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Journal Cover Cosmetics
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2079-9284
   Published by MDPI Homepage  [151 journals]
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 11: Cosmetic Ingredients as Emerging Pollutants
           of Environmental and Health Concern. A Mini-Review

    • Authors: Claudia Juliano, Giovanni Magrini
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Cosmetic and personal care products are used in huge quantities throughout the world; as a result of their regular use, they are continuously released into the environment in very large amounts. Many of these products are biologically active and are characterized by persistence and bioaccumulation potential, posing a threat to ecosystem and human health. On the basis of the most recent scientific literature available on this subject, this paper provides an overview of some cosmetic ingredients that are considered environmental emerging pollutants of particular concern such as UV filters, some preservatives (parabens, triclosan), and microplastics.
      PubDate: 2017-04-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4020011
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 12: Comparative Analysis of Four Facial
           Foundation Lotions with Reference to Its Antioxidant Richness and
           Bio-Safety

    • Authors: Mukesh Singh, Pallavi Seth, Shamayita Poddar
      First page: 12
      Abstract: The market these days is a hub of a variety of commercially available cosmetic products, and foundation makeup to be precise, containing various types of important bioactive compounds both from natural and synthetic sources. The current study explores the usage of foundation lotions among undergraduate female students of an engineering college in West Bengal, India, and its antioxidant potential such as free radical scavenging, anti-lipid peroxidation, and reducing power. Red Blood Corpuscles hemolysis assay was also tested for evaluating it safety measures. Results confirmed the presence of antioxidant-related bioactive components and hence the antioxidant property in each brand tested, albeit in varying degrees. Free radical scavenging, anti-lipid peroxidation, and reducing power were also exhibited by all samples tested. Hemolytic activity was not significantly noted among the foundations, though each exhibited different results. Lotion with the least bioactive components exhibited high hemolytic activity. The findings of this study reveal the secret behind the usefulness of foundation lotions on the basis of antioxidant contents and free radical scavenging activity. The results of this study confirmed that it is very unlikely that all the essential qualities of a good cosmetic product will be present all at once.
      PubDate: 2017-05-03
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4020012
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 13: Efficacy of Phoenix dactylifera L. (Date
           Palm) Creams on Healthy Skin

    • Authors: Sidra Meer, Naveed Akhtar, Tariq Mahmood, Joanna Igielska-Kalwat
      First page: 13
      Abstract: The date palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera L. Arecaceae) is used in most of the countries of the world and is an essential part of the diet, especially in many Arabian countries. Phoenix dactylifera L. fruits are a rich source of sugars (glucose and fructose), vitamins (A, C, and B complex), fibers, minerals, and phenolic compounds having antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study is designed to explore the Phoenix dactylifera L. fruit for skin care. A single-blinded, placebo control trial was conducted, including 11 healthy female volunteers after their informed consent. The efficacy of the Phoenix dactylifera L. extract (4%) was evaluated in cream form after one, two, three, four, six, and eight weeks of treatment compared with the baseline. Prior to the study, the composition of the extract was analyzed to understand the underlying mechanisms by which the extract affects skin. Treating facial skin with the Phoenix dactylifera L. extract significantly improved all parameters investigated, such as skin elasticity, pigmentation, redness, brightness, and hydration and led to the improvement of the facial skin. There were no adverse reactions noted during the course of the patch test, demonstrating that the extract could be safe to apply on the skin. The Phoenix dactylifera L. fruit extract serves as a skin care ingredient that significantly improves characteristics important for perception of skin ageing and health. The efficacy of the treatment is possibly due to a combination of numerous active substances found in the Phoenix dactylifera L. extract.
      PubDate: 2017-05-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4020013
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 14: Meta Analysis of Skin Microbiome: New Link
           between Skin Microbiota Diversity and Skin Health with Proposal to Use
           This as a Future Mechanism to Determine Whether Cosmetic Products Damage
           the Skin

    • Authors: Christopher Wallen-Russell, Sam Wallen-Russell
      First page: 14
      Abstract: There is a skin allergy epidemic in the western world, and the rate of deterioration has increased significantly in the past 5–10 years. It is probable that there are many environmental contributing factors, yet some studies have linked it primarily to the rise in the use of synthetic chemical ingredients in modern cosmetics. Our challenge, therefore, was to find a mechanism to determine the effect these substances have on skin health, and whether they really are a primary cause of long term damage to the skin. The first problem is the lack of any definitive way to measure skin health. Motivated by the overwhelming evidence for a link between deficient gut flora and ill health, we decided to look at whether our skin microbiota could similarly be used as an indicator of skin health. Our research illustrates how microbiota diversity alone can predict whether skin is healthy or not, after we revealed a complete lack of conclusive findings linking the presence or abundance of particular species of microbe to skin problems. This phenomenon is replicated throughout nature, where high biodiversity always leads to healthy ecosystems. ‘Caveman’ skin, untouched by modern civilisation, was far different to “western” skin and displayed unprecedented levels of bacterial diversity. The less exposed communities were to western practices, the higher the skin diversity, which is clear evidence of an environmental factor in the developed world damaging skin. For the first time we propose benchmark values of diversity against which we can measure skin to determine how healthy it is. This gives us the ability to be able to predict which people are more likely to be prone to skin ailments, and start to test whether cosmetic ingredients and products are a main cause of the skin allergy epidemic.
      PubDate: 2017-05-14
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4020014
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 15: The New Sunscreens among Formulation
           Strategy, Stability Issues, Changing Norms, Safety and Efficacy
           Evaluations

    • Authors: Nicola Lionetti, Luigi Rigano
      First page: 15
      Abstract: The sun-and-skin interactions have controversial sides. Besides important beneficial effects, we need to take into consideration also some serious harmful results. In particular, these are connected to the portion of the solar spectrum traditionally identified as ultraviolet type A and B. The topical application of sunscreens (and the avoidance of extreme exposure to sun rays) is worldwide recognized as the best strategy to avoid sunburn and oedema. Moreover, such strategy can efficiently prevent the onset of skin cancer. Therefore, the first aim of sunscreen products is to efficiently minimize all damage of sun exposure, while, at the same time, keeping good skin tolerability, avoiding safety problems and developing pleasant sensorial properties. Sunscreens, i.e., substances able to reflect and/or absorb, at a partial or complete extent, UV radiation are the key actors in skin protection. They are used to implement the level of primary photoprotection against UV rays. This means that when they absorb the radiation energy, their molecules pass to an excited state and successively re-emit energy in other forms (vibrational, rotational, infrared radiation) to come back to the ground state.
      PubDate: 2017-05-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4020015
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 16: Topical Peptide Treatments with Effective
           Anti-Aging Results

    • Authors: Silke Schagen
      First page: 16
      Abstract: In the last two decades, many new peptides have been developed, and new knowledge on how peptides improve the skin has been uncovered. The spectrum of peptides in the field of cosmetics is continuously growing. This review summarizes some of the effective data on cosmeceutical peptides that work against intrinsic and extrinsic aging. Some peptides have been proven in their efficacy through clinical skin trials. Well-known and documented peptides like copper tripeptide are still under research to obtain more details on their effectiveness, and for the development of new treatments. Palmitoyl pentapeptide-4 and Carnosine are other well-researched cosmeceuticals. Additionally, there are many more peptides that are used in cosmetics. However, study results for some are sparse, or have not been published in scientific journals. This article summarizes topical peptides with proven efficacy in controlled in vivo studies.
      PubDate: 2017-05-22
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4020016
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 17: Thermosensitive Hydrogel Mask Significantly
           Improves Skin Moisture and Skin Tone; Bilateral Clinical Trial

    • Authors: Anna Quattrone, Anna Czajka, Sara Sibilla
      First page: 17
      Abstract: Objective: A temperature-sensitive state-changing hydrogel mask was used in this study. Once it comes into contact with the skin and reaches the body temperature, it uniformly and quickly releases the active compounds, which possess moisturizing, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and regenerative properties. Methods: An open label clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of the test product on skin hydration, skin tone and skin ageing. Subjects applied the product to one side of their face and underwent Corneometer® and Chromameter measurements, Visual assessment of facial skin ageing and facial photography. All assessments and Self-Perception Questionnaires (SPQ) were performed at baseline, after the first application of the test product and after four applications. Results: After a single treatment we observed an increase in skin moisturisation, an improvement of skin tone/luminosity and a reduction in signs of ageing, all statistically significant. After four applications a further improvement in all measured parameters was recorded. These results were confirmed by the subjects’ own perceptions, as reported in the SPQ both after one and four applications. Conclusion: The hydrogel mask tested in this study is very effective in improving skin hydration, skin radiance and luminosity, in encouraging an even skin tone and in reducing skin pigmentation.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4020017
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 18: Anti-Skin-Aging Activity of a Standardized
           Extract from Panax ginseng Leaves In Vitro and In Human Volunteer

    • Authors: Seoungwoo Shin, Jung-A Lee, Dahee Son, Deokhoon Park, Eunsun Jung
      First page: 18
      Abstract: Ginseng leaves contain high saponin composition and content, but are used less often than the root part. To develop a use for the leaves that exploits their properties, we studied ginseng leaves as the raw material of anti-aging cosmetics. This study highlights an assessment of the cellular factivity and clinical efficacy of ginseng leaf extract, providing necessary information relevant to the development of new cosmetic products. Panax ginseng leaf purified extracts (PGLE) were shown to have high contents of Rb3 and Rb2. Rb3, the major chemical components of PGLE, promoted collagen synthesis though the activation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) in human skin fibroblast cells. In addition, the possibility of PGLE as an anti-skin-aging agent has also been clinically validated. Our analysis of the crow’s feet wrinkle showed that there was a decrease in the depth of deep furrows in the region of interest (RI) treated with PGLE lotion over an eight-week period. Based on these results, we suggest the possibility that PGLE, having high levels of Rb3, be considered as an attractive, wrinkle-reducing candidate for topical application.
      PubDate: 2017-06-01
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4020018
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 19: Sensory Evaluation and Oxidative Stability of
           a Suncream Formulated with Thermal Spring Waters from Ourense (NW Spain)
           and Sargassum muticum Extracts

    • Authors: Elena Balboa, Enma Conde, Astrid Constenla, Elena Falqué, Herminia Domínguez
      First page: 19
      Abstract: The purpose of this work was to evaluate four thermal spring waters from Ourense and a Sargassum muticum extract as cosmetic ingredients for the preparation of a suncream. The thermal spring waters were tested for their suitability as an aqueous phase main component, and the algal extract was added as an antioxidant instead of using synthetic preservatives in the cosmetic formula. The emulsion was tested for lipid oxidation during a period of 9 months and for consumer acceptance by performing a sensory test on controls and blanks. Further, color parameters were considered, and a pH determination was performed. The S. muticum extract protected from primary and secondary oxidation as efficiently as Fucus sp. or α-tocopherol extracts. In addition, the sensorial test revealed that consumers preferred suncreams prepared with the S. muticum extract and with thermal spring water from O Tinteiro and A Chavasqueira. The pH of the suncreams varied with the selection of the ingredients, and no oscillations in colorimetric values were visually observed. Our results indicate that the algal extract and the thermal spring waters from Ourense are potential cosmetic ingredients, since they showed effectiveness as antioxidant ingredients, and the suncreams were well accepted by consumers.
      PubDate: 2017-06-13
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4020019
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 20: Toxic Evaluation of Cymbopogon citratus
           Chemical Fractions in E. coli

    • Authors: Fabiana Fuentes-León, Maribel González-Pumariega, Marioly Vernhes Tamayo, Carlos Menck, Ángel Sánchez-Lamar
      First page: 20
      Abstract: Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf is consumed as a popular decoction owing to its nice flavor and hypotensor property. Its aqueous extract radioprotector and antimutagenic properties have been experimentally demonstrated. In addition, its DNA protective activity against UV light has been proved in plasmid DNA and bacterial models. The fractioning process is important in order to identify phytocompounds responsible for this activity. In this work, the toxicity of three fractions obtained from Cymbopogon citratus (essential oils, butanolic and aqueous fractions) were tested using the SOS Chromotest in Escherichia coli. Cymbopogon citratus chemical fractions possess cytotoxic properties in E. coli in the following order butanolic > aqueous > essentials oils. Genotoxic properties were detected in any of the fractions.
      PubDate: 2017-06-17
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4020020
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 1: Cosmetics Europe Guidelines on the Management
           of Undesirable Effects and Reporting of Serious Undesirable Effects from
           Cosmetics in the European Union

    • Authors: Gerald Renner, Francoise Audebert, Jens Burfeindt, Bénédicte Calvet, Madalina Caratas-Perifan, Martha Leal, Roberto Gorni, Amanda Long, Emma Meredith, Úna O’Sullivan, Marc Paye, Clémentine Perriere, Kordula Schlotmann
      First page: 1
      Abstract: The European Union (EU) Cosmetics Regulation (EC) No. 1223/2009 requires companies to collect and assess reports of adverse health effects from the cosmetic products (undesirable effects) they market. Furthermore, undesirable effects that are considered as serious need to be reported to the national competent authorities. Cosmetics Europe, representing the European cosmetics industry, has developed these guidelines to promote a consistent practical approach for the management of undesirable effects and the notification of serious undesirable effects. Following these guidelines allows companies concerned to demonstrate due diligence and compliance with the legal requirements.
      PubDate: 2017-01-03
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4010001
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 2: In Vitro Methodologies to Evaluate the Effects
           of Hair Care Products on Hair Fiber

    • Authors: Robson da Gama, André Baby, Maria Velasco
      First page: 2
      Abstract: Consumers use different hair care products to change the physical appearance of their hair, such as shampoos, conditioners, hair dye and hair straighteners. They expect cosmetics products to be available in the market to meet their needs in a broad and effective manner. Evaluating efficacy of hair care products in vitro involves the use of highly accurate equipment. This review aims to discuss in vitro methodologies used to evaluate the effects of hair care products on hair fiber, which can be assessed by various methods, such as Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, Optical Coherence Tomography, Infrared Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Protein Loss, Electrophoresis, color and brightness, thermal analysis and measuring mechanical resistance to combing and elasticity. The methodology used to test hair fibers must be selected according to the property being evaluated, such as sensory characteristics, determination of brightness, resistance to rupture, elasticity and integrity of hair strain and cortex, among others. If equipment is appropriate and accurate, reproducibility and ease of employment of the analytical methodology will be possible. Normally, the data set must be discussed in order to obtain conclusive answers to the test.
      PubDate: 2017-01-03
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4010002
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 3: Relative Free Radicals Scavenging and
           Enzymatic Activities of Hippophae rhamnoides and Cassia fistula Extracts:
           Importance for Cosmetic, Food and Medicinal Applications

    • Authors: Barkat Khan, Naveed Akhtar, Bouzid Menaa, Abder Menaa, Valdir Braga, Farid Menaa
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Hippophae rhamnoides L. and Cassia fistula L. extracts have great potential as food, medicinal, or cosmetic ingredients. The aim of our study was to assess their relative antioxidant activities and key enzymatic activities. Thereby, H. rhamnoides’ fruit and C. fistula’s pod extracts were evaluated by spectrophotometry, based on their respective total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) ferric-reducing power, capacity in nitric oxide, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals scavenging, as well as on their β-glucuronidase, α-glucosidase and α-tyrosinase inhibition activities. H. rhamnoides and C. fistula extracts exhibited similarly high TPC levels, hydroxyl ion [OH•] quenching activity, and α-glucosidase and α-tyrosinase IC50 values (p > 0.05). However, their respective DPPH radical, nitric oxide radical [NO•], and superoxide anion [O2−•] scavenging activities, as well as their IC50 values for β-glucuronidase, significantly differed (p ≤ 0.05), with results showcasing the highest values in C. fistula extracts. In sum, our in vitro data explicitly suggest that the pod extracts of C. fistula exert better antioxidant and enzymatic properties than those exhibited by the fruit extract of H. rhamnoides. They also implicitly encourage performing multiple in vitro assays in order to thoroughly select a plant extract destined to a given medicinal, dietetic, or esthetic application.
      PubDate: 2017-01-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4010003
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 4: Oxidative Stress and Ageing: The Influence of
           Environmental Pollution, Sunlight and Diet on Skin

    • Authors: Khimara Naidoo, Mark Birch-Machin
      First page: 4
      Abstract: Skin ageing is a complex process that is determined by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors, which leads to a progressive loss of structure and function. There is extensive evidence indicating that oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species plays an important role in the process of human skin ageing. Mitochondria are the major source of cellular oxidative stress and are widely implicated in cutaneous ageing. Extrinsic skin ageing is driven to a large extent by environmental factors and external stressors such as ultraviolet radiation (UVR), pollution and lifestyle factors which have been shown to stimulate the production of reactive oxygen species and generate oxidative stress. The oxidative damage from these exogenous sources can impair skin structure and function, leading to the phenotypic features of extrinsic skin ageing. The following review highlights the current evidence surrounding the role of mitochondria and oxidative stress in the ageing process and the influence of environmental factors such as ultraviolet radiation, pollution and diet on skin ageing.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4010004
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 5: Contact Allergy to Castor Oil, but Not to
           Castor Wax

    • Authors: Michel Verheyden, Sven Rombouts, Julien Lambert, Olivier Aerts
      First page: 5
      Abstract: Ricinus communis (castor) seed oil (CAS 8001-79-4), a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of Ricinus communis, is widely used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, and may be a cause of allergic contact dermatitis from these products. We present two patients with allergic contact dermatitis from cosmetics containing castor oil, in whom a correct diagnosis was achieved by patch testing castor oil ‘as is’. PEGylated and/or hydrogenated derivatives (the latter formerly also available from patch test allergen suppliers) and/or cosmetics containing these specific derivatives did not result in contact allergy or allergic contact dermatitis. This observation might be relevant for the manufacturing of cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. In the future, further research into the allergenicity of castor oil and its numerous derivatives, and their optimal patch test concentrations, may be desirable.
      PubDate: 2017-01-11
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4010005
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 6: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Cosmetics in
           2016

    • Authors: Cosmetics Editorial Office
      First page: 6
      Abstract: The editors of Cosmetics would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016. [...]
      PubDate: 2017-01-17
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4010006
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 7: Benefits of Anti-Aging Actives in Sunscreens

    • Authors: Karl Lintner
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Sunscreens are functional, utilitarian, cosmetic products. The criteria of purchase are different from those for skin care and make-up. Companies are trying to add glamour and value to basic sunscreens by incorporating “active” ingredients (other than UV filters) into these formulas and by communicating about the additional benefits, be they anti-aging, moisturizing, firming, anti-wrinkle, etc. While some of these ideas of additional ingredients make sense as supplementary skin protection, some others do not afford much benefit in view of the infrequent application and short period of usage. The present article reviews some of these ideas and presents a few active ingredients that might be of value in such a context, even if substantiation of such additional claims in sunscreens is often lacking.
      PubDate: 2017-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4010007
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 8: Editorial on Special Issue ‚ÄúCosmetic Safety:
           Ingredients, Type of Reactions Undesirable Effects, Cosmetovigilance‚ÄĚ

    • Authors: Immacolata Caputo, Lidia Sautebin
      First page: 8
      Abstract: n/a
      PubDate: 2017-02-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4010008
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 9: A Validated HPLC Method for the Determination
           of Vanillyl Butyl Ether in Cosmetic Preparations

    • Authors: Francisco Ríos, Antonio Alberola, Joaquin Melendez, Gema Muedra, Francisco Trigo
      First page: 9
      Abstract: A specific HPLC (High-Performance Liquid Chromatography) method has been developed and validated for the determination of vanillyl butyl ether in cosmetic products. The extraction procedure with an isopropanol water 1:1 mixture is described. The method uses a RP-C-18 column with isocratic elution and an ultraviolet (UV) detector. The mobile phase consists of a mixture of acetonitrile and buffer (Na2HPO4 20 mM in water) (30:70 v/v) with a variable flow rate. The method was validated with respect to accuracy, precision (repeatability and reproducibility), specificity and linearity. The procedure described here is simple, selective and reliable for routine quality control analysis and stability tests of commercially available cosmetic products.
      PubDate: 2017-02-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4010009
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 4, Pages 10: Sunburn Protection by Sunscreen Sprays at
           Beach

    • Authors: Hao Ou-Yang, Richard Rzendzian
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Background: The efficacy of sunscreen is evaluated by SPF values, which are quantitatively determined in laboratories on the backs of human subjects according to a standardized procedure. However, SPF cannot be directly translated to sunburn protection under real-life situations because actual efficacy depends on various factors related to human behaviors and environmental conditions. This study clinically evaluated the efficacy of two sunscreen sprays (SPF 30 and SPF 70) under natural sunlight exposure on healthy subjects at the beach. Methods: Twenty subjects were divided into two cells for the two sunscreen sprays (SPF 70 and SPF 30) in a single-center, actual usage test. The primary endpoint of the study was sunburn protection on the dorsal arms and the secondary endpoint was protection on the face and neck. Subjects stayed at the beach for 4 h after application of the sunscreens with normal beach activities. Subjects’ behavior at the beach, the amounts of sunscreen applied and reapplied, and environmental conditions were all recorded. Results: There was no significant sunburn for a majority of the subjects in either cell. However, neither sunscreen completely blocked the sunburn, especially the face/neck area. We found that the SPF 70 sunscreen was more effective than the SPF 30 sunscreen. Conclusion: Modern sunscreen sprays, applied liberally, are effective in providing sunburn protection for the body in a beach setting.
      PubDate: 2017-03-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics4010010
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017)
       
 
 
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