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Journal Cover Sports
  [2 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Online) 2075-4663
   Published by MDPI Homepage  [140 journals]
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 21: The Influence of Various Distraction Stimuli on
           Affective Responses during Recumbent Cycle Ergometry

    • Authors: Paul Miller, Eric Hall, Elizabeth Bailey
      First page: 21
      Abstract: (1) Background: Acute bouts of exercise have been associated with affective changes. Exercise supplemented with distraction may divert attention from unpleasant feelings commonly associated with exercise to more pleasant feelings. The purpose of this study was to compare affective responses to exercise with and without distraction. (2) Methods: 25 individuals volunteered for this investigation and completed all three conditions. This study included three 30 min cycle ergometry exercise conditions, a control condition with no stimuli and two test conditions; one supplemented with a self-selected video and the other self-selected music. The Feeling Scale (FS) was administered prior to, every 10 min during, immediately following, and 10 min post exercise. (3) Results: These data demonstrate a significant condition effect for FS during exercise. The condition effect was due to FS being greater in the video and distraction conditions. There was no time by condition interaction seen during exercise. (4) Conclusion: These data indicate that distraction may be effective in supporting a more pleasant exercise experience and could potentially increase exercise adherence.
      PubDate: 2016-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4020021
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 22: The Acute Effects of Heavy Deadlifts on Vertical
           Jump Performance in Men

    • Authors: Jerry Arias, Jared Coburn, Lee Brown, Andrew Galpin
      First page: 22
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of deadlifts as a postactivation potentiation stimulus on vertical jump performance. Fifteen men (age, 23.9 ± 4.2 years; height, 176.3 ± 8.6 cm; mass, 76.1 ± 16.3 kg) participated in the study. Participants visited the lab for three sessions, each separated by at least 48 h. One repetition maximum (1RM) in the deadlift was measured during the first visit. For Visit 2, participants performed one of two experimental sessions: a deadlift session or a control session. Participants performed a single maximal vertical jump (VJ; counter movement jump without an arm swing), then either performed five repetitions of the deadlift using 85% 1RM (deadlift session) or were told to stand still for ten seconds (control). Following either condition, participants performed single VJ at 15 s, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 min post condition. Peak VJ height and peak ground reaction forces (pGRF) were measured using a force plate. For Visit 3, whatever condition was not administered at Visit 2 was performed. The results showed that VJ height was significantly lower 15 s following deadlifting (36.9 ± 5.1 cm) compared to the control condition (40.1 ± 4.6 cm). In addition, VJ height 15 s after the deadlift was lower than VJ height measured at minutes 2–16 following the deadlift. Performance of five repetitions of deadlifting did not affect pGRF. These results suggest that performing five repetitions of the deadlift exercise at 85% 1RM does not induce a postactivation potentiation (PAP) effect, and may in fact cause an acute reduction in VJ performance.
      PubDate: 2016-03-23
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4020022
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 23: The Effects of Mental Imagery with
           Video-Modeling on Self-Efficacy and Maximal Front Squat Ability

    • Authors: Daniel Buck, Jasmin Hutchinson, Christa Winter, Brian Thompson
      First page: 23
      Abstract: This study was designed to assess the effectiveness of mental imagery supplemented with video-modeling on self-efficacy and front squat strength (three repetition maximum; 3RM). Subjects (13 male, 7 female) who had at least 6 months of front squat experience were assigned to either an experimental (n = 10) or a control (n = 10) group. Subjects′ 3RM and self-efficacy for the 3RM were measured at baseline. Following this, subjects in the experimental group followed a structured imagery protocol, incorporating video recordings of both their own 3RM performance and a model lifter with excellent technique, twice a day for three days. Subjects in the control group spent the same amount of time viewing a placebo video. Following three days with no physical training, measurements of front squat 3RM and self-efficacy for the 3RM were repeated. Subjects in the experimental group increased in self-efficacy following the intervention, and showed greater 3RM improvement than those in the control group. Self-efficacy was found to significantly mediate the relationship between imagery and front squat 3RM. These findings point to the importance of mental skills training for the enhancement of self-efficacy and front squat performance.
      PubDate: 2016-04-14
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4020023
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 24: Radiographic Assessment of Anatomic Risk Factors
           Associated with Acute, Lateral Patellar Dislocation in the Immature Knee

    • Authors: Thai Trinh, Andrew Mundy, Matthew Beran, Kevin Klingele
      First page: 24
      Abstract: Acute patellar dislocation remains a common injury in both adult and pediatric patients. Non-operative management has been advocated for patients without a history of recurrent instability. Although pathologic thresholds for consideration of operative management have previously been reported in adults, it is largely unknown in children. A retrospective review of all skeletally immature patients diagnosed with acute lateral patellar dislocation who had MRI imaging were included for analysis. An age-based control group was also identified. Six radiographic measurements were compared: lateral trochlear inclination (LTI), trochlear facet asymmetry (TFA), trochlear depth (TD), tibial tuberosity–trochlear groove (TT–TG), sulcus angle (SA) and patellar height ratio. A total of 178 patients were included for analysis (study: n = 108, control: n = 70). The mean age of patients in the study and control groups was 13.7 and 12.1 years respectively (p ≤ 0.001). Study group patients had significant differences in all radiographic measurements including a decreased LTI (p < 0.001), increased TFA (p < 0.001) and SA (p < 0.001). The mean trochlear depth was 3.4 mm and 5.6 mm for patients in the study and control groups respectively (p < 0.001). Study group patients had an increased patellar height ratio (p < 0.001) and TT–TG distance (p < 0.001). Morphologic abnormalities may predispose skeletally immature patients to an increased risk of acute lateral patellar instability.
      PubDate: 2016-04-15
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4020024
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 25: Autonomy Mediates the Relationship between
           Personality and Physical Activity: An Application of Self-Determination
           Theory

    • Authors: Meredith Ramsey, Eric Hall
      First page: 25
      Abstract: This study sought to examine tenets of Self-Determination Theory by testing a mediation model of physical activity and personality via autonomy. A total of 290 adults were recruited to complete a one-time online survey of exercise habits and individual characteristics. Surveys assessed personality, autonomy, and physical activity. A measurement model specifying direct effects between personality dimensions and physical activity and indirect effects operating through autonomy provided an excellent fit to the data (Χ2 = 0.66, df = 3, p = 0.88, RMSEA(90% CI) = 0.00 (0.00–0.05), CFI = 0.99, SRMR = 0.01). Results indicated significant (p < 0.05) effects of Extroversion (β = 0.42), Conscientiousness (β = 0.96), and Emotional Stability (β = 0.60) on autonomy, which in turn, was significantly associated with physical activity (β = 0.55). No significant effects were observed for Agreeableness or Intellect. None of the personality constructs were found to be directly associated with physical activity. This model accounted for 27% of the variance in physical activity. The results of this study suggest that autonomy is significantly associated with physical activity. Therefore, attempts to improve autonomy in individuals may be a useful intervention strategy in improving physical activity levels.
      PubDate: 2016-04-29
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4020025
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 26: The Effects of a Multi-Ingredient Performance
           Supplement on Hormonal Profiles and Body Composition in Male College
           Athletes

    • Authors: Matthew Sharp, Kevin Shields, Jacob Rauch, Ryan Lowery, Shane Durkee, Gabriel Wilson, Eduardo De Souza
      First page: 26
      Abstract: Periods of intense training can elicit an acute decline in performance and body composition associated with weakened hormone profiles. This study investigated the effects of a multi-ingredient performance supplement (MIPS) on body composition and hormone levels in college athletes following a six-week training protocol. Twenty male college athletes were equally assigned to MIPS and placebo (PLA) groups for supplementation (three pills, twice daily) in conjunction with resistance training and specialized sports training (e.g., nine total sessions/week) for six weeks. Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry determined body composition at weeks 0 and 6. Serum samples collected at weeks 0 and 6 determined free testosterone (FT), total testosterone (TT), IGF-1 and total estrogen (TE) levels. PLA experienced a significant decline in lean body mass (LBM) (−1.5 kg; p < 0.05) whereas the MIPS sustained LBM. The MIPS increased TT 21.9% (541.5 ± 48.7 to 639.1 ± 31.7) and increased FT 15.2% (13.28 ± 1.1 to 15.45 ± 1.3 ng/dL) (p < 0.05). Conversely, PLA decreased TT 7.9% (554.5 ± 43.3 to 497.2 ± 39.1 ng/dL), decreased FT 17.4% (13.41 ± 1.8 to 11.23 ± 2.55 ng/dL), and decreased FT:E 12.06% (p < 0.05). These findings suggest the MIPS can prevent decrements in LBM and anabolic hormone profiles during intense training periods.
      PubDate: 2016-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4020026
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 27: Optimal Timing for Post-Activation Potentiation
           in Women Collegiate Volleyball Players

    • Authors: Robert Ah Sue, Kent Adams, Mark DeBeliso
      First page: 27
      Abstract: Post-activation potentiation (PAP) has been shown to acutely amplify muscular power output and may be advantageous for athletes looking to improve performance. PAP may have an acute window of effectiveness between 2 to 20 min. With correct timing and implementation it may be possible to induce PAP in competitive situations. The purpose of this study was to examine the time frame of potentiation following a PAP warm-up in collegiate female volleyball players. In this study, nine female collegiate volleyball players completed three laboratory sessions over the course of 10 days. During the first session, the athlete’s 5-RM back squat was determined for subsequent use as the conditioning activity to initiate PAP. A repeated measures experimental design was then employed for Sessions 2 and 3 where half of the participants alternately performed either a dynamic or PAP warm-up prior to performing a standing long jump (SLJ) at 2, 6, 10, 14, and 18 min. A mixed-factor repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine the effects of the two warm-up strategies (PAP vs. dynamic) on standing long jump (SLJ) performance across time. There was a significant effect for time (p < 0.01) and warm-up strategy (p < 0.01). Bonferroni post hoc techniques determined that the SLJs that followed the PAP warm-up were significantly greater at 2 (4.8%), 6 (3.6%), and 10 (3.6%) min compared to SLJs post-dynamic warm-up (p < 0.05). However, those differences did not persist at 14 or 18 min (p > 0.05). Further analysis included non-parametric pairwise comparisons (Wilcoxon signed-rank tests) between the SLJ scores at 2, 6, 10, 14, and 18 min (PAP vs. dynamic). The non-parametric results were consistent with the parametric results. Within the parameters of this study, it is concluded that performing a 5-RM back squat induces a measureable PAP effect for up to 10 min.
      PubDate: 2016-05-06
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4020027
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 28: Martial Arts and Metabolic Diseases

    • Authors: Hidetaka Hamasaki
      First page: 28
      Abstract: Different forms of martial arts are practiced worldwide, each with various intensities of physical activity. These disciplines are potentially an effective exercise therapy for metabolic diseases. Tai chi is the most well-studied style of martial arts and has shown evidence of its effect on metabolic diseases; however, little evidence is available regarding the association between other styles of martial arts and metabolic health. To summarize and evaluate the effects of martial arts on metabolic diseases, eligible articles were searched by using Pubmed. To date, systematic reviews provide no definite conclusion on the effectiveness of tai chi for treating metabolic diseases because of a small numbers of subjects, short durations of clinical trials, and some biases involved in testing. However, there are several clinical studies on subjects with metabolic diseases, which show that tai chi improves obesity, glycemic control, blood pressure control, and lipid profiles. Currently, some limited evidence suggests that other martial arts, such as kung fu and karate, may be beneficial for body composition, glycemic control, and arterial stiffness. To clarify the effectiveness of martial arts for treating metabolic diseases, well-designed prospective studies, preferably with a larger number of subjects and of longer duration, are warranted.
      PubDate: 2016-05-09
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4020028
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 29: Improvement in 100-m Sprint Performance at an
           Altitude of 2250 m

    • Authors: Nicholas Linthorne
      First page: 29
      Abstract: A fair system of recognizing records in athletics should consider the influence of environmental conditions on performance. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an altitude of 2250 m on the time for a 100-m sprint. Competition results from the 13 Olympic Games between 1964 and 2012 were corrected for the effects of wind and de-trended for the historical improvement in performance. The time advantage due to competing at an altitude of 2250 m was calculated from the difference between the mean race time at the 1968 Olympic Games in Mexico City and the mean race times at the low-altitude competition venues. The observed time advantage of Mexico City was 0.19 (±0.02) s for men and 0.21 (±0.05) s for women (±90% confidence interval). These results indicate that 100-m sprinters derive a substantial performance advantage when competing at a high-altitude venue and that an altitude of 1000 m provides an advantage equivalent to a 2 m/s assisting wind (0.10 s). Therefore, the altitude of the competition venue as well as the wind speed during the race should be considered when recognizing record performances.
      PubDate: 2016-05-12
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4020029
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 30: Reliability and Validity of the Early Years
           Physical Activity Questionnaire (EY-PAQ)

    • Authors: Daniel Bingham, Paul Collings, Stacy Clemes, Silvia Costa, Gillian Santorelli, Paula Griffiths, Sally Barber
      First page: 30
      Abstract: Measuring physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) in young children (<5 years) is complex. Objective measures have high validity but require specialist expertise, are expensive, and can be burdensome for participants. A proxy-report instrument for young children that accurately measures PA and ST is needed. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Early Years Physical Activity Questionnaire (EY-PAQ). In a setting where English and Urdu are the predominant languages spoken by parents of young children, a sample of 196 parents and their young children (mean age 3.2 ± 0.8 years) from Bradford, UK took part in the study. A total of 156 (79.6%) questionnaires were completed in English and 40 (20.4%) were completed in transliterated Urdu. A total of 109 parents took part in the reliability aspect of the study, which involved completion of the EY-PAQ on two occasions (7.2 days apart; standard deviation (SD) = 1.1). All 196 participants took part in the validity aspect which involved comparison of EY-PAQ scores against accelerometry. Validty anaylsis used all data and data falling with specific MVPA and ST boundaries. Reliability was assessed using intra-class correlations (ICC) and validity by Bland–Altman plots and rank correlation coefficients. The test re-test reliability of the EY-PAQ was moderate for ST (ICC = 0.47) and fair for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)(ICC = 0.35). The EY-PAQ had poor agreement with accelerometer-determined ST (mean difference = −87.5 min·day−1) and good agreement for MVPA (mean difference = 7.1 min·day−1) limits of agreement were wide for all variables. The rank correlation coefficient was non-significant for ST (rho = 0.19) and significant for MVPA (rho = 0.30). The EY-PAQ has comparable validity and reliability to other PA self-report tools and is a promising population-based measure of young children’s habitual MVPA but not ST. In situations when objective methods are not possible for measurement of young children’s MVPA, the EY-PAQ may be a suitable alternative but only if boundaries are applied.
      PubDate: 2016-05-26
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4020030
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 31: Heart Rate Responses during Small Sided Games
           and Official Match-Play in Soccer

    • First page: 31
      Abstract: Small sided games (SSGs) are a match specific type of training. In addition, there is an insufficient number of studies that compare heart rate (HR) responses of SSGs and official match-play (OM). The purpose of this study was to investigate the heart rate responses during SSGs and OM in young soccer players. Twenty-two male soccer players (mean ± SD; age 17.4 ± 0.9 years, height 174.9 ± 6.6 cm, body weight 67.7 ± 8.1 kg) volunteered to participate in this study. The first session included anthropometric measurements and a maximum running test (RT). Following the RT session, all players participated in five different randomly ordered SSG sessions (3-, 4-, 5-, 7- and 9-a-side with goalkeepers). OMs were also monitored in the fourth week of the study. A one-way multivariate repeated-measures analysis of variance (MANOVA) was then conducted to evaluate the differences between the SSGs and OM. The results showed that 3-a-side elicited significantly higher HR and %HRmax than other SSGs and OM, whereas 9-a-side resulted in significantly lower HR and %HRmax compared to other SSG formats and OM (p < 0.05). In conclusion, 3-a-side, 4-a-side and 5-a-side SSG formats provide players with the opportunity to spend sufficient proportion of time spent in high intensity zones that are specific to match demands.
      PubDate: 2016-05-30
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4020031
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 32: The Effects of Exercise on Natriuretic Peptides
           in Individuals without Heart Failure

    • Authors: Hidetaka Hamasaki
      First page: 32
      Abstract: Cardiac natriuretic peptides (NPs) play an important role in the regulation of energy expenditure in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. A systematic review on the effects of exercise on NPs in patients with heart failure reported that aerobic and resistance training reduced NPs; however, the effects of exercise on NPs and the underlying mechanism of exercise-induced NP secretion in subjects without heart failure remain unknown. In athletes and young, healthy subjects, the NP concentration at rest is not elevated, but strenuous endurance exercise significantly increases NPs. The exercise-induced increase in NPs may be caused by transient myocardial wall stress, cardiomyocyte metabolic changes, or neuroendocrinological response, which may have cytoprotective and growth-regulating effects on the heart. On the other hand, in elderly, overweight/obese subjects, and patients with hypertension, NP concentrations also increase during exercise; however, NP secretion may be more susceptible to cardiac stress compared to young, healthy individuals. Recent studies have shown that NPs are associated with thermogenesis in fat tissue and oxidative capacity in skeletal muscles. NPs may also have a protective role for skeletal muscle in humans, although further studies are warranted to elucidate the physiological mechanism of exercise-induced NP secretion.
      PubDate: 2016-05-31
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4020032
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 33: Self-Reported Use and Reasons among the General
           Population for Using Sports Nutrition Products and Dietary Supplements

    • Authors: Floris Wardenaar, Remko van den Dool, Ingrid Ceelen, Renger Witkamp, Marco Mensink
      First page: 33
      Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to determine the prevalence of dietary supplements (DS’s) and sport nutrition product (SNPs) among the general population, to identify differences for gender, age, and exercise frequency, and to determine the main reasons for use. The study was designed as a web-based questionnaire in a representative sample (n = 1544) of the Dutch population. Sixty-two percent (n = 957) of the respondents reported having used DS’s, SNPs, or both in the last twelve months. Women and older people reported the highest DS use. The highest use of SNPs was reported by regular exercising men and younger people with improving sporting performance as their main objective. Most frequently reported DS’s were multivitamins (28%) and vitamin C (19%)—for SNPs, energy drinks (22%) and isotonic drinks (19%). Health considerations were the most important motivation (DS’s 90% and SNPs 52%), but also performance was substantially reported (DS’s 14% and SNPs 35%). A substantial group of sedentary respondents also reported the use of SNPs. This study confirms that DS’s, SNPs, or both are widely used among the general population. Both health as performance are important reasons for use. It can be questioned whether the use of SNPs fits all respondents’ physical activity needs.
      PubDate: 2016-06-07
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4020033
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 34: Physiological Characteristics of Incoming
           

    • Authors: Robert Lockie, DeShaun Davis, Samantha Birmingham-Babauta, Megan Beiley, Jillian Hurley, Alyssa Stage, John Stokes, Tricia Tomita, Ibett Torne, Adrina Lazar
      First page: 34
      Abstract: Freshmen college soccer players will have lower training ages than their experienced teammates (sophomores, juniors, seniors). How this is reflected in field test performance is not known. Freshmen (n = 7) and experienced (n = 10) male field soccer players from the same Division I school completed soccer-specific tests to identify potential differences in incoming freshmen. Testing included: vertical jump (VJ), standing broad jump, and triple hop (TH); 30-m sprint, (0–5, 5–10, 0–10, and 0–30 m intervals); 505 change-of-direction test; Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 2 (YYIRT2); and 6 × 30-m sprints to measure repeated-sprint ability. A MANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc was conducted on the performance test data, and effect sizes and z-scores were calculated from the results for magnitude-based inference. There were no significant between-group differences in the performance tests. There were moderate effects for the differences in VJ height, left-leg TH, 0–5, 0–10 and 0–30 m sprint intervals, and YYIRT2 (d = 0.63–1.18), with experienced players being superior. According to z-score data, freshmen had meaningful differences below the squad mean in the 30-m sprint, YYIRT2, and jump tests. Freshmen soccer players may need to develop linear speed, high-intensity running, and jump performance upon entering a collegiate program.
      PubDate: 2016-06-08
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4020034
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 35: Analysis of Physiological, Technical, and
           Tactical Analysis during a Friendly Football Match of Elite U19

    • First page: 35
      Abstract: The main objective was to analyze a friendly match of youth elite soccer players identifying the variance of tactical and physiological response parameters during the game. In addition, detecting the impact of both halves on player performance. For the purposes of this study twenty-two U19 players were analyzed playing 11v11. Activity profile, heart rate (HR and HRmax), grouped in five different zones were analyzed via Bluetooth technology, technical performance was analyzed by the Team Sport Assessment Procedure (TSAP), and tactical performance was measured by Social Network Analysis. A comparison of heart rate responses showed significant main effects in the halves (p = 0.001; η p 2 = 0.623). A comparison between tactical position and technical performance had significant main effects (p = 0.001; η p 2 = 0.390). Tactical position showed statistically significant effects on tactical prominence (p = 0.002; η p 2 = 0.296). Therefore, fatigue is a component distinguished in technical/tactical parameters, such as volume of play and efficiency index. Results suggest that fatigue effects may constrain technical performance and, for that reason, the use of instruments to monitor the fatigue effect during matches may be suggested.
      PubDate: 2016-06-16
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4020035
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 2 (2016)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 2: Modelling the Progression of Male Swimmers’
           Performances through Adolescence

    • Authors: Shilo Dormehl, Samuel Robertson, Craig Williams
      First page: 2
      Abstract: Insufficient data on adolescent athletes is contributing to the challenges facing youth athletic development and accurate talent identification. The purpose of this study was to model the progression of male sub-elite swimmers’ performances during adolescence. The performances of 446 males (12–19 year olds) competing in seven individual events (50, 100, 200 m freestyle, 100 m backstroke, breaststroke, butterfly, 200 m individual medley) over an eight-year period at an annual international schools swimming championship, run under FINA regulations were collected. Quadratic functions for each event were determined using mixed linear models. Thresholds of peak performance were achieved between the ages of 18.5 ± 0.1 (50 m freestyle and 200 m individual medley) and 19.8 ± 0.1 (100 m butterfly) years. The slowest rate of improvement was observed in the 200 m individual medley (20.7%) and the highest in the 100 m butterfly (26.2%). Butterfly does however appear to be one of the last strokes in which males specialise. The models may be useful as talent identification tools, as they predict the age at which an average sub-elite swimmer could potentially peak. The expected rate of improvement could serve as a tool in which to monitor and evaluate benchmarks.
      PubDate: 2016-01-14
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4010002
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 3: Impact of Nintendo Wii Games on Physical Literacy
           in Children: Motor Skills, Physical Fitness, Activity Behaviors, and
           Knowledge

    • Authors: Amanda George, Linda Rohr, Jeannette Byrne
      First page: 3
      Abstract: Physical literacy is the degree of fitness, behaviors, knowledge, and fundamental movement skills (agility, balance, and coordination) a child has to confidently participate in physical activity. Active video games (AVG), like the Nintendo Wii, have emerged as alternatives to traditional physical activity by providing a non-threatening environment to develop physical literacy. This study examined the impact of AVGs on children’s (age 6–12, N = 15) physical literacy. For six weeks children played one of four pre-selected AVGs (minimum 20 min, twice per week). Pre and post measures of motivation, enjoyment, and physical literacy were completed. Results indicated a near significant improvement in aiming and catching (p = 0.06). Manual dexterity significantly improved in males (p = 0.001), and females felt significantly less pressured to engage in PA (p = 0.008). Overall, there appears to be some positive impact of an AVG intervention on components of physical literacy.
      PubDate: 2016-01-15
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4010003
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 4: Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Sports in 2015

    • Authors: Sports Editorial Office
      First page: 4
      Abstract: The editors of Sports would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2015. [...]
      PubDate: 2016-01-21
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4010004
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 5: ZumBeat: Evaluation of a Zumba Dance Intervention
           in Postmenopausal Overweight Women

    • First page: 5
      Abstract: Physical inactivity is a major public health concern since it increases individuals’ risk of morbidity and mortality. A subgroup at particular risk is postmenopausal overweight women. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and effect of a 12-week ZumBeat dance intervention on cardiorespiratory fitness and psychosocial health. Postmenopausal women with a body mass index (BMI) >30 kg/m2 or a waist circumference >94 cm who were not regularly physically active were asked to complete a 12-week ZumBeat dance intervention with instructed and home-based self-training sessions. Before and after the intervention, peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) was assessed on a treadmill; and body composition and several psychometric parameters (including quality of life, sports-related barriers and menopausal symptoms) were investigated. Of 17 women (median age: 54 years; median BMI: 30 kg/m2) enrolled in the study, 14 completed the study. There was no apparent change in VO2peak after the 12-week intervention period (average change score: −0.5 mL/kg/min; 95% confidence interval: −1.0, 0.1); but, quality of life had increased, and sports-related barriers and menopausal symptoms had decreased. A 12-week ZumBeat dance intervention may not suffice to increase cardiorespiratory fitness in postmenopausal overweight women, but it increases women’s quality of life.
      PubDate: 2016-01-25
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4010005
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 6: “You’re Not Born with Talent”
           Talented Girls’ and Boys’ Perceptions of Their Talents as
           Football Players

    • First page: 6
      Abstract: Generally in sports, there is a strong assumption of a connection between skill level in young age and adulthood. Studies have mainly focused on the coaches’ understanding and role in identifying and developing talent. In this article we turn our attention towards the athletes’ perspectives, interviewing talented young football players (five boys and five girls) about their perceptions of their own talent and development. The objective of the article is to investigate how boys and girls perceive their talent and to discuss how various perceptions influence coaching practice in talent development. We introduce the following questions: (a) do the players use a static or dynamic perception of their own talent and (b) do the players consider specific or general skills to be most important in their skill development? Results show that the boys have a more static perception of talent compared to the girls. Furthermore, the boys in this study stress the importance of highly specified skills. The girls have a more balanced view on what is important, but tend to stress the importance of basic skills. The study suggests two potential implications. First, the coaches should be aware of the possible vulnerability following players’ static perception of talent. Second, an exclusive focus on specified skills might make for less optimal preparation for the changing demands young players meet when moving through the different levels of play on their way to high level football. In future research it would be interesting to investigate how players with a lower skill level, not yet regarded as talent, perceive their talent and skill development.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4010006
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 7: Effects of Short-Term Dynamic Constant External
           Resistance Training and Subsequent Detraining on Strength of the Trained
           and Untrained Limbs: A Randomized Trial

    • Authors: Pablo Costa, Trent Herda, Ashley Herda, Joel Cramer
      First page: 7
      Abstract: Short-term resistance training has been shown to increase isokinetic muscle strength and performance after only two to nine days of training. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of three days of unilateral dynamic constant external resistance (DCER) training and detraining on the strength of the trained and untrained legs. Nineteen men were randomly assigned to a DCER training group or a non-training control group. Subjects visited the laboratory eight times, the first visit was a familiarization session, the second visit was a pre-training assessment, the subsequent three visits were for training sessions (if assigned to the training group), and the last three visits were post-training assessments 1, 2, and 3 (i.e., 48 h, 1 week, and 2 weeks after the final training session). Strength increased in both trained and untrained limbs from pre- to post-training assessment 1 for the training group and remained elevated at post-training assessments 2 and 3 (p ≤ 0.05). No changes were observed in the control (p > 0.05). Possible strength gains from short-term resistance training have important implications in clinical rehabilitation settings, sports injury prevention, as well as other allied health fields such as physical therapy, occupational therapy, and athletic training.
      PubDate: 2016-01-27
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4010007
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 8: Clinical Assessment of Scapula Motion: Scapula
           Upward Rotation and Relationship with Injury in Swimmers

    • Authors: Jo Brown, Rebecca Mellifont, Brendan Burkett
      First page: 8
      Abstract: Abnormal scapulothoracic mechanics and scapulohumeral rhythm are implicated in shoulder pathologies, including glenohumeral impingement and rotator cuff tears. Upward scapula rotation, specifically asymmetry of scapula motion and associations of patterns through range with injury, was investigated in dominant and non-dominant limbs of nationally ranked junior and Paralympic swimmers during competition season. The static and throughout phases measures of upward scapula rotation were: Phase I (start position, 45°), Phase II (45° to 90°), Phase III (90° to 135°) and Phase IV (135° to max). Injury was assessed with a validated questionnaire. Differences between side (dominant and non-dominant), group (junior and Paralympic), and phase were examined. Significant differences (P < 0.05) between groups were identified for dominant side at rest, 45° and 135°, and in phases II and IV (including range). Scapulohumeral rhythm was higher in the non-dominant limb of Paralympic swimmers but in the dominant limb of junior swimmers. Greatest differences in upward rotation between injured and non-injured swimmers were found in Phase 1: 43.6% (3.3°) Paralympic; 73.1% (8°) junior. Results suggest asymmetry of movement in both limbs, through all phases, and at single points in range, should be investigated for assessing injury and developing preventive strategies and rehabilitation protocols.
      PubDate: 2016-01-28
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4010008
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 9: Vertical Jumping Tests versus Wingate Anaerobic
           Test in Female Volleyball Players: The Role of Age

    • Authors: Pantelis Nikolaidis, Jose Afonso, Vicente Clemente-Suarez, Jose Alvarado, Tarak Driss, Beat Knechtle, Gema Torres-Luque
      First page: 9
      Abstract: Single and continuous vertical jumping tests, as well as the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT), are commonly used to assess the short-term muscle power of female volleyball players; however, the relationship among these tests has not been studied adequately. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the relationship of single and continuous vertical jumps with the WAnT in female volleyball players. Seventy adolescent (age 16.0 ± 1.0 years, body mass 62.5 ± 7.1 kg, height 170.4 ± 6.1 cm, body fat 24.2% ± 4.3%) and 108 adult female volleyball players (age 24.8 ± 5.2 years, body mass 66.5 ± 8.7 kg, height 173.2 ± 7.4 cm, body fat 22.0% ± 5.1%) performed the squat jump (SJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), Abalakov jump (AJ), 30 s Bosco test and WAnT (peak power, Ppeak; mean power, Pmean). Mean power in the Bosco test was correlated (low to large magnitude) with Pmean of the WAnT (r = 0.27, p = 0.030 in adolescents versus r = 0.56, p < 0.001 in adults). SJ, CMJ and AJ also correlated with Ppeak (0.28 ≤ r ≤ 0.46 in adolescents versus 0.58 ≤ r ≤ 0.61 in adults) and with Pmean (0.43 ≤ r ≤ 0.51 versus 0.67 ≤ r ≤ 0.71, respectively) of the WAnT (p < 0.05). In summary, the impact of the Bosco test and WAnT on muscle power varied, especially in the younger age group. Single jumping tests had larger correlations with WAnT in adults than in adolescent volleyball players. These findings should be taken into account by volleyball coaches and fitness trainers during the assessment of short-term muscle power of their athletes.
      PubDate: 2016-02-05
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4010009
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 10: Can Fundamental Movement Skill Mastery Be
           Increased via a Six Week Physical Activity Intervention to Have Positive
           Effects on Physical Activity and Physical Self-Perception?

    • Authors: Elizabeth Bryant, Michael Duncan, Samantha Birch, Rob James
      First page: 10
      Abstract: Background: Previous research has suggested a positive relationship between fundamental movement skills (FMS) mastery and physical activity (PA) level. Research conducted on interventions to improve FMS mastery is equivocal and further research is needed. Methods: An intervention group of 82 children (35 boys and 47 girls) and a control group of 83 children (42 boys and 41 girls) were recruited from Years 4 and 5 (mean age ± SD = 8.3 ± 0.4 years) of two schools in Central England. The intervention included a combination of circuits and dancing to music. Pre and post intervention tests were conducted. Tests included: subjective assessment of eight FMS; objective measurement of two FMS; four day pedometer step count recording; height and mass for Body Mass Index (BMI); and the completion of Harter et al.’s (1982) self-perception questionnaire. Results: Following a two (pre to post) by two (intervention and control group) mixed-model ANOVA it was highlighted that the intervention group improved mastery in all eight FMS, and increased both daily steps and physical self-perception. Conclusions: It can be concluded that focussing one Physical Education (PE) lesson per week on the development of FMS has had a positive benefit on FMS, PA level and physical self-perception for the children in this study.
      PubDate: 2016-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4010010
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 11: Relationship of Two Vertical Jumping Tests to
           Sprint and Change of Direction Speed among Male and Female Collegiate
           Soccer Players

    • Authors: Isaiah McFarland, Jay Dawes, Craig Elder, Robert Lockie
      First page: 11
      Abstract: In collegiate level soccer acceleration, maximal velocity and agility are essential for successful performance. Power production is believed to provide a foundation for these speed qualities. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of change of direction speed, acceleration, and maximal velocity to both the counter movement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) in collegiate soccer players. Thirty-six NCAA Division II soccer players (20 males and 16 females) were tested for speed over 10 and 30 m, CODS (T-test, pro agility) and power (CMJ, SJ). Independent t-tests (p ≤ 0.05) were used to derive gender differences, and Pearson’s correlations (p ≤ 0.05) calculated relationships between the different power and speed tests. Female subjects displayed moderate-to-strong correlations between 30 m, pro agility and T-test with the CMJ (r = −0.502 to −0.751), and SJ (r = −0.502 to −0.681). Moderate correlations between 10 and 30 m with CMJ (r = −0.476 and −0.570) and SJ (r = −0.443 and −0.553, respectively) were observed for males. Moderate to strong relationships exist between speed and power attributes in both male and female collegiate soccer players, especially between CMJ and maximal velocity. Improving stretch shortening cycle (SSC) utilization may contribute to enhanced sport-specific speed.
      PubDate: 2016-02-16
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4010011
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 12: Structural Analysis of Women’s Heptathlon

    • First page: 12
      Abstract: The heptathlon comprises the results of seven single disciplines, assuming an equal influence from each discipline, depending on the measured performance. Data analysis was based on the data recorded for the individual performances of the 10 winning heptathletes in the World Athletics Championships from 1987 to 2013 and the Olympic Games from 1988 to 2012. In addition to descriptive analysis methods, correlations, bivariate and multivariate linear regressions, and panel data regressions were used. The transformation of the performances from seconds, centimeters, and meters into points showed that the individual disciplines do not equally affect the overall competition result. The currently valid conversion formula for the run, jump, and throw disciplines prefers the sprint and jump disciplines but penalizes the athletes performing in the 800 m run, javelin throw, and shotput disciplines. Furthermore, 21% to 48% of the variance of the sum of points can be attributed to the performances in the disciplines of long jump, 200 m sprint, 100 m hurdles, and high jump. To balance the effects of the single disciplines in the heptathlon, the formula to calculate points should be reevaluated.
      PubDate: 2016-02-19
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4010012
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 13: Cardiac Autonomic and Salivary Responses to a
           Repeated Training Bout in Elite Swimmers

    • Authors: Rohan Edmonds, Anthony Leicht, Brendan Burkett, Mark McKean
      First page: 13
      Abstract: This study examined the acute training responses of heart rate variability (HRV) and salivary biomarkers (immunoglobulin A and alpha-amylase) following a standardised training bout in Paralympic swimmers. Changes in HRV, sIgA and sAA were documented Monday morning, Monday afternoon and Tuesday morning over a 14-week monitoring period leading into international competition. Magnitude based inferences with effect sizes (ES) were used to assess the practical significance of changes each week. Normal training responses elicited increases in HR, α1, sAA and sIgA, accompanied by decreases in HF(nu), standard deviation of instantaneous RR variability (SD1) and the root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD) from Monday morning to Monday afternoon, and to Tuesday morning with similar week to week responses for most variables. Changes in RMSSD from Monday a.m. to p.m. were likely smaller (less negative) for Week 7 (78/18/3, ES = 0.40) following a competition weekend with similar changes observed from Monday a.m. to Tuesday a.m. (90/5/5, ES = 1.30). In contrast, the change in sAA from Monday a.m. to p.m. was very likely less (more negative) at Week 7 (0/0/99, ES = −2.46), with similar changes observed from Monday a.m. to Tuesday a.m. (0/0/99, ES = −4.69). During the taper period, there were also likely increases in parasympathetic modulations (RMSSD, Weeks 12–14) along with increased immune function (sIgA, Week 13) that demonstrated a favourable state of athlete preparedness. Used together, HRV and sAA provide coaches with valuable information regarding physiological changes in response to training and competition.
      PubDate: 2016-02-24
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4010013
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 14: A Description and Comparison of
           Cardiorespiratory Fitness Measures in Relation to Pitching Performance
           Among Professional Baseball Pitchers

    • Authors: Javair Gillett, J. Dawes, Frank Spaniol, Matthew Rhea, Joe Rogowski, Mitchel Magrini, Roberto Simao, Derek Bunker
      First page: 14
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to provide descriptive and comparative information regarding the cardiorespiratory fitness of professional baseball pitchers. Twenty-four (n = 24) major league (ML) baseball pitchers (starters n = 14; relievers n = 10) over seven seasons (2007–2013) were evaluated. A modified Bruce protocol and the CardioCoach™ CO2 metabolic analyzer were used to estimate VO2 max and anaerobic threshold (AT) at the beginning of each season. Performance data from each season was utilized to draw inference about pitching performance. One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to compare Starting (S) and Relief (R) pitchers above/below the group mean for VO2 max and AT. Pearson product moment correlations were also used to examine relationships between cardiorespiratory fitness and performance. Significant differences in performance were discovered between S pitchers above/below the overall group mean for VO2 max. (p ≤ 0.05) and for AT in Walks plus Hits per Inning Pitched (WHIP) (p ≤ 0.05) and Earned Run Average (ERA) (p ≤ 0.05). Significant relationships between VO2 max and Walks per 9 Innings (BB/9) (p ≤ 0.05), Home Runs per 9 innings (HR/9) (p ≤ 0.05), Wins (W) (p ≤ 0.05), Fielding Independent Pitching (FIP) (p ≤ 0.01), Strikeouts (K) (p ≤ 0.01), Hits per 9 innings (H/9) (p ≤ 0.01), Strikeouts per 9 innings (K/9) (p ≤ 0.01), ERA (p ≤ 0.01), and WHIP (p ≤ 0.01). Low, but significant, correlations were discovered between AT and WHIP (p ≤ 0.05) and ERA (≤0.05). CONCLUSION: Higher aerobic capacity appears to be more influential for S than R pitchers. Strength and conditioning practitioners should ensure that pitchers, especially S pitchers at the ML level, perform sufficient and appropriate endurance training to support pitching performance.
      PubDate: 2016-02-25
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4010014
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 15: Type of Ground Surface during Plyometric
           Training Affects the Severity of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage

    • Authors: Hamid Arazi, Roger Eston, Abbas Asadi, Behnam Roozbeh, Alireza Saati Zarei
      First page: 15
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare the changes in the symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage from a bout of plyometric exercise (PE; 10 × 10 vertical jumps) performed in aquatic, sand and firm conditions. Twenty-four healthy college-aged men were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Aquatic (AG, n = 8), Sand (SG, n = 8) and Firm (FG, n = 8). The AG performed PE in an aquatic setting with a depth of ~130 cm. The SG performed PE on a dry sand surface at a depth of 20 cm, and the FG performed PE on a 10-cm-thick wooden surface. Plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), knee range of motion (KROM), maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC) of the knee extensors, vertical jump (VJ) and 10-m sprint were measured before and 24, 48 and 72 h after the PE. Compared to baseline values, FG showed significantly (p < 0.05) greater changes in CK, DOMS, and VJ at 24 until 48 h. The MIVC decreased significantly for the SG and FG at 24 until 48 h post-exercise in comparison to the pre-exercise values. There were no significant (p > 0.05) time or group by time interactions in KROM. In the 10-m sprint, all the treatment groups showed significant (p < 0.05) changes compared to pre-exercise values at 24 h, and there were no significant (p > 0.05) differences between groups. The results indicate that PE in an aquatic setting and on a sand surface induces less muscle damage than on a firm surface. Therefore, training in aquatic conditions and on sand may be beneficial for the improvement of performance, with a concurrently lower risk of muscle damage and soreness.
      PubDate: 2016-03-01
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4010015
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 16: How Confident Can We Be in Modelling Female
           Swimming Performance in Adolescence?

    • Authors: Shilo Dormehl, Samuel Robertson, Craig Williams
      First page: 16
      Abstract: The purpose of this research was to determine the expected progression of adolescent female swimming performances using a longitudinal approach. The performances of 514 female swimmers (12–19 year olds) who participated in one or more FINA-regulated annual international schools’ swimming championships over an eight-year period were analysed. Quadratic functions for each of the seven individual events (50, 100, 200 m freestyle, 100 m backstroke, breaststroke, butterfly, 200 m individual medley) were determined using mixed linear models. The predicted threshold of peak performance ranged from 16.8 ± 0.2 (200 m individual medley) to 20.6 ± 0.1 (100 m butterfly) years of age, preceded by gradual rates of improvement (mean rate of 1.6% per year). However, following cross validation, only three events (100 m backstroke, 200 m individual medley and 200 m freestyle) produced reliable models. Identifying the factors that contribute to the progression of female performance in this transitory period of life remains challenging, not least since the onset of puberty is likely to have occurred prior to reaching 12 years of age, the minimum competition age for this championship.
      PubDate: 2016-03-03
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4010016
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 17: The Age in Swimming of Champions in World
           Championships (1994–2013) and Olympic Games (1992–2012): A
           Cross-Sectional Data Analysis

    • First page: 17
      Abstract: (1) Background: We investigated the age of swimming champions in all strokes and race distances in World Championships (1994–2013) and Olympic Games (1992–2012); (2) Methods: Changes in age and swimming performance across calendar years for 412 Olympic and world champions were analysed using linear, non-linear, multi-level regression analyses and MultiLayer Perceptron (MLP); (3) Results: The age of peak swimming performance remained stable in most of all race distances for world champions and in all race distances for Olympic champions. Longer (i.e., 200 m and more) race distances were completed by younger (-20 years old for women and -22 years old for men) champions than shorter (i.e., 50 m and 100 m) race distances (-22 years old for women and -24 years old for men). There was a sex difference in the age of champions of -2 years with a mean age of -21 and -23 years for women and men, respectively. Swimming performance improved in most race distances for world and Olympic champions with a larger trend of increase in Olympic champions; (4) Conclusion: Swimmers at younger ages (<20 years) may benefit from training and competing in longer race distances (i.e., 200 m and longer) before they change to shorter distances (i.e., 50 m and 100 m) when they become older (>22 years).
      PubDate: 2016-03-04
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4010017
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 18: A Comparison between Chocolate Milk and a Raw
           

    • Authors: Andrew Hatchett, Christopher Berry, Claudia Oliva, Douglas Wiley, Jacob St. Hilaire, Alex LaRochelle
      First page: 18
      Abstract: This investigation sought to examine the effect that a chocolate milk solution (CMS) and a raw milk solution (RMS) had on lower extremity induced delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS). Twenty trained male participants completed a set of questionnaires, prior to completing a lower extremity DOMS protocol, to determine the level of discomfort and functional limitations. Once the DOMS protocol was completed, participants were randomly assigned to either the CM or RM group. Once assigned, participants ingested 240 mL of the respective solution and completed the same set of questionnaires immediately post, 24-, 48- and 72-h post DOMS protocol. Additionally, for 10 days post-ingestion participants were contacted to learn if any negative effects were experienced as a result of ingesting either solution. Both groups reported an increase in lower extremity discomfort at each data collection interval post-DOMS protocol (post, 24-, 48- and 72-h). Participants assigned to the RM group reported high discomfort post and a relative decline in discomfort from immediately post-DOMS protocol to 72-h post. The RMS group reported substantially less discomfort at 72-h when compared to the CMS group. Ingestion of a raw milk solution immediately post strength exercise can substantially reduce the level of self-reported discomfort associated with DOMS.
      PubDate: 2016-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4010018
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 19: Lateral Squats Significantly Decrease Sprint
           Time in Collegiate Baseball Athletes

    • Authors: Jason White, Trevor Dorian, Margaret Jones
      First page: 19
      Abstract: The purpose was to examine the effect of prior performance of dumbbell lateral squats (DBLS) on an agility movement-into-a-sprint (AMS) test. Twelve collegiate, resistance-trained, baseball athletes participated in three sessions separated by three days. Session One consisted of AMS baseline test, DBLS 5-RM test, and experimental protocol familiarization. Subjects were randomly assigned the protocol order for Sessions Two and Three, which consisted of warm up followed by 1-min sitting (no-DBLS) or performing the DBLS for 1 × 5 repetitions @ 5RM for each leg. Four minutes of slow recovery walking preceded the AMS test, which consisted of leading off a base and waiting for a visual stimulus. In reaction to stimulus, subjects exerted maximal effort while moving to the right by either pivoting or drop stepping and sprinting for 10 yards (yd). In Session Three, subjects switched protocols (DBLS, no-DBLS). Foot contact time (FCT), stride frequency (SF), stride length (SL), and 10-yd sprint time were measured. There were no differences between conditions for FCT, SF, or SL. Differences existed between DBLS (1.85 ± 0.09 s) and no-DBLS (1.89 ± 0.10 s) for AMS (p = 0.03). Results from the current study support the use of DBLS for performance enhancement prior to performing the AMS test.
      PubDate: 2016-03-07
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4010019
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
       
  • Sports, Vol. 4, Pages 20: Physical and Physiological Characteristics of
           Judo Athletes: An Update

    • First page: 20
      Abstract: Judo competition is characterized structurally by weight category, which raises the importance of physiological control training in judo. The aim of the present review was to examine scientific papers on the physiological profile of the judokas, maintenance or loss of weight, framing issues, such as anthropometric parameters (body fat percentage), heart rate responses to training and combat, maximal oxygen uptake, hematological, biological and hormones indicators. The values shown in this review should be used as a reference for the evaluation of physical fitness and the effectiveness of training programs. Hence, this information is expected to contribute to the development of optimal training interventions aiming to achieve maximum athletic performance and to maintain the health of judokas.
      PubDate: 2016-03-10
      DOI: 10.3390/sports4010020
      Issue No: Vol. 4, No. 1 (2016)
       
 
 
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