to basic sunscreens by incorporating “active” ingredients (other than UV filters) into these formulas and by communicating about the additional benefits, be they anti-aging, moisturizing, firming, anti-wrinkle, etc. While some of these ideas of additional ingredients make sense as supplementary skin protection, some others do not afford much benefit in view of the infrequent application and short period of usage. The present article reviews some of these ideas and presents a few active ingredients that might be of value in such a context, even if substantiation of such additional claims in sunscreens is often lacking.
      PubDate: 2017-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4010007
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 8: Editorial on Special Issue “Cosmetic Safety:
           Ingredients, Type of Reactions Undesirable Effects, Cosmetovigilance”

    • Authors: Immacolata Caputo, Lidia Sautebin
      First page: 8
      Abstract: n/a
      PubDate: 2017-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4010008
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 9: A Validated HPLC Method for the Determination
           of Vanillyl Butyl Ether in Cosmetic Preparations

    • Authors: Francisco Ríos, Antonio Alberola, Joaquin Melendez, Gema Muedra, Francisco Trigo
      First page: 9
      Abstract: A specific HPLC (High-Performance Liquid Chromatography) method has been developed and validated for the determination of vanillyl butyl ether in cosmetic products. The extraction procedure with an isopropanol water 1:1 mixture is described. The method uses a RP-C-18 column with isocratic elution and an ultraviolet (UV) detector. The mobile phase consists of a mixture of acetonitrile and buffer (Na2HPO4 20 mM in water) (30:70 v/v) with a variable flow rate. The method was validated with respect to accuracy, precision (repeatability and reproducibility), specificity and linearity. The procedure described here is simple, selective and reliable for routine quality control analysis and stability tests of commercially available cosmetic products.
      PubDate: 2017-02-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4010009
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 10: Sunburn Protection by Sunscreen Sprays at
           Beach

    • Authors: Hao Ou-Yang, Richard Rzendzian
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Background: The efficacy of sunscreen is evaluated by SPF values, which are quantitatively determined in laboratories on the backs of human subjects according to a standardized procedure. However, SPF cannot be directly translated to sunburn protection under real-life situations because actual efficacy depends on various factors related to human behaviors and environmental conditions. This study clinically evaluated the efficacy of two sunscreen sprays (SPF 30 and SPF 70) under natural sunlight exposure on healthy subjects at the beach. Methods: Twenty subjects were divided into two cells for the two sunscreen sprays (SPF 70 and SPF 30) in a single-center, actual usage test. The primary endpoint of the study was sunburn protection on the dorsal arms and the secondary endpoint was protection on the face and neck. Subjects stayed at the beach for 4 h after application of the sunscreens with normal beach activities. Subjects’ behavior at the beach, the amounts of sunscreen applied and reapplied, and environmental conditions were all recorded. Results: There was no significant sunburn for a majority of the subjects in either cell. However, neither sunscreen completely blocked the sunburn, especially the face/neck area. We found that the SPF 70 sunscreen was more effective than the SPF 30 sunscreen. Conclusion: Modern sunscreen sprays, applied liberally, are effective in providing sunburn protection for the body in a beach setting.
      PubDate: 2017-03-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4010010
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017)
       
 
 
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