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Journal Cover Cosmetics
  [4 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2079-9284
   Published by MDPI Homepage  [147 journals]
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 34: Essential of Hair Care Cosmetics

    • Authors: Aurora Alessandrini, Bianca Piraccini
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Nowadays, hair care and style play a very important role in people’s physical aspect and self-perception. Hair cosmetics can be distinguished into two main categories: cosmetics with temporary effect on the hair, for example shampoos, conditioners, sprays, and temporary colors; and cosmetics with permanent effect on the hair, such as permanent waves, relaxers, bleaches and permanent colors. These cosmetic procedures may induce hair abnormalities. We provide an overview on the most important characteristics of these procedures, analyzing components and effects on the hair. Finally, we evaluated new camouflage techniques and tattoo scalp.
      PubDate: 2016-09-27
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3040034
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 35: Topical Retinol Restores Type I Collagen
           Production in Photoaged Forearm Skin within Four Weeks

    • Authors: Min Sun, Peiru Wang, Dana Sachs, Yang Xu, Yiru Xu, John Voorhees, Gary Fisher, Yong Li
      First page: 35
      Abstract: Production of type I collagen (COL1), the major structural protein of the skin, declines during aging, leading to skin thinning and becoming fragile, which increases the risk of bruising and wound healing disorders in the elderly. Topical treatments that can restore COL1 synthesis and ultimately COL1 content in aged skin hold promise to improve skin health. Much effort has been spent on developing agents that can safely and effectively enhance COL1 synthesis in aged skin. However, how fast and to what extent COL1 production in aged skin can be enhanced by a topical treatment remains unclear. Herein, we investigated a four-week topical retinol (ROL) treatment. A one-day occlusion of ROL (0.4%) or vehicle was applied on photoaged forearms of elderly (>65 years old) subjects once a week for four weeks. Vehicle was also applied on forearms of young (23–33 years) subjects in the same manner. Skin samples were obtained one week after the last treatment and analyzed for COL1 synthesis. We found that the ROL treatment increased the level of COL1 mRNA (2.3-fold) and proCOL1 protein (1.8-fold) in photoaged forearms to levels similar to that of young forearms within four weeks. Our study proves the concept that reduced COL1 production in aged skin can be readily restored. In addition, our study provides an evidence-based foundation for developing COL1-enhancing topical agents, and establishes a reliable and practical efficacy test for evaluating such agents.
      PubDate: 2016-09-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3040035
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 21: Contact Allergy to Hair Dyes

    • Authors: Marie-Louise Schuttelaar, Tatiana Vogel
      First page: 21
      Abstract: Many strong and extreme sensitizing chemicals, such as para-phenylenediamine (PPD), toluene-2,5-diamine (TDA) and other aromatic amines or cross-reacting substances, are ingredients in hair dye products. The chemistry of hair dyeing and the immunological reactions to the potent sensitizing hair dye components are complex and have not been fully clarified up until now. Recently 2-methoxymethyl-p-phenylenediamine (ME-PPD), a PPD derivate with moderate skin-sensitizing properties, was developed. Although developed for the prevention of sensitization, ME-PPD appears to be tolerated in some PPD/TDA-allergic individuals.
      PubDate: 2016-06-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3030021
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 22: Mushroom Cosmetics: The Present and Future

    • Authors: Yuanzheng Wu, Moon-Hee Choi, Jishun Li, Hetong Yang, Hyun-Jae Shin
      First page: 22
      Abstract: Mushrooms have been valued as a traditional source of natural bioactive compounds for centuries and have recently been exploited for potential components in the cosmetics industry. Numerous mushrooms and their ingredients have been known to be beneficial to the skin and hair. The representative ingredients are as follows: phenolics, polyphenolics, terpenoids, selenium, polysaccharides, vitamins, and volatile organic compounds. These compounds show excellent antioxidant, anti-aging, anti-wrinkle, skin whitening, and moisturizing effects, which make them ideal candidates for cosmetics products. This review provides some perspectives of mushrooms (and/or extracts) and their ingredients presently used, or patented to be used, in both cosmeceuticals for topical administration and nutricosmetics for oral administration. With the small percentage of mushrooms presently identified and utilized, more mushroom species will be discovered, verified, and cultivated in the future, boosting the development of relevant industry. Combining with progress in genomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and systems pharmacology, mushrooms can find their way into cosmetics with multiple approaches.
      PubDate: 2016-07-08
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3030022
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 23: Sensitization and Clinically Relevant Allergy
           to Hair Dyes and Clothes from Black Henna Tattoos: Do People Know the
           Risk' An Uncommon Serious Case and a Review of the Literature

    • Authors: Paola Moro, Marco Morina, Fabrizia Milani, Marco Pandolfi, Francesca Guerriero, Luca Bernardo
      First page: 23
      Abstract: Henna (Lawsonia inermis L.) tattooing has been used in Egypt and India since ancient times. Today this temporary body art is becoming increasingly popular among young people. Various chemicals are added to henna to darken and enhance the definition of tattoos, especially para-phenylenediamine (PPD), which is a strong sensitizer known to cause cross sensitive reactions to azoic dyes and other para-amino compounds. We present the case of an 18-year-old girl who became clinically sensitive to textile dyes after having showed a serious reaction both to her first hair dying when she was 16 years old and following the application of a temporary henna tattoo when she was a kid. The evidence from our literature review showed 33 cases of manifest sensitization to hair dye and only one of observable contact allergy to both hair and textile dyes from henna tattoos. The sensitization of children may have long-life lasting consequences, because of cross-reaction to dyes and other chemicals contained in hair colourants, clothes and drugs. Since tattoos are very popular and globalization has increased the circulation of unauthorized products we point out the need for informative campaigns about the risk of sensitization caused by temporary tattoos.
      PubDate: 2016-07-11
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3030023
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 24: Facial Skin Lifting and Brightening Following
           Sleep on Copper Oxide Containing Pillowcases

    • Authors: Gadi Borkow, Adriana del Carmen Elías
      First page: 24
      Abstract: Copper plays a key role in many of the physiological processes that occur in the skin. Previously it was found that sleeping on pillowcases impregnated with microscopic copper oxide particles results in reduction of wrinkles and fine lines. In the current study, it was examined if sleeping on copper oxide impregnated pillowcases results also in skin lifting and skin brightness. A four week, double blind, randomized study was performed, during which 45 women, aged 37–54, slept on copper oxide containing pillowcases (test group, n = 23) or on control pillowcases without copper oxide (control group, n = 22). Facial and eye skin surface was measured using an F-ray 3D measurement system and surface analysis was conducted using Image-pro® plus. Skin brightness was measured using a tristimulus colorimeter. Sleeping on the test pillowcases resulted in statistically significant skin lifting on the cheek area (p = 0.039) and eye area (p = 0.001) after four weeks of use as compared to baseline. The mean skin brightness in those sleeping on the test pillowcases increased after two (p = 0.024) and four weeks (p = 0.008). No statistically significant changes occurred during the study in the study participants using the control pillowcases. Statistically significant differences between both groups were recorded at two and four weeks for skin brightness and skin lifting, respectively. In conclusion, sleeping on copper oxide containing pillowcases results in facial skin lifting and brightness of the skin.
      PubDate: 2016-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3030024
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 25: Experiences and Statistical Evaluation of
           Serious Undesirable Effects of Cosmetic Products in the EU

    • Authors: Andreas Butschke, Astrid Droß, Katja Dünnebier, Ines Laube, Ariane Weiler
      First page: 25
      Abstract: The Council of Europe created an outline for a vigilant system of undesirable effects of cosmetic products in 2006. In 2013, some of those aspects were included in the European Cosmetics Regulation (EC) 1223/2009. Since then, serious undesirable effects (SUEs), which are the tip of the iceberg of all undesirable effects of cosmetic products, have to be reported to competent authorities. Neglecting the first phase of establishing the system, we have about two years of experience regarding the notification of SUEs. This notification system is based on a huge amount of cases that allow us to identify occurring problems at an early stage through a signal of increased reported cases for a certain product. It has already been shown that the system is able to identify products that have the potential to cause health risks even if they seem to comply with the legal requirements and the safeguard clause was applied. Until May 2016, 680 cases of SUEs were shared in the EU. The statistics of SUEs indicate that hair dyes and skin care products are the product types that cause the most SUEs. Almost 80% of all SUEs occurred in the head area, especially the skin of the face was affected.
      PubDate: 2016-07-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3030025
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 26: Human Hair and the Impact of Cosmetic
           Procedures: A Review on Cleansing and Shape-Modulating Cosmetics

    • Authors: Célia Cruz, Cristiana Costa, Andreia Gomes, Teresa Matamá, Artur Cavaco-Paulo
      First page: 26
      Abstract: Hair can be strategically divided into two distinct parts: the hair follicle, deeply buried in the skin, and the visible hair fiber. The study of the hair follicle is mainly addressed by biological sciences while the hair fiber is mainly studied from a physicochemical perspective by cosmetic sciences. This paper reviews the key topics in hair follicle biology and hair fiber biochemistry, in particular the ones associated with the genetically determined cosmetic attributes: hair texture and shape. The traditional and widespread hair care procedures that transiently or permanently affect these hair fiber features are then described in detail. When hair is often exposed to some particularly aggressive cosmetic treatments, hair fibers become damaged. The future of hair cosmetics, which are continuously evolving based on ongoing research, will be the development of more efficient and safer procedures according to consumers’ needs and concerns.
      PubDate: 2016-07-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3030026
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 27: Overview of Skin Whitening Agents: Drugs and
           Cosmetic Products

    • Authors: Céline Couteau, Laurence Coiffard
      First page: 27
      Abstract: Depigmentation and skin lightening products, which have been in use for ages in Asian countries where skin whiteness is a major esthetic criterion, are now also highly valued by Western populations, who expose themselves excessively to the sun and develop skin spots as a consequence. After discussing the various possible mechanisms of depigmentation, the different molecules that can be used as well as the status of the products containing them will now be presented. Hydroquinone and derivatives thereof, retinoids, alpha- and beta-hydroxy acids, ascorbic acid, divalent ion chelators, kojic acid, azelaic acid, as well as diverse herbal extracts are described in terms of their efficacy and safety. Since a genuine effect (without toxic effects) is difficult to obtain, prevention by using sunscreen products is always preferable.
      PubDate: 2016-07-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3030027
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 28: Oxidative Stress and Human Skin Connective
           Tissue Aging

    • Authors: Yidong Tu, Taihao Quan
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Everyone desires healthy and beautiful-looking skin. However, as we age, our skin becomes old due to physiological changes. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an important pathogenic factor involved in human aging. Human skin is exposed to ROS generated from both extrinsic sources such as as ultraviolet (UV) light from the sun, and intrinsic sources such as endogenous oxidative metabolism. ROS-mediated oxidative stress damages the collagen-rich extracellular matrix (ECM), the hallmark of skin connective tissue aging. Damage to dermal collagenous ECM weakens the skin’s structural integrity and creates an aberrant tissue microenvironment that promotes age-related skin disorders, such as impaired wound healing and skin cancer development. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of ROS/oxidative stress and skin connective tissue aging.
      PubDate: 2016-08-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3030028
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 29: Contact Allergy to Preservatives—Is the
           European Commission a Commendable Risk Manager'

    • Authors: Jakob Schwensen, Jacob Thyssen
      First page: 29
      Abstract: Although preservatives are necessary to prevent deterioration by microbial growth in cosmetic products, daily skin contact with preserved cosmetic products may cause a preservative contact allergy. Only preservatives with sufficient pre-market risk assessment, presumably being safe for the consumer from a public health point of view, are permitted for use in cosmetic products in the European Union. Notwithstanding the efforts by the European Commission (EC) to avoid epidemics of contact allergy, the former epidemic of contact allergy to methyldibromo glutaronitrile and the unprecedented epidemic of contact allergy to methylisothiazolinone show the procrastination of the European Union risk management process for cosmetic ingredients. Timely risk management is of the utmost importance to avoid rapidly increasing numbers of contact allergy to turn into full-blown epidemics. It is therefore proposed that in order to avoid future epidemics of contact allergy to preservatives, the allowed preservatives in cosmetic products should be entered onto Annex V on a time-limited basis only, and they must be re-evaluated in order to stay on Annex V.
      PubDate: 2016-08-10
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3030029
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 30: Endeavors in the Area of Hair Care—Chemical
           Aspects of Hair Care Processes and Products

    • Authors: Leszek Wolfram
      First page: 30
      Abstract: The paper focuses on historical review of explorations and progress in the field of hair care. The descriptive theme of the survey is accompanied by references to specific investigations of the structure and physico-chemical properties of hair that are essential for evolving of novel processes and products.
      PubDate: 2016-08-16
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3030030
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 31: Special Issue “Cosmetic Contact

    • Authors: Emanuela Corsini, David Basketter
      First page: 31
      Abstract: In Europe, a cosmetic is defined as any substance or preparation intended to be placed in contact with the various external parts of the human body (epidermis, hair system, nails, lips and external genital organs) or with the teeth and the mucous membranes of the oral cavity with a view exclusively or mainly to cleaning them, perfuming them, changing their appearance and/or correcting body odours and/or protecting them or keeping them in good condition.[...]
      PubDate: 2016-08-17
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3030031
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 32: Packaging Evaluation Approach to Improve
           Cosmetic Product Safety

    • Authors: Benedetta Briasco, Priscilla Capra, Arianna Cozzi, Barbara Mannucci, Paola Perugini
      First page: 32
      Abstract: In the Regulation 1223/2009, evaluation of packaging has become mandatory to assure cosmetic product safety. In fact, the safety assessment of a cosmetic product can be successfully carried out only if the hazard deriving from the use of the designed packaging for the specific product is correctly evaluated. Despite the law requirement, there is too little information about the chemical-physical characteristics of finished packaging and the possible interactions between formulation and packaging; furthermore, different from food packaging, the cosmetic packaging is not regulated and, to date, appropriate guidelines are still missing. The aim of this work was to propose a practical approach to investigate commercial polymeric containers used in cosmetic field, especially through mechanical properties’ evaluation, from a safety point of view. First of all, it is essential to obtain complete information about raw materials. Subsequently, using an appropriate full factorial experimental design, it is possible to investigate the variables, like polymeric density, treatment, or type of formulation involved in changes to packaging properties or in formulation-packaging interaction. The variation of these properties can greatly affect cosmetic safety. In particular, mechanical properties can be used as an indicator of pack performances and safety. As an example, containers made of two types of polyethylene with different density, low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE), are investigated. Regarding the substances potentially extractable from the packaging, in this work the headspace solid-phase microextraction method (HSSPME) was used because this technique was reported in the literature as suitable to detect extractables from the polymeric material here employed.
      PubDate: 2016-09-05
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3030032
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 33: A Fairer Face, a Fairer Tomorrow' A
           Review of Skin Lighteners

    • Authors: Levashni Naidoo, Nokubonga Khoza, Ncoza Dlova
      First page: 33
      Abstract: From light-skinned deities depicted in ancient religious tableaux, pearl-swallowing practices in China, turmeric ceremonies in India to clay application in Africa, history has been coloured by our questionable aversion to the darker shades. Complexion has assumed psychological, economic and political currency with continued growth in the desire for skin lighteners sweeping the boundaries of country, race, cultural and socioeconomic status. This review explores our early associations with the symbolism of colour through religion, the ideals of complexion across cultures and time, the motivations behind the use of skin lightening practices, and the use of colour within political and economic agendas. Skin-lightening agents with regard to content, adverse effect profile and regulation are discussed and safe skin care practices in assisting with an individual’s adoption of a more tolerable spectrum of shades are alluded to.
      PubDate: 2016-09-07
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3030033
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 13: Telogen Effluvium

    • Authors: Deepa Liyanage, Rodney Sinclair
      First page: 13
      Abstract: Kligman first coined the term telogen effluvium (TE) in 1961 to describe the state of increased shedding of otherwise normal telogen hairs. TE may be primary or secondary to a wide variety of potential triggers including febrile illness, drugs, thyroid disorders, and child birth. The diagnosis of secondary TE can be made by identifying known triggers from the history in the 3–4 months preceding the onset of increased hair shedding and by investigating to exclude endocrine, nutritional, or auto immune aetiologies. Scalp biopsy to identify the earliest stages of androgenetic alopecia may be required in some cases. Primary TE may be acute or chronic. In acute TE, the shedding resolves within 3–6 months and the hair density recovers completely. In chronic TE, the shedding can continue with minor fluctuations in severity for decades. In this review, possible causative factors, pathogenesis, clinical presentations and treatment options are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-03-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3020013
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 14: Safety Evaluation of Cosmetic Ingredients
           Regarding Their Skin Sensitization Potential

    • Authors: Winfried Steiling
      First page: 14
      Abstract: Up to today, product safety evaluation in the EU is predominantly based on data/information on their individual ingredients. Consequently, the quality and reliability of individual ingredient data is of vital interest. In this context, the knowledge about skin sensitization potential is an explicit need for both hazard and risk assessment. Proper skin sensitization data of the individual chemicals is essential, especially when dermal contact is intended, like for cosmetics. In some cases, e.g., in the presence of irritating chemicals, the combination of individual ingredients may also need to be evaluated to cover possible mixture effects. Today, it seems unlikely or even impossible that skin sensitization in humans can be adequately described by a single test result or even by a simple combination of a few data points (in vivo or in vitro). It is becoming evident that a set of data (including human data and market data) and knowledge about the ingredient’s specific sensitizing potency needs to be taken into account to enable a reliable assessment of skin sensitization. A more in-depth understanding on mechanistic details of the Adverse-Outcome-Pathway of skin sensitization could contribute key data for a robust conclusion on skin sensitization.
      PubDate: 2016-03-30
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3020014
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 15: In Vitro DVS Approach to Evaluate Skin

    • Authors: Clara Barba, Cristina Alonso, Alessandra Semenzato, Giovanni Baratto, Luisa Coderch
      First page: 15
      Abstract: The stratum corneum (SC), the most superficial layer of the skin, is directly responsible for the skin’s barrier function. The intercellular lipids in the SC play an important role in the regulation of the skin’s water-holding capacity. The modification of the intercellular lipid organization and composition may impair these properties. The aim of the present study is to describe a new in vitro approach of the repairing capacity evaluation of lipid formulations on skin with the use of absorption and desorption curves. The formulations were applied on lipid-extracted SC, and the possible SC reparation was assessed with the use of a thermogravimetric balance (DVS). Moisture absorption/desorption experiments proved to be adequate for the evaluation of the repairing capacity of formulations applied on damaged skin. Besides, freeze-substitution transmission electron microscopy (FSTEM) images showed some lipid bilayers, indicating a lipid bilayer reconstitution due to the applied formulations.
      PubDate: 2016-03-31
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3020015
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 16: Integrated Testing Strategies for Skin
           Sensitization Hazard and Potency Assessment—State of the Art and

    • Authors: Joanna Jaworska
      First page: 16
      Abstract: The paper provides an overview of existing Integrated Testing Strategies (ITS) for assessing hazard and potency of skin sensitization. The ITS research is active, diverse and constantly evolving as new assays are being developed and new mechanistic insights are discovered. Despite the need to assess potency, the majority of the ITS approaches developed to date assess hazard only. Reasons for this situation are analyzed and include, for example, the dynamic range of existing alternative assays versus the range of in vivo responses, but also sporadic use of kinetic information and molar units. Depending on the application, regulatory or product development, standardized and nonstandard ITS approaches will be developed. Challenges to practical applications, with focus on regulatory are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-04-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3020016
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 17: Legislative Aspects of Cosmetic Safety in the
           European Union: The Case of Contact Allergy

    • Authors: David Basketter, Ian White
      First page: 17
      Abstract: For several decades, the European Union (EU) has amongst its many tenets and principles the aim, enshrined in an EU Directive, that cosmetic products should not cause harm to the consumer. To a great extent, this is been successful, although it is noteworthy that the frequency of contact allergy to a number of ingredients commonly found in cosmetics has remained stubbornly high. Perhaps because of this, but certainly because of the drive by the European Commission towards better, more streamlined, regulation, the Directive was recast into a Regulation, usually referred to as the EU Cosmetics Regulation ((EC) No 1223/2009). As with the Directive, for each and every cosmetic product placed on the consumer market in the EU, a safety assessment is required. The Regulation requires that a dossier is prepared detailing the composition of the product, the safety of each of its ingredients, as well as an evaluation of overall product safety. This has to be completed by suitably trained and qualified assessors. Also relevant to cosmetic products are the general regulations pertaining to chemicals used in the EU where again many details of the toxicological profile must be ascertained and reviewed. On this basis, it should be possible to ensure that the extent of contact allergy attributed to cosmetic products declines. However, legislation is one thing, but it is also necessary to ensure that the cosmetic industry safety assessment process is completed in a rigourous manner (or even done at all) and that demands enforcement of the legislation.
      PubDate: 2016-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3020017
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 18: Anti-Melanogenesis Effect of Quercetin

    • Authors: Moon-Hee Choi, Hyun-Jae Shin
      First page: 18
      Abstract: Whitening cosmetics with anti-melanogenesis activity are very popular worldwide. Many companies have tried to identify novel ingredients that show anti-melanogenesis effects for new product development. Among many plant-derived compounds, polyphenols are thought to be one of the most promising anti-melanogenesis ingredients. In order to prepare effective whitening polyphenols, 3,3,4,5,7-pentahydrosyflavone (quercetin) has been widely researched and applied to commercial products because it is present in high levels in many edible plants. Quercetin is thus a representative polyphenol and has recently gained attention in the cosmetics field. There are many controversies, however, regarding the effect of quercetin, based on in vitro studies, cell line experiments, and human trials. In this review, toxicity and efficacy data for quercetin and its derivatives in various experimental conditions (i.e., various cell lines, concentration ranges, and other parameters) were examined. Based on this analysis, quercetin itself is shown to be ineffective for hypopigmentation of human skin. However, a few types of quercetin derivatives (such as glycosides) show some activity in a concentration-dependent manner. This review provides clarity in the debate regarding the effects of quercetin.
      PubDate: 2016-05-11
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3020018
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 19: Fragrance Allergens, Overview with a Focus on
           Recent Developments and Understanding of Abiotic and Biotic Activation

    • Authors: Johanna Bråred Christensson, Lina Hagvall, Ann-Therese Karlberg
      First page: 19
      Abstract: Fragrances and fragranced formulated products are ubiquitous in society. Contact allergies to fragrance chemicals are among the most common findings when patch-testing patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis, as well as in studies of contact allergy in the general population. The routine test materials for diagnosing fragrance allergy consist mainly of established mixes of fragrance compounds and natural extracts. The situation is more complex as several fragrance compounds have been shown to be transformed by activation inside or outside the skin via abiotic and/or biotic activation, thus increasing the risk of sensitization. For these fragrance chemicals, the parent compound is often non-allergenic or a very weak allergen, but potent sensitizers will be formed which can cause contact allergy. This review shows a series of fragrance chemicals with well-documented abiotic and/or biotic activation that are indicative and illustrative examples of the general problem. Other important aspects include new technologies such as ethosomes which may enhance both sensitization and elicitation, the effect on sensitization by the mixtures of fragrances found in commercial products and the effect of antioxidants. A contact allergy to fragrances may severely affect quality of life and many patients have multiple allergies which further impact their situation. Further experimental and clinical research is needed to increase the safety for the consumer.
      PubDate: 2016-06-03
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3020019
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 20: An Overview of Trials´Accreditation and
           Recognition of Brazilian Tests Used for the Safety Evaluation of Cosmetic

    • Authors: Luciana dos Santos Almeida
      First page: 20
      Abstract: For some time, Brazil has been appointed as one of the greatest consumers of cosmetic products in the world. Although cosmetics may seem harmless, destined exclusively to enhance personal appearance or to clean and protect the skin, hair and nails, new studies and events are highlighting the need to evaluate the safety of such products. The present work interrelated the lifecycle of a cosmetic product with the safety trials and tests applicable to some cycle phases. From this information, a survey was made of accredited Conformity Assessment Bodies (CAB) and test facilities recognized by the General Coordination for Accreditation (CGCRE) which are competent respectively to carry out safety trials and tests of cosmetics. Twenty five competent laboratories were identified to carry out chemical and/or biological trials of cosmetics, according to the legislation ABNT ISO IEC 17025:2005, and 10 test facilities recognized by the Compliance Monitoring Program that can carry out tests of the development of a product for register purposes, aiming at human health and safety. It is interesting to notice that Brazil has accredited laboratories to carry out trials that are critical for the health of the population, such as the levels of heavy metals and the presence of pathogens. On the other hand, CGCRE does not have a program to recognize safety clinical trials. The importance of this kind of study is understood, considering the world history of adverse reactions and the great consumption of cosmetics in the country.
      PubDate: 2016-06-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3020020
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 1: Skin Redox Balance Maintenance: The Need for
           an Nrf2-Activator Delivery System

    • Authors: Maya Ben-Yehuda Greenwald, Shmuel Ben-Sasson, Havazelet Bianco-Peled, Ron Kohen
      First page: 1
      Abstract: The skin, being the largest organ of the body, functions as a barrier between our body and the environment. It is consistently exposed to various exogenous and endogenous stressors (e.g., air pollutants, ionizing and non-ionizing irradiation, toxins, mitochondrial metabolism, enzyme activity, inflammatory process, etc.) producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and physical damage (e.g., wounds, sunburns) also resulting in reactive oxygen species production. Although skin is equipped with an array of defense mechanisms to counteract reactive oxygen species, augmented exposure and continued reactive oxygen species might result in excessive oxidative stress leading to many skin disorders including inflammatory diseases, pigmenting disorders and some types of cutaneous malignancy. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an emerging regulator of cellular resistance and of defensive enzymes such as the phase II enzymes. Induction of the Keap1–Nrf2 pathway may have a beneficial effect in the treatment of a large number of skin disorders by stimulating an endogenous defense mechanism. However, prolonged and enhanced activation of this pathway is detrimental and, thus, limits the therapeutic potential of Keap1–Nrf2 modulators. Here, we review the consequences of oxidative stress to the skin, and the defense mechanisms that skin is equipped with. We describe the challenges of maintaining skin redox balance and its impact on skin status and function. Finally, we suggest a novel strategy for maintenance of skin redox homeostasis by modulating the Keap1–Nrf2 pathway using nanotechnology-based delivery systems.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3010001
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 2: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Cosmetics in

    • Authors: Cosmetics Editorial Office
      First page: 2
      Abstract: The editors of Cosmetics would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2015. [...]
      PubDate: 2016-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3010002
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 3: Microbiologically Contaminated and
           Over-Preserved Cosmetic Products According Rapex 2008–2014

    • Authors: Edlira Neza, Marisanna Centini
      First page: 3
      Abstract: We investigated the Rapid Alert System (RAPEX) database from January 2008 until week 26 of 2014 to give information to consumers about microbiologically contaminated cosmetics and over-preserved cosmetic products. Chemical risk was the leading cause of the recalls (87.47%). Sixty-two cosmetic products (11.76%) were recalled because they were contaminated with pathogenic or potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most frequently found microorganism. Other microorganisms found were: Mesophilic aerobic microorganisms, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Enterococcus spp., Enterobacter cloacae, Enterococcus faecium, Enterobacter gergoviae, Rhizobium radiobacter, Burkholderia cepacia, Serratia marcescens, Achromabacter xylosoxidans, Klebsiella oxytoca, Bacillus firmus, Pantoea agglomerans, Pseudomonas putida, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Citrobacter freundii. Nine cosmetic products were recalled because they contained methylisothiazolinone (0.025%–0.36%), benzalkonium chloride (1%), triclosan (0.4%) in concentrations higher than the limits allowed by European Regulation 1223/2009. Fifteen products were recalled for the presence of methyldibromo glutaronitrile, a preservative banned for use in cosmetics. Thirty-two hair treatment products were recalled because they contained high concentrations of formaldehyde (0.3%–25%).
      PubDate: 2016-01-30
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3010003
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 4: High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem
           Mass Spectrometry Measurement of Bimatoprost, Latanoprost and Travoprost
           in Eyelash Enhancing Cosmetic Serums

    • Authors: Emilia Marchei, Daniela De Orsi, Carmine Guarino, Maria Rotolo, Silvia Graziano, Simona Pichini
      First page: 4
      Abstract: Most common prostaglandin analogs, bimatoprost, latanoprost and travoprost, are licensed for the reduction of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with open angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension, but their non approved use as eyelash enhancers is becoming popular, especially in patients with eyelashes hypotrichosis. A fast and sensitive high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for the measurement of bimatoprost, latanoprost and travoprost in cosmetic serums freely web-sold to increase eyelash length, thickness and darkness. The analytes and the internal standard (reserpine) were separated by reversed phase chromatography with 5 mM ammonium acetate with 0.02% formic acid (mobile phase A) and 5 mM ammonium acetate in acetonitrile/water (95/5; v/v) with 0.02% formic acid (mobile phase B) by gradient elution and detected with tandem mass spectrometry operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Linearity between 1 and 500 μg/g shows good correlation coefficients (r2 = 0.99) for all substances. Analytical recovery of analytes under investigation were always higher than 90% and intra-assay and inter-assay precision and accuracy always better than 11%. This method was successfully applied to analyze cosmetic serums freely sold on the Internet websites.
      PubDate: 2016-02-06
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3010004
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 5: Cosmetic Contact Allergens

    • Authors: An Goossens
      First page: 5
      Abstract: This article presents trends in the frequency of cosmetics as causal factors of allergic contact dermatitis during a 26-year period in 14,911 patients patch-tested between 1990 and 2014, and discusses the cosmetic allergens identified during the last six years (2010–2015) in 603 patients out of 3105 tested. The data were retrieved from, and evaluated with, a patient database developed in-house. The results show the increasing importance of cosmetic allergies, up to 25% of the patients tested during the last five-year period. As expected, fragrance materials, preservatives, and hair dyes were the most frequent culprits, but a great variety of other allergenic ingredients were involved as well. This underlines the need of additional and extensive patch testing with the patient’s products used and their ingredients.
      PubDate: 2016-02-18
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3010005
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 6: Impact of Cosmetic Lotions on Nanoparticle
           Penetration through ex Vivo C57BL/6 Hairless Mouse and Human Skin: A
           Comparison Study

    • Authors: Samreen Jatana, Linda Callahan, Alice Pentland, Lisa DeLouise
      First page: 6
      Abstract: Understanding the interactions of nanoparticles (NPs) with skin is important from a consumer and occupational health and safety perspective, as well as for the design of effective NP-based transdermal therapeutics. Despite intense efforts to elucidate the conditions that permit NP penetration, there remains a lack of translatable results from animal models to human skin. The objectives of this study are to investigate the impact of common skin lotions on NP penetration and to quantify penetration differences of quantum dot (QD) NPs between freshly excised human and mouse skin. QDs were mixed in seven different vehicles, including five commercial skin lotions. These were topically applied to skin using two exposure methods; a petri dish protocol and a Franz diffusion cell protocol. QD presence in the skin was quantified using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy. Results show that the commercial vehicles can significantly impact QD penetration in both mouse and human skin. Lotions that contain alpha hydroxyl acids (AHA) facilitated NP penetration. Lower QD signal was observed in skin studied using a Franz cell. Freshly excised human skin was also studied immediately after the sub-cutaneous fat removal process, then after 24 h rest ex vivo. Resting human skin 24 h prior to QD exposure significantly reduced epidermal presence. This study exemplifies how application vehicles, skin processing and the exposure protocol can affect QD penetration results and the conclusions that maybe drawn between skin models.
      PubDate: 2016-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3010006
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 7: Alternative Approach for Potency Assessment:
           In Vitro Methods

    • Authors: Emanuela Corsini, Erwin Roggen, Valentina Galbiati, Sue Gibbs
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Over the last decade, incredible progress has been made in the development of non-animal tests to assess contact hypersensitivity. Four methods have been successfully validated and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guidelines are available or soon will be. Currently validated methods are useful for hazard identification, classification and labeling. However, to achieve a complete replacement of animals in skin sensitization assessment, dose-response information and evaluation of relative skin sensitizing potency to support effective risk assessment are necessary. In this context, potency is based on the concentration of chemicals needed to induce a positive response. This will require a better understanding of the mechanisms determining potency, including pathway analysis and marker signature identification (selection of an appropriate immune-mediated response to serve as the basis), together with quantitative and qualitative correlations between marker signatures and potency of chemicals in relation with T cell responses. This review aims to discuss the state-of-the-art in the field of in vitro assessment of the no induction sensitization level of contact sensitizers.
      PubDate: 2016-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3010007
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 8: Mechanistic Understanding of Contact Allergy

    • Authors: Stefan Martin
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Cosmetic products contain potential contact allergens or precursors that require metabolic conversion or oxidation to generate contact allergens. The most relevant contact allergens are fragrances and preservatives. These substances can pose hazards to human health due to their ability to activate T cells that can cause allergic contact dermatitis, an inflammatory skin disease. In recent years, much progress has been made in the elucidation of the mechanistic basis for immune system activation by contact allergens. This is essential for the development of better diagnostic tools, targeted therapies and animal-free in vitro assays for contact allergen identification. This overview will highlight some aspects of the activation of innate and adaptive immune responses by contact allergens.
      PubDate: 2016-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3010008
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 9: Rutin—Increased Antioxidant Activity and
           Skin Penetration by Nanocrystal Technology (smartCrystals)

    • Authors: Sung Pyo, Martina Meinke, Cornelia Keck, Rainer Müller
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Rutin is a well-known antioxidant from the group of flavonoids. Its use in cosmetic dermal products is, however, limited due to its poor water solubility. In order to increase rutin saturation solubility and improve the diffusion to the skin, rutin nanocrystals were produced by the smartCrystal process, e.g., bead milling followed by high pressure homogenization. Rutin nanocrystals were further incorporated into hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) gel and its long-term stability was assessed. Determination of the antioxidant activity was made by the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) assay for these formulations: rutin nanocrystals (mean size 300 nm), rutin raw drug powder (mean size 33 μm) and commercial product. Furthermore, the skin penetration profile of rutin was investigated by the tape-stripping method on porcine skin. This study demonstrated that rutin nanocrystal gel had the highest neutralizing activity (90%), followed by a commercial product and rutin raw drug powder. According to the skin study, rutin nanocrystals penetrated to the deeper layers of the stratum corneum, the horny layer of the skin.
      PubDate: 2016-02-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3010009
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 10: Photothermal Radiometry for Skin Research

    • Authors: Perry Xiao
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Photothermal radiometry is an infrared remote sensing technique that has been used for skin and skin appendages research, in the areas of skin hydration, hydration gradient, skin hydration depth profiling, skin thickness measurements, skin pigmentation measurements, effect of topically applied substances, transdermal drug delivery, moisture content of bio-materials, membrane permeation, and nail and hair measurements. Compared with other technologies, photothermal radiometry has the advantages of non-contact, non-destructive, quick to make a measurement (a few seconds), and being spectroscopic in nature. It is also colour blind, and can work on any arbitrary sample surfaces. It has a unique depth profiling capability on a sample surface (typically the top 20 µm), which makes it particularly suitable for skin measurements. In this paper, we present a review of the photothermal radiometry work carried out in our research group. We will first introduce the theoretical background, then illustrate its applications with experimental results.
      PubDate: 2016-02-29
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3010010
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 11: Can We Make Cosmetic Contact Allergy

    • Authors: David Basketter, Emanuela Corsini
      First page: 11
      Abstract: Chemical allergy is of considerable importance to the toxicologist, who, amongst other things, has the responsibility of identifying and characterizing the skin (and respiratory) sensitizing potential of chemicals, and estimating the risk they pose to human health. Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is to a large extent a preventable disease. Although quantitative risk assessment (QRA) for contact allergy can be performed, it is reasonable to ask why the burden of the skin disease ACD appears to remain stubbornly high, and in particular, that the general level of ACD to sensitizing ingredients found in cosmetics has not fallen noticeably over recent decades; some could argue that it has increased. In this review, this conundrum is addressed, considering whether and to what extent the prevalence of cosmetic allergy is truly unchanged, whether the predicted test methods and potency estimations are sufficiently precise and how proposed changes to the QRA process (i.e., cumulative exposure) may ameliorate the situation. Improved and more widespread use of risk assessment, better education of risk assessors, better post-marketing surveillance and monitoring of dermatology clinic feedback to improve QRA, all together could help to “make contact allergy history”.
      PubDate: 2016-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3010011
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2016)
  • Cosmetics, Vol. 3, Pages 12: Erratum: Fitton, J.H., et al. Topical
           Benefits of Two Fucoidan-Rich Extracts from Marine Macroalgae. Cosmetics
           2015, 2, 66–81

    • Authors: Cosmetics Editorial Office
      First page: 12
      Abstract: Due to a production error, Figure 3 was published twice in article [1] and Figure 4 was missing.[...]
      PubDate: 2016-03-22
      DOI: 10.3390/cosmetics3010012
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2016)
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