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Journal Cover Cosmetics
  [2 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2079-9284
   Published by MDPI Homepage  [140 journals]
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 13: Telogen Effluvium

    • Authors: Deepa Liyanage, Rodney Sinclair
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Kligman first coined the term telogen effluvium (TE) in 1961 to describe the state of increased shedding of otherwise normal telogen hairs. TE may be primary or secondary to a wide variety of potential triggers including febrile illness, drugs, thyroid disorders, and child birth. The diagnosis of secondary TE can be made by identifying known triggers from the history in the 3–4 months preceding the onset of increased hair shedding and by investigating to exclude endocrine, nutritional, or auto immune aetiologies. Scalp biopsy to identify the earliest stages of androgenetic alopecia may be required in some cases. Primary TE may be acute or chronic. In acute TE, the shedding resolves within 3–6 months and the hair density recovers completely. In chronic TE, the shedding can continue with minor fluctuations in severity for decades. In this review, possible causative factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentations and treatment options are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-03-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3020013
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 14: Safety Evaluation of Cosmetic Ingredients
           Regarding Their Skin Sensitization Potential

    • Authors: Winfried Steiling
      First page: 14
      Abstract: Up to today, product safety evaluation in the EU is predominantly based on data/information on their individual ingredients. Consequently, the quality and reliability of individual ingredient data is of vital interest. In this context, the knowledge about skin sensitization potential is an explicit need for both hazard and risk assessment. Proper skin sensitization data of the individual chemicals is essential, especially when dermal contact is intended, like for cosmetics. In some cases, e.g., in the presence of irritating chemicals, the combination of individual ingredients may also need to be evaluated to cover possible mixture effects. Today, it seems unlikely or even impossible that skin sensitization in humans can be adequately described by a single test result or even by a simple combination of a few data points (in vivo or in vitro). It is becoming evident that a set of data (including human data and market data) and knowledge about the ingredient’s specific sensitizing potency needs to be taken into account to enable a reliable assessment of skin sensitization. A more in-depth understanding on mechanistic details of the Adverse-Outcome-Pathway of skin sensitization could contribute key data for a robust conclusion on skin sensitization.
      PubDate: 2016-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3020014
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 15: In Vitro DVS Approach to Evaluate Skin

    • Authors: Clara Barba, Cristina Alonso, Alessandra Semenzato, Giovanni Baratto, Luisa Coderch
      First page: 15
      Abstract: The stratum corneum (SC), the most superficial layer of the skin, is directly responsible for the skin’s barrier function. The intercellular lipids in the SC play an important role in the regulation of the skin’s water-holding capacity. The modification of the intercellular lipid organization and composition may impair these properties. The aim of the present study is to describe a new in vitro approach of the repairing capacity evaluation of lipid formulations on skin with the use of absorption and desorption curves. The formulations were applied on lipid-extracted SC, and the possible SC reparation was assessed with the use of a thermogravimetric balance (DVS). Moisture absorption/desorption experiments proved to be adequate for the evaluation of the repairing capacity of formulations applied on damaged skin. Besides, freeze-substitution transmission electron microscopy (FSTEM) images showed some lipid bilayers, indicating a lipid bilayer reconstitution due to the applied formulations.
      PubDate: 2016-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3020015
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 16: Integrated Testing Strategies for Skin
           Sensitization Hazard and Potency Assessment—State of the Art and

    • Authors: Joanna Jaworska
      First page: 16
      Abstract: The paper provides an overview of existing Integrated Testing Strategies (ITS) for assessing hazard and potency of skin sensitization. The ITS research is active, diverse and constantly evolving as new assays are being developed and new mechanistic insights are discovered. Despite the need to assess potency, the majority of the ITS approaches developed to date assess hazard only. Reasons for this situation are analyzed and include, for example, the dynamic range of existing alternative assays versus the range of in vivo responses, but also sporadic use of kinetic information and molar units. Depending on the application, regulatory or product development, standardized and nonstandard ITS approaches will be developed. Challenges to practical applications, with focus on regulatory are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-04-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3020016
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 17: Legislative Aspects of Cosmetic Safety in the
           European Union: The Case of Contact Allergy

    • Authors: David Basketter, Ian White
      First page: 17
      Abstract: For several decades, the European Union (EU) has amongst its many tenets and principles the aim, enshrined in an EU Directive, that cosmetic products should not cause harm to the consumer. To a great extent, this is been successful, although it is noteworthy that the frequency of contact allergy to a number of ingredients commonly found in cosmetics has remained stubbornly high. Perhaps because of this, but certainly because of the drive by the European Commission towards better, more streamlined, regulation, the Directive was recast into a Regulation, usually referred to as the EU Cosmetics Regulation ((EC) No 1223/2009). As with the Directive, for each and every cosmetic product placed on the consumer market in the EU, a safety assessment is required. The Regulation requires that a dossier is prepared detailing the composition of the product, the safety of each of its ingredients, as well as an evaluation of overall product safety. This has to be completed by suitably trained and qualified assessors. Also relevant to cosmetic products are the general regulations pertaining to chemicals used in the EU where again many details of the toxicological profile must be ascertained and reviewed. On this basis, it should be possible to ensure that the extent of contact allergy attributed to cosmetic products declines. However, legislation is one thing, but it is also necessary to ensure that the cosmetic industry safety assessment process is completed in a rigourous manner (or even done at all) and that demands enforcement of the legislation.
      PubDate: 2016-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3020017
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 18: Anti-Melanogenesis Effect of Quercetin

    • Authors: Moon-Hee Choi, Hyun-Jae Shin
      First page: 18
      Abstract: Whitening cosmetics with anti-melanogenesis activity are very popular worldwide. Many companies have tried to identify novel ingredients that show anti-melanogenesis effects for new product development. Among many plant-derived compounds, polyphenols are thought to be one of the most promising anti-melanogenesis ingredients. In order to prepare effective whitening polyphenols, 3,3,4,5,7-pentahydrosyflavone (quercetin) has been widely researched and applied to commercial products because it is present in high levels in many edible plants. Quercetin is thus a representative polyphenol and has recently gained attention in the cosmetics field. There are many controversies, however, regarding the effect of quercetin, based on in vitro studies, cell line experiments, and human trials. In this review, toxicity and efficacy data for quercetin and its derivatives in various experimental conditions (i.e., various cell lines, concentration ranges, and other parameters) were examined. Based on this analysis, quercetin itself is shown to be ineffective for hypopigmentation of human skin. However, a few types of quercetin derivatives (such as glycosides) show some activity in a concentration-dependent manner. This review provides clarity in the debate regarding the effects of quercetin.
      PubDate: 2016-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3020018
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 1: Skin Redox Balance Maintenance: The Need for
           an Nrf2-Activator Delivery System

    • Authors: Maya Ben-Yehuda Greenwald, Shmuel Ben-Sasson, Havazelet Bianco-Peled, Ron Kohen
      First page: 1
      Abstract: The skin, being the largest organ of the body, functions as a barrier between our body and the environment. It is consistently exposed to various exogenous and endogenous stressors (e.g., air pollutants, ionizing and non-ionizing irradiation, toxins, mitochondrial metabolism, enzyme activity, inflammatory process, etc.) producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and physical damage (e.g., wounds, sunburns) also resulting in reactive oxygen species production. Although skin is equipped with an array of defense mechanisms to counteract reactive oxygen species, augmented exposure and continued reactive oxygen species might result in excessive oxidative stress leading to many skin disorders including inflammatory diseases, pigmenting disorders and some types of cutaneous malignancy. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an emerging regulator of cellular resistance and of defensive enzymes such as the phase II enzymes. Induction of the Keap1–Nrf2 pathway may have a beneficial effect in the treatment of a large number of skin disorders by stimulating an endogenous defense mechanism. However, prolonged and enhanced activation of this pathway is detrimental and, thus, limits the therapeutic potential of Keap1–Nrf2 modulators. Here, we review the consequences of oxidative stress to the skin, and the defense mechanisms that skin is equipped with. We describe the challenges of maintaining skin redox balance and its impact on skin status and function. Finally, we suggest a novel strategy for maintenance of skin redox homeostasis by modulating the Keap1–Nrf2 pathway using nanotechnology-based delivery systems.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3010001
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 2: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Cosmetics in

    • Authors: Cosmetics Editorial Office
      First page: 2
      Abstract: The editors of Cosmetics would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2015. [...]
      PubDate: 2016-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3010002
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 3: Microbiologically Contaminated and
           Over-Preserved Cosmetic Products According Rapex 2008–2014

    • Authors: Edlira Neza, Marisanna Centini
      First page: 3
      Abstract: We investigated the Rapid Alert System (RAPEX) database from January 2008 until week 26 of 2014 to give information to consumers about microbiologically contaminated cosmetics and over-preserved cosmetic products. Chemical risk was the leading cause of the recalls (87.47%). Sixty-two cosmetic products (11.76%) were recalled because they were contaminated with pathogenic or potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most frequently found microorganism. Other microorganisms found were: Mesophilic aerobic microorganisms, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Enterococcus spp., Enterobacter cloacae, Enterococcus faecium, Enterobacter gergoviae, Rhizobium radiobacter, Burkholderia cepacia, Serratia marcescens, Achromabacter xylosoxidans, Klebsiella oxytoca, Bacillus firmus, Pantoea agglomerans, Pseudomonas putida, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Citrobacter freundii. Nine cosmetic products were recalled because they contained methylisothiazolinone (0.025%–0.36%), benzalkonium chloride (1%), triclosan (0.4%) in concentrations higher than the limits allowed by European Regulation 1223/2009. Fifteen products were recalled for the presence of methyldibromo glutaronitrile, a preservative banned for use in cosmetics. Thirty-two hair treatment products were recalled because they contained high concentrations of formaldehyde (0.3%–25%).
      PubDate: 2016-01-30
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3010003
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 4: High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem
           Mass Spectrometry Measurement of Bimatoprost, Latanoprost and Travoprost
           in Eyelash Enhancing Cosmetic Serums

    • Authors: Emilia Marchei, Daniela De Orsi, Carmine Guarino, Maria Rotolo, Silvia Graziano, Simona Pichini
      First page: 4
      Abstract: Most common prostaglandin analogs, bimatoprost, latanoprost and travoprost, are licensed for the reduction of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension, but their non approved use as eyelash enhancers is becoming popular, especially in patients with eyelashes hypotrichosis. A fast and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the measurement of bimatoprost, latanoprost and travoprost in cosmetic serums freely web-sold to increase eyelash length, thickness and darkness. The analytes and the internal standard (reserpine) were separated by reversed phase chromatography with 5 mM ammonium acetate with 0.02% formic acid (mobile phase A) and 5 mM ammonium acetate in acetonitrile/water (95/5; v/v) with 0.02% formic acid (mobile phase B) by gradient elution and detected with tandem mass spectrometry operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Linearity between 1 and 500 μg/g shows good correlation coefficients (r2 = 0.99) for all substances. Analytical recovery of analytes under investigation were always higher than 90% and intra-assay and inter-assay precision and accuracy always better than 11%. This method was successfully applied to analyze cosmetic serums freely sold on the Internet websites.
      PubDate: 2016-02-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3010004
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 5: Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    • Authors: An Goossens
      First page: 5
      Abstract: This article presents trends in the frequency of cosmetics as causal factors of allergic contact dermatitis during a 26-year period in 14,911 patients patch-tested between 1990 and 2014, and discusses the cosmetic allergens identified during the last six years (2010–2015) in 603 patients out of 3105 tested. The data were retrieved from, and evaluated with, a patient database developed in-house. The results show the increasing importance of cosmetic allergies, up to 25% of the patients tested during the last five-year period. As expected, fragrance materials, preservatives, and hair dyes were the most frequent culprits, but a great variety of other allergenic ingredients were involved as well. This underlines the need of additional and extensive patch testing with the patient’s products used and their ingredients.
      PubDate: 2016-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3010005
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 6: Impact of Cosmetic Lotions on Nanoparticle
           Penetration through ex Vivo C57BL/6 Hairless Mouse and Human Skin: A
           Comparison Study

    • Authors: Samreen Jatana, Linda Callahan, Alice Pentland, Lisa DeLouise
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Understanding the interactions of nanoparticles (NPs) with skin is important from a consumer and occupational health and safety perspective, as well as for the design of effective NP-based transdermal therapeutics. Despite intense efforts to elucidate the conditions that permit NP penetration, there remains a lack of translatable results from animal models to human skin. The objectives of this study are to investigate the impact of common skin lotions on NP penetration and to quantify penetration differences of quantum dot (QD) NPs between freshly excised human and mouse skin. QDs were mixed in seven different vehicles, including five commercial skin lotions. These were topically applied to skin using two exposure methods; a petri dish protocol and a Franz diffusion cell protocol. QD presence in the skin was quantified using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy. Results show that the commercial vehicles can significantly impact QD penetration in both mouse and human skin. Lotions that contain alpha hydroxyl acids (AHA) facilitated NP penetration. Lower QD signal was observed in skin studied using a Franz cell. Freshly excised human skin was also studied immediately after the sub-cutaneous fat removal process, then after 24 h rest ex vivo. Resting human skin 24 h prior to QD exposure significantly reduced epidermal presence. This study exemplifies how application vehicles, skin processing and the exposure protocol can affect QD penetration results and the conclusions that maybe drawn between skin models.
      PubDate: 2016-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3010006
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 7: Alternative Approach for Potency Assessment:
           In Vitro Methods

    • Authors: Emanuela Corsini, Erwin Roggen, Valentina Galbiati, Sue Gibbs
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Over the last decade, incredible progress has been made in the development of non-animal tests to assess contact hypersensitivity. Four methods have been successfully validated and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines are available or soon will be. Currently validated methods are useful for hazard identification, classification and labeling. However, to achieve a complete replacement of animals in skin sensitization assessment, dose-response information and evaluation of relative skin sensitizing potency to support effective risk assessment are necessary. In this context, potency is based on the concentration of chemicals needed to induce a positive response. This will require a better understanding of the mechanisms determining potency, including pathway analysis and marker signature identification (selection of an appropriate immune-mediated response to serve as the basis), together with quantitative and qualitative correlations between marker signatures and potency of chemicals in relation with T cell responses. This review aims to discuss the state-of-the-art in the field of in vitro assessment of the no induction sensitization level of contact sensitizers.
      PubDate: 2016-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3010007
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 8: Mechanistic Understanding of Contact Allergy

    • Authors: Stefan Martin
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Cosmetic products contain potential contact allergens or precursors that require metabolic conversion or oxidation to generate contact allergens. The most relevant contact allergens are fragrances and preservatives. These substances can pose hazards to human health due to their ability to activate T cells that can cause allergic contact dermatitis, an inflammatory skin disease. In recent years, much progress has been made in the elucidation of the mechanistic basis for immune system activation by contact allergens. This is essential for the development of better diagnostic tools, targeted therapies and animal-free in vitro assays for contact allergen identification. This overview will highlight some aspects of the activation of innate and adaptive immune responses by contact allergens.
      PubDate: 2016-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3010008
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 9: Rutin—Increased Antioxidant Activity and
           Skin Penetration by Nanocrystal Technology (smartCrystals)

    • First page: 9
      Abstract: Rutin is a well-known antioxidant from the group of flavonoids. Its use in cosmetic dermal products is, however, limited due to its poor water solubility. In order to increase rutin saturation solubility and improve the diffusion to the skin, rutin nanocrystals were produced by the smartCrystal process, e.g., bead milling followed by high pressure homogenization. Rutin nanocrystals were further incorporated into hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) gel and its long-term stability was assessed. Determination of the antioxidant activity was made by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay for these formulations: rutin nanocrystals (mean size 300 nm), rutin raw drug powder (mean size 33 μm) and commercial product. Furthermore, the skin penetration profile of rutin was investigated by the tape-stripping method on porcine skin. This study demonstrated that rutin nanocrystal gel had the highest neutralizing activity (90%), followed by a commercial product and rutin raw drug powder. According to the skin study, rutin nanocrystals penetrated to the deeper layers of the stratum corneum, the horny layer of the skin.
      PubDate: 2016-02-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3010009
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 10: Photothermal Radiometry for Skin Research

    • Authors: Perry Xiao
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Photothermal radiometry is an infrared remote sensing technique that has been used for skin and skin appendages research, in the areas of skin hydration, hydration gradient, skin hydration depth profiling, skin thickness measurements, skin pigmentation measurements, effect of topically applied substances, transdermal drug delivery, moisture content of bio-materials, membrane permeation, and nail and hair measurements. Compared with other technologies, photothermal radiometry has the advantages of non-contact, non-destructive, quick to make a measurement (a few seconds), and being spectroscopic in nature. It is also colour blind, and can work on any arbitrary sample surfaces. It has a unique depth profiling capability on a sample surface (typically the top 20 µm), which makes it particularly suitable for skin measurements. In this paper, we present a review of the photothermal radiometry work carried out in our research group. We will first introduce the theoretical background, then illustrate its applications with experimental results.
      PubDate: 2016-02-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3010010
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 11: Can We Make Cosmetic Contact Allergy

    • Authors: David Basketter, Emanuela Corsini
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Chemical allergy is of considerable importance to the toxicologist, who, amongst other things, has the responsibility of identifying and characterizing the skin (and respiratory) sensitizing potential of chemicals, and estimating the risk they pose to human health. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is to a large extent a preventable disease. Although quantitative risk assessment (QRA) for contact allergy can be performed, it is reasonable to ask why the burden of the skin disease ACD appears to remain stubbornly high, and in particular, that the general level of ACD to sensitizing ingredients found in cosmetics has not fallen noticeably over recent decades; some could argue that it has increased. In this review, this conundrum is addressed, considering whether and to what extent the prevalence of cosmetic allergy is truly unchanged, whether the predicted test methods and potency estimations are sufficiently precise and how proposed changes to the QRA process (i.e., cumulative exposure) may ameliorate the situation. Improved and more widespread use of risk assessment, better education of risk assessors, better post-marketing surveillance and monitoring of dermatology clinic feedback to improve QRA, all together could help to “make contact allergy history”.
      PubDate: 2016-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3010011
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 12: Erratum: Fitton, J.H., et al. Topical
           Benefits of Two Fucoidan-Rich Extracts from Marine Macroalgae. Cosmetics
           2015, 2, 66–81

    • Authors: Cosmetics Editorial Office
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Due to a production error, Figure 3 was published twice in article [1] and Figure 4 was missing.[...]
      PubDate: 2016-03-22
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3010012
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 313-321: Hair Dye–DNA Interaction:
           Plausible Cause of Mutation

    • Authors: Swati Maiti, Sudarson Sinha, Mukesh Singh
      Pages: 313 - 321
      Abstract: Hair dye is one of the most popular cosmetic products which are used more widely and frequently to improve an individual’s appearance. Although the genotoxic effects of dye ingredients are widely reported, hair dye in its usable form is not reported extensively. In this contribution, we report the possible mode of interaction of hair dye with DNA which leads to genotoxicity. The effect of dye DNA interaction was studied on the most popular and globally used hair dye with Calf Thymus DNA and plasmid DNA. This interaction of dye DNA was studied by spectroscopic analyses and gel electrophoresis. The result had shown positive interaction of dye with DNA. Gel electrophoresis study confirms the binding of dye with DNA which results in linearization and fragmentation of the plasmid DNA. Dye–DNA interaction causes fragmentation and oxidation of DNA in absence of any catalyst, implies high toxicity of commercial hair dyes. Thus, it can be deduced from the present studies that hair dye in its usable form may lead to its penetration through skin affecting genomic DNA possesses genotoxic property and can be treated as one of the most common mutagen.
      PubDate: 2015-09-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2040313
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 322-341: Green Cosmetic Surfactant from Rice:
           Characterization and Application

    • Authors: Ibrahim Hanno, Marisanna Centini, Cecilia Anselmi, Claudia Bibiani
      Pages: 322 - 341
      Abstract: During recent years, microwave irradiation has been extensively used for performing green organic synthesis. The aim of this study was to synthesize, through a microwave-assisted irradiation process, a natural surfactant with O/W emulsifying properties. Our attention was focused on polyglycerol esters of fatty acids that are biocompatible and biodegradable non-ionic surfactants widely used in food and cosmetic products. The emulsifier was obtained using vegetable raw material from renewable sources: polyglycerol derived from vegetable glycerol and rice bran oil fatty acids. The natural emulsifier obtained was then characterized and evaluated for its emulsifying properties using different doses, oil phases, rheological additives, waxes, etc. The potential application in solar products, in comparison with other natural emulsifiers, was also evaluated.
      PubDate: 2015-10-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2040322
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 342-354: Nanocarriers for Delivery of
           Antioxidants on the Skin

    • Pages: 342 - 354
      Abstract: Skin is protected from the harmful effects of free radicals by the presence of an endogenous antioxidant system. However, when exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, there is an imbalance between pro-oxidants and antioxidants, leading to oxidative stress and photoaging of the skin. It has been described that free radicals and other reactive species can cause severe damage to cells and cell components of the skin, which results in skin aging and cancer. To prevent these actions on skin, the use of topical antioxidant supplementation is a strategy used in the cosmetics industry and these antioxidants act on quenching free radicals. There are many studies that demonstrated the antioxidant activity of many phytochemicals or bioactive compounds by free radical scavenging. However, many bioactive substances are unstable when exposed to light or lose activity during storage. The potential sensitivity of these substances to light exposure is of importance in cosmetic formulations applied to skin because photo-degradation might occur, reducing their activity. One strategy to reduce this effect on the skin is the preparation of different types of nanomaterials that allow the encapsulation of the antioxidant substances. Another problem related to some antioxidants is their inefficient percutaneous penetration, which limits the amount of the active ingredient able to reach the site of action in viable epidermis and dermis. In this sense, the encapsulation in polymeric nanoparticles could enhance the permeation of these substances. Nanocarriers offers several advantages over conventional passive delivery, such as increased surface area, higher solubility, improved stability, controlled release, reduced skin irritancy, and protection from degradation. The different nanocarrier systems used in cosmetics include nanolipid delivery systems such as solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC), nanoemulsions (NEs), nanoparticles (NP) suspension, and polymer NPs, among others. In this review, we present the different types of nanomaterials used in cosmetic formulations to obtain the best effect of antioxidants applied onto the skin.
      PubDate: 2015-10-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2040342
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 355-367: Under Persistent Assault: Understanding
           the Factors that Deteriorate Human Skin and Clinical Efficacy of Topical
           Antioxidants in Treating Aging Skin

    • Authors: Patricia Farris, Yevgeniy Krol
      Pages: 355 - 367
      Abstract: Recent studies contend that the skin is subject to far more damage than just ultraviolet (UV) light, with infrared radiation and pollution now clearly demonstrated to degrade cutaneous tissue. While consumers continue to strive for new ways to augment the aesthetic appeal and improve the health of their skin, awareness regarding environmental insults and effective ways to protect the skin remains low. New advances in dermatologic science have exponentially increased the available information on the underlying mechanism of cutaneous damage and potential of topical antioxidants to treat aging skin. Combining antioxidants that can work through multiple pathways holds great potential for a cumulative and synergistic way to treat aging skin. Our goal is to provide a comprehensive review on environmental factors that damage human skin, discuss scientifically proven benefits of topical antioxidants, understand challenges of formulating and administering topical antioxidants, evaluate novel mechanisms of antioxidant activity, and suggest practical ways of integrating topical antioxidants with aesthetic procedures to complement clinical outcomes.
      PubDate: 2015-11-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2040355
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 368-383: A Novel Cassia fistula (L.)-Based
           Emulsion Elicits Skin Anti-Aging Benefits in Humans

    • Authors: Barkat Khan, Naveed Akhtar, Abder Menaa, Farid Menaa
      Pages: 368 - 383
      Abstract: Cassia fistula, a flowering plant in the family of Caesalpinaceae (Fabaceae), is used in traditional medicine for several indications. Nevertheless, too little is known about its effects on skin conditions and skin aging. Therefore, in this pioneering study, the extracts of oil-in-water macro-emulsions containing 5% C. fistula (L.) crude pods (i.e., phyto-active formulation) were optimally developed and compared to the placebo (i.e., emulsions without the crude extract) for assessment of their effects on human skin aging. Healthy adult male volunteers (n = 13) with a mean age of 31 ± 5.5 years (range: 24–47 years) were enrolled after informed written consent. For 12 consecutive weeks, the subjects were directed to use a patch containing the active emulsion on one of their forearms as well as a patch containing the placebo on their other forearm. Biometrological measurements of skin hydration (SH) and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) were performed on both sides of their respective cheeks at time 0 (baseline values), 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12th weeks. Surface evaluation of living skin (SELS) was taken at time 0 (baseline values) or after 1, 2 and 3 months. Topical application of C. fistula extracts showed a significant (p < 0.05) increase in stratum corneum hydration level, a significant enhancement in its water-holding function as well as in its barrier function. Further, significant (p < 0.005) ameliorations of skin aspects were observed (i.e., less roughness, less dryness, less wrinkles). Taken together, our results strongly suggest therapeutic and esthetic potential of C. fistula pod’s extracts to prevent or delay human skin aging.
      PubDate: 2015-11-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2040368
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 384-393: The Scalp Has a Lower Stratum Corneum
           Function with a Lower Sensory Input than Other Areas of the Skin Evaluated
           by the Electrical Current Perception Threshold

    • Authors: Yutaka Takagi, Hiroko Takatoku, Hiroyuki Terazaki, Tadashi Nakamura, Koichi Ishida, Takashi Kitahara
      Pages: 384 - 393
      Abstract: Many people feel frequent prickling or itching sensations on their scalp. The scalp is an atypical area of the skin since it is normally covered with thick hair and has many sebaceous glands and sweat glands. The scalp often has skin problems that can affect its sensitivity and functions. However, not much is known about stratum corneum function and the neural sensitivity of the scalp. Here we evaluated stratum corneum function and the neural sensitivity of the scalp of 47 normal male individuals in various skin conditions and compared the results to that to the forehead. The neural sensitivity was evaluated by measuring the electrical current perception threshold (CPT). The cutaneous barrier function and stratum corneum moisture-retention ability (MRA) of the scalp were significantly lower than on the forehead, even if there were some scalp problems. Depending on the increase in severity of scalp skin problems, both these skin functional properties and the CPT decreased significantly. However, regardless of its lower functional properties, scalp skin was not significantly lower than that of the forehead. Although the scalp has a low stratum corneum function compared with the forehead and has easily induced skin problems, the scalp skin has less sensitive sensory nerves, resulting in experiencing a worsening of scalp symptoms more easily.
      PubDate: 2015-11-20
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2040384
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 394-408: The Interest in Nanomaterials for
           Topical Photoprotection

    • Pages: 394 - 408
      Abstract: Wearing clothes and using sun protection products are effective ways of preventing non-melanocytic skin cancer. Sun protection products are classified as cosmetics in Europe. The number of filters authorized by Regulation (EC) No 1223/2009 amended by Regulation (EU) No 344/2013 stands at a total of 27 (26 organic filters and one inorganic filter-titanium dioxide). After the development of methods for determining the efficacy of sun protection products (both in vivo and in vitro), a certain number of authors took an interest in the parameters involved in the efficacy of this category of products. The nature of the filter, the concentration used and the influence of certain ingredients in the formula are all criteria to be taken into account. Concerning titanium dioxide, considerable progress has been made in order to increase its efficacy and to facilitate its implementation. The reduction of the size of the particles used has allowed the products to be more transparent (the pale clown’s mask of days passed is just a bad memory) and above all, to be more effective. The study of a large number of commercial forms of titanium dioxide enables to conclude that nanoparticular titanium dioxide is far superior to pigmentary titanium dioxide. An emulsion composed of 25% pigmentary titanium dioxide only enables Sun Protection Factor (SPF) 5 to be obtained. The same emulsion but with 25% coated nanoparticular titanium dioxide (Tayca MT-100TV) enables a Sun Protection Factor of around 40 to be reached. The reduction of the size of the filtering particles thus proves to be indispensable for the development of highly protective sun protection products.
      PubDate: 2015-12-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2040394
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 4 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 196-210: Non-Invasive Nanoparticle Imaging
           Technologies for Cosmetic and Skin Care Products

    • Authors: Lynlee Lin, Kaitlin Nufer, Shoko Tomihara, Tarl Prow
      Pages: 196 - 210
      Abstract: The nanotechnology field is growing at an unprecedented rate. This is resulting in significant benefits in skin care products and formulations. Likewise, imaging technology is also advancing. The convergence of these fields offers a unique opportunity to observe and quantify the interactions of nanoparticles within cosmetic and skin care formulations. More importantly, imaging technology holds tremendous promise for understanding how formulated nanoparticles interact with our skin. Imaging technologies can be broken into two major groups that include those that require invasive sample collection and processing (e.g., electron microscopy, mass spectrometry, and super-resolution structured illumination microscopy) and those that can be used in non-invasive data collection settings. Fluorescence microscopy, confocal microscopy, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography fall into the latter category and are the focus of this review in the context of skin care product and cosmetics testing. Cosmetic and skin care product testing is most informative when carried out in volunteers. This makes invasive or disruptive analysis techniques unfeasible and supports the use of non-invasive imaging technologies. The combination of non-invasive imaging and minimally invasive microbiopsy sampling for combined imaging and molecular data is the future of skin care product testing.
      PubDate: 2015-07-20
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2030196
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 211-224: Nanotechnology-Based Cosmetics for Hair

    • Authors: Jamie Rosen, Angelo Landriscina, Adam Friedman
      Pages: 211 - 224
      Abstract: Hair is a significant indicator of health and can have a major impact on an individual’s cosmetic appearance. Research within the cosmetics industry has revealed that when nanomaterials are engineered into hair care, they can enhance the benefits of active ingredients in order to improve hair cosmesis. Within the cosmetics arena, the unique size and intrinsic properties of nanoparticles can be tailored to target the hair follicle and shaft. This review aims to provide an overview of cosmetic nanocarriers that can be employed to improve the appearance of hair.
      PubDate: 2015-07-22
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2030211
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 225-235: A Method for Quantification of
           Penetration of Nanoparticles through Skin Layers Using Near-Infrared
           Optical Imaging

    • Authors: Melinda Stees, Isaac Adjei, Vinod Labhasetwar
      Pages: 225 - 235
      Abstract: Our study presents a new method for tracking nanoparticle penetration through different layers of the skin using near-infrared dye-loaded nanoparticles (hydrodynamic diameter = 156 nm) and optical imaging. The dye-loaded nanoparticles were mixed in a topical skin cream, applied to human cadaver skin and incubated either for three or 24 h post-application, skin tissue was clipped between glass slides prior to imaging for signal intensity across the skin thickness using an optical imaging system. The data show that nanoparticles penetrate through all the layers of the skin but there is almost an exponential decay in the signal intensity from epidermis to dermis. Depending upon the incubation time, about 55%–59% of the total signal was seen in the epidermis and the remaining through dermis and hypodermis. The advantage of the method is that it allows quantitative analysis of the extent of penetration of nanoparticles through different layers of the skin without interference of any background signal from skin tissue, and without requiring extensive tissue processing. Our method could potentially be used to study the effect of nanoparticle properties and/or the use of different formulation additives on penetration of nanoparticles through different skin layers.
      PubDate: 2015-07-23
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2030225
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 236-247: GHK-Cu may Prevent Oxidative Stress in
           Skin by Regulating Copper and Modifying Expression of Numerous Antioxidant

    • Authors: Loren Pickart, Jessica Vasquez-Soltero, Anna Margolina
      Pages: 236 - 247
      Abstract: The copper binding tripeptide GHK (glycyl-l-histidyl-l-lysine) is a naturally occurring plasma peptide that significantly declines during human aging. It has been established that GHK:Copper(2+) improves wound healing and tissue regeneration and stimulates collagen and decorin production. GHK-Cu also supports angiogenesis and nerve outgrowth, improves the condition of aging skin and hair, and possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. In addition, it increases cellular stemness and secretion of trophic factors by mesenchymal stem cells. GHK’s antioxidant actions have been demonstrated in vitro and in animal studies. They include blocking the formation of reactive oxygen and carbonyl species, detoxifying toxic products of lipid peroxidation such as acrolein, protecting keratinocytes from lethal Ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation, and blocking hepatic damage by dichloromethane radicals. In recent studies, GHK has been found to switch gene expression from a diseased state to a healthier state for certain cancers and for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The Broad Institute’s Connectivity Map indicated that GHK induces a 50% or greater change of expression in 31.2% of human genes. This paper reviews biological data demonstrating positive effects of GHK in skin and proposes interaction with antioxidant-related genes as a possible explanation of its antioxidant activity.
      PubDate: 2015-07-28
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2030236
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 248-258: Thermal Behavior and
           Free-Radical-Scavenging Activity of Phytic Acid Alone and Incorporated in
           Cosmetic Emulsions

    • Pages: 248 - 258
      Abstract: Phytic acid is a natural compound widely used as depigmenting agent in cosmetic emulsions. Few studies are available in the literature covering the stability and the antioxidating property of this substance, used alone or into emulsions. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to investigate the thermal behavior and antioxidant properties of phytic acid alone and into cosmetic emulsions. The thermal behavior of this substance was evaluated by thermogravimetry (TG)/derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and the free-radical-scavenging activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). TG/DTG and DSC curves allowed evaluation of the thermal behavior of phytic acid. These results showed that the substance presented four stages of mass loss. Thermal decomposition of the material initiated at 150 °C. Thermal behavior of the cosmetic emulsions detected that the addition of phytic acid decreased the thermal stability of the system. DPPH free-radical-scavenging activity showed that phytic acid incorporated into emulsion had no antioxidant capacity compared to BHT. In summary, we concluded that the thermoanalytical techniques (TG and DSC) were efficient and reliable in the characterization of phytic acid alone and incorporated into cosmetic emulsions.
      PubDate: 2015-07-31
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2030248
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 259-276: Relevance of Natural Phenolics from
           Grape and Derivative Products in the Formulation of Cosmetics

    • Pages: 259 - 276
      Abstract: The consumer demand for natural ingredients in cosmetic products is increasing. Phenolic compounds are among the most studied natural antioxidant compounds, they also present antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory or antiaging actions and can permeate through the skin barrier. Grapes contain valuable phenolic components and grape byproducts are widely available low cost raw materials. This review presents an overview of the application of phenolic compounds from grape products and byproducts as sources of natural ingredients for cosmetics.
      PubDate: 2015-08-13
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2030259
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 277-285: Portable EDXRF for Quality Assurance of

    • Pages: 277 - 285
      Abstract: Portable Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence is a viable, cost and time effective analytical technique for qualitative and quantitative evaluation of a wide range of samples. The objective of this study is to present a methodology for quantification of nail polishes, eye shadows, lipsticks and lip gloss using thin film geometry. The samples were applied over thin films, simulating its use on face and nails. It was possible to quantify S, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb, Sr, Ba and Bi. The methodology is viable and could be useful to forensic science, quality control on industry of raw materials or final products and supervision by regulatory agencies.
      PubDate: 2015-08-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2030277
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 286-301: Determination of the Antioxidant Status

    • Pages: 286 - 301
      Abstract: Organisms produce free radicals which are essential for various metabolic processes (enzymatic oxidation, cellular respiration, signaling). Antioxidants are important chemical compounds that specifically prevent the oxidation of substances by scavenging radicals, especially reactive oxygen species (ROS). Made up of one or two unpaired electrons, ROS are free radicals that are highly reactive and can attack other metabolites. By using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, it is possible to measure paramagnetic substances such as free radicals. Therefore the dermal antioxidant activity can be determined by applying semi-stable radicals onto the skin and measuring the antioxidant-induced radical scavenging activity in the skin. In recent years, EPR has been developed as a spectroscopic method for determining the antioxidant status in vivo. Several studies have shown that an additional uptake of dietary supplements, such as carotenoids or vitamin C in physiological concentrations, provide a protective effect against free radicals. Using the EPR technique it could be demonstrated that the radical production in stress situations, such as irradiation with infrared and visible light, was reduced with time. However, not only the oral uptake of antioxidants, but also the topical application of antioxidants, e.g., a hyperforin-rich cream, is very useful against the development of oxidative stress. Regular application of a hyperforin-rich cream reduced radical formation. The skin lipids, which are very important for the barrier function of the skin, were also stabilized.
      PubDate: 2015-08-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2030286
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 302-312: Influence of the Systemic Application of
           Blue–Green Spirulina platensis Algae on the Cutaneous Carotenoids
           and Elastic Fibers in Vivo

    • Authors: Maxim Darvin, Sora Jung, Sabine Schanzer, Heike Richter, Elke Kurth, Gisela Thiede, Martina Meinke, Juergen Lademann
      Pages: 302 - 312
      Abstract: The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of a food supplement rich in antioxidants on the antioxidant status of the skin. For this reason, the blue-green algae Spirulina platensis powder was used for oral application during eight weeks. The effect of oral application of the antioxidant-containing Spirulina platensis on characteristic skin aging parameters, e.g., concentration of cutaneous carotenoids and the collagen/elastin index (SAAID), was investigated in vivo. A significant average increase from 2.67 ± 0.86 arb. units to 3.25 ± 0.93 arb. units (p < 0.001) in the cutaneous carotenoid concentration was detected subsequent to oral application of the carotenoid-containing Spirulina platensis powder, showing a significant improvement of the antioxidant status of the skin. A slight but not significant increase (p = 0.33) in the dermal SAAID mean values was measured from −0.54 ± 0.11 to −0.51 ± 0.11 subsequent to oral intake of Spirulina platensis powder.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2030302
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 3 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 48-65: Main Benefits and Applicability of Plant
           Extracts in Skin Care Products

    • Pages: 48 - 65
      Abstract: Natural ingredients have been used for centuries for skin care purposes. Nowadays, they are becoming more prevalent in formulations, due to consumers’ concerns about synthetic ingredients/chemical substances. The main benefits reported for plant extracts, used in skin care, include antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and tyrosinase inhibition effect. In this review, some examples of plants from Portuguese flora, whose extracts have shown good properties for skin care are presented. However, despite the known properties of plant extracts, few studies reported the development of formulations with them. More work in this field can be accomplished to meet consumer demand.
      PubDate: 2015-04-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2020048
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 66-81: Topical Benefits of Two Fucoidan-Rich
           Extracts from Marine Macroalgae

    • Pages: 66 - 81
      Abstract: Two concentrated and well-characterized fucoidan-rich extracts were investigated to determine their benefits in topical applications. An Undaria pinnatifida extract, containing 85% fucoidan, and a Fucus vesiculosus co-extract, containing 60% fucoidan and 30% polyphenol, were assessed in a number of in vitro assays to measure the effect of the extracts on enzyme inhibition, glycation, antioxidant activity and Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) protein expression. Double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical studies were also conducted to measure soothing, protection, wrinkle depth, brightness and skin spot intensity. Both extracts demonstrated marked inhibitory effects on processes linked to skin aging, including the increased expression of SIRT1 in vitro. Clinical testing established the efficacy of the extracts in a range of the tested applications, relative to placebo. The Fucus vesiculosus extract with high polyphenol content demonstrated additional in vitro antioxidant activity, as well as improved efficacy in skin brightening applications, relative to placebo. The major effects of the Undaria pinnatifida extract aided skin immunity, soothing and protection, while the Fucus vesiculosus extract most significantly affected age spot reduction and increased brightness, soothing and protection.
      PubDate: 2015-04-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2020066
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 82-92: New Trends in Cosmetics: By-Products of
           Plant Origin and Their Potential Use as Cosmetic Active Ingredients

    • Authors: Ani Barbulova, Gabriella Colucci, Fabio Apone
      Pages: 82 - 92
      Abstract: In recent years, the amount of waste deriving from industrial processes has increased substantially. Many industries produce different types of disposable by-products, rich in valuable compounds. Their characterization and valorization could not only convert them into high value products with application in diverse biotechnological fields, such as Pharmaceutics, Food or Cosmetics, but would also reduce the waste environmental impact and the related treatment costs. There are many examples of cosmetic active ingredients deriving from fish, meat and dairy products, but in the present review we would like to focus on the potentialities and the current use of compounds and extracts deriving from agronomical disposable wastes in the cosmetic field. These types of products are effective, inexpensive and bio-sustainable, and thus represent a valid alternative to the regular plant derived extracts, more commonly adopted in cosmetic formulations. Moreover, if the waste products come from organic farming, they are certainly an even more valuable source of safe extracts for Cosmetics, since they lack any residual pesticide or potentially toxic chemical.
      PubDate: 2015-04-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2020082
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 93-109: Risk of Children’s Dermal Exposure
           to Galaxolide through Personal Care Products

    • Pages: 93 - 109
      Abstract: Galaxolide is the most used fragrance since the early 1990s, and it has been largely detected in environmental and biological matrices. This polycyclic musk is present in almost all of our daily products, so the risk of human exposure is substantial, as it had been proved by its detection in human tissues and fluids. Due to the lack of information about the concentrations found in consumer products, monitoring data is needed for exposure assessment purposes. Dermal contact, mostly by personal care products, seems to be the major route of human exposure to galaxolide, and, due to the immaturity of young children’s skin, exposure consequences can be worse in this population. The main objective of this study was to evaluate galaxolide levels in personal care products used by children of Oporto (Portugal), aged 0–5 years, and relate it with consumer habits. Consumer patterns were obtained through 250 questionnaires to caregivers of Oporto children. The 79 most used products were extracted by a dispersive solid phase extraction methodology known as QuEChERS and galaxolide was determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. The concentrations ranged between 0.001 ± 0.001 mg·kg−1, on a baby wipe, and 300.480 ± 8.819 mg·kg−1, on glycerin soap, which may correspond to an estimated daily dermal exposure of 277.10 ± 0.02 µg·day−1 on the population of Oporto children. This value is in the range of the results observed for adults, although no information of toxicological risk for children is available.
      PubDate: 2015-04-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2020093
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 110-126: Types of Hair Dye and Their Mechanisms
           of Action

    • Pages: 110 - 126
      Abstract: Hair color change by dye application is a common procedure among women. Hair dyes are classified, according to color resistance, into temporary, semipermanent, demipermanent and permanent. The first two are based on molecules which are already colored. Temporary dyes act through dye deposition on cuticles, but semipermanent may penetrate a little into the cortex and so the color resists up to six washes. Demipermanent and permanent dyes are based on color precursors, called oxidation dyes, and the final shade is developed by their interactions with an oxidizing agent, but they differ from the alkalizing agent used. In oxidation systems, there is an intense diffusion of the molecules into the cortex, what promotes a longer color resistance. Dyes and color precursors present differences related to chromophore groups, hair fiber affinity, water solubility, and photo stability. The aim of this review is to discuss the differences among hair dye products available in the market and their action mechanisms, molecular structures, application methods, and some aspects of formulations.
      PubDate: 2015-04-22
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2020110
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 127-135: The Optimization of the Oiling Bath
           Cosmetic Composition Containing Rapeseed Phospholipids and Grapeseed Oil
           by the Full Factorial Design

    • Pages: 127 - 135
      Abstract: The proper condition of hydrolipid mantle and the stratum corneum intercellular matrix determines effective protection against transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Some chemicals, improper use of cosmetics, poor hygiene, old age and some diseases causes disorder in the mentioned structures and leads to TEWL increase. The aim of this study was to obtain the optimal formulation composition of an oiling bath cosmetic based on rapeseed phospholipids and vegetable oil with high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids. In this work, the composition of oiling bath form was calculated and the degree of oil dispersion after mixing the bath preparation with water was selected as the objective function in the optimizing procedure. The full factorial design 23 in the study was used. The concentrations of rapeseed lecithin ethanol soluble fraction (LESF), alcohol (E) and non-ionic emulsifier (P) were optimized. Based on the calculations from our results, the optimal composition of oiling bath cosmetic was: L (LESF) 5.0 g, E (anhydrous ethanol) 20.0 g and P (Polysorbate 85) 1.5 g. The optimization procedure used in the study allowed to obtain the oiling bath cosmetic which gives above 60% higher emulsion dispersion degree 5.001 × 10−5 cm−1 compared to the initial formulation composition with the 3.096 × 10−5 cm−1.
      PubDate: 2015-04-30
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2020127
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 136-145: Significant Reduction of Body Odor in
           Older People with a pH 4.0 Emulsion

    • Authors: Michael Kemper, Stephan Bielfeldt, Ulrich Knie, Klaus-Peter Wilhelm, Christoph Abels
      Pages: 136 - 145
      Abstract: The impact of increasing age on body odor has become an important issue as our understanding of underlying skin changes in older people has increased. Therefore, cosmetic skin products especially for the needs of the elderly are of growing importance. This randomized single-blind crossover study assessed the deodorizing efficacy of two cosmetic products with different pH values on the age-specific odor of an elderly female subject panel (≥60 years). The two test products, adjusted to pH 4.0 and pH 5.8 were applied to the axillae once daily for three consecutive days after standardized washing of the axillae. The untreated axilla was used as a control. Six odor judges evaluated the efficacy of both products. Additionally, bactericidal and fungicidal activity was investigated with in vitro microbiologic tests. The pH 4.0 water in oil (W/O) emulsion significantly reduced axillary malodor in 44 elderly subjects at 8 and 24 h after treatment, compared with controls (untreated axillae) (p < 0.001 after 8 and 24 h), whereas pH 5.8 emulsion had no effect (p = 0.441 after 8 h; p = 0.425 after 24 h). Moreover, the pH 4.0 emulsion reduced axillary malodor at 8 and 24 h after treatment, compared with the pH 5.8 emulsion just narrowly missing statistical significance (p = 0.078 after 8 h; p = 0.053 after 24 h). Microbiologic in vitro tests showed that the pH 4.0 emulsion reduced the levels of odor-producing bacteria S. epidermidis and C. minutissimum after 1 h (2.98 log and 4.25 log). After 24 h, levels of S. aureus (>5.50 log), P. acnes (>5.30 log) and E. coli (>5.46 log) were further reduced whereas no effect was observed for pH 5.8. A pH 4.0 emulsion significantly reduced axillary malodor for up to 24 h after application in females aged at least 60 years. This reduction in malodor is very likely due to a reduction of odor-producing bacteria.
      PubDate: 2015-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2020136
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 146-161: Stimulation of the Fibrillar Collagen
           and Heat Shock Proteins by Nicotinamide or Its Derivatives in
           Non-Irradiated or UVA Radiated Fibroblasts, and Direct Anti-Oxidant
           Activity of Nicotinamide Derivatives

    • Authors: Neena Philips, Jovinna Chalensouk-Khaosaat, Salvador Gonzalez
      Pages: 146 - 161
      Abstract: In skin aging, from intrinsic factors or exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, there is loss of structural fibrillar collagen and regulatory heat shock proteins. Phenolic compounds, with hydroxyl groups attached to an aromatic ring, have antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. Nicotinamide is an amide derivative of niacin or vitamin B3, with an amide linked to an aromatic ring, with UV absorptive, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cell death/apoptosis properties. The goal of this research was to investigate the anti-skin aging mechanism of nicotinamide and its derivatives, 2,6-dihydroxynicotinamide, 2,4,5,6-tetrahydroxynicotinamide, and 3-hydroxypicolinamide (collectively niacin derivatives), through the stimulation of fibrillar collagens (type I, III and V, at protein and/or promoter levels) and the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP)-27, 47, 70, and 90 in non-irradiated or UVA radiated dermal fibroblasts; and from its direct antioxidant activity. UVA radiation inhibited the expression of types I and III collagen, and HSP-47 in dermal fibroblasts. The niacin derivatives significantly and similarly stimulated the expression of types I (transcriptionally), III and V collagens in non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts indicating predominant effects. The 2,6-dihydroxynicotinamide had greater stimulatory effect on types I and III collagen in the non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts, as well as greater direct antioxidant activity than the other niacin derivatives. The niacin derivatives, with a few exceptions, stimulated the expression of HSP-27, 47, 70 and 90 in non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts. However, they had varied effects on the expression of the different HSPs in non-irradiated, and UVA radiated fibroblasts indicating non-predominant, albeit stimulatory, effect. Overall, nicotinamide and its derivatives have anti skin aging potential through the stimulation of fibrillar collagen and HSPs.
      PubDate: 2015-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2020146
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 162-176: Handheld Raman Spectroscopy for the
           Distinction of Essential Oils Used in the Cosmetics Industry

    • Pages: 162 - 176
      Abstract: Essential oils are highly appreciated by the cosmetics industry because they have antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, among others. Since essential oils are natural products, their inclusion in cosmetic formulations is a common practice. Currently, low-quality and/or adulterated essential oils can be found on the market; therefore, analytical methods for control are required. Raman spectroscopy is a versatile technique that can be used for quality control tasks; the portability of modern devices expand the analytical possibilities also to in situ measurements. Fifteen essential oils of interest for the cosmetics industry were measured using a handheld Raman spectrometer, and the assignment of the main bands observed in their average spectra was proposed. In most cases, it is possible to distinguish the essential oils by a simple visual inspection of their characteristic Raman bands. However, for essential oils extracted from closely-related vegetable species and containing the same main component in a very high proportion, the visual inspection of the spectra may be not enough, and the application of chemometric methods is suggested. Characteristic Raman bands for each essential oil can be used to both identify the essential oils and detect adulterations.
      PubDate: 2015-05-27
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2020162
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 177-186: Nanotechnology, Inflammation and the
           Skin Barrier: Innovative Approaches for Skin Health and Cosmesis

    • Authors: Angelo Landriscina, Jamie Rosen, Adam Friedman
      Pages: 177 - 186
      Abstract: Dermatologic physiology and aesthetics are profoundly connected. Inflammatory stimuli abound in the environment, and have the potential to impact both the physiology and aesthetics of the integument. Inflammation results in a compromised epidermal barrier, impaired moisture retention, erythema, scale and pigment alteration. The advent of nanotechnology has introduced a variety of new approaches to preserving skin cosmesis in the face of inflammation. In this article, we review the architecture and physiology of the epidermal barrier, describe the pathological and aesthetic effects of inflammation, and report recent advances in the development of nanomaterials to offset the aesthetic impact of inflammation.
      PubDate: 2015-06-03
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2020177
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 187-195: An Exploratory Study of the Factors That
           May Affect Female Consumers’ Buying Decision of Nail Polishes

    • Authors: Chen Sun, Koushik Adhikari, Kadri Koppel
      Pages: 187 - 195
      Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine what factors female consumers valued more when they buy nail polish. Ninety-eight female consumers participated in a nail polish consumer study at the Sensory Analysis Center, Kansas State University. A questionnaire containing a check-all-that-apply (CATA) question, behavior questions and demographic questions was presented to each consumer. In the CATA question, the factors that may affect consumers’ decision to buy a nail polish were asked, including both sensory and non-sensory factors. The frequency in percent for the factors was calculated. Sensory appeal, price and convenience of usage were the top factors that affected consumers’ buying decisions. Consumers valued sensory appeal and convenience of usage; this suggested that a nail polish company’s product development and advertising departments may want to focus on these two areas, primarily. The information presented in this study could help a nail polish company understand more about consumer segmentation and advertising strategy.
      PubDate: 2015-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2020187
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 2 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 11-20: Hormetins as Novel Components of
           Cosmeceuticals and Aging Interventions

    • Authors: Suresh Rattan
      Pages: 11 - 20
      Abstract: A promising strategy for maintaining a healthy and youthful phenotype during aging is that of mild stress-induced beneficial hormesis. The basis of hormesis lies in the molecular pathways of stress response, which are essential for the survival of a biological system by activation of maintenance and repair mechanisms in response to stress. Moderate physical exercise is the best example of a hormetin that brings about a wide range of health beneficial hormesis by first challenging the system. Similarly, other natural and synthetic hormetins can be incorporated in cosmeceutical formulations, and can help achieve benefits including maintenance of the skin structure and function. Several polyphenols, flavonoids and other components from spices, algae and other sources are potential hormetins that may act via hormesis. Stress response pathways that can be analyzed for screening potential hormetins for use in cosmetics and cosmeceuticals include heat shock response, autophagy, DNA damage response, sirtuin response, inflammatory response and oxidative stress response.
      PubDate: 2015-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2010011
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 21: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Cosmetics in

    • Authors: Cosmetics Office
      Pages: 21 - 21
      Abstract: The editors of Cosmetics would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2014:[...]
      PubDate: 2015-01-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2010021
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 22-32: New Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    • Authors: An Goossens
      Pages: 22 - 32
      Abstract: Allergic and photo-allergic contact dermatitis, and immunologic contact urticaria are potential immune-mediated adverse effects from cosmetics. Fragrance components and preservatives are certainly the most frequently observed allergens; however, all ingredients must be considered when investigating for contact allergy.
      PubDate: 2015-02-04
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2010022
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 33-34: Open Peer Review: A New Challenge for

    • Authors: Enzo Berardesca
      Pages: 33 - 34
      Abstract: Dear Readers, As part of a continued effort to improve the quality of our papers and the transparency of the publication process, Cosmetics will introduce in the near future the possibility for the
      Authors to choose an Open Peer Review process (OPR). OPR is as a process in which the names of the authors and reviewers may be known to each other, and where review reports are published alongside the final manuscript, with the aim to facilitate discussion and clarity between the authors and the reviewer(s).
      PubDate: 2015-03-09
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2010033
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2015)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 2, Pages 35-47: Effects of Lipids and Emulsifiers on the
           Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Cosmetic Emulsions Containing
           Vitamin E

    • Authors: Lucia Montenegro, Lucia Rapisarda, Carmen Ministeri, Giovanni Puglisi
      Pages: 35 - 47
      Abstract: Sensory properties are fundamental in determining the success of a cosmetic product. In this work, we assessed the influence of different oils and emulsifiers on the physicochemical and sensory properties of anti-ageing cosmetic O/W emulsions containing vitamin E acetate as active ingredient. No clear correlation between physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics was evidenced. Sensorial evaluation of these formulations pointed out that the emulsifier systems affected the perceived oiliness and absorbency during application of the product, thus influencing its acceptance. These results suggest the need for more detailed studies on the physicochemical factors involved in determining the consumers’ acceptance.
      PubDate: 2015-03-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics2010035
      Issue No: Vol. 2, No. 1 (2015)
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