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   ISSN (Print) 1112-3680
   Published by Universit√© de Biskra Homepage  [1 journal]
  • COMBINED VALORIZATION OF SOLID AND LIQUID AVICOLOUS DIGESTATS FOR THE
           PRODUCTION ABOVEGROUND OF TOMATO PLANTS IN TUNISIA

    • Authors: Y. M’SADAK, A. BEN M’BAREK
      Abstract: The use of peat mixed with methacompost of poultry (MCA) with or without incorporation of forestry raw compost (CSB) in the culture substrates has been developed a soilless gardening experiment while using the fertigation at Juice Process Poultry (JPA) diluted 1/150 depending on the report. Growth and wilting tomato plants were, among others, statements. The main results obtained show a favorable germination of tomato seeds leading to almost 100% on mixtures Peat + MCA, growth in the higher height recorded for MCA 10% and inserting a suitable improvement in growth in height mixing plants following the application of diluted JPA (1/150). The partial incorporation of MCA with / without CBS at 10% (SB and SA) allowed to grant quality seedlings eligible and higher than that of SC plants installed on growth (80% + 20% peat MCA) and SC' (60% peat + 20% + 20% MCA CSB) which are far from acceptable in comparison to the imported substrate (peat). The substrate SA (80% peat + 10% + 10% CSB MCA) recorded growth in the largest diameter.
      PubDate: 2017-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2017)
       
  • IDENTIFICATION, CLASSIFICATION ET CARACTÉRISATION DES ZONES HUMIDES
           DU GRAND SFAX

    • Authors: B. CHAABANE, A. BOUJELBEN
      Abstract: In this paper, we present the different steps to study the wetlands of the big Sfax, from identification to caracteriziation.Identification consists of locating and delimiting wetlands. The approch used is the interpretation assisted with computer of panchromatic aerial photographs. The wetlands identified are classified according to the Ramsar typology into three categories: marine wetlands, continental welnads and artificial wetlands. Ground prospecting was then used to caracterize the wetlands through searching for traces of hydromorphy and halophytic vegetation. Soils and vegetation develop in a specific way and persist after periods of waterlogging and land developpement. They constitue reliable criteria for diagnostic, identification and delimitation of wetlnads.
      PubDate: 2017-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2017)
       
  • APPROPRIATE FORMULA FOR ESTIMATING RAINFALL INTENSITY OF SELECTED DURATION
           AND FREQUENCY: A CASE STUDY

    • Authors: L. HOUICHI
      Abstract: The study is devoted to the citation of some common IDF models from the bibliography, in particular the model adopted by the National Hydraulic Resources Agency (NHRA), which is tested in a comparative view. Twelve other models of, two, three, four and five parameters, are then willfully applied and tested. The choice of the best model was based on current quality criteria. The ultimate model is the result of all the attempts applied to the most complete data concerning the Pluviographic station of Batna in the « Hauts plateaux Constantinois ». A relationship of practical use is finally available to researchers and designers. 
      PubDate: 2017-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2017)
       
  • PHOTOCHEMICAL TREATMENT OF PHYTOSANITARY EFFLUENTS FROM THE SPRAYERS
           RINSE: CASE OF SIMAZINE

    • Authors: M. DIARRA, D. L. KOUADIO, D.B. SORO, K.N. ABOUA, L. MEITE, K. MAMADOU, K. S. TRAORE, A. DEMBELE
      Abstract: The degradation of simazine in the process of photolysis has been studied in aqueous solution. The study of the photolysis concerned three aspects namely the direct photolysis, photolysis catalyzed first using TiO2 and the coupling TiO2/H2O2 as catalysts. Photolysis experiments were carried out under different lamps ʎ = 253.7 nm and ʎ ≥ 285nm. Experiences catalyzed photolysis were performed ʎ ≥ 285 nm.The study showed that the degradation of simazine by direct photolysis is possible both with monochromatic light (254 nm) with a polychromatic light (λ≥ 285 nm).Photolysis is higher under monochromatic light (λ= 254 nm).The experiments also showed that simazine degrades by photolysis catalyzed. The addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) greatly accelerated the degradation of simazine in the catalyzed compared photolysis.In all these studies, it appears that the reaction rate of degradation in the presence of TiO2 and couple (TiO2/H2O2) is much higher than the direct photolysis of simazine.
      PubDate: 2017-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2017)
       
  • USE OF THE ZYGOS MODEL FOR THE ESTIMATION OF GROUNDWATER RECHARGE IN
           SIKKAK WATERSHED (NORTHEN WEST OF ALGERIA)

    • Authors: A. BEMMOUSSAT, M. ADJIM, F. BENSAOULA
      Abstract: In this study, we use the hydrological model: rain flow Zygos that is integrated in the Hydrognomom software. The aim is to estimate the fraction of rain supplying the groundwater. The latter is composed of several parameters that represent the infiltration and flow process. Data outputs, namely percolation and evaporation, are deduced after automatic calibration between the measured flow rate at the outlet and the calculated flow rate. The input parameter: “mean monthly rainfall estimate”, was carried out by two ways: the first is isohyets; the second is that of the arithmetic mean. Numerical simulations show that the first method gives a very good result. On the other side, the second reveals a bad timing. Finely, it is shown that, for an average annual rainfall of 425.2 mm intake, percolation represents only 10 % of the precipitation.
      PubDate: 2017-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2017)
       
  • CONCERTED WATER MANAGEMENT OF LARGE IRRIGATED PERIMETERS. CASE OF THE
           HABRA PLAIN (NORTH-WEST ALGERIA)

    • Authors: I. TAZEKRIT, M. BENSLIMANE, A. HAMIMED, T. HARTANI, A. KHALDI
      Abstract: The perimeter of Habra covers an area of 21210 ha, equipped on 19630 ha. Founded in 1940, it is part of the northern plain of the Macta in the Wilaya of Mascara. It is one of the most important perimeters of the Oran region. At the beginning of the 1960s, this perimeter received water quantities of around 80 million M3 / year. Since the creation of the Office that manages water from irrigated areas during the 1980s, the quotas allocated to irrigation of all irrigable areas did not exceed 32 million M3 / year. This reduction, due to the insufficiency of the resource caused by the drought that has served over the Oran region for two decades and by the allocation of water in priority to domestic use. The consultation between the irrigators' associations and the water management organization remains the only way and hope for farmers, allowing them to maintain their citrus orchards. Our surveys carried out with the public services and users, on the characterization of the agricultural plot of the Habra perimeter, on the supply and demand approach of which both actors are represented by ONID and irrigators, revealed The important role of the collective associations in a dynamic of concerted action that can be described as paralyzed, having the objective the surviving of the perimeter and transmitting their heritage to future generations. The collective network Of gravity irrigation is the only way to make subsist the citrus fruit orchards, some farmers resort to the purchase of water by tanks in order to maintain the survival of their farms. The functioning of the collective network is also greatly hampered by management deemed inefficient with a low level of maintenance. This places the perimeter in state of alert. This work illustrates the characteristics and mechanisms of water demands of farms, supply management and demand across the perimeter, managed by the national irrigation agency. The surveys realized that dam water remains the main water resource for the majority of farms in the perimeter, the water in the aquifer being highly saline, it can not under any circumstances provide for the irrigation of citrus fruits. Some farmers, often, having other incomes, have recourse to irrigation by the purchase of cisterns in order to maintain their orchards. The combined use of the two systems, collective network and tanks, makes it possible to irrigate about 30% of the cultivated area annually, this irrigation only allows the safeguarding of orchards and a low production of about 80 quintals/ ha.
      PubDate: 2017-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2017)
       
  • CORRELATION BETWEEN THE VARIABILITY OF HYDROLOGICAL PARAMETERS WITH
           ALTITUDE IN THE EL TARF REGION (NORTHEAST ALGERIA)

    • Authors: W. KHERIFI, H. KHERICI-BOUSNOUBRA
      Abstract: The area of El Tarf is along the littoral and fact part of the most sprinkled areas the Algerian North-East. The climate of El Tarf is of the wet Mediterranean type, characterized by two six months seasons each one. In this study we made the comparison between the annual variability of the parameters climatic to that of altitude (Z). The data processing by software “XL Stat” made it possible to see the various correlations between the various parameters of the climate of the zone of study, is made on eight variables (Altitude, Tp, Pr, ETP, ETPR, Deficit, Surplus, Aridity) in four weather stations (El Kala, Ain El Assel, Ben M’hidi, Saltworks) over one 34 years period (1975 - 2009). The space variation of the temperatures and the ETP reflect the effect of the position compared to the sea. Whereas precipitations, the surplus, ETR and the index of aridity increase with altitude. The stations are gathered in two partitions, the first corresponds to the stations located on the Eastern slope (East) (Ain El Assel and El-Kala) and the second understands those located on Western slope (Western) (Ben M’Hidi, Saline).
      PubDate: 2017-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2017)
       
  • STATUS OF AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM POLLUTION IN BENIN (WEST AFRICA).

    • Authors: J.B. HOUNKPE, N.C. KELOME, R. A. N. LAWANI, A.R.M.A. ADECHINA
      Abstract: The protection of aquatic ecosystems is essential for both the balance of aquatic species and a healthy diet of the people. Plans and rivers of Benin, are affected by many forms of pollution linked especially to sudden acceleration of population growth and human activities. This literature review is an overview of pollution of aquatic ecosystems in Benin. It reviews the types, causes and impacts on humans and the environment from pollution of water bodies in Benin. It also highlights some scientific work on the issue of pollution of aquatic ecosystems in Benin and certain plans and waterways of the world. Therefore, it is identified with a help guide decision-making and appropriate arrangements by national and local actors in order to qualitatively preserve water resources, and ensure social, economic and environmental well-being.
      PubDate: 2017-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2017)
       
  • EFFECTS OF AGRICULTURAL PRACTICES ON THE POLLUTION OF SURFACE WATER IN
           BENIN REPUBLIC

    • Authors: A. N. LAWANI, N. C. KELOME, M. AGASSOUNON DJIKPO TCHIBOZO, J. B. HOUNKPE, A. ADJAGODO
      Abstract: The contamination of surface and groundwater in a watershed is mainly due to poor agricultural practices. These include excessive use of fertilizers for high yields, irrigation practices and the use of pesticides. These practices can lead to nutrient flows, chemicals, and pathogens to water resources and disrupt ecosystems. Benin Republic has diverse agricultural areas. Massive use of inputs and pesticides in agriculture, especially in cotton culture is an important source of chemical pollution. Sediments, aquatic organisms and especially vegetables of cotton areas of north Benin are contaminated with chlorinated pesticides. In gardening’s perimeter, the heavy metals are found in soil and water. There is also a bacterial pollution due to the composition of compost used in these areas. To remedy this situation, the financial and material resources available need to be strengthened substantially to enable training of farmers and to allow the development of appropriate techniques to prevent and. This article analyzes the available scientific knowledge regarding the various existing agricultural practices in Benin Republic and suggests possible solutions to reduce the risk of contamination of this aquatic ecosystems.
      PubDate: 2017-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2017)
       
  • SOIL SALINITY MAPPING IN THE IRRIGATED PERIMETER ZELBA OF THE REGION OF
           MAHDIA (TUNISIAN SAHEL)

    • Authors: D. LOUATI, R. MAJDOUB, S. SELMANI, N. ACHOUR, N. HANNACHI, H. ABIDA
      Abstract: In the region of Mahdia (Eastern Tunisia) perimeters are irrigated using saline waters coming from groundwater and deep aquifers. Consequences are therefore progressive soils salinization. In this context, this work was conducted in the perimeter of Zelba, of Mahdia region, irrigated by brackish water in order to assess the effects of these waters on soil quality. A study of the salinity spatial variation was carried out. Electrical conductivity maps were plotted using the ArcView GIS 3.2 software. Soil salinity mapping showed a slight spatial variation of the soil salinity in the different soil layers. This salinity increased slightly with soil depth. The increasing gradient of the salinity is due to leaching of salts with depth under irrigation. Mapping also showed that the southern part of the perimeter is the most affected by soil salinity. Indeed, the northern part is closer to the water drilling. Thus, it receives more water which favors the salts leaching with depth. The slight spatial variation of salinity is explained by the flat topography of the perimeter.
      PubDate: 2017-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2017)
       
  • EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF THE STATE OF OPERATION OF AT COIL MACHINE FOR
           IRRIGATION (NORTHWEST OF TUNISIA)

    • Authors: Y. M’SADAK, A. MANAI, A. BEN MABROUK, M.E. HAMZA
      Abstract: This study concerns the diagnosis of the field operation of winder of irrigation used in the delegation of Bou Salem, governorate of Jendouba (Tunisia) and the assessment of the quality of watering carried out. It includes an assessment of rainfall distribution and uniformity testing. The tests carried out affected a range of prevailing wind speeds of 1 to 8 m/s and a pressure range of 1.5 to 2.5 bar.The operating balance revealed that winder of irrigation provides a fairly good rainfall distribution, which is linked, on the one hand, to the regularity of its speed of advance and, on the other hand, to the performance of the cannon of watering. The results also revealed the sensitivity of this system to strong winds, whose speed exceeds 4 m/s (uniformity coefficient of 74% at a wind speed of 4.1 m / s compared to 84% at 1.6 m/s), and the insensitivity of the coefficient of uniformity (deviation of 4%) to the change in operating pressure in the range 1.5 to 2 bar.Necessarily, the subsequent use of such a mechanized sprinkler system is an interesting solution, given its good efficiency. However, irrigation should be stopped if the wind changes to more than 5 m/s.
      PubDate: 2017-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2017)
       
  • STUDY OF MARINE INTRUSION IN COASTAL AQUIFERS AND ITS REPERCUSSIONS ON THE
           LAND DEGRADATION BY THE USE OF A MULTIDISCIPLINARY APPROACH

    • Authors: B. MORSLI, M. HABI, B. BOUCHEKARA
      Abstract: In this research work, we focus on an actuality problem which is the sea water intrusion in coastal aquifers which is increasingly becoming more acute by climate change and population growth. The research was conducted on the east Algiers valley. On the Algiers coastal aquifer, characterized by an intensive and anarchic exploitation, we tried by a multidisciplinary approach combining several methods (piezometric, chemical and geophysical) to identify a marine intrusion and to detect areas sensitive to marine pollution in this coastal zone and to analyze the implications for soil degradation through the use of water polluted by the sea for irrigation. This approach was very interesting to reveal sea water intrusion, to determine the salinity source and to identify risk zones. The sea water intrusion in coastal aquifers has also an effect on soil salinity, caused by an extensive use of aquifer. The monitoring of extraction and the control of drawdown are recommended.
      PubDate: 2017-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2017)
       
  • BIO-EVALUATION OF WATER QUALITY OF THE MIDDLE SEBOU BY APPLICATION OF
           BIOTIC INDEXES

    • Authors: F. ABBOU, A. FAHDE
      Abstract: Sebou is the most important river flowing into the Atlantic. Its basin knows a very developed industrial activity, as well as an important domestic and agricultural activity; hence the need to assess the quality of its waters. The intensification of these activities generates important pollution causing global habitat degradation and rarefaction and mortality of the biocenosis. An evaluation of water quality of the middle Sebou by biotic indexes founded on the study of macroinvertebrates has been done and the values of the Normalized Global Biological Index, and the Biological Monitoring Working Party ranked the water of the majority of the studied sites into the category of poor to very poor quality water. These indexes are good biological tracers of the water quality and indicators of even insidious pollution.
      PubDate: 2017-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2017)
       
  • MODELE DE SIMPLIFICATION DES RESEAUX D'EAU POTABLE

    • Authors: O. HARROUZ, B. BRÉMOND, M. HABI, A. HARROUZ
      Abstract: This article deals with the simplification of drinking water networks issues. It consists in systemizing sections of the drinking water supply network by keeping fixed the number of nodes. First, we aim to connectall the nodes with arcs, and then we recommend the best iterative choice for the gill sections to add into the arc’s structure. In the absence of knowledge regarding the hydraulic system of the full network to be modeled, and, in order to approach the previous choice, the choice of the suggested sections is based on estimated values of the pressurelooses in the new sections and takes into account the new meshes created. To illustrate this skeletonization technique, its application on real networks has been examinated. The results of these applications are very interesting especially in the case of the modelization of the water quality in the networks. The suggested model will be one of the realistic bridges between le Geographic Information System and the hydraulic calculation.
      PubDate: 2017-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2017)
       
  • THE KHOTTARA OF SAOURA: HYDRAULIC HERITAGE IN DECLINE

    • Authors: B. REMINI, C. REZOUG
      Abstract: In this article we examine one of the peculiarities of the Saoura valley. This is the operating technique of the groundwater. These are the pendulum wells called Khottara. Missions were carried out during the years 2013 and 2014 in the oases of Igli, Kerzaz, Beni Ikhlef, El Ouata, Guerzim and Beni Abbes. Investigations and investigations were carried out among farmers and the Ksourian population. It is clear that over 1200 Khottras have been dug in the oasis bordering the Saoura River for a length of 100 km (from Beni Abbes to Kerzaz). More than 600 Khottaras were made only in the oasis of Kerzaz. However, the introduction of the motor-driven pump into the oases and floods drained by the Saoura river has produced the abundant ancestral system.
      PubDate: 2017-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2017)
       
  • AN APPRAISAL OF THE LOGONE BANK DYNAMICS BETWEEN MAGA DAM AND LAKE CHAD,
           USING SATELLITE IMAGERY

    • Authors: C.E. KANA
      Abstract: Endorheic watercourse which contributes more than 90% to water supplies of Lake Chad, and natural border between Cameroon and Chad, the Logone-Chari system, has often been studied in terms of variability of the hydrological regime and of the risks associated with floods in the neighboring plain. The evolution of the river banks, which involves important socio-economic and strategic stakes, has until now been little documented. The objective of this study is to contribute to the assessment and characterization of the dynamics of the eastern banks, part of the Cameroonian territory. The methodology combines discretization of the active band on multi-chronic Landsat images, field observations and surveys, and analysis of data in a GIS.
      The results indicate that advances and setbacks follow one another over time, due to variations in hydrological parameters and the diversity of the alluvial material. In 30 years, variations range between -200 (decline of the banks) and 171 meters (fattening of the banks) in the section of the Chari in the north of Kousseri, against -121 and 125 meters in the section of Logone in the South. For the same period, there is a territorial gain of almost 853.32 ha, representing the differential between fattening (1,397.1 ha) and decline (543.78 ha). However, this evolution is not linear. It is done in jerks, during the seasonal cycles, following processes interrupted by negative feedbacks. The sinuous or braided areas are the most exposed.
      Although shoreline erosion is essential to dissipate the energy of water, protective measures should be considered where the safety of property and persons is threatened. The integrated management of the Logone plain should take into account the necessity to preserve a minimal space of freedom around the banks, in order to allow the water to retain its potential for lateral and longitudinal adjustment.
      PubDate: 2017-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2017)
       
  • EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF THE DESALINATION PLANT ON THE MARINE
           ENVIRONMENT: CASE STUDY IN ALGERIA

    • Authors: Y. BELKACEM, R. BENFARES, A. ADEM, F. HOUMA BACHARI
      Abstract: This work focuses on Environmental impacts associated with concentrated brine rejection arising from seawater desalination plants in Algeria. We present a case study on the environmental impacts of BouIsmail/MSF seawater desalination plant. These impacts are mostly due to the highly saline brine that is discharged into the sea, which may be increased by temperature, contain residual chemicals from the pretreatment process, heavy metals from corrosion or intermittently used cleaning agents.We performed the measurement of seawater quality the concentration of heavy metals in an accumulator bio-algae and sediment in the turn of the rejection of the station. And the study of the phytoplankton density at different discharge distance. Global results show no effect while there is a local impact due to the relatively small size of the resort of plant.
      PubDate: 2017-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2017)
       
  • REMOVAL OF HUMIC ACID BY THE COMBINATION ALUMINIUM SULPHATE / ACTIVATED
           BENTONITE

    • Authors: A. REZEG, S. ACHOUR
      Abstract: This work presents removal of humic substances by the combination of aluminum sulphate/activated bentonite during coagulation-flocculation in waters with various mineralizations. Many reaction parameters (pH, coagulant or adsorbent dosage, initial concentration of humic acid, ionic strength…) were varied during trials. In distilled water, the use of the coagulant alone results inincreased removal efficiencies and aluminum sulfate doses, with increasing initial concentration of humic substances.The combination of aluminum sulphate and activated bentonite revealed that at lower doses there is better removal of humic acid, especially when the adsorbent reagent is introduced during slow stirring.Moreover, at pH = 7, when the activated bentonite is introduced during rapid stirring, the trend of the curves is very similar to that of the flocculation tests in the exclusive presence of aluminum sulphate.The evolution of humic substances in the combination tests in mineralized media showed that the activated bentonite required doses are higher but the maximum yields are lower than in distilled water.
      PubDate: 2017-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2017)
       
  • NITRATES IN GROUNDWATER OF EL-GHROUS REGION (BISKRA) AND TREATMENT
           POSSIBILITIES

    • Authors: O. KHELIEL, L. YOUCEF, S. ACHOUR
      Abstract: The region of El-Ghrous is located in the territories of wilaya of Biskra. It is characterized by a very important agricultural development particularly during the last decades. The objective of this study is to give an idea of presence of nitrates in the groundwater of this region and to observe the capacity of adsorption of a granular activated carbon (GAC) in the denitrification of contaminated waters in this region. The adsorption tests showed that nitrates desorption was observed beyond the equilibrium time. This equilibrium time varies according to the tested water from 2 hours and 30 minutes to 3 hours. The optimal yields are obtained at pH 4. The variation of adsorbent dose in the range 0,1 to 4 g/L, resulted in improved denitrification yields. The models of Langmuir and Freundlich are perfectly applicable for the results obtained.Nitrates in groundwater of El-Ghrous region (Biskra) and treatment possibilities
      PubDate: 2017-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2017)
       
  • TECHNIQUES FOR DETECTING THE PROGRESS OF THE LEAKS IN DAMS AND OTHER
           ARTIFICIAL RESERVOIRS

    • Authors: H. BENFETTA, B. ACHOUR, S. BOUDINA, N. HOCINI, A. OUADJA
      Abstract: The majority of dams and reservoirs in operation have leakage problems which are very expensive to repair because the diagnosis causes through conventional methods is often inadequate. In addition, they can jeopardize all goods and people is located immediately downstream of the structure because they are capable of causing it to break. The study of this phenomenon proves to be very important because it can endanger the stability of the dam and reduce its useful capacity especially as the water resource availability in Africa is a very crucial problem affecting the brunt the welfare of the communities in terms of health and annuity generation through Agriculture and Industry. To this end, the National Agency of Dams has launched an African Regional Cooperation Agreement (AFRA), inter-governmental agreement signed between several African countries, for the promotion of the use of radioisotopes for problem solving urgent socioeconomic. It consists in applying accurate tracing techniques for locating leaks resulting in reduced repair costs. These techniques are the object of our searches on water leaks in the Algerian dams.
      PubDate: 2017-06-30
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2017)
       
  • BRINGING STATISTICAL TECHNICS TO THE STUDY OF THE CLIMATE VARIABILITY :
           CASEOF TADLA-AZILAL BASIN

    • Authors: S. KRIMISSA, L. BOUCHAOU, S. ABOURICHA
      Abstract: Rainfall has varied considerably over the last few decades resulting in droughts and floods. The occurrence of these extreme events implies a potential change in the stationarity of climate regime. The aim of this study is to highlight the spatial and temporal variability of rainfall in the area of Tadla-Azilal between 1980 and 2014, using Nicholson method, Haning low pass filter and statistical tests for homogeneity (LEE HEGHNIAN’s test, PETTITT’s test and HUBERT segmentation). This study revealed that climate variability characterized by alternating wet, normal and dry phases was identified in the study area. The indices and statistical methods indicate the existence of a break in 2006, manifested by swings in rainfall patterns.
      PubDate: 2017-06-06
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2017)
       
 
 
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