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Journal Cover Australian Journal of Water Resources
  [SJR: 0.226]   [H-I: 9]   [6 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal  (Not entitled to full-text)
   ISSN (Print) 1324-1583
   Published by RMIT Publishing Homepage  [403 journals]
  • Volume 15 Issue 1 - Comparison of ordinary and generalised least squares
           regression models in regional flood frequency analysis: A case study for
           New South Wales
    • Abstract: Haddad, K; Rahman, A; Kuczera, G
      Regional flood frequency analysis (RFFA) techniques are commonly used to estimate design floods for ungauged catchments. In Australian Rainfall and Runoff (ARR), the probabilistic rational method (PRM) was recommended for eastern New South Wales (NSW). Recent studies in Australia have shown that regression-based RFFA methods can provide more accurate design flood estimates than the PRM. This paper compares ordinary least squares (OLS) and generalised least squares (GLS) based quantile regression techniques using data from 96 smallto medium-sized catchments across NSW for average recurrence intervals of 2 to 100 years. The advantages of the GLS regression are that this accounts for the inter-station correlation and varying record lengths from site to site. An independent test based on both the split-sample and one-ata-time validation approaches employing a wide range of statistical diagnostics indicates that the GLS regression provides more accurate flood quantile estimates than the OLS one. The developed regression equations are relatively easy to apply, which require data for only two to three predictors, catchment area, design rainfall intensity and stream density. The findings from this study together with those from other RFFA studies being examined as a part of ARR upgrade projects will inform the development of RFFA techniques for inclusion in the revised edition of ARR.

      PubDate: Sat, 6 Oct 2012 14:36:24 GMT
  • Volume 14 Issue 2 - Design Flood Estimation in Ungauged Catchments: A
           Comparison between the Probabilistic Rational Method and Quantile
           Regression Technique for NSW
    • Abstract: Rahman, A; Haddad, K; Zaman, M; Kuczera, G; Weinmann, PE
      Design flood estimation for ungauged catchments is often required in hydrologic design. The most commonly adopted regional flood frequency analysis methods used for this purpose include the index flood method, regression based techniques and various forms of the rational method. This paper first examines the similarities and differences between the probabilistic rational method (PRM) (the currently recommended method for Victoria and eastern NSW in Australian Rainfall and Runoff) and the generalised least squares (GLS) based quantile regression technique (QRT). It then uses data from 107 catchments in NSW to compare the performance of these two methods. To make a valid comparison, the same predictor variables and data set have been used for both methods.

      PubDate: Sat, 6 Oct 2012 14:36:23 GMT
  • Volume 15 Issue 1 - Establishment of environmental water in the Murray-
           Darling Basin: An analysis of two key policy initiatives
    • Abstract: Horne, A; Freebairn, J; O'Donnell, E
      Policy to protect river ecosystems has changed rapidly in Australia, and the mechanisms to both establish and manage environmental water are still evolving. Policy has moved from providing a fixed environmental target (albeit varying between years) to one in which the environment can actively participate in the market, with the possibility of better fulfilling variable water requirements. However, the inherent nature of the sustainable diversion limit (SDL), established under the Water Act 2007, is that it represents a fixed allocation to the environment. This paper considers the interaction of the new SDL for the Murray-Darling Basin and potential issues arising from the interaction with the government buyback initiative. While both the SDL and buyback have been discussed extensively, the interaction between the two policies has received little debate. Pairing these two policy initiatives will have implications for the flexibility of management of the environmental water, and the ability for on-going trade between the environment and consumptive water users. Our position is that the SDL, or preferably rules-based water, should reflect an absolute minimum limit on environmental water requirements, while the buyback should provide the environmental water as tradable water rights with the flexibility to respond to shifts in the environmental water demand curve by providing environmental water over and above the SDL. If both a buyback and minimum flow rules are in place, the SDL will provide little additional benefits but increase administrative costs and reduce flexibility. This has significant implications for the way the SDL and buyback strategy are structured.

      PubDate: Sat, 6 Oct 2012 13:35:49 GMT
  • Volume 16 Issue 1 - Water-sensitive cities: Applying the framework to
    • Abstract: Lloyd, S; Wong, T; Blunt, S
      Key thinkers have been developing a strategic framework for transforming cities into water-sensitive cities. Transforming Melbourne into a water-sensitive city has been a focus of the City of Melbourne through undertaking an integrated water management strategy coined "city as a catchment", and is being progressively undertaken by other local municipalities. Critical to applying the framework has been to establish water quality and water conservation targets that councils are able to commit to. The paper outlines a key approach adopted to diversify water supply options through the provision of both centralised and decentralised water schemes, ranging from the simple rainwater tank for non-potable use to large scale stormwater harvesting schemes. Stormwater not harvested is treated to improve its quality prior to discharge to the environment for the protection of aquatic ecosystems. The paper presents an overview of the implementation plan for the City of Melbourne that clearly establishes a vision for the city and demonstrates how selection of on-ground works relate to water conservation, best practice stormwater management targets and wastewater minimisation. This includes implementing sustainable urban water management approaches across all of the city's assets (including parks and gardens, building and roads). In implementing the framework, Council's influence would extend adoption beyond the public domain by facilitating private participation through regulations and provisions of incentives for the uptake of WSUD in the private domain (including commercial and residential sites).

      PubDate: Wed, 26 Sep 2012 16:10:30 GMT
  • Volume 16 Issue 1 - Evaluation of an evaporation suppressing monolayer
           system in a controlled wave tank environment: A pilot investigation
    • Abstract: Schouten, P; Putland, S; Lemckert, C; Underhill, I; Solomon, D; Sunartio, D; Leung, A; Prime, E; Tran, D; Qiao, G
      Due to long-term drought conditions coupled with the apparent influence of global warming, compounding water loss has been a very serious issue across the vast majority of the Australian continent. During these drought conditions, the evaporative effect outweighs the amount of precipitation being received on a year to year basis. Several methods have been introduced in recent history to inhibit the amount of evaporative loss from various types of water bodies such as the application of thin layer chemical films (monolayers). A series of solvent, solid and suspension derived prototype monolayers, based on ethylene glycol monooctadecyl ether (C18E1), are examined in this current study as an approach to eliminate the problems seen to occur with the previous types of monolayers. This research evaluates the fundamental effect of wind and wave based activity upon these prototype monolayers in an atmospherically controlled enclosure positioned over a large extended water tank using real-time environmental measurements. Selected performance results for the prototype monolayers as measured within the enclosed water tank were compared to results measured from a control monolayer film based on a commonly used octadecanol suspension film. The results show that under varying wind and wave conditions the prototype monolayers inhibit evaporation at a level similar to or better than the octadecanol standard, even when delivered at lower raw dosages.

      PubDate: Wed, 26 Sep 2012 16:10:13 GMT
  • Volume 16 Issue 1 - Discussion on "Flood frequency and design flood
           estimation procedures in the United States: Progress and challenges" by JF
           England, Jr
    • Abstract: French, R
      With revision of Australian Rainfall and Runoff under way, it is heartening to read of others headed in the direction of improvement to hydrologic design techniques.

      PubDate: Wed, 26 Sep 2012 16:03:29 GMT
  • Volume 16 Issue 1 - The hydrologic impacts of farm dams
    • Abstract: Nathan, R; Lowe, L
      Farm dams play an important role in Australian life. Small dams storing just a few megalitres provide essential supplies for stock and domestic consumption. Larger dams are used for irrigation purposes, and play a vital role in increasing the productivity, and hence viability, of many agricultural enterprises. Dams are also constructed for recreational and ornamental purposes, for aquaculture, and as artificial wetlands for environmental purposes. Over time there has been an increase in the number of dams used for irrigation purposes. There has been a general trend towards constructing larger dams, some impounding many hundreds of megalitres, to provide additional security of supply and to irrigate high value crops. An increase in the number of farm dams used for domestic, stock or aesthetic purposes is also expected in new peri-urban developments.

      PubDate: Wed, 26 Sep 2012 16:01:59 GMT
  • Volume 14 Issue 2 - Discussion on 'Addressing Climatic Non-stationarity in
           the Assessment of Flood Risk'
    • Abstract: French, R
      Practitioners will have to express their design uncertainties more often and more clearly. Previous editions of Australian Rainfall and Runoffhave been written in language to engender confidence in flood numbers and the producers thereof, so expressions of uncertainty are almost totally absent from its pages.

      PubDate: Wed, 19 Sep 2012 12:28:34 GMT
  • Volume 14 Issue 2 - In Search of the Best
    • Abstract: Dandy, G
      This paper is based on the 2009 Munro Oration given by Prof Graeme Dandy at the 32nd Hydrology and Water Resources Symposium held in Newcastle on 30 November to 3 December 2009. The paper outlines the importance of considering human activity and its impact on the hydrological cycle. It outlines the systems approach, multi-objective planning and evolutionary optimisation, and their application to the planning and design of water resources systems. The contribution of previous researchers and engineers in the development of these techniques is acknowledged. Among them, Crawford Munro provided a shining example of a rational approach to the planning and management of our water resources.

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Jun 2012 16:27:18 GMT
  • Volume 15 Issue 1 - Regional flood frequency for Queensland using the
           quantile regression technique
    • Abstract: Palmen, LB; Weeks, WD; Kuczera, G
      Design flood estimation for small- and medium-sized catchments is a frequent requirement for a wide range of projects. While each individual project in this category is likely to be relatively small, the total value of projects that rely on design floods for the design is very high. The currently adopted approaches for Queensland are published in Australian Rainfall and Runoff. Several approaches are described, though the Main Roads Rational Method (MRRM) is predominant in practice. This method has been used throughout Queensland for many years, but the basis of the method is not considered reliable because of the lack of recorded data used in the development and the lack of independent testing. The development of the new procedure described in this paper has used all suitable streamflow data available for the state. It therefore has a better foundation and the results can be accepted with more confidence. The approach presented uses the quantile regression technique to develop a procedure for calculating design floods for ungauged catchments that relates the design flood discharges to readily available catchment characteristics. The method is then tested against the currently available MRRM. This paper provides an input to part of the upgrade of Australian Rainfall and Runoff, currently underway.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2012 12:27:38 GMT
  • Volume 15 Issue 1 - Flood frequency and design flood estimation procedures
           in the United States: Progress and challenges
    • Abstract: England, JF
      Design flood estimation procedures in the United States have traditionally focused on two primary methods: frequency analysis of peak flows for floodplain management and levee design; and deterministic, probable maximum flood (PMF) estimates for design of dams and nuclear facilities. Federal Agencies in the United States, including the Bureau of Reclamation, US Geological Survey and Army Corps of Engineers, are currently examining potential changes to these standard flood hydrology procedures. This paper presents overviews of some ongoing investigations and data collection studies to support potential changes in design flood estimation. For floodplain management, the current guideline is Bulletin 17B, which specifies the use of an LP3 distribution, method of moments and regional skew information. Potential improvements to Bulletin 17B currently under consideration are: (i) use of historical and paleoflood information; (ii) adjusting for low outliers; (iii) improved plotting positions; and (iv) confidence intervals. Ongoing testing results are presented, highlighting the expected moments algorithm. In contrast to well-established, deterministic (PMF) extreme flood estimates for dam safety, agencies are now moving toward risk-based techniques. The Bureau of Reclamation has developed and applied several methods in order to estimate extreme floods and probabilities for large dams. Techniques used to date are summarised, along with those being considered by other US agencies. Improvements to extreme flood databases that provide inputs, including extreme storms and probable maximum precipitation estimates, precipitation frequency and paleofloods, are ongoing. Some challenges to updating design flood methods and data, including institutional effects, national scale, research to operations and use of new technologies, are described.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2012 12:27:38 GMT
  • Volume 15 Issue 1 - Coping with severe drought: Stories from the front
    • Abstract: Barton, AF; Briggs, S; McRae-Williams, P; Prior, D
      The last 12 years has seen extreme drought in western Victoria. This has impacted on the area in many ways, but none more so than in the provision of basic water supplies to people. To meet the challenge of drought, headworks storages have had to be operated at record low levels, severe water restrictions imposed, water carting programs established, alternative sources of water, and new technologies developed and used. Significant changes have also been made to the water supply infrastructure in the region, most notably the Northern-Mallee and Wimmera-Mallee Pipelines. This paper relates the story of how water resources were managed and bulk water was delivered to around 70,000 customers over a geographic spread of 62,000 km2, or about 30% of Victoria. Discussion on the social, environmental and economic impacts on the region are also provided.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2012 12:27:38 GMT
  • Volume 15 Issue 1 - Water: A personal matter
    • Abstract: Askew, AJ
      This paper is a summary of the Munro Oration delivered in Brisbane on 29 June 2011. It presents water as an extraordinary substance that is critical to our very existence and therefore demands of us both respect and commitment to its protection and wise management. It argues for a balanced approach to establishing water programs in which research, teaching, practical application, funding and governance all have a role to play. It outlines the value of personal contacts within the freshwater community and calls for the Australian members of that community to be active at both national and international level in promoting Australian expertise and in learning from that of other countries.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2012 12:27:38 GMT
  • Volume 15 Issue 1 - Preface
    • Abstract: Phillips, Brett C
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2012 12:27:38 GMT
  • Volume 14 Issue 2 - Modelling the Environmental Water Reserve: A Case
           Study Exploring the Effects of the Environment's Water Entitlement in a
           Complex Water Supply System
    • Abstract: Godoy, W; Barton, AF
      The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the effect the environment's entitlement configuration has on the volume of water supplied to the environment, and the overall efficiency of the water supply system under the historic climatic sequence and climate change. The modelling work is undertaken using the REALM simulation package, with the results presented in case study form based on the Wimmera-Mallee system, outlining the changes in the total system water balance post-Wimmera Mallee Pipeline, changes in the environment's reliability of supply, and exceedance plots for environmental flows and headworks loss. The outcomes of this study demonstrate the need to consider the trade-offs between large entitlements of low reliability and small entitlements of high reliability as part of the system reconfiguration process, given the effect it has on total system efficiency, particularly in an uncertain climate future.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2012 12:27:38 GMT
  • Volume 14 Issue 2 - Sensitivity Analysis of Yield Estimate of Urban Water
           Supply Systems
    • Abstract: King, DM; Perera, BJC
      Sensitivity analysis (SA) theory and techniques were used in this study to estimate the sensitivity of input variables on the yield estimate of an urban water supply system. The SA techniques considered were Morris method and Fourier amplitude sensitivity test (FAST), including the related extended FAST. A case study on a simple urban water supply system was conducted to assess the applicability and to study the limitations of these techniques and the SA framework adopted. Findings showed that the streamflow dominated all experiments, with the supply reliability threshold, the upper restriction rule curve and the consecutive months in restrictions threshold of subsequent importance. In a screening pass, importance ranking of the 26 considered variables from the Morris method were verified with FAST and extended FAST.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2012 12:27:38 GMT
  • Volume 14 Issue 2 - Estimation of Major Floods: Applicability of a Simple
           Probabilistic Model
    • Abstract: Haddad, K; Rahman, A; Weinmann, PE
      Estimation of major flood flows is needed in the design and operation of large water infrastructure. This paper presents a simple probabilistic model (PM) that can be used to derive 'easy to apply' prediction equations for estimation of major flood flows. The proposed method assumes that the maximum observed flood data over a large number of sites in a region can be pooled together by accounting for the across-site variations in the mean and standard deviation values. The method is developed and tested in this paper using data from 227 catchments across Victoria and NSW. The application to ungauged catchments involves the development of prediction equations using generalised least squares regression for the mean and coefficient of variation of the annual maximum flood series as a function of catchment characteristics.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2012 12:27:38 GMT
  • Volume 14 Issue 2 - Rainfall-runoff Modelling across Southeast Australia:
           Datasets, Models and Results
    • Abstract: Vaze, J; Chiew, FHS; Perraud, J-M; Viney, N; Post, D; Teng, J; Wang, B; Lerat, J; Goswami, M
      This study describes a daily rainfall, potential evaporation and streamflow data set compiled for the important water resources region of southeast Australia, and the application of six commonly used lumped conceptual rainfall-runoff models to estimate daily runoff across the region. The daily climate data set and the daily modelled runoff are available from 1895 to 2008 at 0.05 grid resolution across the region. The modelling exercise indicates that the rainfall-runoff models can generally be calibrated to reproduce the daily observed streamfl ow (for 232 catchments in the high runoff generation areas), and the regionalisation results indicate that the use of optimised parameter values from a gauged catchment nearby can model runoff reasonably well in the ungauged areas. There are differences between the six models, but they are relatively small when used to describe aggregated results across large regions.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2012 12:27:38 GMT
  • Volume 14 Issue 2 - Rainfall Energy Loss: An Empirical Model
    • Abstract: Pudasaini, MS; Shrestha, SP
      Kinetic energy of a rainfall event is determined by its intensity. However, the effective kinetic energy reaching a soil surface that is responsible for detachment and transportation of soil particles is often less than the total kinetic energy of the rainfall event. This is because of the cushioning effect a film of water provides. Therefore it is essential to account for the loss in kinetic energy of a rainfall event and incorporate it in simulation models to accurately estimate soil erosion. This paper proposes a logarithmic energy loss model to estimate kinetic energy of rainfall reaching the soil surface. The model accounts for the depth of shallow overland flow and rainfall intensity. The empirical model was established through the set of data obtained from a rainfall simulation experimental setup consisting of a laboratory-scale tilting hydraulic flume, rainfall simulator and a series of sensitive piezoelectric force transducers.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2012 12:27:38 GMT
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Heriot-Watt University
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