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Journal Cover Australian Journal of Water Resources
  [SJR: 0.226]   [H-I: 9]   [6 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1324-1583
   Published by RMIT Publishing Homepage  [403 journals]
  • Volume 17 Issue 1 - Instructions to authors submitting to Engineers
           Australia technical journals
    • PubDate: Wed, 25 Sep 2013 16:16:17 GMT
  • Volume 17 Issue 1 - Abstracts
    • PubDate: Mon, 23 Sep 2013 10:23:55 GMT
  • Volume 17 Issue 1 - Discussion on 'Design flood estimation in Western
           Australia'. [Book Review]
    • Abstract: French, R
      Review(s) of: Discussion on "design flood estimation in Western Australia", by D Flavell, Original paper published in Australian Journal of Water Resources, Vol. 16, No. 1, pp. 1-20.

      PubDate: Mon, 23 Sep 2013 10:23:55 GMT
  • Volume 17 Issue 1 - Reducing flood risk associated with basement drainage
    • Abstract: Ladson, AR; Tilleard, J
      Basements in residential buildings are often subject to flooding. It is common practice to connect basement drainage by gravity to the stormwater system which means that if there is any surcharge caused by capacity constraint, constriction, blockage or partial blockage in the system downstream of where the basement drain connects then the basement is at risk of flooding. This surcharge can lead to water backing up in the drainage pipe and entering the basement. In this discussion paper we comment on flood risk from basement drainage, outline the current guidance and review possible safe drainage solutions.

      PubDate: Mon, 23 Sep 2013 10:23:55 GMT
  • Volume 17 Issue 1 - Impact of dense reservoir networks on water resources
           in semiarid environments
    • Abstract: de Araujo, JC
      The northeast of Brazil is a semiarid region where water scarcity is a major problem dealt with by the construction of dams. This policy generated a dense reservoir network in the region, resulting in a complex system. The impacts of the network have been assessed, and the results showed that the existence of a large number of small dams upstream the strategic ones, impact both negatively and positively the overall water availability. The negative effects of the network are mainly high evaporation losses from small reservoirs, and the fact that they add considerable complexity to the management of the system. On the other hand, the reservoirs generate a more democratic water distribution and higher energy rationality, as a consequence of the better spatial distribution of the water resources. In addition, sediment retention in the network leads to lower silting rate of strategic reservoirs, meaning lower temporal decay in water availability in the already water-scarce region.

      PubDate: Mon, 23 Sep 2013 10:23:55 GMT
  • Volume 17 Issue 1 - Applicability of artificial neural network in
           hydraulic experiments using a new sewer overflow screening device
    • Abstract: Aziz, MA; Imteaz, M; Choudhury, TA; Phillips, D
      During wet weather conditions, sewer overflows to receiving water bodies raise serious environmental, aesthetic and public health problems. These issues trigger the need the most appropriate device/system for a particular installation, especially at unmanned remote locations. A new sewer overflow device consists of a rectangular tank and a sharp crested weir with a series of vertical combs is presented. A series of laboratory tests to determine trapping efficiencies for common sewer solids were conducted for different flow conditions, number of combs layers and spacing of combs. To overcome physical limitations inherent in laboratory studies such as significant cost and time. Artificial neural model was adopted as it has the capacity to accurately predict the outcome of complex, non-linear physical systems with relatively poorly understood physicochemical processes. A series of laboratory tests were conducted with 55 different sets of data. Forty-seven sets of experimental data are used with 60% for training, 20% each for testing and validation of the model. A separate validation data sets were used to judge the overall performance of the trained network. The model can successfully predict the experimental results with more than 90% accuracy with an average absolute percentage error of around 7%.

      PubDate: Mon, 23 Sep 2013 10:23:55 GMT
  • Volume 17 Issue 1 - Barriers to voluntary improvement of residential
           fertiliser practices in the Peel-Harvey catchment
    • Abstract: Beckwith, J A; Clement, S
      The adoption of best practices in residential lawn and garden fertiliser use has been identified as a cost effective means to reduce urban nutrient inputs to waterways. This article examines the barriers to such voluntary change in urban sub-catchments of the Peel-Harvey Estuary system in Western Australia. The implications for the design and successful implementation of a voluntary community-based behavioural change program targeting residential fertiliser practices are discussed.

      PubDate: Mon, 23 Sep 2013 10:23:55 GMT
  • Volume 17 Issue 1 - Value-driven river management: A Murray River case
    • Abstract: Bean, NG; Jewell, ND
      This paper outlines a quasi-economic hydrological model and management paradigm geared toward public and not-for-profit regulatory bodies, with particular reference to the southern Murray-Darling Basin in southeast Australia. This value-oriented model and paradigm bridges the gap between short-range hydrological forecasting and long-range economic planning. Decision-making is assisted by a scenario-based methodology with a clear distinction between baseline and marginal quantities. The paradigm has applications to seasonal planning, commercial water trading, environmental stewardship and structural adjustment. Specific applications to the Murray-Darling Basin include (i) evaluation of options for infrastructure upgrades and licence buybacks intended to address resource over-allocation, and (ii) revival and rationalisation of hydrological exchange rates for temporary and permanent water trades, with the aim of rigorously accounting for third-party effects.

      PubDate: Mon, 23 Sep 2013 10:23:55 GMT
  • Volume 17 Issue 1 - The development of a new methodology to interpret run
           of river salinity data to assess salt inflow to the River Murray
    • Abstract: Burnell, R; Bekesi, G; Telfer, A; Forward, P; Porter, B
      In addition to the threat posed by high salinity to drinking water, increased salinity in the River Murray also represents a threat to the health of floodplains, wetlands and may increase the costs of infrastructure maintenance. In the Lower Murray Basin most of the salts in the river originate from groundwater. Run of river salinity surveys are used to measure salt inflow. They measure electrical conductivity every kilometre over five consecutive days, at low and steady river flows. For a robust interpretation of salt inflow, the background electrical conductivity has to be removed from the measurements. The existing methodology is robust for analysing cumulative salt inflows over river reaches but assigns salt inflows up to several kilometres downstream from where they actually occur. A new method has therefore been developed to assign the salt inflow more closely to the location where it actually occurs and at the correct rate. The new methodology is based on the assumptions that salt inflow is the function of space only (during the survey) and the background conductivity can be described by the temporal variations observed at a fixed location. These in turn allow better targeting of the high salt inflow zones for salt interception.

      PubDate: Mon, 23 Sep 2013 10:23:55 GMT
  • Volume 17 Issue 1 - A standard approach to baseflow separation using the
           Lyne and Hollick filter
    • Abstract: Ladson, AR; Brown, R; Neal, B; Nathan, R
      The digital filtering approach to baseflow separation suggested by Lyne and Hollick (1979) has been widely used and is available in a number of computer packages. However, details of the approach used by different authors vary and so do the results. This means baseflow volumes and indices reported by different authors, and at different times, are difficult to compare. We propose a standard method for baseflow separation using the Lyne and Hollick digital filter. This includes reflecting the flow series at the start and end of the record to reduce 'warm up' effects and the adoption of specific starting values for each filter pass.

      PubDate: Mon, 23 Sep 2013 10:23:55 GMT
  • Volume 17 Issue 1 - Investigation into probabilistic losses for design
           flood estimation: A case study for the Orara River catchment, NSW
    • Abstract: Loveridge, M; Rahman, A; Hill, P; Babister, M
      Australian Rainfall and Runoff (Pilgrim, 1987) recommends the design event approach (DEA) as the preferred method for estimating design flood hydrographs, in which a single design event is adopted. More recently, Monte Carlo simulation has been used to allow for the probabilistic nature of input variables in flood modelling. This paper adopts a Monte Carlo framework to evaluate the impact of probabilistic losses on design flood estimates for the Orara River catchment in northeastern NSW. A RORB runoff routing model was used to derive loss values for both the initial loss-continuing loss (IL-CL) and initial loss-proportional loss (IL-PL) models. It has been found that the initial, continuing and proportional losses can be approximated by the Gamma, Weibull and Beta distributions, respectively. When these distributions were compared with non-parametric distributions, differences in the flood estimates were found to be minimal. Another finding was that peak floods estimated using the DEA were more biased for the IL-CL model, than for the IL-PL model. In comparison to the at-site flood frequency curve the IL-CL model produced an overall better fit of the shape of the curve, however, the IL-PL model provided a better fit to the observed flood peaks for mid-range events.

      PubDate: Mon, 23 Sep 2013 10:23:55 GMT
  • Volume 17 Issue 1 - Predictability and chaotic nature of daily streamflow
    • Abstract: Dhanya, CT; Nagesh Kumar, D
      The predictability of a chaotic series is limited to a few future time steps due to its sensitivity to initial conditions and the exponential divergence of the trajectories. Over the years, streamflow has been considered as a stochastic system. In this study, the chaotic nature of daily streamflow is investigated using autocorrelation function, Fourier spectrum, correlation dimension method (Grassberger-Procaccia algorithm) and false nearest neighbour method. Embedding dimensions of 6-7 obtained, indicate the possible presence of low-dimensional chaotic behaviour. The predictability of the system is estimated by calculating the system's Lyapunov exponent. A positive maximum Lyapunov exponent of 0.167 indicates that the system is chaotic and unstable with a maximum predictability of only 6 days. These results give a positive indication towards considering streamflow as a low dimensional chaotic system than as a stochastic system. Prediction is done using local polynomial method for a range of embedding dimensions and delay times. The uncertainty in the chaotic streamflow series is reasonably captured through the ensemble approach using local polynomial method.

      PubDate: Mon, 23 Sep 2013 10:23:55 GMT
  • Volume 17 Issue 1 - Preface
    • Abstract: Phillips, Brett C
      PubDate: Mon, 23 Sep 2013 10:23:55 GMT
  • Volume 16 Issue 2 - Use of the 2-year, 6-hour rainfall in the design of
           erosion control works
    • Abstract: Ladson, AR
      The design of soil erosion control works often involves the use of the revised universal soil loss equation to estimate potential soil loss (Renard et al, 1991) and the rational method to estimate peak flows (eg. Landcom, 2004). Both these methods require the use of design rainfall intensities but for different purposes. This paper clarifies the use of design rainfall in these approaches, identifies where confusion may occur, and suggests an approach that is consistent with current engineering guidelines.

      PubDate: Wed, 15 May 2013 09:13:15 GMT
  • Volume 16 Issue 2 - Flow resistance in four rivers in Victoria, Australia
    • Abstract: Ladson, AR; Lang, SM; Smart, GM; Anderson, BG; Rutherfurd, ID
      Reach-representative estimates of Manning's n are presented for a range of discharges in four rivers in Victoria, Australia: Acheron River at Taggerty, Merrimans Creek at Stradbroke West, Mitta Mitta River at Hinnomunjie Bridge, and Tambo River at Ramrod Creek. These Manning's n values have been determined from discharge and water surface slope measurements at gauging stations on these four rivers. Manning's n was found to remain almost constant over a range of common discharges, and was found to be a better descriptor of fl ow resistance than Darcy Weisbach f, Chezy C and log-law Zo for these rivers.

      PubDate: Wed, 15 May 2013 09:13:15 GMT
  • Volume 16 Issue 2 - Analysis of scour characteristics in presence of
           aerated crossing jets
    • Abstract: Pagliara, S; Palermo, M
      Jets scour is a major topic in hydraulic engineering. It has to be carefully analysed in order to understand the mechanism and predict its geometry. The jets configuration has a deep influence on the scour features. In the present paper the analysis was conducted in presence of two symmetric crossing jets, varying the discharge, the air content, the tailwater level in the downstream stilling basin, the angle between the jets and the vertical distance of the jets crossing point from the water surface, for different vertical jets angle. It was proven that the presence of the air in the jets deeply affects the scour morphology. The scour geometry was analysed and compared with the respective obtained in black water conditions. Useful practical relationships are proposed to estimate the main scour hole dimensions. The analysis was also extended to non-dimensional profiles and it was proved that the effect of air content on them is negligible.

      PubDate: Wed, 15 May 2013 09:13:15 GMT
  • Volume 16 Issue 2 - Image analysis and reconstruction of the 2008 Toga
           River Flash Flood in an urbanised area
    • Abstract: Fujita, I; Kunita, Y; Tsubaki, R
      In the afternoon of 28 July 2008, a flash flood occurred in the water-friendly reach of the Toga River in Kobe City, tragically drowning five people that included three children. They were among about 50 people enjoying the river environment. The flash flood was caused by sudden localised torrential rain in urbanised area of the small river basin. The onset of the flash flood was captured by a river monitoring camera as consecutive still images, while the surface fl ow just after the peak flow was videotaped by a TV cameraman without using a tripod. In order to estimate the peak discharge of the flash flood, the space-time image velocimetry technique developed by the authors was applied to the video images after applying image stabilisation. The estimated discharge was used as an input hydraulic parameter of the 2D numerical simulation, with a success of reproducing the transient flow pattern observed by the monitoring camera. In addition, the distribution of hydrodynamic force the people in the river were exposed to was calculated to reveal the difficulty of evacuation in flash flood condition, even when the depth of water is less than knee high.

      PubDate: Wed, 15 May 2013 09:13:15 GMT
  • Volume 16 Issue 2 - Application of empirical scale correction factors with
           regional flood prediction equations: A case study for eastern Australia
    • Abstract: Zaman, MA; Haddad, K; Rahman, A
      Regional flood prediction equations are generally developed based on the recorded streamflow data in medium- to large-sized catchments, but these equations are often applied in practice to very small catchments. Since there is little/no recorded streamflow data available for very small catchments, the applicability of the developed regional flood prediction equations to these catchments cannot be verified directly. The empirical observations reveal that smaller catchments produce "steeper flood frequency curves" than larger catchments given all the flood generation factors remaining the same. This paper uses data from 429 catchments from the states of Victoria, New South Wales and Queensland to examine the effects of catchment size on flood quantile estimates. An empirical scale correction factor is proposed that can partially account for the effects of decreasing catchment size on flood quantile estimates. Independent testing using 32 catchments shows that the proposed method provides reasonable results for the catchments as small as 2.3 km2, but its applicability to very small catchments (ie. smaller than 2.3 km2) cannot be verified due to the unavailability of recorded streamflow data.

      PubDate: Wed, 15 May 2013 09:13:15 GMT
  • Volume 16 Issue 2 - Land management impacts on water quality following
           fire in a major water supply catchment
    • Abstract: Wade, A; White, I; Worthy, M; Gill, AM; Mueller, N; Taylor, P; Wasson, RJ
      Salvage harvesting and land clearance to re-establish radiata plantations in the lower catchment followed the January 2003 bushfires in the Cotter River water supply catchment. We report impacts of post-fire catchment disturbance on water quality and preliminary results of a recently completed works program to improve water quality. Suspended sediment concentrations as high as 39,000 mg/L and massive annual specific sediment yields between 520 and 950 t/km2/a from the 42 km2 salvaged pine area occurred over three low-intensity rainfall years following the fire. In contrast, reservoir turbidity profiles in naturally-regenerated, upper-catchments returned to pre-fire conditions within 12 to 18 months.

      PubDate: Wed, 15 May 2013 09:13:15 GMT
  • Volume 16 Issue 2 - Estimating the change in streamfl ow resulting from
           the 2003 and 2006/2007 bushfires in Southeastern Australia
    • Abstract: Mannik, RD; Herron, A; Hill, PI; Brown, RE; Moran, R
      Significant bushfires occurred around the Great Dividing Range in south eastern Australia in the summers of 2003 and 2006/2007. The combined scale of these bushfires presents important hydrological implications for the region in the coming decades. This paper reports on results of a project funded by the Victorian Department of Sustainability and Environment to perform a broad-scale assessment of the total water yield impact resulting from the two bushfires. Impacts are estimated in terms of annual changes in streamflow compared to conditions immediately prior to the 2003 bushfire. The modelling approach used to estimate the impacts on streamflow was the Bushfire Impact on Streamflow Yield model. Annual streamflow response curves were produced at each study catchment outlet, as well as spatially explicit datasets showing change in streamflow across the study catchment. Impacts from the two fires were then aggregated to estimate the total change in streamflow yield relative to flows into the River Murray, Eildon Reservoir and the Gippsland Lakes.

      PubDate: Wed, 15 May 2013 09:13:15 GMT
  • Volume 16 Issue 2 - Water information services for Australians
    • Abstract: Vertessy, RA
      On 26 January 2007, following a prolonged period of severe drought and rapidly diminishing water supplies, the Australian Prime Minister announced the National Plan for Water Security, a 10-point plan signifi cantly enhancing Commonwealth involvement in the nation's water affairs. One of the pillars of the reforms was a signifi cant commitment to improve the quality and coverage of Australia's water information. The Bureau of Meteorology was directed to implement the Improving Water Information Program, supported by signifi cant funding and a legislative mandate under the Water Act 2007. This paper traces the evolution of these new water information arrangements and highlights some of the new water information services that have emerged under the program. They include periodic water resource assessments, an annual national water account, various web products summarising the state of our water resources, and a seasonal streamfl ow forecasting service. Like their weather and climate service counterparts issued by the Bureau of Meteorology, these services have some important characteristics, namely that they are enduring, repeatable, robust, trusted and tailored to end user needs. The success of the program to date has been facilitated by appropriate resourcing levels, a clear legislative mandate, high levels of cooperation across the water sector and strong support from the water research and development community.

      PubDate: Wed, 15 May 2013 09:13:15 GMT
  • Volume 16 Issue 2 - Preface
    • Abstract: Phillips, Brett C
      PubDate: Wed, 15 May 2013 09:13:15 GMT
  • Volume 15 Issue 1 - Comparison of ordinary and generalised least squares
           regression models in regional flood frequency analysis: A case study for
           New South Wales
    • Abstract: Haddad, K; Rahman, A; Kuczera, G
      Regional flood frequency analysis (RFFA) techniques are commonly used to estimate design floods for ungauged catchments. In Australian Rainfall and Runoff (ARR), the probabilistic rational method (PRM) was recommended for eastern New South Wales (NSW). Recent studies in Australia have shown that regression-based RFFA methods can provide more accurate design flood estimates than the PRM. This paper compares ordinary least squares (OLS) and generalised least squares (GLS) based quantile regression techniques using data from 96 smallto medium-sized catchments across NSW for average recurrence intervals of 2 to 100 years. The advantages of the GLS regression are that this accounts for the inter-station correlation and varying record lengths from site to site. An independent test based on both the split-sample and one-ata-time validation approaches employing a wide range of statistical diagnostics indicates that the GLS regression provides more accurate flood quantile estimates than the OLS one. The developed regression equations are relatively easy to apply, which require data for only two to three predictors, catchment area, design rainfall intensity and stream density. The findings from this study together with those from other RFFA studies being examined as a part of ARR upgrade projects will inform the development of RFFA techniques for inclusion in the revised edition of ARR.

      PubDate: Sat, 6 Oct 2012 14:36:24 GMT
  • Volume 14 Issue 2 - Design Flood Estimation in Ungauged Catchments: A
           Comparison between the Probabilistic Rational Method and Quantile
           Regression Technique for NSW
    • Abstract: Rahman, A; Haddad, K; Zaman, M; Kuczera, G; Weinmann, PE
      Design flood estimation for ungauged catchments is often required in hydrologic design. The most commonly adopted regional flood frequency analysis methods used for this purpose include the index flood method, regression based techniques and various forms of the rational method. This paper first examines the similarities and differences between the probabilistic rational method (PRM) (the currently recommended method for Victoria and eastern NSW in Australian Rainfall and Runoff) and the generalised least squares (GLS) based quantile regression technique (QRT). It then uses data from 107 catchments in NSW to compare the performance of these two methods. To make a valid comparison, the same predictor variables and data set have been used for both methods.

      PubDate: Sat, 6 Oct 2012 14:36:23 GMT
  • Volume 15 Issue 1 - Establishment of environmental water in the Murray-
           Darling Basin: An analysis of two key policy initiatives
    • Abstract: Horne, A; Freebairn, J; O'Donnell, E
      Policy to protect river ecosystems has changed rapidly in Australia, and the mechanisms to both establish and manage environmental water are still evolving. Policy has moved from providing a fixed environmental target (albeit varying between years) to one in which the environment can actively participate in the market, with the possibility of better fulfilling variable water requirements. However, the inherent nature of the sustainable diversion limit (SDL), established under the Water Act 2007, is that it represents a fixed allocation to the environment. This paper considers the interaction of the new SDL for the Murray-Darling Basin and potential issues arising from the interaction with the government buyback initiative. While both the SDL and buyback have been discussed extensively, the interaction between the two policies has received little debate. Pairing these two policy initiatives will have implications for the flexibility of management of the environmental water, and the ability for on-going trade between the environment and consumptive water users. Our position is that the SDL, or preferably rules-based water, should reflect an absolute minimum limit on environmental water requirements, while the buyback should provide the environmental water as tradable water rights with the flexibility to respond to shifts in the environmental water demand curve by providing environmental water over and above the SDL. If both a buyback and minimum flow rules are in place, the SDL will provide little additional benefits but increase administrative costs and reduce flexibility. This has significant implications for the way the SDL and buyback strategy are structured.

      PubDate: Sat, 6 Oct 2012 13:35:49 GMT
  • Volume 16 Issue 1 - Water-sensitive cities: Applying the framework to
    • Abstract: Lloyd, S; Wong, T; Blunt, S
      Key thinkers have been developing a strategic framework for transforming cities into water-sensitive cities. Transforming Melbourne into a water-sensitive city has been a focus of the City of Melbourne through undertaking an integrated water management strategy coined "city as a catchment", and is being progressively undertaken by other local municipalities. Critical to applying the framework has been to establish water quality and water conservation targets that councils are able to commit to. The paper outlines a key approach adopted to diversify water supply options through the provision of both centralised and decentralised water schemes, ranging from the simple rainwater tank for non-potable use to large scale stormwater harvesting schemes. Stormwater not harvested is treated to improve its quality prior to discharge to the environment for the protection of aquatic ecosystems. The paper presents an overview of the implementation plan for the City of Melbourne that clearly establishes a vision for the city and demonstrates how selection of on-ground works relate to water conservation, best practice stormwater management targets and wastewater minimisation. This includes implementing sustainable urban water management approaches across all of the city's assets (including parks and gardens, building and roads). In implementing the framework, Council's influence would extend adoption beyond the public domain by facilitating private participation through regulations and provisions of incentives for the uptake of WSUD in the private domain (including commercial and residential sites).

      PubDate: Wed, 26 Sep 2012 16:10:30 GMT
  • Volume 16 Issue 1 - Evaluation of an evaporation suppressing monolayer
           system in a controlled wave tank environment: A pilot investigation
    • Abstract: Schouten, P; Putland, S; Lemckert, C; Underhill, I; Solomon, D; Sunartio, D; Leung, A; Prime, E; Tran, D; Qiao, G
      Due to long-term drought conditions coupled with the apparent influence of global warming, compounding water loss has been a very serious issue across the vast majority of the Australian continent. During these drought conditions, the evaporative effect outweighs the amount of precipitation being received on a year to year basis. Several methods have been introduced in recent history to inhibit the amount of evaporative loss from various types of water bodies such as the application of thin layer chemical films (monolayers). A series of solvent, solid and suspension derived prototype monolayers, based on ethylene glycol monooctadecyl ether (C18E1), are examined in this current study as an approach to eliminate the problems seen to occur with the previous types of monolayers. This research evaluates the fundamental effect of wind and wave based activity upon these prototype monolayers in an atmospherically controlled enclosure positioned over a large extended water tank using real-time environmental measurements. Selected performance results for the prototype monolayers as measured within the enclosed water tank were compared to results measured from a control monolayer film based on a commonly used octadecanol suspension film. The results show that under varying wind and wave conditions the prototype monolayers inhibit evaporation at a level similar to or better than the octadecanol standard, even when delivered at lower raw dosages.

      PubDate: Wed, 26 Sep 2012 16:10:13 GMT
  • Volume 16 Issue 1 - Discussion on "Flood frequency and design flood
           estimation procedures in the United States: Progress and challenges" by JF
           England, Jr
    • Abstract: French, R
      With revision of Australian Rainfall and Runoff under way, it is heartening to read of others headed in the direction of improvement to hydrologic design techniques.

      PubDate: Wed, 26 Sep 2012 16:03:29 GMT
  • Volume 16 Issue 1 - The hydrologic impacts of farm dams
    • Abstract: Nathan, R; Lowe, L
      Farm dams play an important role in Australian life. Small dams storing just a few megalitres provide essential supplies for stock and domestic consumption. Larger dams are used for irrigation purposes, and play a vital role in increasing the productivity, and hence viability, of many agricultural enterprises. Dams are also constructed for recreational and ornamental purposes, for aquaculture, and as artificial wetlands for environmental purposes. Over time there has been an increase in the number of dams used for irrigation purposes. There has been a general trend towards constructing larger dams, some impounding many hundreds of megalitres, to provide additional security of supply and to irrigate high value crops. An increase in the number of farm dams used for domestic, stock or aesthetic purposes is also expected in new peri-urban developments.

      PubDate: Wed, 26 Sep 2012 16:01:59 GMT
  • Volume 14 Issue 2 - Discussion on 'Addressing Climatic Non-stationarity in
           the Assessment of Flood Risk'
    • Abstract: French, R
      Practitioners will have to express their design uncertainties more often and more clearly. Previous editions of Australian Rainfall and Runoffhave been written in language to engender confidence in flood numbers and the producers thereof, so expressions of uncertainty are almost totally absent from its pages.

      PubDate: Wed, 19 Sep 2012 12:28:34 GMT
  • Volume 14 Issue 2 - In Search of the Best
    • Abstract: Dandy, G
      This paper is based on the 2009 Munro Oration given by Prof Graeme Dandy at the 32nd Hydrology and Water Resources Symposium held in Newcastle on 30 November to 3 December 2009. The paper outlines the importance of considering human activity and its impact on the hydrological cycle. It outlines the systems approach, multi-objective planning and evolutionary optimisation, and their application to the planning and design of water resources systems. The contribution of previous researchers and engineers in the development of these techniques is acknowledged. Among them, Crawford Munro provided a shining example of a rational approach to the planning and management of our water resources.

      PubDate: Fri, 29 Jun 2012 16:27:18 GMT
  • Volume 15 Issue 1 - Regional flood frequency for Queensland using the
           quantile regression technique
    • Abstract: Palmen, LB; Weeks, WD; Kuczera, G
      Design flood estimation for small- and medium-sized catchments is a frequent requirement for a wide range of projects. While each individual project in this category is likely to be relatively small, the total value of projects that rely on design floods for the design is very high. The currently adopted approaches for Queensland are published in Australian Rainfall and Runoff. Several approaches are described, though the Main Roads Rational Method (MRRM) is predominant in practice. This method has been used throughout Queensland for many years, but the basis of the method is not considered reliable because of the lack of recorded data used in the development and the lack of independent testing. The development of the new procedure described in this paper has used all suitable streamflow data available for the state. It therefore has a better foundation and the results can be accepted with more confidence. The approach presented uses the quantile regression technique to develop a procedure for calculating design floods for ungauged catchments that relates the design flood discharges to readily available catchment characteristics. The method is then tested against the currently available MRRM. This paper provides an input to part of the upgrade of Australian Rainfall and Runoff, currently underway.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2012 12:27:38 GMT
  • Volume 15 Issue 1 - Flood frequency and design flood estimation procedures
           in the United States: Progress and challenges
    • Abstract: England, JF
      Design flood estimation procedures in the United States have traditionally focused on two primary methods: frequency analysis of peak flows for floodplain management and levee design; and deterministic, probable maximum flood (PMF) estimates for design of dams and nuclear facilities. Federal Agencies in the United States, including the Bureau of Reclamation, US Geological Survey and Army Corps of Engineers, are currently examining potential changes to these standard flood hydrology procedures. This paper presents overviews of some ongoing investigations and data collection studies to support potential changes in design flood estimation. For floodplain management, the current guideline is Bulletin 17B, which specifies the use of an LP3 distribution, method of moments and regional skew information. Potential improvements to Bulletin 17B currently under consideration are: (i) use of historical and paleoflood information; (ii) adjusting for low outliers; (iii) improved plotting positions; and (iv) confidence intervals. Ongoing testing results are presented, highlighting the expected moments algorithm. In contrast to well-established, deterministic (PMF) extreme flood estimates for dam safety, agencies are now moving toward risk-based techniques. The Bureau of Reclamation has developed and applied several methods in order to estimate extreme floods and probabilities for large dams. Techniques used to date are summarised, along with those being considered by other US agencies. Improvements to extreme flood databases that provide inputs, including extreme storms and probable maximum precipitation estimates, precipitation frequency and paleofloods, are ongoing. Some challenges to updating design flood methods and data, including institutional effects, national scale, research to operations and use of new technologies, are described.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2012 12:27:38 GMT
  • Volume 15 Issue 1 - Coping with severe drought: Stories from the front
    • Abstract: Barton, AF; Briggs, S; McRae-Williams, P; Prior, D
      The last 12 years has seen extreme drought in western Victoria. This has impacted on the area in many ways, but none more so than in the provision of basic water supplies to people. To meet the challenge of drought, headworks storages have had to be operated at record low levels, severe water restrictions imposed, water carting programs established, alternative sources of water, and new technologies developed and used. Significant changes have also been made to the water supply infrastructure in the region, most notably the Northern-Mallee and Wimmera-Mallee Pipelines. This paper relates the story of how water resources were managed and bulk water was delivered to around 70,000 customers over a geographic spread of 62,000 km2, or about 30% of Victoria. Discussion on the social, environmental and economic impacts on the region are also provided.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2012 12:27:38 GMT
  • Volume 15 Issue 1 - Water: A personal matter
    • Abstract: Askew, AJ
      This paper is a summary of the Munro Oration delivered in Brisbane on 29 June 2011. It presents water as an extraordinary substance that is critical to our very existence and therefore demands of us both respect and commitment to its protection and wise management. It argues for a balanced approach to establishing water programs in which research, teaching, practical application, funding and governance all have a role to play. It outlines the value of personal contacts within the freshwater community and calls for the Australian members of that community to be active at both national and international level in promoting Australian expertise and in learning from that of other countries.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2012 12:27:38 GMT
  • Volume 15 Issue 1 - Preface
    • Abstract: Phillips, Brett C
      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2012 12:27:38 GMT
  • Volume 14 Issue 2 - Modelling the Environmental Water Reserve: A Case
           Study Exploring the Effects of the Environment's Water Entitlement in a
           Complex Water Supply System
    • Abstract: Godoy, W; Barton, AF
      The objective of the present study was to demonstrate the effect the environment's entitlement configuration has on the volume of water supplied to the environment, and the overall efficiency of the water supply system under the historic climatic sequence and climate change. The modelling work is undertaken using the REALM simulation package, with the results presented in case study form based on the Wimmera-Mallee system, outlining the changes in the total system water balance post-Wimmera Mallee Pipeline, changes in the environment's reliability of supply, and exceedance plots for environmental flows and headworks loss. The outcomes of this study demonstrate the need to consider the trade-offs between large entitlements of low reliability and small entitlements of high reliability as part of the system reconfiguration process, given the effect it has on total system efficiency, particularly in an uncertain climate future.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2012 12:27:38 GMT
  • Volume 14 Issue 2 - Sensitivity Analysis of Yield Estimate of Urban Water
           Supply Systems
    • Abstract: King, DM; Perera, BJC
      Sensitivity analysis (SA) theory and techniques were used in this study to estimate the sensitivity of input variables on the yield estimate of an urban water supply system. The SA techniques considered were Morris method and Fourier amplitude sensitivity test (FAST), including the related extended FAST. A case study on a simple urban water supply system was conducted to assess the applicability and to study the limitations of these techniques and the SA framework adopted. Findings showed that the streamflow dominated all experiments, with the supply reliability threshold, the upper restriction rule curve and the consecutive months in restrictions threshold of subsequent importance. In a screening pass, importance ranking of the 26 considered variables from the Morris method were verified with FAST and extended FAST.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2012 12:27:38 GMT
  • Volume 14 Issue 2 - Estimation of Major Floods: Applicability of a Simple
           Probabilistic Model
    • Abstract: Haddad, K; Rahman, A; Weinmann, PE
      Estimation of major flood flows is needed in the design and operation of large water infrastructure. This paper presents a simple probabilistic model (PM) that can be used to derive 'easy to apply' prediction equations for estimation of major flood flows. The proposed method assumes that the maximum observed flood data over a large number of sites in a region can be pooled together by accounting for the across-site variations in the mean and standard deviation values. The method is developed and tested in this paper using data from 227 catchments across Victoria and NSW. The application to ungauged catchments involves the development of prediction equations using generalised least squares regression for the mean and coefficient of variation of the annual maximum flood series as a function of catchment characteristics.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2012 12:27:38 GMT
  • Volume 14 Issue 2 - Rainfall-runoff Modelling across Southeast Australia:
           Datasets, Models and Results
    • Abstract: Vaze, J; Chiew, FHS; Perraud, J-M; Viney, N; Post, D; Teng, J; Wang, B; Lerat, J; Goswami, M
      This study describes a daily rainfall, potential evaporation and streamflow data set compiled for the important water resources region of southeast Australia, and the application of six commonly used lumped conceptual rainfall-runoff models to estimate daily runoff across the region. The daily climate data set and the daily modelled runoff are available from 1895 to 2008 at 0.05 grid resolution across the region. The modelling exercise indicates that the rainfall-runoff models can generally be calibrated to reproduce the daily observed streamfl ow (for 232 catchments in the high runoff generation areas), and the regionalisation results indicate that the use of optimised parameter values from a gauged catchment nearby can model runoff reasonably well in the ungauged areas. There are differences between the six models, but they are relatively small when used to describe aggregated results across large regions.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2012 12:27:38 GMT
  • Volume 14 Issue 2 - Rainfall Energy Loss: An Empirical Model
    • Abstract: Pudasaini, MS; Shrestha, SP
      Kinetic energy of a rainfall event is determined by its intensity. However, the effective kinetic energy reaching a soil surface that is responsible for detachment and transportation of soil particles is often less than the total kinetic energy of the rainfall event. This is because of the cushioning effect a film of water provides. Therefore it is essential to account for the loss in kinetic energy of a rainfall event and incorporate it in simulation models to accurately estimate soil erosion. This paper proposes a logarithmic energy loss model to estimate kinetic energy of rainfall reaching the soil surface. The model accounts for the depth of shallow overland flow and rainfall intensity. The empirical model was established through the set of data obtained from a rainfall simulation experimental setup consisting of a laboratory-scale tilting hydraulic flume, rainfall simulator and a series of sensitive piezoelectric force transducers.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2012 12:27:38 GMT
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