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Journal Cover Australian Journal of Structural Engineering
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   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1328-7982
   Published by RMIT Publishing Homepage  [406 journals]
  • Volume 13 Issue 2 - Lessons on building design from the 22 February 2011
           Christchurch earthquake
    • Abstract: Goldsworthy, HM
      This paper summarises some key observations made after the 22 February 2011 (Christchurch) earthquake from a reconnaissance mission conducted by the author on behalf of the Australian Earthquake Engineering Society (AEES), and from other investigators. It is an updated version of a keynote paper given at the AEES annual conference in November 2011. It highlights the damage observed in reinforced concrete buildings and the effects of liquefaction. The author reflects on the adequacy of Australia's existing seismic design philosophy after reporting on the effect of a level 6.3 magnitude shallow earthquake at close range to the CBD of Christchurch.

      PubDate: Wed, 26 Sep 2012 15:12:48 GMT
  • Volume 13 Issue 2 - Numerical investigation into the effect of passive
           energy dissipation in low-rise structures built on soft-soil sites
    • Abstract: Chan, RWK; Zhao, Z
      This paper presents a study into the effectiveness of passive energy dissipation systems in low-rise structures built on soft soil sites subjected to ground motions. In this technique designated energy dissipating devices (EDDs) are installed in the structure such that a portion of the energy originated from ground shaking is diverted to. This paper focuses on displacement-based EDD whose response is highly non-linear. The governing equations of a multi-degree of freedom lumped-mass model with force-displacement non-linearity described by the Bouc-Wen model are presented. Two parameters, namely the brace-EDD assembly to frame stiffness ratios Sr and the yield drift angles γy are identified to be infl uential and a parametric study is carried out using response history analyses. Results indicate that Sr plays an important role on overall structural response, with an increase in Sr generally result in more desirable performance. On the contrary γy plays a less significant role. Results presented in this study give an insight into the preliminary selection of EDD and brace properties.

      PubDate: Wed, 26 Sep 2012 15:11:33 GMT
  • Volume 13 Issue 2 - An experimental and statistical analysis of the
           flexural bond strength of masonry walls
    • Abstract: Correa, MRS; Masia, MJ; Stewart, MG; Heffler, LM
      This paper describes an experimental program where full sized clay brick unreinforced masonry walls were constructed by masons with different levels of skills. The flexural bond strength of each joint in each wall was obtained using the bond wrench test. This provided extensive data for a statistical analysis to assess the degree of spatial correlation of that property. The analysis also included a comparison between the flexural bond strength of joints within the walls and prisms. The study recommended that flexural bond strengths between joints are statistically independent and that the commonly used prisms may not represent adequately the wall.

      PubDate: Wed, 26 Sep 2012 15:09:55 GMT
  • Volume 13 Issue 2 - An exact static analysis of rigidly-jointed coplanar
           beam structures subject to distributed loading
    • Abstract: Bardell, NS; Frazer, NEM
      A simple matrix-displacement method is presented here to facilitate the static analysis of rigidly-jointed coplanar beam frames. The geometric arrangement of the frame, the boundary conditions, the material properties, and the external loading, are allowed complete generality, thereby enabling a large range of 2D structures to be modelled. Point loads, self-weight, inertial and distributed loads may all be accommodated in the analysis; emphasis is placed on the inclusion of the distributed loads, since these prove a more significant challenge to represent accurately in a matrix-displacement type of analysis. The chief novelty of this work is that for such structures exact solutions may be obtained with great ease for the displacement, reactions, and the individual member bending moment, shear force, and axial force, through the inclusion of suitable serendipity functions in the element formulation. The computational effort is the minimum possible for this class of problem, requiring the solution to just 3S simultaneous equations, where S represents the total number of junctions or nodes used to define the frame. Such solutions can easily be implemented using desktop computing, and five examples of increasing complexity are presented herein to demonstrate the efficacy of the method.

      PubDate: Wed, 26 Sep 2012 14:59:18 GMT
  • Volume 13 Issue 2 - Recording inter-storey drifts of structures in
           time-history approach for seismic design of building frames
    • Abstract: Hokmabadi, AS; Fatahi, B; Samali, B
      The growing trend in the application of direct displacement-based or performancebased design, lays more emphasis on the precise prediction of design parameters such as the inter-storey drift controlling the performance level of the structure. Practising engineers employ different methods to record the inter-storey drifts in time-history approach mainly based on the maximum lateral deformation of the structure. In this study, a 15-storey concrete moment resisting building is designed using time-history analysis. Then reliability and accuracy of each method in predicting the maximum inter-storey drifts under the influence of three earthquake records, namely 1995 Kobe, 1994 Northridge and 1940 El Centro earthquakes, are investigated. Results clearly indicate that to choose the most critical drift to evaluate the performance level of structures, the absolute maximum drift over time should be calculated. Other methods based on the maximum storey deflection may result in unconservative design.

      PubDate: Wed, 26 Sep 2012 14:58:10 GMT
  • Volume 13 Issue 2 - Knee joints in cold-formed channel portal frames:
           Problems and pitfalls
    • Abstract: Mills, JE
      Cold-formed C-channel sections have been used in portal frame sheds for a wide range of domestic, agricultural and light industrial applications for many years in Australia and New Zealand. However, in many cases the knee joint designs have been copied from hot-rolled portal frame designs, regardless of the clearly different nature of the sections being connected. Testing has demonstrated that many of the joint designs widely used in practice do not achieve the moment capacity of the sections and fail prematurely. Various alternative joint designs have been proposed and constructed, but many of these also fail to meet required capacities under test. This paper reviews the issues relevant to design and construction of such knee joints and considers the positives and negatives of the principal categories of joints currently used in the cold-formed shed industry. It summarises the findings from a large number of tests conducted over a number of years on many of these joints. It concludes with some cautionary notes regarding what is required for design and construction if these commonly used structures are to function as intended from a structural viewpoint.

      PubDate: Wed, 26 Sep 2012 14:56:38 GMT
  • Volume 13 Issue 2 - Quasi-static analysis of ship structures: Recent
           advances in Australia
    • Abstract: Magoga, T
      Recent quasi-static analysis methods applied to ship structures presented by Australian organisations are summarised and reviewed. Areas of research have included advances in strength assessment approaches, calculation procedures, and the structural response of composites and sandwich structures. Developments in design, maintenance, monitoring, and classification society rules relevant to ship structures are also noted. Research drivers relevant to quasi-static response analysis are identified such as the increasing use of composite structures in ships, and the cost of ownership and operation of aging ships.

      PubDate: Wed, 26 Sep 2012 14:53:13 GMT
  • Volume 13 Issue 2 - Wind loading handbook for Australia and New Zealand:
           Background to AS/NZS 170.2 wind actions [Book Review]
    • Abstract: Walker, GR
      Review(s) of: Wind loading handbook for Australia and New Zealand: Background to AS/NZS 170.2 wind actions, by JD Holmes, KCS Kwok and JD Ginger, ISBN: 0975037617, 9780975037614, Australasian Wind Engineering Society, 2012, 122 pp.

      PubDate: Wed, 26 Sep 2012 14:48:03 GMT
  • Volume 13 Issue 1 - Research development on protection of structures
           against blast loading at University of Adelaide
    • Abstract: Wu, C
      This paper presents a review of research into the protection of structural members against blast loading at The University of Adelaide, including experimental, analytical and numerical studies on characteristics of blast loading, blast resistance of structural members and mitigation of blasts effects on structural members using retrofitting techniques. Explosive blasts are investigated experimentally and numerically to study the distributions of peak overpressure and impulse generated from spherical charges and cylindrical charges with different orientations in unconfined and confined environments. A series of blast tests on reinforced concrete (RC) slabs, ultra-high performance concrete (UHPC) slabs, and aluminium foam protected RC slabs was conducted to investigate the performance of those slabs under blast loads. With the blast testing data numerical models including single degree of freedom model, finite difference model and final element model, have been developed and validated and those numerical models are then used to analyse the blast effects of RC, UHPC and foam protected RC slabs. Investigation of mitigation of blast effects on masonry structures is also addressed.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2012 12:30:11 GMT
  • Volume 13 Issue 1 - Protection of structural systems and mechanisms from
           catastrophic and life-threatening failure caused by unforeseeable events
    • Abstract: Thambiratnam, DP; Perera, NJ
      Structural framing systems and mechanisms designed for normal use rarely possess adequate robustness to withstand the effects of large impacts, blasts and extreme earthquakes that have been experienced in recent times. Robustness is the property of systems that enables them to survive unforeseen or unusual circumstances (Knoll and Vogel, 2009). Queensland University of Technology with industry collaboration is engaged in a program of research that commenced 15 years ago to study the impact of such unforeseeable phenomena and investigate methods of improving robustness and safety with protective mechanisms embedded or designed in structural systems. This paper highlights some of the research pertaining to seismic protection of building structures, rollover protective structures and effects of vehicular impact and blast on key elements in structures that could propagate catastrophic and disproportionate collapse.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2012 12:30:11 GMT
  • Volume 13 Issue 1 - Behaviour and resistance of hollow and concrete-filled
           mild steel columns due to transverse impact loading
    • Abstract: Yousuff, M; Uy, B; Tao, Z; Remennikov, A; Liew, R
      This paper presents the behaviour of hollow and concrete-filled mild steel tubular columns under static and impact loading. A total of three test series have been carried out recently at the University of Western Sydney and the University of Wollongong to investigate the performance of steel hollow and concrete-filled steel tube (CFST) columns subjected to static as well as impact loading. The test results reported in this paper are from the first test series, where mild steel was used and no axial load was applied to the columns. In the next two series, the effects of a combined axial and transverse impact loads, the steel type, as well as the location of the impact loading, were considered. At the same time, steel impact property tests using a split Hopkinson's pressure bar were conducted at Hunan University, China. These test results are also reported in this paper. This paper also reports detailed results from a numerical model using ABAQUS to simulate those static and impact experiments. A non-linear finite element modelling explicit time domain dynamic approach has been used for the simulation. The main objective of this paper is to compare the performance of experimental results with numerical results for mild steel hollow and CFST columns and to provide design guidance. Moreover, the behaviour of in-filled tubes under impact loading is also compared with that of hollow sections. Generally, a reasonable level of agreement has been observed between the numerical and experimental results.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2012 12:30:11 GMT
  • Volume 13 Issue 1 - Protective structures research at the University of
    • Abstract: Ngo, T; Lumantarna, R; Mendis, P
      Infrastructure engineering research at the University of Melbourne covers various subjects such as safe and sustainable structures, steel connections, high-strength concrete, earthquake engineering, dynamics of structures, and protective structures. The protective structures research group focuses on development of innovative and effective mitigation technologies for the protection of infrastructure from extreme human-caused acts and natural disasters. This paper presents the developments and future challenges in protective structures research, which falls within the scope of performance of structural components subjected to accidental or intentional blast effects, and the mitigation of these effects. The research group branches out into several key areas of interest such as performance and mitigation of structures against blast pressures, and glazing fa ade performance assessment under blast pressures. Developments of both analytical and experimental approaches in the key areas of interest will also be presented in this paper through a review of blast trials conducted in Woomera. Firstly, the loading characteristics were established in the blast trials and the analysis phase. Secondly, once the loading conditions were established the performance of local components (such as blast panels, concrete beams and fa ade components) was analysed. In this part, the performances of the modelling approach were assessed in comparison to the experimental results. The final part of this paper presents a study to establish the global behaviour of structures subjected to blast effects.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2012 12:30:11 GMT
  • Volume 13 Issue 1 - Research at the University of Western Australia on
           structure protections against blast and impact loads
    • Abstract: Hao, H; Ma, G
      One of the research focus areas of the Structural Engineering Group in the School of Civil and Resource Engineering at the University of Western Australia (UWA) is analysis and design of structures against blast and impact loads. Our research activities spread in a wide spectrum related to structure protections against blast and impact loads, including modelling shock wave propagation and prediction of blast loads on structures; quantification of dynamic material properties and development of dynamic material models; developing fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) materials with new fibre types; development of theoretical and numerical approaches to predict blast fragmentation; numerical simulation, laboratory impact tests and field blast tests to quantify the effectiveness of FRP strengthening of reinforced concrete structures; and simulation of damage and progressive collapse of building and bridge structures to blast load. The research approaches include theoretical derivations, numerical simulations, and laboratory impact and field blasting tests. These researches are funded by a few ARC Discovery projects. Some of them are carried out with collaborations with researchers in other universities in Australia and other countries. This paper summarises a few research projects, and demonstrates the research capabilities related to protective structures in UWA.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2012 12:30:11 GMT
  • Volume 13 Issue 1 - Probabilistic terrorism risk assessment and risk
           acceptability for infrastructure protection
    • Abstract: Stewart, MG; Netherton, MD; Shi, Y; Grant, M; Mueller, J
      In the decade since the events of 9/11 there has been renewed interest in understanding the risks of terrorism, and the effectiveness of counter-terrorism measures. Since there is uncertainty associated with terrorist threats, structural and system response, effectiveness of counter-terrorism and protective measures, and terrorists' ability to inflict damage, then there is clearly a need for probabilistic approaches to assessing and mitigating terrorism risks. The paper reviews research projects related to probabilistic terrorism risk assessment and risk acceptability for infrastructure protection currently underway at The University of Newcastle. The review of probabilistic risk assessments are given for: (i) IED design and initiation, and predicting variability of time-pressure load history on infrastructure; (ii) reinforced-concrete structural systems; (iii) fullbody scanners used at airports in the United States; and (iv) buildings subject to a terrorist vehicleborne improvised explosive device. The illustrative examples will highlight research capabilities at the University of Newcastle and identify research challenges to be faced in the future.

      PubDate: Tue, 19 Jun 2012 12:30:11 GMT
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