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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2075-4663
   Published by MDPI Homepage  [140 journals]
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 56-76: Neuromuscular Retraining in Female Adolescent
           Athletes: Effect on Athletic Performance Indices and Noncontact Anterior
           Cruciate Ligament Injury Rates

    • Authors: Frank Noyes, Sue Barber-Westin
      Pages: 56 - 76
      Abstract: While many anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) prevention programs have been published, few have achieved significant reductions in injury rates and improvements in athletic performance indices; both of which may increase compliance and motivation of athletes to participate. A supervised neuromuscular retraining program (18 sessions) was developed, aimed at achieving both of these objectives. The changes in neuromuscular indices were measured after training in 1000 female athletes aged 13–18 years, and the noncontact ACL injury rate in 700 of these trained athletes was compared with that of 1120 control athletes. There were significant improvements in the drop-jump test, (p < 0.0001, effect size [ES] 0.97), the single-leg triple crossover hop (p < 0.0001, ES 0.47), the t-test (p < 0.0001, ES 0.64), the multi-stage fitness test (p < 0.0001, ES 0.57), hamstring strength (p < 0.0001), and quadriceps strength (p < 0.01). The trained athletes had a significant reduction in the noncontact ACL injury incidence rate compared with the controls (1 ACL injury in 36,724 athlete-exposures [0.03] and 13 ACL injuries in 61,244 exposures [0.21], respectively, p = 0.03). The neuromuscular retraining program was effective in reducing noncontact ACL injury rate and improving athletic performance indicators.
      PubDate: 2015-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3020056
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 77-86: A Retrospective Review from 2006 to 2011 of
           Lower Extremity Injuries in Badminton in New Zealand

    • Authors: Joanna Reeves, Patria Hume, Simon Gianotti, Barry Wilson, Erika Ikeda
      Pages: 77 - 86
      Abstract: Aim: To describe lower extremity injuries for badminton in New Zealand. Methods: Lower limb badminton injuries that resulted in claims accepted by the national insurance company Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) in New Zealand between 2006 and 2011 were reviewed. Results: The estimated national injury incidence for badminton injuries in New Zealand from 2006 to 2011 was 0.66%. There were 1909 lower limb badminton injury claims which cost NZ$2,014,337 (NZ$ value over 2006 to 2011). The age-bands frequently injured were 10–19 (22%), 40–49 (22%), 30–39 (14%) and 50–59 (13%) years. Sixty five percent of lower limb injuries were knee ligament sprains/tears. Males sustained more cruciate ligament sprains than females (75 vs. 39). Movements involving turning, changing direction, shifting weight, pivoting or twisting were responsible for 34% of lower extremity injuries. Conclusion: The knee was most frequently injured which could be due to multi-planar loading. Turning or cutting movements typically involve motion in the frontal and transverse planes that may place the knee at greater risk of injury than movement in the sagittal plane alone. Further research on badminton specific movements is warranted to better understand the mechanisms of lower extremity injuries in the sport. Sports medicine and support personnel should take into account the susceptibility of the knee to injury when designing training and injury prevention programmes given the large number of change of direction movements during badminton.
      PubDate: 2015-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3020077
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 87-102: Relationship between the Pedaling
           Biomechanics and Strain of Bicycle Frame during Submaximal Tests

    • Authors: Aneliya Manolova, Samuel Crequy, Philippe Lestriez, Pierre Debraux, William Bertucci
      Pages: 87 - 102
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of forces applied to pedals and cranks on the strain imposed to an instrumented bicycle motocross (BMX) frame. Using results from a finite element analysis to determine the localisation of highest stress, eight strain gauges were located on the down tube, the seat tube and the right chain stay. Before the pedaling tests, static loads were applied to the frame during bench tests. Two pedaling conditions have been analysed. In the first, the rider was in static standing position on the pedals and applied maximal muscular isometric force to the right pedal. The second pedaling condition corresponds to three pedaling sprint tests at submaximal intensities at 150, 300 and 550 W on a cycle-trainer. The results showed that smaller strain was observed in the pedaling condition than in the rider static standing position condition. The highest strains were located in the seat tube and the right chain stay near the bottom bracket area. The maximum stress observed through all conditions was 41 MPa on the right chain stay. This stress was 11 times lower than the yield stress of the frame material (460 MPa). This protocol could help to adapt the frame design to the riders as a function of their force and mechanical power output. These results could also help design BMX frames for specific populations (females) and rider morphology.
      PubDate: 2015-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3020087
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 103-115: An Overview of the Running Performance of
           Athletes with Lower-Limb Amputation at the Paralympic Games

    • Authors: Hossein Hassani, Mansi Ghodsi, Mehran Shadi, Siamak Noroozi, Bryce Dyer
      Pages: 103 - 115
      Abstract: This paper analyses the performances of lower-limb amputees in the 100, 200 and 400 m running events from the 2004, 2008 and 2012 Paralympic Games. In this paper, four hypotheses are pursued. In the first, it investigates whether the running performance of lower-limb amputees over three consecutive Paralympic Games has changed. In the second, it asks whether a bi-lateral amputee has a competitive advantage over a uni-lateral amputee. In the third, the effect of blade classification has been considered and we attempt to see whether amputees in various classifications have different level of performance. Finally, it is considered whether the final round of competition obtains different levels of performance in comparison to the qualification heats. Based on the outcomes of these investigations, it is proposed that future amputee-based running events should be undertaken with separate and not combined events for the T42, T43 and T44 classifications at the Paralympic Games.
      PubDate: 2015-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3020103
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 116-135: The Somnolent Youth-Sleep and the Influence
           of Exercise: A Narrative Review

    • Authors: Haresh Suppiah, Michael Chia
      Pages: 116 - 135
      Abstract: Sleep is crucial to the physiological and psychological development of youth. The implications of insufficient sleep on learning and school performance are well documented. However, adequate sleep often goes unmet due to a combination of biological, societal, and environmental factors, especially during adolescence. In the present review, the changes to adolescent sleep patterns, and its consequences on cognition and learning are briefly explored. We then review the empirical literature of the role of exercise in regulating adolescent sleep patterns, and its potential mechanisms.
      PubDate: 2015-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3020116
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 1-11: The Association between Anthropometric
           Variables, Functional Movement Screen Scores and 100 m Freestyle Swimming
           Performance in Youth Swimmers

    • Authors: Daisy Bond, Laura Goodson, Samuel Oxford, Alan Nevill, Michael Duncan
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: This study examined the association between anthropometric variables, Functional Movement Screen (FMS) scores and 100 m freestyle swimming performance in early adolescent swimmers. Fifty competitive, national level, youth swimmers (21 males, 29 females, mean age ± SD = 13.5 ± 1.5 years, age range 11–16 years) performed an “all-out” 100 m freestyle (front crawl) swim as fast as they could in a 50 m pool. A median divide for 100 m timed swim was also used to divide the sample into faster or slower groups. Height, body mass, skinfolds and limb lengths were also assessed. Maturation was calculated by proxy using anthropometric measures and participants also undertook the FMS as a measure of functional performance. Backwards linear regression indicated a significant model (p = 0.0001, Adjusted R2 = 0.638) explaining 63.8% of the variance in swim performance with total sum of skinfolds, upper leg length, lower leg length, hand length and total height significantly contributing to the model. Swimmers who were classed as fast had lower total sum of skinfolds (p = 0.005) and higher total FMS score (p = 0.005) compared to their slower peers. In summary, this study indicates that anthropometric variables significantly explained the variance in 100 m freestyle swimming performance in youth swimmers.
      PubDate: 2015-01-08
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3010001
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2015)
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 12-20: Effect of Level and Downhill Running on
           Breathing Efficiency

    • Authors: Matthew Cook, Stephen Myers, John Kelly, Mark Willems
      Pages: 12 - 20
      Abstract: Ventilatory equivalents for oxygen and carbon dioxide are physiological measures of breathing efficiency, and are known to be affected by the intensity and mode of exercise. We examined the effect of level running (gradient 0%) and muscle-damaging downhill running (−12%), matched for oxygen uptake, on the ventilatory equivalents for oxygen () and carbon dioxide (). Nine men (27 ± 9 years, 179 ± 7 cm, 75 ± 12 kg, : 52.0 ± 7.7 mL·kg−1·min−1) completed two 40-min running bouts (5 × 8-min with 2-min inter-bout rest), one level and one downhill. Running intensity was matched at 60% of maximal metabolic equivalent. Maximal isometric force of m.quadriceps femoris was measured before and after the running bouts. Data was analyzed with 2-way ANOVA or paired samples t-tests. Running speed (downhill: 13.5 ± 3.2, level: 9.6 ± 2.2 km·h−1) and isometric force deficits (downhill: 17.2 ± 7.6%, level: 2.0 ± 6.9%) were higher for downhill running. Running bouts for level and downhill gradients had , heart rates and respiratory exchange ratio values that were not different indicating matched intensity and metabolic demands. During downhill running, the , (downhill: 29.7 ± 3.3, level: 27.2 ± 1.6) and  (downhill: 33.3 ± 2.7, level: 30.4 ± 1.9) were 7.1% and 8.3% higher (p < 0.05) than level running. In conclusion, breathing efficiency appears lower during downhill running (i.e., muscle-damaging exercise) compared to level running at a similar moderate intensity.
      PubDate: 2015-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3010012
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2015)
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 21-29: Epidemiological Review of Injuries in Rugby

    • Authors: Jean-François Kaux, Marc Julia, François Delvaux, Jean-Louis Croisier, Bénédicte Forthomme, Damien Monnot, Marie Chupin, Jean-Michel Crielaard, Caroline Goff, Patrick Durez, Philippe Ernst, Sébastien Guns, Arnaud Laly
      Pages: 21 - 29
      Abstract: Rugby is a sport that is growing in popularity. A contact sport par excellence, it causes a significant number of injuries. In Rugby Union, there are 30 to 91 injuries per 1000 match hours. This epidemiological review of injuries incurred by rugby players mentions the position and type of injuries, the causes, time during the match and season in which they occur and the players’ positions as well as the length of players’ absences following the injury.
      PubDate: 2015-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3010021
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2015)
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 30-39: The Progression of Male 100 m Sprinting with
           a Lower-Limb Amputation 1976–2012

    • Authors: Bryce Dyer
      Pages: 30 - 39
      Abstract: Sprinting with a lower-limb amputation over 100 m has taken place in the Paralympic Games for over three decades. The aim of this paper is to statistically evaluate the performances and participation levels of such athletes during this period. The level of performance improvement over a 36-year period was proposed to be significantly greater than the able-bodied equivalent. Coupled with this, a major spike in amputee running performance improvement was shown to occur from 1984–1988. This supports previously recorded accounts of a major technological change being made at this time. Finally, whilst the average performance of the medallists has increased consistently over the 36-year history, the overall participation in the event fell significantly after 1988 and did not recover until 2012.
      PubDate: 2015-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3010030
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2015)
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 40-55: Pitch Sequence Complexity and Long-Term
           Pitcher Performance

    • Authors: Joel Bock
      Pages: 40 - 55
      Abstract: Winning one or two games during a Major League Baseball (MLB) season is often the difference between a team advancing to post-season play, or “waiting until next year”. Technology advances have made it feasible to augment historical data with in-game contextual data to provide managers immediate insights regarding an opponent’s next move, thereby providing a competitive edge. We developed statistical models of pitcher behavior using pitch sequences thrown during three recent MLB seasons (2011–2013). The purpose of these models was to predict the next pitch type, for each pitcher, based on data available at the immediate moment, in each at-bat. Independent models were developed for each player’s most frequent four pitches. The overall predictability of next pitch type is 74:5%. Additional analyses on pitcher predictability within specific game situations are discussed. Finally, using linear regression analysis, we show that an index of pitch sequence predictability may be used to project player performance in terms of Earned Run Average (ERA) and Fielding Independent Pitching (FIP) over a longer term. On a restricted range of the independent variable, reducing complexity in selection of pitches is correlated with higher values of both FIP and ERA for the players represented in the sample. Both models were significant at the α = 0.05 level (ERA: p = 0.022; FIP: p = 0.0114). With further development, such models may reduce risk faced by management in evaluation of potential trades, or to scouts assessing unproven emerging talent. Pitchers themselves might benefit from awareness of their individual statistical tendencies, and adapt their behavior on the mound accordingly. To our knowledge, the predictive model relating pitch-wise complexity and long-term performance appears to be novel.
      PubDate: 2015-03-02
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3010040
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2015)
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