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Journal Cover   Cosmetics
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2079-9284
   Published by MDPI Homepage  [140 journals]
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 48-65: Main Benefits and Applicability of Plant
           Extracts in Skin Care Products

    • Authors: Ana Ribeiro, Marilene Estanqueiro, M. Oliveira, José Sousa Lobo
      Pages: 48 - 65
      Abstract: Natural ingredients have been used for centuries for skin care purposes. Nowadays, they are becoming more prevalent in formulations, due to consumers’ concerns about synthetic ingredients/chemical substances. The main benefits reported for plant extracts, used in skin care, include antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and tyrosinase inhibition effect. In this review, some examples of plants from Portuguese flora, whose extracts have shown good properties for skin care are presented. However, despite the known properties of plant extracts, few studies reported the development of formulations with them. More work in this field can be accomplished to meet consumer demand.
      PubDate: 2015-04-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2020048
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 66-81: Topical Benefits of Two Fucoidan-Rich
           Extracts from Marine Macroalgae

    • Authors: J. Fitton, Giorgio Dell'Acqua, Vicki-Anne Gardiner, Samuel Karpiniec, Damien Stringer, Emma Davis
      Pages: 66 - 81
      Abstract: Two concentrated and well-characterized fucoidan-rich extracts were investigated to determine their benefits in topical applications. An Undaria pinnatifida extract, containing 85% fucoidan, and a Fucus vesiculosus co-extract, containing 60% fucoidan and 30% polyphenol, were assessed in a number of in vitro assays to measure the effect of the extracts on enzyme inhibition, glycation, antioxidant activity and Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) protein expression. Double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies were also conducted to measure soothing, protection, wrinkle depth, brightness and skin spot intensity. Both extracts demonstrated marked inhibitory effects on processes linked to skin aging, including the increased expression of SIRT1 in vitro. Clinical testing established the efficacy of the extracts in a range of the tested applications, relative to placebo. The Fucus vesiculosus extract with high polyphenol content demonstrated additional in vitro antioxidant activity, as well as improved efficacy in skin brightening applications, relative to placebo. The major effects of the Undaria pinnatifida extract aided skin immunity, soothing and protection, while the Fucus vesiculosus extract most significantly affected age spot reduction and increased brightness, soothing and protection.
      PubDate: 2015-04-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2020066
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 82-92: New Trends in Cosmetics: By-Products of
           Plant Origin and Their Potential Use as Cosmetic Active Ingredients

    • Authors: Ani Barbulova, Gabriella Colucci, Fabio Apone
      Pages: 82 - 92
      Abstract: In recent years, the amount of waste deriving from industrial processes has increased substantially. Many industries produce different types of disposable by-products, rich in valuable compounds. Their characterization and valorization could not only convert them into high value products with application in diverse biotechnological fields, such as Pharmaceutics, Food or Cosmetics, but would also reduce the waste environmental impact and the related treatment costs. There are many examples of cosmetic active ingredients deriving from fish, meat and dairy products, but in the present review we would like to focus on the potentialities and the current use of compounds and extracts deriving from agronomical disposable wastes in the cosmetic field. These types of products are effective, inexpensive and bio-sustainable, and thus represent a valid alternative to the regular plant derived extracts, more commonly adopted in cosmetic formulations. Moreover, if the waste products come from organic farming, they are certainly an even more valuable source of safe extracts for Cosmetics, since they lack any residual pesticide or potentially toxic chemical.
      PubDate: 2015-04-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2020082
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 93-109: Risk of Children’s Dermal Exposure
           to Galaxolide through Personal Care Products

    • Authors: Patrícia Correia, Agostinho Cruz, Lúcia Santos, Arminda Alves
      Pages: 93 - 109
      Abstract: Galaxolide is the most used fragrance since the early 1990s, and it has been largely detected in environmental and biological matrices. This polycyclic musk is present in almost all of our daily products, so the risk of human exposure is substantial, as it had been proved by its detection in human tissues and fluids. Due to the lack of information about the concentrations found in consumer products, monitoring data is needed for exposure assessment purposes. Dermal contact, mostly by personal care products, seems to be the major route of human exposure to galaxolide, and, due to the immaturity of young children’s skin, exposure consequences can be worse in this population. The main objective of this study was to evaluate galaxolide levels in personal care products used by children of Oporto (Portugal), aged 0–5 years, and relate it with consumer habits. Consumer patterns were obtained through 250 questionnaires to caregivers of Oporto children. The 79 most used products were extracted by a dispersive solid phase extraction methodology known as QuEChERS and galaxolide was determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. The concentrations ranged between 0.001 ± 0.001 mg·kg−1, on a baby wipe, and 300.480 ± 8.819 mg·kg−1, on glycerin soap, which may correspond to an estimated daily dermal exposure of 277.10 ± 0.02 µg·day−1 on the population of Oporto children. This value is in the range of the results observed for adults, although no information of toxicological risk for children is available.
      PubDate: 2015-04-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2020093
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 110-126: Types of Hair Dye and Their Mechanisms
           of Action

    • Authors: Simone da França, Michelli Dario, Victoria Esteves, André Baby, Maria Velasco
      Pages: 110 - 126
      Abstract: Hair color change by dye application is a common procedure among women. Hair dyes are classified, according to color resistance, into temporary, semipermanent, demipermanent and permanent. The first two are based on molecules which are already colored. Temporary dyes act through dye deposition on cuticles, but semipermanent may penetrate a little into the cortex and so the color resists up to six washes. Demipermanent and permanent dyes are based on color precursors, called oxidation dyes, and the final shade is developed by their interactions with an oxidizing agent, but they differ from the alkalizing agent used. In oxidation systems, there is an intense diffusion of the molecules into the cortex, what promotes a longer color resistance. Dyes and color precursors present differences related to chromophore groups, hair fiber affinity, water solubility, and photo stability. The aim of this review is to discuss the differences among hair dye products available in the market and their action mechanisms, molecular structures, application methods, and some aspects of formulations.
      PubDate: 2015-04-22
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2020110
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 127-135: The Optimization of the Oiling Bath
           Cosmetic Composition Containing Rapeseed Phospholipids and Grapeseed Oil
           by the Full Factorial Design

    • Authors: Michał Górecki, Anna Kurek-Górecka, Marian Sosada, Beata Pasker, Monika Pająk, Paweł Fraś
      Pages: 127 - 135
      Abstract: The proper condition of hydrolipid mantle and the stratum corneum intercellular matrix determines effective protection against transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Some chemicals, improper use of cosmetics, poor hygiene, old age and some diseases causes disorder in the mentioned structures and leads to TEWL increase. The aim of this study was to obtain the optimal formulation composition of an oiling bath cosmetic based on rapeseed phospholipids and vegetable oil with high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In this work, the composition of oiling bath form was calculated and the degree of oil dispersion after mixing the bath preparation with water was selected as the objective function in the optimizing procedure. The full factorial design 23 in the study was used. The concentrations of rapeseed lecithin ethanol soluble fraction (LESF), alcohol (E) and non-ionic emulsifier (P) were optimized. Based on the calculations from our results, the optimal composition of oiling bath cosmetic was: L (LESF) 5.0 g, E (anhydrous ethanol) 20.0 g and P (Polysorbate 85) 1.5 g. The optimization procedure used in the study allowed to obtain the oiling bath cosmetic which gives above 60% higher emulsion dispersion degree 5.001 × 10−5 cm−1 compared to the initial formulation composition with the 3.096 × 10−5 cm−1.
      PubDate: 2015-04-30
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2020127
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 136-145: Significant Reduction of Body Odor in
           Older People with a pH 4.0 Emulsion

    • Authors: Michael Kemper, Stephan Bielfeldt, Ulrich Knie, Klaus-Peter Wilhelm, Christoph Abels
      Pages: 136 - 145
      Abstract: The impact of increasing age on body odor has become an important issue as our understanding of underlying skin changes in older people has increased. Therefore, cosmetic skin products especially for the needs of the elderly are of growing importance. This randomized single-blind crossover study assessed the deodorizing efficacy of two cosmetic products with different pH values on the age-specific odor of an elderly female subject panel (≥60 years). The two test products, adjusted to pH 4.0 and pH 5.8 were applied to the axillae once daily for three consecutive days after standardized washing of the axillae. The untreated axilla was used as a control. Six odor judges evaluated the efficacy of both products. Additionally, bactericidal and fungicidal activity was investigated with in vitro microbiologic tests. The pH 4.0 water in oil (W/O) emulsion significantly reduced axillary malodor in 44 elderly subjects at 8 and 24 h after treatment, compared with controls (untreated axillae) (p < 0.001 after 8 and 24 h), whereas pH 5.8 emulsion had no effect (p = 0.441 after 8 h; p = 0.425 after 24 h). Moreover, the pH 4.0 emulsion reduced axillary malodor at 8 and 24 h after treatment, compared with the pH 5.8 emulsion just narrowly missing statistical significance (p = 0.078 after 8 h; p = 0.053 after 24 h). Microbiologic in vitro tests showed that the pH 4.0 emulsion reduced the levels of odor-producing bacteria S. epidermidis and C. minutissimum after 1 h (2.98 log and 4.25 log). After 24 h, levels of S. aureus (>5.50 log), P. acnes (>5.30 log) and E. coli (>5.46 log) were further reduced whereas no effect was observed for pH 5.8. A pH 4.0 emulsion significantly reduced axillary malodor for up to 24 h after application in females aged at least 60 years. This reduction in malodor is very likely due to a reduction of odor-producing bacteria.
      PubDate: 2015-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2020136
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 146-161: Stimulation of the Fibrillar Collagen
           and Heat Shock Proteins by Nicotinamide or Its Derivatives in
           Non-Irradiated or UVA Radiated Fibroblasts, and Direct Anti-Oxidant
           Activity of Nicotinamide Derivatives

    • Authors: Neena Philips, Jovinna Chalensouk-Khaosaat, Salvador Gonzalez
      Pages: 146 - 161
      Abstract: In skin aging, from intrinsic factors or exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, there is loss of structural fibrillar collagen and regulatory heat shock proteins. Phenolic compounds, with hydroxyl groups attached to an aromatic ring, have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Nicotinamide is an amide derivative of niacin or vitamin B3, with an amide linked to an aromatic ring, with UV absorptive, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cell death/apoptosis properties. The goal of this research was to investigate the anti-skin aging mechanism of nicotinamide and its derivatives, 2,6-dihydroxynicotinamide, 2,4,5,6-tetrahydroxynicotinamide, and 3-hydroxypicolinamide (collectively niacin derivatives), through the stimulation of fibrillar collagens (type I, III and V, at protein and/or promoter levels) and the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP)-27, 47, 70, and 90 in non-irradiated or UVA radiated dermal fibroblasts; and from its direct antioxidant activity. UVA radiation inhibited the expression of types I and III collagen, and HSP-47 in dermal fibroblasts. The niacin derivatives significantly and similarly stimulated the expression of types I (transcriptionally), III and V collagens in non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts indicating predominant effects. The 2,6-dihydroxynicotinamide had greater stimulatory effect on types I and III collagen in the non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts, as well as greater direct antioxidant activity than the other niacin derivatives. The niacin derivatives, with a few exceptions, stimulated the expression of HSP-27, 47, 70 and 90 in non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts. However, they had varied effects on the expression of the different HSPs in non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts indicating non-predominant, albeit stimulatory, effect. Overall, nicotinamide and its derivatives have anti skin aging potential through the stimulation of fibrillar collagen and HSPs.
      PubDate: 2015-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2020146
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 162-176: Handheld Raman Spectroscopy for the
           Distinction of Essential Oils Used in the Cosmetics Industry

    • Authors: Paul Jentzsch, Luis Ramos, Valerian Ciobotă
      Pages: 162 - 176
      Abstract: Essential oils are highly appreciated by the cosmetics industry because they have antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, among others. Since essential oils are natural products, their inclusion in cosmetic formulations is a common practice. Currently, low-quality and/or adulterated essential oils can be found on the market; therefore, analytical methods for control are required. Raman spectroscopy is a versatile technique that can be used for quality control tasks; the portability of modern devices expand the analytical possibilities also to in situ measurements. Fifteen essential oils of interest for the cosmetics industry were measured using a handheld Raman spectrometer, and the assignment of the main bands observed in their average spectra was proposed. In most cases, it is possible to distinguish the essential oils by a simple visual inspection of their characteristic Raman bands. However, for essential oils extracted from closely-related vegetable species and containing the same main component in a very high proportion, the visual inspection of the spectra may be not enough, and the application of chemometric methods is suggested. Characteristic Raman bands for each essential oil can be used to both identify the essential oils and detect adulterations.
      PubDate: 2015-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2020162
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 177-186: Nanotechnology, Inflammation and the
           Skin Barrier: Innovative Approaches for Skin Health and Cosmesis

    • Authors: Angelo Landriscina, Jamie Rosen, Adam Friedman
      Pages: 177 - 186
      Abstract: Dermatologic physiology and aesthetics are profoundly connected. Inflammatory stimuli abound in the environment, and have the potential to impact both the physiology and aesthetics of the integument. Inflammation results in a compromised epidermal barrier, impaired moisture retention, erythema, scale and pigment alteration. The advent of nanotechnology has introduced a variety of new approaches to preserving skin cosmesis in the face of inflammation. In this article, we review the architecture and physiology of the epidermal barrier, describe the pathological and aesthetic effects of inflammation, and report recent advances in the development of nanomaterials to offset the aesthetic impact of inflammation.
      PubDate: 2015-06-03
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2020177
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 187-195: An Exploratory Study of the Factors That
           May Affect Female Consumers’ Buying Decision of Nail Polishes

    • Authors: Chen Sun, Koushik Adhikari, Kadri Koppel
      Pages: 187 - 195
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine what factors female consumers valued more when they buy nail polish. Ninety-eight female consumers participated in a nail polish consumer study at the Sensory Analysis Center, Kansas State University. A questionnaire containing a check-all-that-apply (CATA) question, behavior questions and demographic questions was presented to each consumer. In the CATA question, the factors that may affect consumers’ decision to buy a nail polish were asked, including both sensory and non-sensory factors. The frequency in percent for the factors was calculated. Sensory appeal, price and convenience of usage were the top factors that affected consumers’ buying decisions. Consumers valued sensory appeal and convenience of usage; this suggested that a nail polish company’s product development and advertising departments may want to focus on these two areas, primarily. The information presented in this study could help a nail polish company understand more about consumer segmentation and advertising strategy.
      PubDate: 2015-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2020187
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2015)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 11-20: Hormetins as Novel Components of
           Cosmeceuticals and Aging Interventions

    • Authors: Suresh Rattan
      Pages: 11 - 20
      Abstract: A promising strategy for maintaining a healthy and youthful phenotype during aging is that of mild stress-induced beneficial hormesis. The basis of hormesis lies in the molecular pathways of stress response, which are essential for the survival of a biological system by activation of maintenance and repair mechanisms in response to stress. Moderate physical exercise is the best example of a hormetin that brings about a wide range of health beneficial hormesis by first challenging the system. Similarly, other natural and synthetic hormetins can be incorporated in cosmeceutical formulations, and can help achieve benefits including maintenance of the skin structure and function. Several polyphenols, flavonoids and other components from spices, algae and other sources are potential hormetins that may act via hormesis. Stress response pathways that can be analyzed for screening potential hormetins for use in cosmetics and cosmeceuticals include heat shock response, autophagy, DNA damage response, sirtuin response, inflammatory response and oxidative stress response.
      PubDate: 2015-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2010011
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2015)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 21: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Cosmetics in
           2014

    • Authors: Cosmetics Office
      Pages: 21 - 21
      Abstract: The editors of Cosmetics would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2014:[...]
      PubDate: 2015-01-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2010021
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2015)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 22-32: New Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    • Authors: An Goossens
      Pages: 22 - 32
      Abstract: Allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and immunologic contact urticaria are potential immune-mediated adverse effects from cosmetics. Fragrance components and preservatives are certainly the most frequently observed allergens; however, all ingredients must be considered when investigating for contact allergy.
      PubDate: 2015-02-04
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2010022
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2015)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 33-34: Open Peer Review: A New Challenge for
           Cosmetics

    • Authors: Enzo Berardesca
      Pages: 33 - 34
      Abstract: Dear Readers, As part of a continued effort to improve the quality of our papers and the transparency of the publication process, Cosmetics will introduce in the near future the possibility for the
      Authors to choose an Open Peer Review process (OPR). OPR is as a process in which the names of the authors and reviewers may be known to each other, and where review reports are published alongside the final manuscript, with the aim to facilitate discussion and clarity between the authors and the reviewer(s).
      PubDate: 2015-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2010033
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2015)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 35-47: Effects of Lipids and Emulsifiers on the
           Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Cosmetic Emulsions Containing
           Vitamin E

    • Authors: Lucia Montenegro, Lucia Rapisarda, Carmen Ministeri, Giovanni Puglisi
      Pages: 35 - 47
      Abstract: Sensory properties are fundamental in determining the success of a cosmetic product. In this work, we assessed the influence of different oils and emulsifiers on the physicochemical and sensory properties of anti-ageing cosmetic O/W emulsions containing vitamin E acetate as active ingredient. No clear correlation between physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics was evidenced. Sensorial evaluation of these formulations pointed out that the emulsifier systems affected the perceived oiliness and absorbency during application of the product, thus influencing its acceptance. These results suggest the need for more detailed studies on the physicochemical factors involved in determining the consumers’ acceptance.
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2010035
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2015)
       
 
 
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