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Journal Cover Sports
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2075-4663
   Published by MDPI Homepage  [140 journals]
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 21: The Influence of Various Distraction Stimuli on
           Affective Responses during Recumbent Cycle Ergometry

    • Authors: Paul Miller, Eric Hall, Elizabeth Bailey
      First page: 21
      Abstract: (1) Background: Acute bouts of exercise have been associated with affective changes. Exercise supplemented with distraction may divert attention from unpleasant feelings commonly associated with exercise to more pleasant feelings. The purpose of this study was to compare affective responses to exercise with and without distraction. (2) Methods: 25 individuals volunteered for this investigation and completed all three conditions. This study included three 30 min cycle ergometry exercise conditions, a control condition with no stimuli and two test conditions; one supplemented with a self-selected video and the other self-selected music. The Feeling Scale (FS) was administered prior to, every 10 min during, immediately following, and 10 min post exercise. (3) Results: These data demonstrate a significant condition effect for FS during exercise. The condition effect was due to FS being greater in the video and distraction conditions. There was no time by condition interaction seen during exercise. (4) Conclusion: These data indicate that distraction may be effective in supporting a more pleasant exercise experience and could potentially increase exercise adherence.
      PubDate: 2016-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4020021
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 22: The Acute Effects of Heavy Deadlifts on Vertical
           Jump Performance in Men

    • Authors: Jerry Arias, Jared Coburn, Lee Brown, Andrew Galpin
      First page: 22
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of deadlifts as a postactivation potentiation stimulus on vertical jump performance. Fifteen men (age, 23.9 ± 4.2 years; height, 176.3 ± 8.6 cm; mass, 76.1 ± 16.3 kg) participated in the study. Participants visited the lab for three sessions, each separated by at least 48 h. One repetition maximum (1RM) in the deadlift was measured during the first visit. For Visit 2, participants performed one of two experimental sessions: a deadlift session or a control session. Participants performed a single maximal vertical jump (VJ; counter movement jump without an arm swing), then either performed five repetitions of the deadlift using 85% 1RM (deadlift session) or were told to stand still for ten seconds (control). Following either condition, participants performed single VJ at 15 s, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 min post condition. Peak VJ height and peak ground reaction forces (pGRF) were measured using a force plate. For Visit 3, whatever condition was not administered at Visit 2 was performed. The results showed that VJ height was significantly lower 15 s following deadlifting (36.9 ± 5.1 cm) compared to the control condition (40.1 ± 4.6 cm). In addition, VJ height 15 s after the deadlift was lower than VJ height measured at minutes 2–16 following the deadlift. Performance of five repetitions of deadlifting did not affect pGRF. These results suggest that performing five repetitions of the deadlift exercise at 85% 1RM does not induce a postactivation potentiation (PAP) effect, and may in fact cause an acute reduction in VJ performance.
      PubDate: 2016-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4020022
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 23: The Effects of Mental Imagery with
           Video-Modeling on Self-Efficacy and Maximal Front Squat Ability

    • Authors: Daniel Buck, Jasmin Hutchinson, Christa Winter, Brian Thompson
      First page: 23
      Abstract: This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of mental imagery supplemented with video-modeling on self-efficacy and front squat strength (three repetition maximum; 3RM). Subjects (13 male, 7 female) who had at least 6 months of front squat experience were assigned to either an experimental (n = 10) or a control (n = 10) group. Subjects′ 3RM and self-efficacy for the 3RM were measured at baseline. Following this, subjects in the experimental group followed a structured imagery protocol, incorporating video recordings of both their own 3RM performance and a model lifter with excellent technique, twice a day for three days. Subjects in the control group spent the same amount of time viewing a placebo video. Following three days with no physical training, measurements of front squat 3RM and self-efficacy for the 3RM were repeated. Subjects in the experimental group increased in self-efficacy following the intervention, and showed greater 3RM improvement than those in the control group. Self-efficacy was found to significantly mediate the relationship between imagery and front squat 3RM. These findings point to the importance of mental skills training for the enhancement of self-efficacy and front squat performance.
      PubDate: 2016-04-14
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4020023
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 24: Radiographic Assessment of Anatomic Risk Factors
           Associated with Acute, Lateral Patellar Dislocation in the Immature Knee

    • Authors: Thai Trinh, Andrew Mundy, Matthew Beran, Kevin Klingele
      First page: 24
      Abstract: Acute patellar dislocation remains a common injury in both adult and pediatric patients. Non-operative management has been advocated for patients without a history of recurrent instability. Although pathologic thresholds for consideration of operative management have previously been reported in adults, it is largely unknown in children. A retrospective review of all skeletally immature patients diagnosed with acute lateral patellar dislocation who had MRI imaging were included for analysis. An age-based control group was also identified. Six radiographic measurements were compared: lateral trochlear inclination (LTI), trochlear facet asymmetry (TFA), trochlear depth (TD), tibial tuberosity–trochlear groove (TT–TG), sulcus angle (SA) and patellar height ratio. A total of 178 patients were included for analysis (study: n = 108, control: n = 70). The mean age of patients in the study and control groups was 13.7 and 12.1 years respectively (p ≤ 0.001). Study group patients had significant differences in all radiographic measurements including a decreased LTI (p < 0.001), increased TFA (p < 0.001) and SA (p < 0.001). The mean trochlear depth was 3.4 mm and 5.6 mm for patients in the study and control groups respectively (p < 0.001). Study group patients had an increased patellar height ratio (p < 0.001) and TT–TG distance (p < 0.001). Morphologic abnormalities may predispose skeletally immature patients to an increased risk of acute lateral patellar instability.
      PubDate: 2016-04-15
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4020024
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 25: Autonomy Mediates the Relationship between
           Personality and Physical Activity: An Application of Self-Determination

    • Authors: Meredith Ramsey, Eric Hall
      First page: 25
      Abstract: This study sought to examine tenets of Self-Determination Theory by testing a mediation model of physical activity and personality via autonomy. A total of 290 adults were recruited to complete a one-time online survey of exercise habits and individual characteristics. Surveys assessed personality, autonomy, and physical activity. A measurement model specifying direct effects between personality dimensions and physical activity and indirect effects operating through autonomy provided an excellent fit to the data (Χ2 = 0.66, df = 3, p = 0.88, RMSEA(90% CI) = 0.00 (0.00–0.05), CFI = 0.99, SRMR = 0.01). Results indicated significant (p < 0.05) effects of Extroversion (β = 0.42), Conscientiousness (β = 0.96), and Emotional Stability (β = 0.60) on autonomy, which in turn, was significantly associated with physical activity (β = 0.55). No significant effects were observed for Agreeableness or Intellect. None of the personality constructs were found to be directly associated with physical activity. This model accounted for 27% of the variance in physical activity. The results of this study suggest that autonomy is significantly associated with physical activity. Therefore, attempts to improve autonomy in individuals may be a useful intervention strategy in improving physical activity levels.
      PubDate: 2016-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4020025
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 26: The Effects of a Multi-Ingredient Performance
           Supplement on Hormonal Profiles and Body Composition in Male College

    • Authors: Matthew Sharp, Kevin Shields, Jacob Rauch, Ryan Lowery, Shane Durkee, Gabriel Wilson, Eduardo De Souza
      First page: 26
      Abstract: Periods of intense training can elicit an acute decline in performance and body composition associated with weakened hormone profiles. This study investigated the effects of a multi-ingredient performance supplement (MIPS) on body composition and hormone levels in college athletes following a six-week training protocol. Twenty male college athletes were equally assigned to MIPS and placebo (PLA) groups for supplementation (three pills, twice daily) in conjunction with resistance training and specialized sports training (e.g., nine total sessions/week) for six weeks. Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry determined body composition at weeks 0 and 6. Serum samples collected at weeks 0 and 6 determined free testosterone (FT), total testosterone (TT), IGF-1 and total estrogen (TE) levels. PLA experienced a significant decline in lean body mass (LBM) (−1.5 kg; p < 0.05) whereas the MIPS sustained LBM. The MIPS increased TT 21.9% (541.5 ± 48.7 to 639.1 ± 31.7) and increased FT 15.2% (13.28 ± 1.1 to 15.45 ± 1.3 ng/dL) (p < 0.05). Conversely, PLA decreased TT 7.9% (554.5 ± 43.3 to 497.2 ± 39.1 ng/dL), decreased FT 17.4% (13.41 ± 1.8 to 11.23 ± 2.55 ng/dL), and decreased FT:E 12.06% (p < 0.05). These findings suggest the MIPS can prevent decrements in LBM and anabolic hormone profiles during intense training periods.
      PubDate: 2016-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4020026
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 27: Optimal Timing for Post-Activation Potentiation
           in Women Collegiate Volleyball Players

    • Authors: Robert Ah Sue, Kent Adams, Mark DeBeliso
      First page: 27
      Abstract: Post-activation potentiation (PAP) has been shown to acutely amplify muscular power output and may be advantageous for athletes looking to improve performance. PAP may have an acute window of effectiveness between 2 to 20 min. With correct timing and implementation it may be possible to induce PAP in competitive situations. The purpose of this study was to examine the time frame of potentiation following a PAP warm-up in collegiate female volleyball players. In this study, nine female collegiate volleyball players completed three laboratory sessions over the course of 10 days. During the first session, the athlete’s 5-RM back squat was determined for subsequent use as the conditioning activity to initiate PAP. A repeated measures experimental design was then employed for Sessions 2 and 3 where half of the participants alternately performed either a dynamic or PAP warm-up prior to performing a standing long jump (SLJ) at 2, 6, 10, 14, and 18 min. A mixed-factor repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine the effects of the two warm-up strategies (PAP vs. dynamic) on standing long jump (SLJ) performance across time. There was a significant effect for time (p < 0.01) and warm-up strategy (p < 0.01). Bonferroni post hoc techniques determined that the SLJs that followed the PAP warm-up were significantly greater at 2 (4.8%), 6 (3.6%), and 10 (3.6%) min compared to SLJs post-dynamic warm-up (p < 0.05). However, those differences did not persist at 14 or 18 min (p > 0.05). Further analysis included non-parametric pairwise comparisons (Wilcoxon signed-rank tests) between the SLJ scores at 2, 6, 10, 14, and 18 min (PAP vs. dynamic). The non-parametric results were consistent with the parametric results. Within the parameters of this study, it is concluded that performing a 5-RM back squat induces a measureable PAP effect for up to 10 min.
      PubDate: 2016-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4020027
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 28: Martial Arts and Metabolic Diseases

    • Authors: Hidetaka Hamasaki
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Different forms of martial arts are practiced worldwide, each with various intensities of physical activity. These disciplines are potentially an effective exercise therapy for metabolic diseases. Tai chi is the most well-studied style of martial arts and has shown evidence of its effect on metabolic diseases; however, little evidence is available regarding the association between other styles of martial arts and metabolic health. To summarize and evaluate the effects of martial arts on metabolic diseases, eligible articles were searched by using Pubmed. To date, systematic reviews provide no definite conclusion on the effectiveness of tai chi for treating metabolic diseases because of a small numbers of subjects, short durations of clinical trials, and some biases involved in testing. However, there are several clinical studies on subjects with metabolic diseases, which show that tai chi improves obesity, glycemic control, blood pressure control, and lipid profiles. Currently, some limited evidence suggests that other martial arts, such as kung fu and karate, may be beneficial for body composition, glycemic control, and arterial stiffness. To clarify the effectiveness of martial arts for treating metabolic diseases, well-designed prospective studies, preferably with a larger number of subjects and of longer duration, are warranted.
      PubDate: 2016-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4020028
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 29: Improvement in 100-m Sprint Performance at an
           Altitude of 2250 m

    • Authors: Nicholas Linthorne
      First page: 29
      Abstract: A fair system of recognizing records in athletics should consider the influence of environmental conditions on performance. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an altitude of 2250 m on the time for a 100-m sprint. Competition results from the 13 Olympic Games between 1964 and 2012 were corrected for the effects of wind and de-trended for the historical improvement in performance. The time advantage due to competing at an altitude of 2250 m was calculated from the difference between the mean race time at the 1968 Olympic Games in Mexico City and the mean race times at the low-altitude competition venues. The observed time advantage of Mexico City was 0.19 (±0.02) s for men and 0.21 (±0.05) s for women (±90% confidence interval). These results indicate that 100-m sprinters derive a substantial performance advantage when competing at a high-altitude venue and that an altitude of 1000 m provides an advantage equivalent to a 2 m/s assisting wind (0.10 s). Therefore, the altitude of the competition venue as well as the wind speed during the race should be considered when recognizing record performances.
      PubDate: 2016-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4020029
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 2: Modelling the Progression of Male Swimmers’
           Performances through Adolescence

    • Authors: Shilo Dormehl, Samuel Robertson, Craig Williams
      First page: 2
      Abstract: Insufficient data on adolescent athletes is contributing to the challenges facing youth athletic development and accurate talent identification. The purpose of this study was to model the progression of male sub-elite swimmers’ performances during adolescence. The performances of 446 males (12–19 year olds) competing in seven individual events (50, 100, 200 m freestyle, 100 m backstroke, breaststroke, butterfly, 200 m individual medley) over an eight-year period at an annual international schools swimming championship, run under FINA regulations were collected. Quadratic functions for each event were determined using mixed linear models. Thresholds of peak performance were achieved between the ages of 18.5 ± 0.1 (50 m freestyle and 200 m individual medley) and 19.8 ± 0.1 (100 m butterfly) years. The slowest rate of improvement was observed in the 200 m individual medley (20.7%) and the highest in the 100 m butterfly (26.2%). Butterfly does however appear to be one of the last strokes in which males specialise. The models may be useful as talent identification tools, as they predict the age at which an average sub-elite swimmer could potentially peak. The expected rate of improvement could serve as a tool in which to monitor and evaluate benchmarks.
      PubDate: 2016-01-14
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4010002
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 3: Impact of Nintendo Wii Games on Physical Literacy
           in Children: Motor Skills, Physical Fitness, Activity Behaviors, and

    • Authors: Amanda George, Linda Rohr, Jeannette Byrne
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Physical literacy is the degree of fitness, behaviors, knowledge, and fundamental movement skills (agility, balance, and coordination) a child has to confidently participate in physical activity. Active video games (AVG), like the Nintendo Wii, have emerged as alternatives to traditional physical activity by providing a non-threatening environment to develop physical literacy. This study examined the impact of AVGs on children’s (age 6–12, N = 15) physical literacy. For six weeks children played one of four pre-selected AVGs (minimum 20 min, twice per week). Pre and post measures of motivation, enjoyment, and physical literacy were completed. Results indicated a near significant improvement in aiming and catching (p = 0.06). Manual dexterity significantly improved in males (p = 0.001), and females felt significantly less pressured to engage in PA (p = 0.008). Overall, there appears to be some positive impact of an AVG intervention on components of physical literacy.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4010003
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 4: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Sports in 2015

    • Authors: Sports Editorial Office
      First page: 4
      Abstract: The editors of Sports would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2015. [...]
      PubDate: 2016-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4010004
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 5: ZumBeat: Evaluation of a Zumba Dance Intervention
           in Postmenopausal Overweight Women

    • First page: 5
      Abstract: Physical inactivity is a major public health concern since it increases individuals’ risk of morbidity and mortality. A subgroup at particular risk is postmenopausal overweight women. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and effect of a 12-week ZumBeat dance intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness and psychosocial health. Postmenopausal women with a body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m2 or a waist circumference >94 cm who were not regularly physically active were asked to complete a 12-week ZumBeat dance intervention with instructed and home-based self-training sessions. Before and after the intervention, peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) was assessed on a treadmill; and body composition and several psychometric parameters (including quality of life, sports-related barriers and menopausal symptoms) were investigated. Of 17 women (median age: 54 years; median BMI: 30 kg/m2) enrolled in the study, 14 completed the study. There was no apparent change in VO2peak after the 12-week intervention period (average change score: −0.5 mL/kg/min; 95% confidence interval: −1.0, 0.1); but, quality of life had increased, and sports-related barriers and menopausal symptoms had decreased. A 12-week ZumBeat dance intervention may not suffice to increase cardiorespiratory fitness in postmenopausal overweight women, but it increases women’s quality of life.
      PubDate: 2016-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4010005
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 6: “You’re Not Born with Talent”
           Talented Girls’ and Boys’ Perceptions of Their Talents as
           Football Players

    • First page: 6
      Abstract: Generally in sports, there is a strong assumption of a connection between skill level in young age and adulthood. Studies have mainly focused on the coaches’ understanding and role in identifying and developing talent. In this article we turn our attention towards the athletes’ perspectives, interviewing talented young football players (five boys and five girls) about their perceptions of their own talent and development. The objective of the article is to investigate how boys and girls perceive their talent and to discuss how various perceptions influence coaching practice in talent development. We introduce the following questions: (a) do the players use a static or dynamic perception of their own talent and (b) do the players consider specific or general skills to be most important in their skill development? Results show that the boys have a more static perception of talent compared to the girls. Furthermore, the boys in this study stress the importance of highly specified skills. The girls have a more balanced view on what is important, but tend to stress the importance of basic skills. The study suggests two potential implications. First, the coaches should be aware of the possible vulnerability following players’ static perception of talent. Second, an exclusive focus on specified skills might make for less optimal preparation for the changing demands young players meet when moving through the different levels of play on their way to high level football. In future research it would be interesting to investigate how players with a lower skill level, not yet regarded as talent, perceive their talent and skill development.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4010006
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 7: Effects of Short-Term Dynamic Constant External
           Resistance Training and Subsequent Detraining on Strength of the Trained
           and Untrained Limbs: A Randomized Trial

    • Authors: Pablo Costa, Trent Herda, Ashley Herda, Joel Cramer
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Short-term resistance training has been shown to increase isokinetic muscle strength and performance after only two to nine days of training. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of three days of unilateral dynamic constant external resistance (DCER) training and detraining on the strength of the trained and untrained legs. Nineteen men were randomly assigned to a DCER training group or a non-training control group. Subjects visited the laboratory eight times, the first visit was a familiarization session, the second visit was a pre-training assessment, the subsequent three visits were for training sessions (if assigned to the training group), and the last three visits were post-training assessments 1, 2, and 3 (i.e., 48 h, 1 week, and 2 weeks after the final training session). Strength increased in both trained and untrained limbs from pre- to post-training assessment 1 for the training group and remained elevated at post-training assessments 2 and 3 (p ≤ 0.05). No changes were observed in the control (p > 0.05). Possible strength gains from short-term resistance training have important implications in clinical rehabilitation settings, sports injury prevention, as well as other allied health fields such as physical therapy, occupational therapy, and athletic training.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4010007
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 8: Clinical Assessment of Scapula Motion: Scapula
           Upward Rotation and Relationship with Injury in Swimmers

    • Authors: Jo Brown, Rebecca Mellifont, Brendan Burkett
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Abnormal scapulothoracic mechanics and scapulohumeral rhythm are implicated in shoulder pathologies, including glenohumeral impingement and rotator cuff tears. Upward scapula rotation, specifically asymmetry of scapula motion and associations of patterns through range with injury, was investigated in dominant and non-dominant limbs of nationally ranked junior and Paralympic swimmers during competition season. The static and throughout phases measures of upward scapula rotation were: Phase I (start position, 45°), Phase II (45° to 90°), Phase III (90° to 135°) and Phase IV (135° to max). Injury was assessed with a validated questionnaire. Differences between side (dominant and non-dominant), group (junior and Paralympic), and phase were examined. Significant differences (P < 0.05) between groups were identified for dominant side at rest, 45° and 135°, and in phases II and IV (including range). Scapulohumeral rhythm was higher in the non-dominant limb of Paralympic swimmers but in the dominant limb of junior swimmers. Greatest differences in upward rotation between injured and non-injured swimmers were found in Phase 1: 43.6% (3.3°) Paralympic; 73.1% (8°) junior. Results suggest asymmetry of movement in both limbs, through all phases, and at single points in range, should be investigated for assessing injury and developing preventive strategies and rehabilitation protocols.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4010008
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 9: Vertical Jumping Tests versus Wingate Anaerobic
           Test in Female Volleyball Players: The Role of Age

    • Authors: Pantelis Nikolaidis, Jose Afonso, Vicente Clemente-Suarez, Jose Alvarado, Tarak Driss, Beat Knechtle, Gema Torres-Luque
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Single and continuous vertical jumping tests, as well as the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), are commonly used to assess the short-term muscle power of female volleyball players; however, the relationship among these tests has not been studied adequately. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the relationship of single and continuous vertical jumps with the WAnT in female volleyball players. Seventy adolescent (age 16.0 ± 1.0 years, body mass 62.5 ± 7.1 kg, height 170.4 ± 6.1 cm, body fat 24.2% ± 4.3%) and 108 adult female volleyball players (age 24.8 ± 5.2 years, body mass 66.5 ± 8.7 kg, height 173.2 ± 7.4 cm, body fat 22.0% ± 5.1%) performed the squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), Abalakov jump (AJ), 30 s Bosco test and WAnT (peak power, Ppeak; mean power, Pmean). Mean power in the Bosco test was correlated (low to large magnitude) with Pmean of the WAnT (r = 0.27, p = 0.030 in adolescents versus r = 0.56, p < 0.001 in adults). SJ, CMJ and AJ also correlated with Ppeak (0.28 ≤ r ≤ 0.46 in adolescents versus 0.58 ≤ r ≤ 0.61 in adults) and with Pmean (0.43 ≤ r ≤ 0.51 versus 0.67 ≤ r ≤ 0.71, respectively) of the WAnT (p < 0.05). In summary, the impact of the Bosco test and WAnT on muscle power varied, especially in the younger age group. Single jumping tests had larger correlations with WAnT in adults than in adolescent volleyball players. These findings should be taken into account by volleyball coaches and fitness trainers during the assessment of short-term muscle power of their athletes.
      PubDate: 2016-02-05
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4010009
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 10: Can Fundamental Movement Skill Mastery Be
           Increased via a Six Week Physical Activity Intervention to Have Positive
           Effects on Physical Activity and Physical Self-Perception?

    • Authors: Elizabeth Bryant, Michael Duncan, Samantha Birch, Rob James
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Background: Previous research has suggested a positive relationship between fundamental movement skills (FMS) mastery and physical activity (PA) level. Research conducted on interventions to improve FMS mastery is equivocal and further research is needed. Methods: An intervention group of 82 children (35 boys and 47 girls) and a control group of 83 children (42 boys and 41 girls) were recruited from Years 4 and 5 (mean age ± SD = 8.3 ± 0.4 years) of two schools in Central England. The intervention included a combination of circuits and dancing to music. Pre and post intervention tests were conducted. Tests included: subjective assessment of eight FMS; objective measurement of two FMS; four day pedometer step count recording; height and mass for Body Mass Index (BMI); and the completion of Harter et al.’s (1982) self-perception questionnaire. Results: Following a two (pre to post) by two (intervention and control group) mixed-model ANOVA it was highlighted that the intervention group improved mastery in all eight FMS, and increased both daily steps and physical self-perception. Conclusions: It can be concluded that focussing one Physical Education (PE) lesson per week on the development of FMS has had a positive benefit on FMS, PA level and physical self-perception for the children in this study.
      PubDate: 2016-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4010010
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 11: Relationship of Two Vertical Jumping Tests to
           Sprint and Change of Direction Speed among Male and Female Collegiate
           Soccer Players

    • Authors: Isaiah McFarland, Jay Dawes, Craig Elder, Robert Lockie
      First page: 11
      Abstract: In collegiate level soccer acceleration, maximal velocity and agility are essential for successful performance. Power production is believed to provide a foundation for these speed qualities. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of change of direction speed, acceleration, and maximal velocity to both the counter movement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) in collegiate soccer players. Thirty-six NCAA Division II soccer players (20 males and 16 females) were tested for speed over 10 and 30 m, CODS (T-test, pro agility) and power (CMJ, SJ). Independent t-tests (p ≤ 0.05) were used to derive gender differences, and Pearson’s correlations (p ≤ 0.05) calculated relationships between the different power and speed tests. Female subjects displayed moderate-to-strong correlations between 30 m, pro agility and T-test with the CMJ (r = −0.502 to −0.751), and SJ (r = −0.502 to −0.681). Moderate correlations between 10 and 30 m with CMJ (r = −0.476 and −0.570) and SJ (r = −0.443 and −0.553, respectively) were observed for males. Moderate to strong relationships exist between speed and power attributes in both male and female collegiate soccer players, especially between CMJ and maximal velocity. Improving stretch shortening cycle (SSC) utilization may contribute to enhanced sport-specific speed.
      PubDate: 2016-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4010011
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 12: Structural Analysis of Women’s Heptathlon

    • First page: 12
      Abstract: The heptathlon comprises the results of seven single disciplines, assuming an equal influence from each discipline, depending on the measured performance. Data analysis was based on the data recorded for the individual performances of the 10 winning heptathletes in the World Athletics Championships from 1987 to 2013 and the Olympic Games from 1988 to 2012. In addition to descriptive analysis methods, correlations, bivariate and multivariate linear regressions, and panel data regressions were used. The transformation of the performances from seconds, centimeters, and meters into points showed that the individual disciplines do not equally affect the overall competition result. The currently valid conversion formula for the run, jump, and throw disciplines prefers the sprint and jump disciplines but penalizes the athletes performing in the 800 m run, javelin throw, and shotput disciplines. Furthermore, 21% to 48% of the variance of the sum of points can be attributed to the performances in the disciplines of long jump, 200 m sprint, 100 m hurdles, and high jump. To balance the effects of the single disciplines in the heptathlon, the formula to calculate points should be reevaluated.
      PubDate: 2016-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4010012
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 13: Cardiac Autonomic and Salivary Responses to a
           Repeated Training Bout in Elite Swimmers

    • Authors: Rohan Edmonds, Anthony Leicht, Brendan Burkett, Mark McKean
      First page: 13
      Abstract: This study examined the acute training responses of heart rate variability (HRV) and salivary biomarkers (immunoglobulin A and alpha-amylase) following a standardised training bout in Paralympic swimmers. Changes in HRV, sIgA and sAA were documented Monday morning, Monday afternoon and Tuesday morning over a 14-week monitoring period leading into international competition. Magnitude based inferences with effect sizes (ES) were used to assess the practical significance of changes each week. Normal training responses elicited increases in HR, α1, sAA and sIgA, accompanied by decreases in HF(nu), standard deviation of instantaneous RR variability (SD1) and the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) from Monday morning to Monday afternoon, and to Tuesday morning with similar week to week responses for most variables. Changes in RMSSD from Monday a.m. to p.m. were likely smaller (less negative) for Week 7 (78/18/3, ES = 0.40) following a competition weekend with similar changes observed from Monday a.m. to Tuesday a.m. (90/5/5, ES = 1.30). In contrast, the change in sAA from Monday a.m. to p.m. was very likely less (more negative) at Week 7 (0/0/99, ES = −2.46), with similar changes observed from Monday a.m. to Tuesday a.m. (0/0/99, ES = −4.69). During the taper period, there were also likely increases in parasympathetic modulations (RMSSD, Weeks 12–14) along with increased immune function (sIgA, Week 13) that demonstrated a favourable state of athlete preparedness. Used together, HRV and sAA provide coaches with valuable information regarding physiological changes in response to training and competition.
      PubDate: 2016-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4010013
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 14: A Description and Comparison of
           Cardiorespiratory Fitness Measures in Relation to Pitching Performance
           Among Professional Baseball Pitchers

    • Authors: Javair Gillett, J. Dawes, Frank Spaniol, Matthew Rhea, Joe Rogowski, Mitchel Magrini, Roberto Simao, Derek Bunker
      First page: 14
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to provide descriptive and comparative information regarding the cardiorespiratory fitness of professional baseball pitchers. Twenty-four (n = 24) major league (ML) baseball pitchers (starters n = 14; relievers n = 10) over seven seasons (2007–2013) were evaluated. A modified Bruce protocol and the CardioCoach™ CO2 metabolic analyzer were used to estimate VO2 max and anaerobic threshold (AT) at the beginning of each season. Performance data from each season was utilized to draw inference about pitching performance. One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to compare Starting (S) and Relief (R) pitchers above/below the group mean for VO2 max and AT. Pearson product moment correlations were also used to examine relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness and performance. Significant differences in performance were discovered between S pitchers above/below the overall group mean for VO2 max. (p ≤ 0.05) and for AT in Walks plus Hits per Inning Pitched (WHIP) (p ≤ 0.05) and Earned Run Average (ERA) (p ≤ 0.05). Significant relationships between VO2 max and Walks per 9 Innings (BB/9) (p ≤ 0.05), Home Runs per 9 innings (HR/9) (p ≤ 0.05), Wins (W) (p ≤ 0.05), Fielding Independent Pitching (FIP) (p ≤ 0.01), Strikeouts (K) (p ≤ 0.01), Hits per 9 innings (H/9) (p ≤ 0.01), Strikeouts per 9 innings (K/9) (p ≤ 0.01), ERA (p ≤ 0.01), and WHIP (p ≤ 0.01). Low, but significant, correlations were discovered between AT and WHIP (p ≤ 0.05) and ERA (≤0.05). CONCLUSION: Higher aerobic capacity appears to be more influential for S than R pitchers. Strength and conditioning practitioners should ensure that pitchers, especially S pitchers at the ML level, perform sufficient and appropriate endurance training to support pitching performance.
      PubDate: 2016-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4010014
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 15: Type of Ground Surface during Plyometric
           Training Affects the Severity of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage

    • Authors: Hamid Arazi, Roger Eston, Abbas Asadi, Behnam Roozbeh, Alireza Saati Zarei
      First page: 15
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare the changes in the symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage from a bout of plyometric exercise (PE; 10 × 10 vertical jumps) performed in aquatic, sand and firm conditions. Twenty-four healthy college-aged men were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Aquatic (AG, n = 8), Sand (SG, n = 8) and Firm (FG, n = 8). The AG performed PE in an aquatic setting with a depth of ~130 cm. The SG performed PE on a dry sand surface at a depth of 20 cm, and the FG performed PE on a 10-cm-thick wooden surface. Plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), knee range of motion (KROM), maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC) of the knee extensors, vertical jump (VJ) and 10-m sprint were measured before and 24, 48 and 72 h after the PE. Compared to baseline values, FG showed significantly (p < 0.05) greater changes in CK, DOMS, and VJ at 24 until 48 h. The MIVC decreased significantly for the SG and FG at 24 until 48 h post-exercise in comparison to the pre-exercise values. There were no significant (p > 0.05) time or group by time interactions in KROM. In the 10-m sprint, all the treatment groups showed significant (p < 0.05) changes compared to pre-exercise values at 24 h, and there were no significant (p > 0.05) differences between groups. The results indicate that PE in an aquatic setting and on a sand surface induces less muscle damage than on a firm surface. Therefore, training in aquatic conditions and on sand may be beneficial for the improvement of performance, with a concurrently lower risk of muscle damage and soreness.
      PubDate: 2016-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4010015
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 16: How Confident Can We Be in Modelling Female
           Swimming Performance in Adolescence?

    • Authors: Shilo Dormehl, Samuel Robertson, Craig Williams
      First page: 16
      Abstract: The purpose of this research was to determine the expected progression of adolescent female swimming performances using a longitudinal approach. The performances of 514 female swimmers (12–19 year olds) who participated in one or more FINA-regulated annual international schools’ swimming championships over an eight-year period were analysed. Quadratic functions for each of the seven individual events (50, 100, 200 m freestyle, 100 m backstroke, breaststroke, butterfly, 200 m individual medley) were determined using mixed linear models. The predicted threshold of peak performance ranged from 16.8 ± 0.2 (200 m individual medley) to 20.6 ± 0.1 (100 m butterfly) years of age, preceded by gradual rates of improvement (mean rate of 1.6% per year). However, following cross validation, only three events (100 m backstroke, 200 m individual medley and 200 m freestyle) produced reliable models. Identifying the factors that contribute to the progression of female performance in this transitory period of life remains challenging, not least since the onset of puberty is likely to have occurred prior to reaching 12 years of age, the minimum competition age for this championship.
      PubDate: 2016-03-03
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4010016
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 17: The Age in Swimming of Champions in World
           Championships (1994–2013) and Olympic Games (1992–2012): A
           Cross-Sectional Data Analysis

    • First page: 17
      Abstract: (1) Background: We investigated the age of swimming champions in all strokes and race distances in World Championships (1994–2013) and Olympic Games (1992–2012); (2) Methods: Changes in age and swimming performance across calendar years for 412 Olympic and world champions were analysed using linear, non-linear, multi-level regression analyses and MultiLayer Perceptron (MLP); (3) Results: The age of peak swimming performance remained stable in most of all race distances for world champions and in all race distances for Olympic champions. Longer (i.e., 200 m and more) race distances were completed by younger (-20 years old for women and -22 years old for men) champions than shorter (i.e., 50 m and 100 m) race distances (-22 years old for women and -24 years old for men). There was a sex difference in the age of champions of -2 years with a mean age of -21 and -23 years for women and men, respectively. Swimming performance improved in most race distances for world and Olympic champions with a larger trend of increase in Olympic champions; (4) Conclusion: Swimmers at younger ages (<20 years) may benefit from training and competing in longer race distances (i.e., 200 m and longer) before they change to shorter distances (i.e., 50 m and 100 m) when they become older (>22 years).
      PubDate: 2016-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4010017
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 18: A Comparison between Chocolate Milk and a Raw

    • Authors: Andrew Hatchett, Christopher Berry, Claudia Oliva, Douglas Wiley, Jacob St. Hilaire, Alex LaRochelle
      First page: 18
      Abstract: This investigation sought to examine the effect that a chocolate milk solution (CMS) and a raw milk solution (RMS) had on lower extremity induced delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS). Twenty trained male participants completed a set of questionnaires, prior to completing a lower extremity DOMS protocol, to determine the level of discomfort and functional limitations. Once the DOMS protocol was completed, participants were randomly assigned to either the CM or RM group. Once assigned, participants ingested 240 mL of the respective solution and completed the same set of questionnaires immediately post, 24-, 48- and 72-h post DOMS protocol. Additionally, for 10 days post-ingestion participants were contacted to learn if any negative effects were experienced as a result of ingesting either solution. Both groups reported an increase in lower extremity discomfort at each data collection interval post-DOMS protocol (post, 24-, 48- and 72-h). Participants assigned to the RM group reported high discomfort post and a relative decline in discomfort from immediately post-DOMS protocol to 72-h post. The RMS group reported substantially less discomfort at 72-h when compared to the CMS group. Ingestion of a raw milk solution immediately post strength exercise can substantially reduce the level of self-reported discomfort associated with DOMS.
      PubDate: 2016-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4010018
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 19: Lateral Squats Significantly Decrease Sprint
           Time in Collegiate Baseball Athletes

    • Authors: Jason White, Trevor Dorian, Margaret Jones
      First page: 19
      Abstract: The purpose was to examine the effect of prior performance of dumbbell lateral squats (DBLS) on an agility movement-into-a-sprint (AMS) test. Twelve collegiate, resistance-trained, baseball athletes participated in three sessions separated by three days. Session One consisted of AMS baseline test, DBLS 5-RM test, and experimental protocol familiarization. Subjects were randomly assigned the protocol order for Sessions Two and Three, which consisted of warm up followed by 1-min sitting (no-DBLS) or performing the DBLS for 1 × 5 repetitions @ 5RM for each leg. Four minutes of slow recovery walking preceded the AMS test, which consisted of leading off a base and waiting for a visual stimulus. In reaction to stimulus, subjects exerted maximal effort while moving to the right by either pivoting or drop stepping and sprinting for 10 yards (yd). In Session Three, subjects switched protocols (DBLS, no-DBLS). Foot contact time (FCT), stride frequency (SF), stride length (SL), and 10-yd sprint time were measured. There were no differences between conditions for FCT, SF, or SL. Differences existed between DBLS (1.85 ± 0.09 s) and no-DBLS (1.89 ± 0.10 s) for AMS (p = 0.03). Results from the current study support the use of DBLS for performance enhancement prior to performing the AMS test.
      PubDate: 2016-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4010019
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 20: Physical and Physiological Characteristics of
           Judo Athletes: An Update

    • First page: 20
      Abstract: Judo competition is characterized structurally by weight category, which raises the importance of physiological control training in judo. The aim of the present review was to examine scientific papers on the physiological profile of the judokas, maintenance or loss of weight, framing issues, such as anthropometric parameters (body fat percentage), heart rate responses to training and combat, maximal oxygen uptake, hematological, biological and hormones indicators. The values shown in this review should be used as a reference for the evaluation of physical fitness and the effectiveness of training programs. Hence, this information is expected to contribute to the development of optimal training interventions aiming to achieve maximum athletic performance and to maintain the health of judokas.
      PubDate: 2016-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4010020
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 1: Effects of Video-Based Visual Training on
           Decision-Making and Reactive Agility in Adolescent Football Players

    • Authors: Alfred Nimmerichter, Nikolaus Weber, Klaus Wirth, Andreas Haller
      First page: 1
      Abstract: This study investigated the trainability of decision-making and reactive agility via video-based visual training in young athletes. Thirty-four members of a national football academy (age: 14.4 ± 0.1 years) were randomly assigned to a training (VIS; n = 18) or a control group (CON; n = 16). In addition to the football training, the VIS completed a video-based visual training twice a week over a period of six weeks during the competition phase. Using the temporal occlusion technique, the players were instructed to react on one-on-one situations shown in 40 videos. The number of successful decisions and the response time were measured with a video-based test. In addition, the reactive-agility sprint test was used. VIS significantly improved the number of successful decisions (22.2 ± 3.6 s vs. 29.8 ± 4.5 s; p < 0.001), response time (0.41 ± 0.10 s vs. 0.31 ± 0.10 s; p = 0.006) and reactive agility (2.22 ± 0.33 s vs. 1.94 ± 0.11 s; p = 0.001) pre- vs. post-training. No significant differences were found for CON. The results have shown that video-based visual training improves the time to make decisions as well as reactive agility sprint-time, accompanied by an increase in successful decisions. It remains to be shown whether or not such training can improve simulated or actual game performance.
      PubDate: 2015-12-31
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4010001
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2015)
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 269-280: Individual Responses for Muscle Activation,
           Repetitions, and Volume during Three Sets to Failure of High- (80% 1RM)
           versus Low-Load (30% 1RM) Forearm Flexion Resistance Exercise

    • Authors: Nathaniel Jenkins, Terry Housh, Samuel Buckner, Haley Bergstrom, Kristen Cochrane, Cory Smith, Ethan Hill, Richard Schmidt, Joel Cramer
      Pages: 269 - 280
      Abstract: This study compared electromyographic (EMG) amplitude, the number of repetitions completed, and exercise volume during three sets to failure of high- (80% 1RM) versus low-load (30% 1RM) forearm flexion resistance exercise on a subject-by-subject basis. Fifteen men were familiarized, completed forearm flexion 1RM testing. Forty-eight to 72 h later, the subjects completed three sets to failure of dumbbell forearm flexion resistance exercise with 80% (n = 8) or 30% (n = 7) 1RM. EMG amplitude was calculated for every repetition, and the number of repetitions performed and exercise volume were recorded. During sets 1, 2, and 3, one of eight subjects in the 80% 1RM group demonstrated a significant linear relationship for EMG amplitude versus repetition. For the 30% 1RM group, seven, five, and four of seven subjects demonstrated significant linear relationships during sets 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The mean EMG amplitude responses show that the fatigue-induced increases in EMG amplitude for the 30% 1RM group and no change in EMG amplitude for the 80% 1RM group resulted in similar levels of muscle activation in both groups. The numbers of repetitions completed were comparatively greater, while exercise volumes were similar in the 30% versus 80% 1RM group. Our results, in conjunction with those of previous studies in the leg extensors, suggest that there may be muscle specific differences in the responses to high- versus low-load exercise.
      PubDate: 2015-09-25
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3040269
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 281-301: Outcomes following Hip and Quadriceps
           Strengthening Exercises for Patellofemoral Syndrome: A Systematic Review
           and Meta-Analysis

    • Authors: Adebisi Bisi-Balogun, Firdevs Torlak
      Pages: 281 - 301
      Abstract: There is growing evidence to support change in the rehabilitation strategy of patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) from traditional quadriceps strengthening exercises to inclusion of hip musculature strengthening in individuals with PFPS. Several studies have evaluated effects of quadriceps and hip musculature strengthening on PFPS with varying outcomes on pain and function. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to synthesize outcomes of pain and function post-intervention and at follow-up to determine whether outcomes vary depending on the exercise strategy in both the short and long term. Electronic databases including MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science, PubMed, Pedro database, Proquest, Science direct, and EBscoHost databases were searched for randomized control trials published between 1st of January 2005 and 31st of June 2015, comparing the outcomes of pain and function following quadriceps strengthening and hip musculature strengthening exercises in patients with PFPS. Two independent reviewers assessed each paper for inclusion and quality. Means and SDs were extracted from each included study to allow effect size calculations and comparison of results. Six randomized control trials met the inclusion criteria. Limited to moderate evidence indicates that hip abductor strengthening was associated with significantly lower pain post-intervention (SMD −0.88, −1.28 to −0.47 95% CI), and at 12 months (SMD −3.10, −3.71 to −2.50 95% CI) with large effect sizes (greater than 0.80) compared to quadriceps strengthening. Our findings suggest that incorporating hip musculature strengthening in management of PFPS tailored to individual ability will improve short-term and long-term outcomes of rehabilitation. Further research evaluating the effects of quadriceps and hip abductors strengthening focusing on reduction in anterior knee pain and improvement in function in management of PFPS is needed.
      PubDate: 2015-10-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3040281
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 302-311: It’s Not Me, It’s You: The

    • Authors: Dean Culpepper, Lorraine Killion
      Pages: 302 - 311
      Abstract: American adults and an increasing number of children, are not meeting the recommended amounts of daily physical activity. Research has documented the effects of low activity on health and increasingly new research has shown that low activity levels now impact academic achievement. Physical education (PE) can play an important role if the children participating are obtaining enough physical activity while in class and the PE program has not been targeted with cutbacks. The purpose of this study was to identify the amount and intensity of activity in PE classes. The results indicate that on average students at all levels are not meeting the activity requirements. In addition, PE teachers’ perceptions of physical activity in their own class does not match actual activity levels. PE teachers must do a better job of increasing activity levels in their classrooms. Mounting research indicates students perform better academically if they are physically active. PE is the only subject where teachers can organize activities that meet both activity and intensity requirements.
      PubDate: 2015-10-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3040302
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 312-324: Effects of Respiratory Muscle Warm-up on
           High-Intensity Exercise Performance

    • Authors: Taylor Thurston, Jared Coburn, Lee Brown, Albert Bartolini, Tori Beaudette, Patrick Karg, Kathryn McLeland, Jose Arevalo, Daniel Judelson, Andrew Galpin
      Pages: 312 - 324
      Abstract: Exercise performance is partially limited by the functionality of the respiratory musculature. Training these muscles improves steady-state exercise performance. However, less is known about the efficacy of executing a respiratory muscle warm-up (RWU) immediately prior to high-intensity exercise. Our study purpose was to use a practitioner-friendly airflow restriction device to investigate the effects of a high, medium, or low intensity RWU on short, high-intensity exercise and pulmonary, cardiovascular, and metabolic function. Eleven recreationally active, males (24.9 ± 4.2 y, 178.8 ± 9.0 cm, 78.5 ± 10.4 kg, 13.4% ± 4.2% body fat) cycled at 85% peak power to exhaustion (TTE) following four different RWU conditions (separate days, in random order): (1) high; (2) medium; (3) low airflow inspiration restriction, or no RWU. When analyzed as a group, TTE did not improve following any RWU (4.73 ± 0.33 min). However, 10 of the 11 participants improved ≥25 s in one of the three RWU conditions (average = 47.6 ± 13.2 s), which was significantly better than (p < 0.05) the control trial (CON). Neither blood lactate nor perceived difficulty was altered by condition. In general, respiratory exchange ratios were significantly lower during the early stages of TTE in all RWU conditions. Our findings suggest RWU efficacy is predicated on identifying optimal inspiration intensity, which clearly differs between individuals.
      PubDate: 2015-11-05
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3040312
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 325-334: A Comparison between Learning Style
           Preferences, Gender, Sport and Achievement in Elite Team Sport Athletes

    • Authors: Andrea Braakhuis, Tea Williams, Elizabeth Fusco, Shawn Hueglin, Alex Popple
      Pages: 325 - 334
      Abstract: Athletes have preferences for the way in which they internalize and process information, whether that is visual, aural, by-doing (kinesthetic), reading or a mixture of preferences. Health professionals that interact with athletes rarely consider the individual learning style prior to any communication or education, despite mounting evidence for the benefits of learning-style tailored education. The aim of this study was to characterize athletes with regards to their preferred learning style. Athletes (n = 93) from 24 sports and various sport achievement levels completed a questionnaire, including the visual (V), auditory (A), reading/writing (R), kinesthetic (K)/(VARK) Questionnaire for Athletes. Questionnaire outcomes were analysed by X2 analysis on SPSS. The main findings were: (1) very few athletes have a visual learning-style preference; (2) there was a significant relationship between gender and VARK preference (X2 = 13.84, p = 0.003); (3) and between athletic status and VARK preference (X2 = 9.2, p = 0.025); (4) there was a trivial association between individual/ team sport athletes and assessed VARK preference (X2 = 3.95, p = 0.265). Our findings show significant variation in learning-style preference between males and females, and those of different athletic status. Health professionals should be aware of the inadequacy of visual information presentation when working with athletes. Furthermore, health professionals working with elite and female athletes should be comfortable using a mixture of learning styles (multi-modal).
      PubDate: 2015-11-09
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3040325
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 335-345: Using Rowers’ Perceptions of On-Water
           Stroke Success to Evaluate Sculling Catch Efficiency Variables via a Boat
           Instrumentation System

    • Authors: Sarah-Kate Millar, Anthony Oldham, Patria Hume, Ian Renshaw
      Pages: 335 - 345
      Abstract: Aim: An effective catch in sculling is a critical determinant of boat velocity. This study used rowers’ performance-based judgments to compare three measures of catch slip efficiency. Two questions were addressed: (1) would rower-judged Yes strokes be faster than No strokes? and (2) which method of quantifying catch slip best reflected these judgements? Methods: Eight single scullers performed two 10-min blocks of sub maximal on-water rowing at 20 strokes per minute. Every 30 s, rowers reported either Yes or No about the quality of their stroke at the catch. Results: It was found that Yes strokes identified by rowers had, on average, a moderate effect advantage over No strokes with a standardised effect size of 0.43. In addition, a quicker time to positive acceleration best reflected the change in performance; where the standardised mean difference score of 0.57 for time to positive acceleration was larger than the scores of 0.47 for time to PowerLine force, and 0.35 for time to 30% peak pin force catch slip measures. For all eight rowers, Yes strokes corresponded to time to positive acceleration occurring earlier than No strokes. Conclusion: Rower judgements about successful strokes was linked to achieving a quicker time to positive acceleration, and may be of the most value in achieving a higher average boat velocity.
      PubDate: 2015-11-10
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3040335
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 346-357: Is There a Progressive Withdrawal of
           Physiological Protections against High-Intensity Exercise-Induced Fatigue
           during Puberty?

    • Pages: 346 - 357
      Abstract: Puberty is characterized by a large number of physiological modifications that translate into increased neuromuscular fatigue during high-intensity exercise in adolescents compared to prepubertal children. This greater neuromuscular fatigue in adolescents could be attributed to peripheral (i.e., muscular) and central (i.e., nervous) factors that change through puberty. Among the peripheral changes are muscle mass, fiber type composition, energy metabolism and musculo-tendinous stiffness. Among the central modifications are the voluntary activation level, the antagonist co-activation and a differential interplay between central and peripheral fatigue. The objective of this review article will be to underline the importance of these factors on the development of neuromuscular fatigue during high-intensity exercise throughout puberty and to highlight that the adolescents could be physiologically less protected against fatiguing high-intensity exercise than their prepubertal counterparts.
      PubDate: 2015-12-04
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3040346
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 358-368: Reliability of the Single-Visit Field Test
           of Critical Speed in Trained and Untrained Adolescents

    • Authors: Alfred Nimmerichter, Mathias Steindl, Craig Williams
      Pages: 358 - 368
      Abstract: Recent studies in adults have shown that the critical intensity during running and cycling estimated from three prediction trials interspersed by 30 min is valid and reliable. To establish the reliability of the single-visit field test to determine critical speed (CS) and the distance above critical speed (D′) in adolescents, 29 trained and 14 untrained participants (mean ± SD age: 17.5 ± 0.5 years) performed three tests on a 400-m outdoor track separated by 48 h. Each test consisted of three distances selected to result in finishing times between 2 and 15 min that must be completed as fast as possible. CS and D′ were modeled using the linear 1/time model (Speed = D′(1/t) + CS). While the coefficient of variation (CV) of CS was between 2.4% and 4.3%, the CV of D′ was 9.3% to 13.6%. Also the intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from 0.919 to 0.983 for CS and from 0.325 to 0.828 for D′. The results show that the single-visit field test provides reliable estimates of CS but not D′ in trained and untrained adolescents.
      PubDate: 2015-12-08
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3040358
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 369-382: Physiological Responses Underlying the
           Perception of Effort during Moderate and Heavy Intensity Cycle Ergometry

    • Authors: Kristen Cochrane, Terry Housh, Ethan Hill, Cory Smith, Nathaniel Jenkins, Joel Cramer, Glen Johnson, Richard Schmidt
      Pages: 369 - 382
      Abstract: This study examined patterns of responses for physiological and perceptual variables during cycle ergometry at a constant rate of perceived exertion (RPE) within the moderate and heavy exercise intensity domains. Nineteen (mean age 21.3 ± 0.5 years; 43.4 ± 2.0 mL·kg−1·min−1 V ˙ O 2 Peak ) moderately trained cyclists performed an incremental test to exhaustion and two 60 min constant RPE rides at the RPE corresponding to the gas exchange threshold (RPEGET) and 15% above the GET (RPEGET+15%). Oxygen consumption ( V ˙ O2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), heart rate (HR), minute ventilation ( V ˙ E ), breathing frequency ( ℱ b ), and power output (PO) were monitored throughout the rides. Polynomial regression analyses showed V ˙ O2, RER, HR, and V ˙ E (correlation = −0.85 to −0.98) tracked the decreases in PO required to maintain a constant RPE. Only ℱ b tracked RPE during the moderate and heavy intensity rides. Repeated measures ANOVAs indicated that V ˙ O2 during the 60 min rides at RPEGET was not different (p > 0.05) from V ˙ O2 at GET from the incremental test to exhaustion. Thus, monitoring intensity using an RPE associated with the GET is sustainable for up to 60 min of cycling exercise and a common mechanism may mediate ℱ b and the perception of effort during moderate and heavy intensity cycle ergometry.
      PubDate: 2015-12-14
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3040369
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 4 (2015)
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 136-144: The Effect of High Intensity Intermittent
           Exercise on Power Output for the Upper Body

    • Authors: Leonie Harvey, Matthew Bousson, Chris McLellan, Dale Lovell
      Pages: 136 - 144
      Abstract: The aim of the present study was to examine and measure high intensity, intermittent upper body performance, in addition to identifying areas of the body that affect the variance in total work done during the 5 × 6 s sprint test. Fifteen males completed an upper body 5 × 6 s sprint test on a modified electro-magnetically braked cycle ergometer, which consisted of five maximal effort sprints, each 6 s in duration, separated by 24 s of passive recovery. A fly wheel braking force corresponding to 5% of the participants’ body weight was used as the implemented resistance level. Body composition was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Percent (%) decrement was calculated as 100 − (Total work/ideal work) × 100. Significant (P < 0.05) differences were found between sprints for both absolute and relative (W, W·kg−1, W·kg−1 Lean body mass (LBM) and W·kg−1 Upper body lean body mass (UBLBM)) peak (PP) and mean (MP) power. The % decrement in total work done over the five sprints was 11.4%. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed that UBLBM accounts for 87% of the variance in total work done during the upper body 5 × 6 s sprint test. These results provide a descriptive analysis of upper body, high intensity intermittent exercise, demonstrating that PP and MP output decreased significantly during the upper body 5 × 6 s sprint test.
      PubDate: 2015-06-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3030136
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 145-158: Physical Activity and Gastrointestinal
           Cancers: Primary and Tertiary Preventive Effects and Possible Biological

    • Authors: Karen Steindorf, Dorothea Clauss, Joachim Wiskemann, Martina Schmidt
      Pages: 145 - 158
      Abstract: Gastrointestinal cancers account for 37% of all cancer deaths worldwide, underlining the need to further investigate modifiable factors for gastrointestinal cancer risk and prognosis. This review summarizes the corresponding evidence for physical activity (PA), including, briefly, possible biological mechanisms. Despite high public health relevance, there is still a scarcity of studies, especially for tertiary prevention. Besides the convincing evidence of beneficial effects of PA on colon cancer risk, clear risk reduction for gastroesophageal cancer was identified, as well as weak indications for pancreatic cancer. Inverse associations were observed for liver cancer, yet based on few studies. Only for rectal cancer, PA appeared to be not associated with cancer risk. With regard to cancer-specific mortality of the general population, published data were rare but indicated suggestive evidence of protective effects for colon and liver cancer, and to a lesser extent for rectal and gastroesophageal cancer. Studies in cancer patients on cancer-specific and total mortality were published for colorectal cancer only, providing good evidence of inverse associations with post-diagnosis PA. Overall, evidence of associations of PA with gastrointestinal cancer risk and progression is promising but still limited. However, the already available knowledge further underlines the importance of PA to combat cancer.
      PubDate: 2015-07-21
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3030145
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 159-177: Narratives of Psychosocial Response to
           Microtrauma Injury among Long-Distance Runners

    • Authors: Hayley Russell, Diane Wiese-Bjornstal
      Pages: 159 - 177
      Abstract: Athletes with microtrauma or overuse injuries resulting from an accumulation of repeated small forces may differ from athletes with macrotrauma or acute injuries in their psychosocial responses because of the unique challenges presented by these insidious-onset and often chronic injuries. Our purpose was to use narrative inquiry to examine the psychosocial experiences and responses of 10 long-distance runners who had experienced microtrauma injuries. Qualitative data analysis of interview data led to a chronological timeline of the injury experience and an assessment of the meaning attributed to these injury experiences using a variation of Mishler’s core-narrative approach. Participants reported distinct thoughts, feelings, and behaviors during each phase of the injury—pre-injury, injury onset, and outcome. In the pre-injury period, participants indicated specific running-related goals and attributed their injuries to overtraining or a change in training. During the injury onset phase, participants consistently indicated two themes: self-diagnosis and treatment, and not taking time off. Within the outcome phase of injury, participants acknowledged changed training because of the injury, and lessons learned from their injury experiences. The narratives of microtrauma-injured runners revealed psychosocial distress and behavioral tendencies post-injury that have important implications for runners, coaches, and healthcare professionals.
      PubDate: 2015-07-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3030159
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 178-187: A Comparison of Upper Body Strength between
           Rock Climbing and Resistance Trained Men

    • Authors: Kristina Macias, Lee Brown, Jared Coburn, David Chen
      Pages: 178 - 187
      Abstract: Studies have shown that advanced rock climbers have greater upper body strength than that of novice climbers or non-climbers. The purpose of this study was to compare upper body strength between rock climbing and resistance trained men. Fifteen resistance trained men (age 25.28 ± 2.26 yrs; height 177.45 ± 4.08 cm; mass 85.17 ± 10.23 kg; body fat 10.13 ± 5.40%) and 15 rock climbing men (age 23.25 ± 2.23 yrs; height 175.57 ± 8.03 cm; mass 66.66 ± 9.40 kg; body fat 6.86 ± 3.82%) volunteered to participate. Rock climbing (RC) men had been climbing for at least two years, 2–3 times a week, able to climb at least a boulder rating of V4–5 and had no current injuries. Resistance trained (RT) men had been total body strength training for at least two years, 2–3 times a week with no current injuries. Each participant performed pull-ups to failure, grip strength, and pinch strength. RT were significantly older and heavier than RC. RC performed significantly more pull-ups (19.31 ± 4.31) than RT (15.64 ± 4.82). RC had greater relative pinch strength (R 0.27 ± 0.10 kg/kg; L 0.24 ± 0.07 kg/kg) than RT (R 0.19 ± 0.04 kg/kg; L 0.16 ± 0.05 kg/kg) and greater relative grip strength (R 0.70 ± 0.10 kg/kg; L 0.65 ± 0.12 kg/kg) than RT (R 0.57 ± 0.14 kg/kg; L 0.56 ± 0.15 kg/kg). Overall, RC men demonstrated greater performance in tests involving relative strength when compared to RT men. Rock climbing can promote increased upper body strength even in the absence of traditional resistance training.
      PubDate: 2015-07-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3030178
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 188-201: Upper Extremity Muscle Activation during
           Bodyblade Exercises Following Six Weeks of Intervention Focusing on the
           Lumbopelvic-Hip Complex

    • Authors: Gretchen Oliver, Audrey Stone, Wendi Weimar, Lawrence Lemak, Jessica Washington, Christopher Dougherty
      Pages: 188 - 201
      Abstract: The current study examined the effects of a six-week lumbopelvic-hip complex (LPHC) strengthening program on muscle activation when performing the shoulder dump exercise. The shoulder dump is a total body exercise that includes overhead arm movements. A pre-post test with a control group was implemented. Twenty-seven graduate students (23.5 ± 1.34 yr; 174.4 ± 11.0 cm; 76.6 ± 16.9 kg) participated. Participants were randomly assigned to a control or intervention group where the intervention group performed LPHC exercises. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed a significant increase in muscle activation of the serratus anterior from pre- and post-LPHC intervention, (t = 6.5, p < 0.001). As presented by these data, incorporation of LPHC exercises may assist in facilitating greater activation in some of the scapula-stabilizing musculature that has traditionally been rehabilitated in prone or side-lying positions. It is, therefore, suggested that LPHC exercises be incorporated in a regular shoulder rehabilitation program.
      PubDate: 2015-08-06
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3030188
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 202-208: The Effect of Kettlebell Swing Load and
           Cadence on Physiological, Perceptual and Mechanical Variables

    • Authors: Michael Duncan, Rosanna Gibbard, Leanne Raymond, Peter Mundy
      Pages: 202 - 208
      Abstract: This study compared the physiological, perceptual and mechanical responses to kettlebell swings at different loads and swing speeds. Following familiarization 16 strength trained participants (10 males, six females, mean age ± SD = 23 ± 2.9) performed four trials: 2 min kettlebell swings with an 8 kg kettlebell at a fast cadence; 2 min kettlebell swings with an 8 kg kettlebell at a slow cadence; 4 min kettlebell swings with a 4 kg kettlebell at a fast cadence; 4 min kettlebell swings with a 4 kg kettlebell at a slow cadence. Repeated measured analysis of variance indicated no significant differences in peak blood lactate or peak net vertical force across loads and cadences (P > 0.05). Significant main effect for time for heart rate indicated that heart rate was higher at the end of each bout than at mid-point (P = 0.001). A significant Load X cadence interaction for rating of perceived exertion (RPE) (P = 0.030) revealed that RPE values were significantly higher in the 8 kg slow cadence condition compared to the 4 kg slow (P = 0.002) and 4 kg fast (P = 0.016) conditions. In summary, this study indicates that the physiological and mechanical responses to kettlebell swings at 4 kg and 8 kg loads and at fast and slow cadence were similar, whereas the perceptual response is greater when swinging an 8 kg kettlebell at slow cadence.
      PubDate: 2015-08-07
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3030202
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 209-218: Less Is More: The Physiological Basis for
           Tapering in Endurance, Strength, and Power Athletes

    • Authors: Kevin Murach, James Bagley
      Pages: 209 - 218
      Abstract: Taper, or reduced-volume training, improves competition performance across a broad spectrum of exercise modes and populations. This article aims to highlight the physiological mechanisms, namely in skeletal muscle, by which taper improves performance and provide a practical literature-based rationale for implementing taper in varied athletic disciplines. Special attention will be paid to strength- and power-oriented athletes as taper is under-studied and often overlooked in these populations. Tapering can best be summarized by the adage “less is more” because maintained intensity and reduced volume prior to competition yields significant performance benefits.
      PubDate: 2015-08-21
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3030209
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 219-235: Recommendations for Recruiting and
           Retaining Adolescent Girls in Chronic Exercise (Training) Research Studies

    • Authors: Rachel Massie, Brett Smith, Keith Tolfrey
      Pages: 219 - 235
      Abstract: Extensive challenges are often encountered when recruiting participants to chronic exercise (training) studies. High participant burden during chronic exercise training programmes can result in low uptake to and/or poor compliance with the study. The aim of this qualitative study was to identify factors affecting adolescent girls’ recruitment and adherence to chronic exercise training research studies. Twenty-six adolescent girls (aged 12 to 15 years) participated in one of five focus groups discussing recruitment and retention to exercise physiology research involving a chronic exercise training programme. A thematic analysis was used to analyse the data and eight final themes were inductively identified. Seven evidence-based practical recommendations are suggested to improve the recruitment and retention of participants for prospective, chronic exercise training studies. Successful recruitment requires: (i) the defining of exercise-related terms; (ii) appropriate choice of recruitment material; and (iii) an understanding of participant motivations. Retention strategies include: (iv) regular monitoring of participant motives; and (v) small groups which foster peer and researcher support. Finally, (vi) friendship and ability groups were favoured in addition to (vii) a variety of activities to promote adherence to an exercise training programme.
      PubDate: 2015-08-26
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3030219
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 236-245: Angle Specific Analysis of Side-to-Side
           Asymmetry in the Shoulder Rotators

    • Authors: Cassio Ruas, Ronei Pinto, Eduardo Cadore, Lee Brown
      Pages: 236 - 245
      Abstract: Although side-to-side asymmetry of the shoulder rotators calculated by independent peak torque (IPT) has been used for interpretation of injury risks in athletes, it may not measure strength through the entire range of motion (ROM) tested. The aim of this study was to compare side-to-side asymmetry of the shoulder rotators between independent peak torque (IPT) and ten-degree angle specific torque (AST). Twenty healthy adult males (24.65 ± 2.4 years) performed concentric and eccentric internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER) of the preferred and non-preferred arms on an isokinetic dynamometer at 60°/s through 150° of total ROM. The total ROM was divided into 14 ten-degree angles of the physiological ROM from −90° of ER to 60° of IR. Concentric and eccentric IR IPT (10.5% ± 8.7% and 12.1% ± 7.2%) and ER IPT (13.6% ± 9.8% and 8.7% ± 5.6%) were significantly less than AST at several angles (p < 0.05). IPT might lead to erroneous interpretations of side-to-side asymmetry in the shoulder rotators and does not represent the entire ROM tested. This information could be used to prescribe strength exercises to enhance overhead performance and reduce risk of shoulder injuries.
      PubDate: 2015-08-31
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3030236
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 246-257: Kinematics and Kinetics of Youth Baseball
           Catchers and Pitchers

    • Authors: Gretchen Oliver, Keith Lohse, Sarah Gascon
      Pages: 246 - 257
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare the throwing kinematics and kinetics of youth catchers and pitchers. It was hypothesized that catchers and pitchers would exhibit differences throughout the throwing motion. Descriptive statistics were used to investigate kinematics during the four events of throwing: foot contact (FC), maximum shoulder external rotation (MER), ball release (BR) and maximum shoulder internal rotation (MIR). Additionally, kinetics were investigated within phases of the events: Phase 1 (cocking; FC to MER), Phase 2 (acceleration; MER to BR) and Phase 3 (deceleration; BR to MIR). Results revealed significant difference in torso flexion, lateral flexion, pelvis lateral flexion and segment velocities between the catchers and pitchers. Based on data from the current study, it appears that the youth catchers execute their throw as they have been instructed. It is unclear if the throwing mechanics displayed by these youth are efficient for a catcher, thus further investigation is needed to determine long-term injury susceptibility.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3030246
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 258-268: Effectiveness of Different Rest Intervals
           Following Whole-Body Vibration on Vertical Jump Performance between
           College Athletes and Recreationally Trained Females

    • Authors: Nicole Dabbs, Jon Lundahl, John Garner
      Pages: 258 - 268
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different rest intervals following whole-body vibration on counter-movement vertical jump performance. Sixteen females, eight recreationally trained and eight varsity athletes volunteered to participate in four testing visits separated by 24 h. Visit one acted as a familiarization visit where subjects were introduced to the counter-movement vertical jump and whole-body vibration protocols. Visits 2–4 contained 2 randomized conditions. Whole-body vibration was administered in four bouts of 30 s with 30 s rest between bouts. During whole-body vibration subjects performed a quarter squat every 5 s, simulating a counter-movement vertical jump. Whole-body vibration was followed by three counter-movement vertical jumps with five different rest intervals between the vibration exposure and jumping. For a control condition, subjects performed squats with no whole-body vibration. There was a significant (p < 0.05) main effect for time for vertical jump height, peak power output, and relative ground reaction forces, where a majority of individuals max jump from all whole-body vibration conditions was greater than the control condition. There were significant (p < 0.05) group differences, showing that varsity athletes had a greater vertical jump height and peak power output compared to recreationally trained females. There were no significant (p > 0.05) group differences for relative ground reaction forces. Practitioners and/or strength and conditioning coaches may utilize whole-body vibration to enhance acute counter-movement vertical jump performance after identifying individuals optimal rest time in order to maximize the potentiating effects.
      PubDate: 2015-09-18
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3030258
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 3 (2015)
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 56-76: Neuromuscular Retraining in Female Adolescent
           Athletes: Effect on Athletic Performance Indices and Noncontact Anterior
           Cruciate Ligament Injury Rates

    • Authors: Frank Noyes, Sue Barber-Westin
      Pages: 56 - 76
      Abstract: While many anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) prevention programs have been published, few have achieved significant reductions in injury rates and improvements in athletic performance indices; both of which may increase compliance and motivation of athletes to participate. A supervised neuromuscular retraining program (18 sessions) was developed, aimed at achieving both of these objectives. The changes in neuromuscular indices were measured after training in 1000 female athletes aged 13–18 years, and the noncontact ACL injury rate in 700 of these trained athletes was compared with that of 1120 control athletes. There were significant improvements in the drop-jump test, (p < 0.0001, effect size [ES] 0.97), the single-leg triple crossover hop (p < 0.0001, ES 0.47), the t-test (p < 0.0001, ES 0.64), the multi-stage fitness test (p < 0.0001, ES 0.57), hamstring strength (p < 0.0001), and quadriceps strength (p < 0.01). The trained athletes had a significant reduction in the noncontact ACL injury incidence rate compared with the controls (1 ACL injury in 36,724 athlete-exposures [0.03] and 13 ACL injuries in 61,244 exposures [0.21], respectively, p = 0.03). The neuromuscular retraining program was effective in reducing noncontact ACL injury rate and improving athletic performance indicators.
      PubDate: 2015-05-13
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3020056
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 77-86: A Retrospective Review from 2006 to 2011 of
           Lower Extremity Injuries in Badminton in New Zealand

    • Authors: Joanna Reeves, Patria Hume, Simon Gianotti, Barry Wilson, Erika Ikeda
      Pages: 77 - 86
      Abstract: Aim: To describe lower extremity injuries for badminton in New Zealand. Methods: Lower limb badminton injuries that resulted in claims accepted by the national insurance company Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) in New Zealand between 2006 and 2011 were reviewed. Results: The estimated national injury incidence for badminton injuries in New Zealand from 2006 to 2011 was 0.66%. There were 1909 lower limb badminton injury claims which cost NZ$2,014,337 (NZ$ value over 2006 to 2011). The age-bands frequently injured were 10–19 (22%), 40–49 (22%), 30–39 (14%) and 50–59 (13%) years. Sixty five percent of lower limb injuries were knee ligament sprains/tears. Males sustained more cruciate ligament sprains than females (75 vs. 39). Movements involving turning, changing direction, shifting weight, pivoting or twisting were responsible for 34% of lower extremity injuries. Conclusion: The knee was most frequently injured which could be due to multi-planar loading. Turning or cutting movements typically involve motion in the frontal and transverse planes that may place the knee at greater risk of injury than movement in the sagittal plane alone. Further research on badminton specific movements is warranted to better understand the mechanisms of lower extremity injuries in the sport. Sports medicine and support personnel should take into account the susceptibility of the knee to injury when designing training and injury prevention programmes given the large number of change of direction movements during badminton.
      PubDate: 2015-06-12
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3020077
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 87-102: Relationship between the Pedaling
           Biomechanics and Strain of Bicycle Frame during Submaximal Tests

    • Authors: Aneliya Manolova, Samuel Crequy, Philippe Lestriez, Pierre Debraux, William Bertucci
      Pages: 87 - 102
      Abstract: The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of forces applied to pedals and cranks on the strain imposed to an instrumented bicycle motocross (BMX) frame. Using results from a finite element analysis to determine the localisation of highest stress, eight strain gauges were located on the down tube, the seat tube and the right chain stay. Before the pedaling tests, static loads were applied to the frame during bench tests. Two pedaling conditions have been analysed. In the first, the rider was in static standing position on the pedals and applied maximal muscular isometric force to the right pedal. The second pedaling condition corresponds to three pedaling sprint tests at submaximal intensities at 150, 300 and 550 W on a cycle-trainer. The results showed that smaller strain was observed in the pedaling condition than in the rider static standing position condition. The highest strains were located in the seat tube and the right chain stay near the bottom bracket area. The maximum stress observed through all conditions was 41 MPa on the right chain stay. This stress was 11 times lower than the yield stress of the frame material (460 MPa). This protocol could help to adapt the frame design to the riders as a function of their force and mechanical power output. These results could also help design BMX frames for specific populations (females) and rider morphology.
      PubDate: 2015-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3020087
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 103-115: An Overview of the Running Performance of
           Athletes with Lower-Limb Amputation at the Paralympic Games

    • Authors: Hossein Hassani, Mansi Ghodsi, Mehran Shadi, Siamak Noroozi, Bryce Dyer
      Pages: 103 - 115
      Abstract: This paper analyses the performances of lower-limb amputees in the 100, 200 and 400 m running events from the 2004, 2008 and 2012 Paralympic Games. In this paper, four hypotheses are pursued. In the first, it investigates whether the running performance of lower-limb amputees over three consecutive Paralympic Games has changed. In the second, it asks whether a bi-lateral amputee has a competitive advantage over a uni-lateral amputee. In the third, the effect of blade classification has been considered and we attempt to see whether amputees in various classifications have different level of performance. Finally, it is considered whether the final round of competition obtains different levels of performance in comparison to the qualification heats. Based on the outcomes of these investigations, it is proposed that future amputee-based running events should be undertaken with separate and not combined events for the T42, T43 and T44 classifications at the Paralympic Games.
      PubDate: 2015-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3020103
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 116-135: The Somnolent Youth-Sleep and the Influence
           of Exercise: A Narrative Review

    • Authors: Haresh Suppiah, Michael Chia
      Pages: 116 - 135
      Abstract: Sleep is crucial to the physiological and psychological development of youth. The implications of insufficient sleep on learning and school performance are well documented. However, adequate sleep often goes unmet due to a combination of biological, societal, and environmental factors, especially during adolescence. In the present review, the changes to adolescent sleep patterns, and its consequences on cognition and learning are briefly explored. We then review the empirical literature of the role of exercise in regulating adolescent sleep patterns, and its potential mechanisms.
      PubDate: 2015-06-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3020116
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 2 (2015)
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 1-11: The Association between Anthropometric
           Variables, Functional Movement Screen Scores and 100 m Freestyle Swimming
           Performance in Youth Swimmers

    • Authors: Daisy Bond, Laura Goodson, Samuel Oxford, Alan Nevill, Michael Duncan
      Pages: 1 - 11
      Abstract: This study examined the association between anthropometric variables, Functional Movement Screen (FMS) scores and 100 m freestyle swimming performance in early adolescent swimmers. Fifty competitive, national level, youth swimmers (21 males, 29 females, mean age ± SD = 13.5 ± 1.5 years, age range 11–16 years) performed an “all-out” 100 m freestyle (front crawl) swim as fast as they could in a 50 m pool. A median divide for 100 m timed swim was also used to divide the sample into faster or slower groups. Height, body mass, skinfolds and limb lengths were also assessed. Maturation was calculated by proxy using anthropometric measures and participants also undertook the FMS as a measure of functional performance. Backwards linear regression indicated a significant model (p = 0.0001, Adjusted R2 = 0.638) explaining 63.8% of the variance in swim performance with total sum of skinfolds, upper leg length, lower leg length, hand length and total height significantly contributing to the model. Swimmers who were classed as fast had lower total sum of skinfolds (p = 0.005) and higher total FMS score (p = 0.005) compared to their slower peers. In summary, this study indicates that anthropometric variables significantly explained the variance in 100 m freestyle swimming performance in youth swimmers.
      PubDate: 2015-01-08
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3010001
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2015)
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 12-20: Effect of Level and Downhill Running on
           Breathing Efficiency

    • Authors: Matthew Cook, Stephen Myers, John Kelly, Mark Willems
      Pages: 12 - 20
      Abstract: Ventilatory equivalents for oxygen and carbon dioxide are physiological measures of breathing efficiency, and are known to be affected by the intensity and mode of exercise. We examined the effect of level running (gradient 0%) and muscle-damaging downhill running (−12%), matched for oxygen uptake, on the ventilatory equivalents for oxygen () and carbon dioxide (). Nine men (27 ± 9 years, 179 ± 7 cm, 75 ± 12 kg, : 52.0 ± 7.7 mL·kg−1·min−1) completed two 40-min running bouts (5 × 8-min with 2-min inter-bout rest), one level and one downhill. Running intensity was matched at 60% of maximal metabolic equivalent. Maximal isometric force of m.quadriceps femoris was measured before and after the running bouts. Data was analyzed with 2-way ANOVA or paired samples t-tests. Running speed (downhill: 13.5 ± 3.2, level: 9.6 ± 2.2 km·h−1) and isometric force deficits (downhill: 17.2 ± 7.6%, level: 2.0 ± 6.9%) were higher for downhill running. Running bouts for level and downhill gradients had , heart rates and respiratory exchange ratio values that were not different indicating matched intensity and metabolic demands. During downhill running, the , (downhill: 29.7 ± 3.3, level: 27.2 ± 1.6) and  (downhill: 33.3 ± 2.7, level: 30.4 ± 1.9) were 7.1% and 8.3% higher (p < 0.05) than level running. In conclusion, breathing efficiency appears lower during downhill running (i.e., muscle-damaging exercise) compared to level running at a similar moderate intensity.
      PubDate: 2015-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3010012
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2015)
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 21-29: Epidemiological Review of Injuries in Rugby

    • Pages: 21 - 29
      Abstract: Rugby is a sport that is growing in popularity. A contact sport par excellence, it causes a significant number of injuries. In Rugby Union, there are 30 to 91 injuries per 1000 match hours. This epidemiological review of injuries incurred by rugby players mentions the position and type of injuries, the causes, time during the match and season in which they occur and the players’ positions as well as the length of players’ absences following the injury.
      PubDate: 2015-01-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3010021
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2015)
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 30-39: The Progression of Male 100 m Sprinting with
           a Lower-Limb Amputation 1976–2012

    • Authors: Bryce Dyer
      Pages: 30 - 39
      Abstract: Sprinting with a lower-limb amputation over 100 m has taken place in the Paralympic Games for over three decades. The aim of this paper is to statistically evaluate the performances and participation levels of such athletes during this period. The level of performance improvement over a 36-year period was proposed to be significantly greater than the able-bodied equivalent. Coupled with this, a major spike in amputee running performance improvement was shown to occur from 1984–1988. This supports previously recorded accounts of a major technological change being made at this time. Finally, whilst the average performance of the medallists has increased consistently over the 36-year history, the overall participation in the event fell significantly after 1988 and did not recover until 2012.
      PubDate: 2015-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3010030
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2015)
  • Sports, Vol. 3, Pages 40-55: Pitch Sequence Complexity and Long-Term
           Pitcher Performance

    • Authors: Joel Bock
      Pages: 40 - 55
      Abstract: Winning one or two games during a Major League Baseball (MLB) season is often the difference between a team advancing to post-season play, or “waiting until next year”. Technology advances have made it feasible to augment historical data with in-game contextual data to provide managers immediate insights regarding an opponent’s next move, thereby providing a competitive edge. We developed statistical models of pitcher behavior using pitch sequences thrown during three recent MLB seasons (2011–2013). The purpose of these models was to predict the next pitch type, for each pitcher, based on data available at the immediate moment, in each at-bat. Independent models were developed for each player’s most frequent four pitches. The overall predictability of next pitch type is 74:5%. Additional analyses on pitcher predictability within specific game situations are discussed. Finally, using linear regression analysis, we show that an index of pitch sequence predictability may be used to project player performance in terms of Earned Run Average (ERA) and Fielding Independent Pitching (FIP) over a longer term. On a restricted range of the independent variable, reducing complexity in selection of pitches is correlated with higher values of both FIP and ERA for the players represented in the sample. Both models were significant at the α = 0.05 level (ERA: p = 0.022; FIP: p = 0.0114). With further development, such models may reduce risk faced by management in evaluation of potential trades, or to scouts assessing unproven emerging talent. Pitchers themselves might benefit from awareness of their individual statistical tendencies, and adapt their behavior on the mound accordingly. To our knowledge, the predictive model relating pitch-wise complexity and long-term performance appears to be novel.
      PubDate: 2015-03-02
      DOI: 10.3390/sports3010040
      Issue No: Vol. 3, No. 1 (2015)
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