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     ISSN (Online) 2046-1402
     Published by Faculty of 1000 Homepage  [1 journal]
  • Novel somatic single nucleotide variants within the RNA binding protein
           hnRNP A1 in multiple sclerosis patients [v2; indexed,

    • Authors: Sangmin Lee, Michael Levin
      Abstract: Some somatic single nucleotide variants (SNVs) are thought to be pathogenic, leading to neurological disease. We hypothesized that heterogeneous nuclear ribonuclear protein A1 (hnRNP A1), an autoantigen associated with multiple sclerosis (MS) would contain SNVs. MS patients develop antibodies to hnRNP A1293-304, an epitope within the M9 domain (AA268-305) of hnRNP A1. M9 is hnRNP A1’s nucleocytoplasmic transport domain, which binds transportin-1 (TPNO-1) and allows for hnRNP A1’s transport into and out of the nucleus. Genomic DNA sequencing of M9 revealed nine novel SNVs that resulted in an amino acid substitution in MS patients that were not present in controls. SNVs occurred within the TPNO-1 binding domain (hnRNP A1268-289) and the MS IgG epitope (hnRNP A1293-304), within M9.  In contrast to the nuclear localization of wild type (WT) hnRNP A1, mutant hnRNP A1 mis-localized to the cytoplasm, co-localized with stress granules and caused cellular apoptosis. Whilst WT hnRNP A1 bound TPNO-1, mutant hnRNP A1 showed reduced TPNO-1 binding. These data suggest SNVs in hnRNP A1 might contribute to pathogenesis of MS.
      PubDate: 2014-09-18
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.4436.2
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Case Report: Testicular failure possibly associated with chronic use of
           methylphenidate [v1; indexed,]

    • Authors: Ranjith Ramasamy, Pranav Dadhich, Ashna Dhingra, Larry Lipshultz
      Abstract: Methylphenidate is a commonly prescribed treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, little is known about its adverse effects on the male reproductive system. We report a 20-year-old male patient whose chief complaint was of delayed puberty. He spoke in a high-pitched voice and complained of lack of body hair, impaired libido, inadequate erectile function, chronic fatigue, and low energy. He had been treated with methylphenidate as an infant and had continued treatment for 17 years. On examination, the patient was lean and visibly lacked facial or body hair. He further explained that he had never been able to grow underarm or facial hair and that he was often mistakenly considered a young teenager rather than a 20-year-old. The patient’s genitalia were categorized as Tanner Stage 2. Laboratory studies confirmed low serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and testosterone levels. The patient was given exogenous testosterone supplementation with pellets and human chorionic gonadotropin to maintain testicular size. After 4 months his symptoms improved and he demonstrated signs of puberty. Our goal is to further elucidate the possible impact of methylphenidate on the male reproductive system.
      PubDate: 2014-09-02
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.5163.1
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • The assessment of CD146-based cell sorting and telomere length analysis
           for establishing the identity of mesenchymal stem cells in human umbilical
           cord [v2; indexed,]

    • Authors: Dimitrios Kouroupis, Sarah M. Churchman, Dennis McGonagle, Elena A. Jones
      Abstract: Adult stem cells are characterised by longer telomeres compared to mature cells from the same tissue. In this study, candidate CD146+ umbilical cord (UC) mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were purified by cell sorting from UC tissue digests and their telomere lengths were measured in comparison to donor-matched CD146-negative fraction.   UC tissue fragments were enzymatically treated with collagenase and the cells were used for cell sorting, colony-forming fibroblast (CFU-F) assay or for long-term MSC cultivation. Telomere lengths were measured by qPCR in both culture-expanded MSCs and candidate native UC MSCs. Immunohistochemistry was undertaken to study the topography of CD146+ cells.   Culture-expanded UC MSCs had a stable expression of CD73, CD90 and CD105, whereas CD146 declined in later passages which correlated with the shortening of telomeres in the same cultures. In five out of seven donors, telomeres in candidate native UC MSCs (CD45-CD235α-CD31-CD146+) were longer compared to donor-matched CD146- population (CD45-CD235α-CD31-CD146-). The frequency of CD45-CD235α-CD31-CD146+ cells measured by flow cytometry was ~1000-fold above that of CFU-Fs (means 10.4% and 0.01%, respectively). CD146+ cells were also abundant in situ having a broad topography including high levels of positivity in muscle areas in addition to vessels.   Although qPCR-based telomere length analysis in sorted populations could be limited in its sensitivity, very high frequency of CD146+ cells in UC tissue suggests that CD146 expression alone is unlikely to be sufficient to identify and purify native MSCs from the UC tissue.
      PubDate: 2014-08-27
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.4260.2
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Causes of elective surgery cancellation and theatre throughput efficiency
           in an Australian urology unit [v1; indexed,]

    • Authors: Andrew Keller, Akbar Ashrafi, Ahmad Ali
      Abstract: Objective: To evaluate our unit’s theatre throughput efficiency, to identify where inefficiencies existed and consequently where the greatest improvement might be made. To identify the causes of day of surgery cancellations and how they might be avoided. Patients and Methods: A prospective audit of theatre utilisation was undertaken over a 6 month period between 05/02//2013 and 02/08/2013 at Ipswich General Hospital, QLD, Australia. Times collected were: time of patient arrival in anaesthetic bay, start time of operative procedure, end time of operative procedure, and time of patient leaving theatre. The causative factors for any delays or day of surgery cancellations were identified and recorded where possible. Results: In the six month period 26,850 sessional minutes were available for elective operating over 100 operating sessions. 304 elective cases were performed, split between 21 major and 283 minor procedures The sessions ran overtime a cumulative 2114 minutes. Total non-operative minutes totalled 13,209 (50.3% of all available time), split between late starts 499 minutes (1.8%), early list finishes 1894 minutes (7.05%),  changeover time 1869 minutes (6.9%) and anaesthetic time, 8974 minutes (33.4%) Actual operating time only compromised 50.7% of all available elective operating session time (13,614 minutes) Theatre utilisation was 91.8%. 51 procedures were cancelled on the day of surgery during the audit period, representing 14.3% of all scheduled procedures. The most common reason for cancellation was lack of surgical fitness, followed by inadequate operative time. Conclusion:  A significant proportion of all elective operative time was consumed by non-operative minutes. Inefficiencies existed in turnover of patients as well as over as well as underbooking of patients on elective lists. An excessive number of cases were cancelled on the day of surgery, wasting valuable operative time. A multi-parametric approach must be taken to improve operation list utilisation.
      PubDate: 2014-08-19
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.4824.1
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • A revised method for measuring distraction by tactile stimulation [v1;

    • Authors: Jacqueline R. Schechter, Deanna J. Greene, Jonathan M. Koller, Kevin J. Black
      Abstract: Sensory hypersensitivity (SH) refers to the tendency to attend to subtle stimuli, to persist in attending to them, and to find them noxious. SH is relatively common in several developmental disorders including Tourette Syndrome and Chronic Tic Disorder (TS/CTD). This study was an attempt to quantify the extent to which a mild tactile stimulus distracts one’s attention in TS/CTD. Fourteen adults with TS/CTD and 14 tic-free control subjects completed questionnaires regarding SH and ADHD, and TS/CTD subjects completed self-report measures of current and past tic disorder symptoms and of current obsessions and compulsions. All subjects performed a sustained attention choice reaction time task during alternating blocks in which a mildly annoying stimulus (von Frey hair) was applied to the ankle (“ON”) or was not applied (“OFF”). We present here the clinical and cognitive task data for each subject.
      PubDate: 2014-08-12
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.4944.1
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • CaMKII binding to GluN2B is important for massed spatial learning in the
           Morris water maze [v1; indexed,]

    • Authors: Ivar S. Stein, Michaela S. Donaldson, Johannes W. Hell
      Abstract: Learning and memory as well as long-term potentiation (LTP) depend on Ca2+ influx through the NMDA-type glutamate receptor (NMDAR) and the resulting activation of the Ca2+ and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII). Ca2+ influx via the NMDAR triggers CaMKII binding to the NMDAR for enhanced CaMKII accumulation at post-synaptic sites that experience heightened activity as occurring during LTP. Previously, we generated knock-in (KI) mice in which we replaced two residues in the NMDAR GluN2B subunit to impair CaMKII binding to GluN2B. Various forms of LTP at the Schaffer collateral synapses in CA1 are reduced by 50%. Nevertheless, working memory in the win-shift 8 arm maze and learning of the Morris water maze (MWM) task was normal in the KI mice although recall of the task was impaired in these mice during the period of early memory consolidation. We now show that massed training in the MWM task within a single day resulted in impaired learning. However, learning and recall of the Barnes maze task and contextual fear conditioning over one or multiple days were surprisingly unaffected. The differences observed in the MWM compared to the Barnes maze and contextual fear conditioning suggest a differential involvement of CaMKII and the specific interaction with GluN2B, probably depending on varying degrees of stress, cognitive demand or even potentially different plasticity mechanisms associated with the diverse tasks.
      PubDate: 2014-08-12
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.4660.1
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • SkateBase, an elasmobranch genome project and collection of molecular
           resources for chondrichthyan fishes [v1; indexed,]

    • Authors: Jennifer Wyffels, Benjamin L. King, James Vincent, Chuming Chen, Cathy H. Wu, Shawn W. Polson
      Abstract: Chondrichthyan fishes are a diverse class of gnathostomes that provide a valuable perspective on fundamental characteristics shared by all jawed and limbed vertebrates. Studies of phylogeny, species diversity, population structure, conservation, and physiology are accelerated by genomic, transcriptomic and protein sequence data. These data are widely available for many sarcopterygii (coelacanth, lungfish and tetrapods) and actinoptergii (ray-finned fish including teleosts) taxa, but limited for chondrichthyan fishes.  In this study, we summarize available data for chondrichthyes and describe resources for one of the largest projects to characterize one of these fish, Leucoraja erinacea, the little skate.  SkateBase ( serves as the skate genome project portal linking data, research tools, and teaching resources.
      PubDate: 2014-08-12
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.4996.1
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Case Report: Solitary mastocytoma treated successfully with topical
           tacrolimus [v1; indexed,]

    • Authors: M. S. Sukesh, Ameet Dandale, Rachita Dhurat, Ankur Sarkate, Smita Ghate
      Abstract: Solitary mastocytoma, a rare dermatological entity accounts for 10-15% of cutaneous mastocytosis. We report a rare case of solitary mastocytoma presenting at birth, treated successfully with topical tacrolimus. Along with reassurance and strict avoidance of triggering factors, no recurrence was reported within the one year follow-up period.
      PubDate: 2014-08-01
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.3253.1
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • dendsort: modular leaf ordering methods for dendrogram representations in
           R [v1; indexed,]

    • Authors: Ryo Sakai, Raf Winand, Toni Verbeiren, Andrew Vande Moere, Jan Aerts
      Abstract: Dendrograms are graphical representations of binary tree structures resulting from agglomerative hierarchical clustering. In Life Science, a cluster heat map is a widely accepted visualization technique that utilizes the leaf order of a dendrogram to reorder the rows and columns of the data table. The derived linear order is more meaningful than a random order, because it groups similar items together. However, two consecutive items can be quite dissimilar despite proximity in the order. In addition, there are 2n-1 possible orderings given n input elements as the orientation of clusters at each merge can be flipped without affecting the hierarchical structure. We present two modular leaf ordering methods to encode both the monotonic order in which clusters are merged and the nested cluster relationships more faithfully in the resulting dendrogram structure. We compare dendrogram and cluster heat map visualizations created using our heuristics to the default heuristic in R and seriation-based leaf ordering methods. We find that our methods lead to a dendrogram structure with global patterns that are easier to interpret, more legible given a limited display space, and more insightful for some cases. The implementation of methods is available as an R package, named ”dendsort”, from the CRAN package repository. Further examples, documentations, and the source code are available at [].
      PubDate: 2014-07-30
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.4784.1
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • shinyMethyl: interactive quality control of Illumina 450k DNA methylation
           arrays in R [v1; indexed,]

    • Authors: Jean-Philippe Fortin, Elana Fertig, Kasper Hansen
      Abstract: We present shinyMethyl, a Bioconductor package for interactive quality control of DNA methylation data from Illumina 450k arrays. The package summarizes 450k experiments into small exportable R objects from which an interactive interface is launched. Reactive plots allow fast and intuitive quality control assessment of the samples. In addition, exploration of the phenotypic associations is possible through coloring and principal component analysis. Altogether, the package makes it easy to perform quality assessment of large-scale methylation datasets, such as epigenome-wide association studies or the datasets available through The Cancer Genome Atlas portal. The shinyMethyl package is implemented in R and available via Bioconductor. Its development repository is at
      PubDate: 2014-07-30
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.4680.1
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Strategies of the honeybee Apis mellifera during visual search for
           vertical targets presented at various heights: a role for spatial
           attention' [v1; indexed,]

    • Authors: Linde Morawetz, Lars Chittka, Johannes Spaethe
      Abstract: When honeybees are presented with a colour discrimination task, they tend to choose swiftly and accurately when objects are presented in the ventral part of their frontal visual field. In contrast, poor performance is observed when objects appear in the dorsal part. Here we investigate if this asymmetry is caused by fixed search patterns or if bees can use alternative search mechanisms such as spatial attention, which allows flexible focusing on different areas of the visual field. We asked individual honeybees to choose an orange rewarded target among blue distractors. Target and distractors were presented in the ventral visual field, the dorsal field or both. Bees presented with targets in the ventral visual field consistently had the highest search efficiency, with rapid decisions, high accuracy and direct flight paths. In contrast, search performance for dorsally located targets was inaccurate and slow at the beginning of the test phase, but bees increased their search performance significantly after a few learning trials: they found the target faster, made fewer errors and flew in a straight line towards the target. However, bees needed thrice as long to improve the search for a dorsally located target when the target’s position changed randomly between the ventral and the dorsal visual field. We propose that honeybees form expectations of the location of the target’s appearance and adapt their search strategy accordingly. Different possible mechanisms of this behavioural adaptation are discussed.
      PubDate: 2014-07-28
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.4799.1
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Characterization of M-laurdan, a versatile probe to explore order in lipid
           membranes [v1; indexed,]

    • Authors: Serge Mazeres, Etienne Joly, Andre Lopez, Catherine Tardin
      Abstract: Microdomains corresponding to localized partition of lipids between ordered and less ordered environments are the subject of intensive investigations, because of their putative participation in modulating cellular responses. One popular approach in the field consists in labelling membranes with solvatochromic fluorescent probes such as laurdan and C-laurdan. In this report, we describe a high-yield procedure for the synthesis of laurdan, C-laurdan and two new fluorophores, called MoC-laurdan and M-laurdan, as well as their extensive photophysical characterization. We find that the latter probe, M-laurdan, is particularly suited to discriminate lipid phases independently of the chemical nature of the lipids, as measured by both fluorescence Generalized Polarization (GP) and anisotropy in large unilamellar vesicles made of various lipid compositions. In addition, staining of live cells with M-laurdan shows a good stability over time without any apparent toxicity, as well as a wider distribution in the various cell compartments than the other probes.
      PubDate: 2014-07-25
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.4805.1
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Myelin-specific T helper 17 cells promote adult hippocampal neurogenesis
           through indirect mechanisms [v1; indexed,]

    • Authors: Johannes Niebling, Annette E. Rünker, Sonja Schallenberg, Karsten Kretschmer, Gerd Kempermann
      Abstract: CD4+ T cells provide a neuro-immunological link in the regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, but the exact mechanisms underlying enhanced neural precursor cell proliferation and the relative contribution of different T helper (Th) cell subsets have remained unclear. Here, we explored the proneurogenic potential of interleukin 17-producing T helper (Th17) cells, a developmentally and functionally distinct Th cell subset that is a key mediator of autoimmune neurodegeneration. We found that base-line proliferation of hippocampal precursor cells in a T cell-deficient mouse model of impaired hippocampal neurogenesis can be restored upon adoptive transfer with homogeneous Th17 populations enriched for myelin-reactive T cell receptors. In these experiments, enhanced proliferation was independent of direct interactions of infiltrating Th17 cells with precursor cells or neighboring cells in the hippocampal neurogenic niche. Complementary studies in immunocompetent mice identified several receptors for Th17 cell-derived cytokines with mRNA expression in hippocampal precursor cells and dentate gyrus tissue, suggesting that Th17 cell activity in peripheral lymphoid tissues might promote hippocampal neurogenesis through secreted cytokines.
      PubDate: 2014-07-24
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.4439.1
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Deletion of ENTPD3 does not impair nucleotide hydrolysis in primary
           somatosensory neurons or spinal cord [v1; indexed,]

    • Authors: Eric McCoy, Sarah Street, Bonnie Taylor-Blake, Jason Yi, Martin Edwards, Mark Wightman, Mark Zylka
      Abstract: Ectonucleotidases are membrane-bound or secreted proteins that hydrolyze extracellular nucleotides.  Recently, we identified three ectonucleotidases that hydrolyze extracellular adenosine 5’-monophosphate (AMP) to adenosine in primary somatosensory neurons.  Currently, it is unclear which ectonucleotidases hydrolyze ATP and ADP in these neurons.  Ectonucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (ENTPDs) comprise a class of enzymes that dephosphorylate extracellular ATP and ADP.  Here, we found that ENTPD3 (also known as NTPDase3 or CD39L3) was located in nociceptive and non-nociceptive neurons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, and in free nerve endings in the skin.  To determine if ENTPD3 contributes directly to ATP and ADP hydrolysis in these tissues, we generated and characterized an Entpd3 knockout mouse.  This mouse lacks ENTPD3 protein in all tissues examined, including the DRG, spinal cord, skin, and bladder.  However, DRG and spinal cord tissues from Entpd3-/- mice showed no reduction in histochemical staining when ATP, ADP, AMP, or UTP were used as substrates.  Additionally, using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV), adenosine production was not impaired in the dorsal spinal cord of Entpd3-/- mice when the substrate ADP was applied.  Further, Entpd3-/- mice did not differ in nociceptive behaviors when compared to wild-type mice, although Entpd3-/- mice showed a modest reduction in β-alanine-mediated itch.  Taken together, our data indicate that deletion of Entpd3 does not impair ATP or ADP hydrolysis in primary somatosensory neurons or in dorsal spinal cord.  Moreover, our data suggest there could be multiple ectonucleotidases that act redundantly to hydrolyze nucleotides in these regions of the nervous system.
      PubDate: 2014-07-21
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.4563.1
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Non-human lnc-DC orthologs encode Wdnm1-like protein [v1; indexed,

    • Authors: Johannes M. Dijkstra, Keith T. Ballingall
      Abstract: In a recent publication in Science, Wang et al. found a long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) expressed in human dendritic cells (DC), which they designated lnc-DC. Based on lentivirus-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) experiments in human and murine systems, they concluded that lnc-DC is important in differentiation of monocytes into DC. However, Wang et al. did not mention that their so-called “mouse lnc-DC ortholog” gene was already designated “Wdnm1-like” and is known to encode a small secreted protein.  We found that incapacitation of the Wdnm1-like open reading frame (ORF) is very rare among mammals, with all investigated primates except for hominids having an intact ORF. The null-hypothesis by Wang et al. therefore should have been that the human lnc-DC transcript might only represent a non-functional relatively young evolutionary remnant of a protein coding locus.  Whether this null-hypothesis can be rejected by the experimental data presented by Wang et al. depends in part on the possible off-target (immunogenic or otherwise) effects of their RNAi procedures, which were not exhaustive in regard to the number of analyzed RNAi sequences and control sequences.  If, however, the conclusions by Wang et al. on their human model are correct, and they may be, current knowledge regarding the Wdnm1-like locus suggests an intriguing combination of different functions mediated by transcript and protein in the maturation of several cell types at some point in evolution. We feel that the article by Wang et al. tends to be misleading without the discussion presented here.
      PubDate: 2014-07-11
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.4711.1
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Case Report: Expanding the tumour spectrum associated with the
           Birt-Hogg-Dubé cancer susceptibility syndrome [v1; indexed,

    • Authors: Patrick R. Benusiglio, Sophie Gad, Christophe Massard, Edith Carton, Elisabeth Longchampt, Tiffany Faudot, Jérôme Lamoril, Sophie Ferlicot
      Abstract: Patients with the Birt-Hogg-Dubé cancer susceptibility syndrome are at high risk of developing renal cell carcinoma, pulmonary cysts and pneumothorax, and skin lesions called fibrofolliculomas. Here we report the case of a Birt-Hogg-Dubé patient with a primary clear cell carcinoma of the thyroid (a very rare type of thyroid cancer), and FLCN loss of heterozygosity within the tumour, providing molecular evidence for this association. Our findings expand the tumour spectrum associated with this syndrome. It is paramount to identify individuals with Birt-Hogg-Dubé so that they, and subsequently their affected relatives, can benefit from tailored cancer screening and prevention.
      PubDate: 2014-07-11
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.4205.1
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Local membrane deformation and micro-injury lead to qualitatively
           different responses in osteoblasts [v1; indexed,]

    • Authors: G. Monserratt Lopez-Ayon, Heng-Yen Liu, Shu Xing, Osama M. Maria, Jeffrey M. LeDue, Helene Bourque, Peter Grutter, Svetlana V. Komarova
      Abstract: Micro-damage of bone tissue is known to regulate bone turnover. However, it is unknown if individual bone cells can differentiate between membrane deformation and micro-injury. We generated osteoblasts from mouse bone marrow or bone morphogenetic protein 2-transfected C2C12 cells. Single cells were mechanically stimulated by indentation with the atomic force microscopy probe with variable force load either resulting in membrane deformation only, or leading to membrane penetration and micro-injury. Changes in the cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) in fluo4-AM loaded cells were analyzed. When deformation only was induced, it resulted in an immediate elevation of [Ca2+]i which was localized to the probe periphery. Multiple consecutive local Ca2+ responses were induced by sequential application of low level forces, with characteristic recovery time of ~2 s. The duration of [Ca2+]i elevations was directly proportional to the tip-cell contact time. In contrast, cell micro-injury resulted in transient global elevations of [Ca2+]i, the magnitude of which was independent of the tip-cell contact time. Sequential micro-injury of the same cell did not induce Ca2+ response within 30 s of the first stimulation. Both local and global Ca2+elevations were blocked in Ca2+-free media or in the presence of stretch-activated channel blocker Gd3+. In addition, amount of Ca2+ released during global responses was significantly reduced in the presence of PLC inhibitor Et-18-OCH3. Thus, we found qualitative differences in calcium responses to mechanical forces inducing only membrane deformation or deformation leading to micro-injury.
      PubDate: 2014-07-11
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.4448.1
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Comparison of phenothrin mousse, phenothrin lotion, and wet-combing for
           treatment of head louse infestation in the UK: a pragmatic randomised,
           controlled, assessor blind trial [v1; indexed,]

    • Authors: Ian F. Burgess, Christine M. Brown, Pat Nair
      Abstract: In this investigation of effectiveness of an alternative pediculicide dosage form, we recruited 228 children and 50 adult participants from Bedfordshire, UK, to a randomised, controlled, assessor blind trial comparing two insecticide products with mechanical removal of lice as a control group.  Participants using insecticide were treated with either the investigative 0.5% phenothrin mousse, for 30 minutes, or 0.2% phenothrin lotion, for 2 hours as the reference product.  Both treatments were applied only once, followed by shampoo washing.  Those treated by wet-combing with conditioner were combed 4 times over 12 days.  Parents/carers carried out the treatments to mimic normal consumer use.  The outcome measure was the absence of lice, 14 days after treatment for the insecticides, and up to 14 days after completion of combing.  Intention to treat analysis of the outcomes for 275 participants showed success for phenothrin mousse in 21/105 (20.0%), in 23/107 (21.5%) for phenothrin lotion, and in 12/63 (19.1%) for wet-combing.  People receiving mousse were 1.07 (95% CI, 0.63 to 1.81) times more likely to still have lice after treatment compared with those treated with lotion. The group of participants who received the wet combing treatment were 1.13 (95% CI, 0.61 to 2.11) times more likely to still have lice after the treatment.  None of the treatments was significantly (p < 0.05) more effective than any other. This study was carried out in an area where moderate resistance to phenothrin was demonstrated after the study by using a bioassay.  Analysis of post treatment assessments found that failure of insecticides to kill louse eggs had influenced the outcome.
      PubDate: 2014-07-10
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.2026.1
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • False memory susceptibility is correlated with categorisation ability in
           humans [v1; indexed,]

    • Authors: Kathryn Hunt, Lars Chittka
      Abstract: Our memory is often surprisingly inaccurate, with errors ranging from misremembering minor details of events to generating illusory memories of entire episodes. The pervasiveness of such false memories generates a puzzle: in the face of selection pressure for accuracy of memory, how could such systematic failures have persisted over evolutionary time' It is possible that memory errors are an inevitable by-product of our adaptive memories and that semantic false memories are specifically connected to our ability to learn rules and concepts and to classify objects by category memberships. Here we test this possibility using a standard experimental false memory paradigm and inter-individual variation in verbal categorisation ability. Indeed it turns out that the error scores are significantly negatively correlated, with those individuals scoring fewer errors on the categorisation test being more susceptible to false memory intrusions in a free recall test. A similar trend, though not significant, was observed between individual categorisation ability and false memory susceptibility in a word recognition task. Our results therefore indicate that false memories, to some extent, might be a by-product of our ability to learn rules, categories and concepts.
      PubDate: 2014-07-04
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.4645.1
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • enhancedGraphics: a Cytoscape app for enhanced node graphics [v1; indexed,

    • Authors: John H. Morris, Allan Kuchinsky, Thomas E. Ferrin, Alexander R. Pico
      Abstract: enhancedGraphics ( is a Cytoscape app that implements a series of enhanced charts and graphics that may be added to Cytoscape nodes. It enables users and other app developers to create pie, line, bar, and circle plots that are driven by columns in the Cytoscape Node Table. Charts are drawn using vector graphics to allow full-resolution scaling.
      PubDate: 2014-07-01
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.4460.1
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • The Human Release Hypothesis for biological invasions: human activity as a
           determinant of the abundance of invasive plant species [v1; indexed,

    • Authors: Heike Zimmermann, Patric Brandt, Joern Fischer, Erik Welk, Henrik von Wehrden
      Abstract: Research on biological invasions has increased rapidly over the past 30 years, generating numerous explanations of how species become invasive. While the mechanisms of invasive species establishment are well studied, the mechanisms driving abundance patterns (i.e. patterns of population density) remain poorly understood. Invasive species typically have higher abundances in their new environments than in their native ranges, and patterns of invasive species abundance differ between invaded regions. To explain differences in invasive species abundance, we propose the Human Release Hypothesis. In parallel to the established Enemy Release Hypothesis, this hypothesis states that the abundance of invasive species may be partly explained by the level of human activity or landscape maintenance, with intermediate levels of human activity providing optimal conditions for high abundance. The Human Release Hypothesis does not negate other important drivers of species invasions, but rather should be considered as a potentially important additional or complementary mechanism. We illustrate the hypothesis via a case study on an invasive rose species, and hypothesize which locations globally may be most likely to support high abundances of invasive species. We propose that more extensive empirical work on the Human Release Hypothesis could be useful to test its general applicability.
      PubDate: 2014-05-14
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.3740.1
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Congenital duplication of the urethra with urethral diverticulum: a case
           report [v1; indexed,]

    • Authors: Darshan H Shah, Arvind P Ganpule, Ravindra B Sabnis, Mahesh R Desai
      Abstract: Duplication of the urethra is a rare congenital anomaly. Urethral duplication with the presence of diverticulum is a rare combination and to the best of our knowledge has  not been previously reported. We report a case of a 16 month old male child with duplication of the urethra and diverticulum arising from the ventral urethra. We also cover the intricacies and challenges in the management of such a case. The opening of the narrowed accessory dorsal urethra at the verumontanum was cauterized and gradually the dorsal urethra became atrophied. The ventral urethral diverticulum was excised. This case is unique due to: The unusual presentation of swelling over the dorsum of the penis, together with duplication of the urethra with diverticulum. The use of cauterization as a treatment modality. Cauterization of the ventral urethra with a Bugbee electrode and diverticulectomy was performed. A glidewire helped in identifying the small opening of the dorsal urethra at the level of the verumontanum. The case also highlights the importance of endoscopic management of this clinical entity.
      PubDate: 2014-05-01
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.3848.1
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Spinal cord stimulation for complex regional pain syndrome type 1 with
           dystonia: a case report and discussion of the literature [v1; indexed,

    • Authors: Caroline Voet, Bernard le Polain de Waroux, Patrice Forget, Ronald Deumens, Etienne Masquelier
      Abstract: Background: Complex Regional Pain Syndrome type 1 (CRPS-1) is a debilitating chronic pain disorder, the physiopathology of which can lead to dystonia associated with changes in the autonomic, central and peripheral nervous system. An interdisciplinary approach (pharmacological, interventional and psychological therapies in conjunction with a rehabilitation pathway) is central to progress towards pain reduction and restoration of function. Aim: This case report aims to stimulate reflection and development of mechanism-based therapeutic strategies concerning CRPS associated with dystonia. Case description: A 31 year old female CRPS-1 patient presented with dystonia of the right foot following ligamentoplasty for chronic ankle instability. She did not have a satisfactory response to the usual therapies. Multiple anesthetic blocks (popliteal, epidural and intrathecal) were not associated with significant anesthesia and analgesia. Mobilization of the foot by a physiotherapist was not possible. A multidisciplinary approach with psychological support, physiotherapy and spinal cord stimulation (SCS) brought pain relief, rehabilitation and improvement in the quality of life. Conclusion: The present case report demonstrates the occurrence of multilevel (peripheral and central) pathological modifications in the nervous system of a CRPS-1 patient with dystonia. This conclusion is based on the patient’s pain being resistant to anesthetic blocks at different levels and the favourable, at least initially, response to SCS. The importance of the bio-psycho-social model is also suggested, permitting behavioural change.
      PubDate: 2014-04-30
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.3771.1
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • On genomics, kin, and privacy [v1; indexed,]

    • Authors: Amalio Telenti, Erman Ayday, Jean Pierre Hubaux
      Abstract: The storage of greater numbers of exomes or genomes raises the question of loss of privacy for the individual and for families if genomic data are not properly protected. Access to genome data may result from a personal decision to disclose, or from gaps in protection. In either case, revealing genome data has consequences beyond the individual, as it compromises the privacy of family members. Increasing availability of genome data linked or linkable to metadata through online social networks and services adds one additional layer of complexity to the protection of genome privacy.  The field of computer science and information technology offers solutions to secure genomic data so that individuals, medical personnel or researchers can access only the subset of genomic information required for healthcare or dedicated studies.
      PubDate: 2014-03-31
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.3817.1
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2014)
  • Case Report: Pulmonary metastases of malignant meningioma [v2; indexed,

    • Authors: Suhail Basunaid, Frits M.E. Franssen, Ryan Accord, Myrurgia Abdul Hamid, Shekar Mahesh, Brigitta G. Baumert, Olaf E.M.G. Schijns
      Abstract: Meningioma accounts for approximately one-third of primary central nervous system tumors. Most meningiomas are benign, although up to one third are classified as atypical or malignant. We describe a 63-year Caucasian male presenting with pleural metastases from an intracranial meningioma. Distant metastases from meningiomas are infrequently found in clinical practice and mostly are associated with atypical or malignant meningiomas. There is no standard treatment; however surgical resection of both the primary and metastatic lesions is the safest therapy. The overall prognosis of atypical meningiomas is poor. Our patient died one week after discharge from our hospital.
      PubDate: 2014-08-29
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.2-222.v2
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • A review of the biologic and pharmacologic role of docosapentaenoic acid
           n-3 [v2; indexed,]

    • Authors: Puya G Yazdi
      Abstract: Fish oil contains a complex mixture of omega-3 fatty acids, of which eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are the three predominant forms. There has been a plethora of previous research on the effects and associations of fish oil supplementation with various clinical manifestations. While the majority of this work was focused on EPA and DHA as the active compounds, emerging research has begun to elucidate the specific role that DPA plays in these physiological processes and its differences with the other omega-3 fatty acids. The purpose of this review is to focus on the new studies undertaken with DPA. This review summarizes the biochemical mechanisms involved in the biosynthesis and metabolism of DPA before focusing on its effects in cardiovascular disease, immune function, and psychiatric and cognitive health. The limited studies point toward a positive role that DPA supplementation can play in these processes and that is separate and distinct from traditional supplementation with DHA and EPA.
      PubDate: 2014-08-19
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.2-256.v2
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Trading green backs for green crabs: evaluating the commercial shellfish
           harvest at risk to European green crab invasion [v2; indexed,

    • Authors: Megan E Mach, Kai MA Chan
      Abstract: Nonnative species pose a threat to native biodiversity and can have immense impacts on biological communities, altering the function of ecosystems. How much value is at risk from high-impact invasive species, and which parameters determine variation in that value, constitutes critical knowledge for directing both management and research, but it is rarely available. We evaluated the value of the commercial shellfish harvest that is at risk in nearshore ecosystems of Puget Sound, Washington State, USA, from the invasive European green crab, Carcinus maenas. We assessed this value using a simple static ecological model combined with an economic model using data from Puget Sound’s shellfish harvest and revenue and the relationship between C. maenas abundance and the consumption rate of shellfish. The model incorporates a range in C. maenas diet preference, calories consumed per year, and crab densities. C. maenas is likely to prey on commercially harvested hardshell clams, oysters, and mussels, which would likely reduce additional revenue from processing and distribution, and the number of jobs associated with these fisheries. The model results suggest possible revenue losses of these shellfish ranging from $1.03-23.8 million USD (2.8-64% losses), with additional processing and distrubution losses up to $17.6 million USD and 442 job positions each year associated with a range of plausible parameter values. The broad range of values reflects the uncertainty in key factors underlying impacts, factors that are highly variable across invaded regions and so not knowable a priori. However, future research evaluating species invasions can reduce the uncertainty of impacts by characterizing several key parameters: density of individuals, number of arrivals, predation and competition interactions, and economic impacts. This study therefore provides direction for research to inform more accurate estimates of value-at-risk, and suggests substantial motivation for strong measures to prevent, monitor, and manage the possible invasion of C. maenas.
      PubDate: 2014-03-17
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.2-66.v2
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2014)
  • Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis (XGPN) mimicking a “renal cell
           carcinoma with renal vein thrombus and paracaval lymphadenopathy”
           [v1; indexed,]

    • Authors: Arvind Ganpule, Jitendra Jagtap, Sanika Ganpule, Amit Bhattu, Shailesh Soni, Ravindra Sabnis, Mahesh Desai
      Abstract: We present a case of Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis mimicking as a renal cell carcinoma. This was an elderly lady who presented with pyonephrosis due to urolithiasis. On evaluation she was found to have a space occupying mass in the right kidney. Further investigations revealed an enhancing tumor with renal vein thrombus and paracaval lymphadenopathy. Subsequent histopathology showed evidence of XGPN with no malignancy. This case report highlights the fact there are a number of imaging and clinical overlaps in the diagnosis, assessment and management of this entity.
      PubDate: 2013-12-02
      DOI: 10.12688/f1000research.2-263.v1
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2013)
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