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Journal Cover Liver Cancer
  [1 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 2235-1795 - ISSN (Online) 1664-5553
   Published by Karger Homepage  [105 journals]
  • Beneficial Effect of Maintaining Hepatic Reserve during Chemotherapy on
           the Outcomes of Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    • Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) usually develops in chronically damaged liver. We investigated hepatic reserves during chemotherapy of patients with advanced HCC and compensated liver function to evaluate the effect on patients' outcomes of maintaining hepatic reserve after chemotherapy. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 190 patients with Child-Pugh A with advanced HCC who were treated with sorafenib or hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC). We investigated the Child-Pugh score and albumin-bilirubin grade for hepatic reserve, and evaluated the effect of the change in Child-Pugh scores on patients' outcomes. Subjects were treated with sorafenib (n = 59) or HAIC (n = 131). Of patients with Child-Pugh data, 66.7% maintained or improved their Child-Pugh score after 4 weeks. Treatment with HAIC was the only factor that significantly contributed to maintaining Child-Pugh scores after 4 weeks. The overall survival of patients with a higher Child-Pugh score after 4 weeks was shorter than that of patients whose Child-Pugh classification was unchanged. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that an increased Child-Pugh score after 4 weeks was one of the independent unfavorable prognostic factors. The change of hepatic reserve as a function of albumin-bilirubin grade did not significantly correlate with patients' outcomes. Maintaining the Child-Pugh score during chemotherapy benefits the outcomes of patients with advanced HCC, even those with sufficient hepatic reserve.
      Liver Cancer 2017;6:236-249
  • The Overall Survival of Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma Correlates
           with the Newly Defined Time to Progression after Transarterial
    • Abstract: Aim/Background: The ultimate aim of any treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is to improve overall survival (OS); however, the clinical significance of time to progression (TTP) after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is unclear. This retrospective study examined the association between OS and the newly defined time to TACE progression (TTTP) to assess whether TTTP can be an alternative to OS in HCC patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage B. Methods: Between January 2006 and December 2013, 592 patients with HCC (BCLC B1, n = 118; BCLC B2, n = 170) underwent TACE. TTTP was then redefined as time to progression from the first image taken after TACE. The relationship between TTTP and OS was then examined based on survival time. Results: Survival analysis revealed significant differences in the OS of patients with BCLC B1 and those with BCLC B2 (median OS: 42.3 months, 95% confidence interval [CI] 34.4-50.7; and 29.3 months, 95% CI 26.1-37.6, respectively, p = 0.0348). The median TTTP values were 9.5 months (95% CI 7.0-10.9) and 5.3 months (95% CI 4.6-6.7), respectively (p = 0.0078). There was a moderate positive correlation between OS and TTTP for both B1 (R2 = 0.6563, p = 0.0045) and B2 (R2 = 0.6433, p = 0.0052) substages. There was also a positive correlation between OS and TTTP for the combined B1 and B2 substages (R2 = 0.6590, p = 0.0024). Conclusions: There was a moderate correlation between the TTTP and OS of patients with HCC after TACE therapy, where the patients with short TTTP represented short OS, indicating that TTTP is an alternative parameter for survival analysis of HCC patients with BCLC stage B tumors who undergo TACE.
      Liver Cancer 2017;6:227-235
  • Adoption of Sorafenib for the Treatment of Advanced-Stage Hepatocellular
           Carcinoma in Oncology Practices in the United States
    • Abstract: Background: The adoption of sorafenib into oncology practice as a first-line systemic treatment for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is not well understood. We examined sorafenib use since Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval in 2007 and associated survival for individuals diagnosed with advanced HCC, conducting a population-based evaluation of treatment patterns and outcomes for this newly approved drug in the US over time. Methods: We identified individuals diagnosed with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Stage C from the 2007 and 2012 National Cancer Institute Patterns of Care study. We examined trends in use as well as patient and clinical factors associated with receiving sorafenib using multivariate logistic regression analysis. We then evaluated the association between sorafenib use and overall hazard of death using multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: Among 550 individuals diagnosed with advanced HCC, we found no significant increase in the proportion of patients treated with sorafenib from 2007 to 2012 (26.3 vs. 30.4%). After adjusting for patient and clinical characteristics, non-Hispanic Blacks (compared to non-Hispanic Whites) and those with a lower Child-Pugh score remained more likely to receive sorafenib. Individuals receiving systemic chemotherapy only, radiation therapy only, or no treatment at all experienced a higher risk of death than those treated with sorafenib, while those receiving a transplant experienced a lower risk of death. Conclusions: Sorafenib has not been widely adopted into oncology practice since FDA approval for advanced HCC. Few factors apart from Child-Pugh score and race/ethnicity predict sorafenib use in clinical practice, although sorafenib treatment is associated with a lower risk of death.
      Liver Cancer 2017;6:216-226
  • Albumin-Bilirubin Grade and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treatment Algorithm
    • Abstract:
      Liver Cancer 2017;6:185-188
  • Albumin-Bilirubin (ALBI) Grade as Part of the Evidence-Based Clinical
           Practice Guideline for HCC of the Japan Society of Hepatology: A
           Comparison with the Liver Damage and Child-Pugh Classifications
    • Abstract: Aim/Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of 3 classifications for assessing liver function, the liver damage and Child-Pugh classifications and the newly proposed albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) grade, in order to examine the feasibility of evaluating hepatic function using ALBI grade with the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment algorithm used in Japan. Methods: We analyzed the medical records of 3,495 Japanese HCC patients admitted from 2000 to 2015, which were comprised of 1,580 patients hospitalized in the Ehime Prefecture area and used as a training cohort (Ehime group), and 1,915 others who were used for validation (validation group). ALBI score used for grading (≤-2.60 = grade 1, greater than -2.60 to ≤-1.39 = grade 2, greater than -1.39 = grade 3) as well as clinical features and prognosis (Japan Integrated Staging [JIS], modified JIS, ALBI-TNM [ALBI-T] score) were retrospectively investigated. Results: For prediction of liver damage A, the values for sensitivity and specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratios of ALBI-1 and Child-Pugh A were similar among the 2 groups. Akaike information criterion results showed that prognosis based on ALBI grade/ALBI-T score was better than that based on liver damage/modified JIS score and Child-Pugh/JIS score (22,291.8/21,989.4, 22,379.6/22,076.0, 22,392.1/22,075.1, respectively). The cutoff values for ALBI score for indocyanine green retention rate at 15 min (ICG-R15)
  • How to Differentiate Borderline Hepatic Nodules in Hepatocarcinogenesis:
           Emphasis on Imaging Diagnosis
    • Abstract: Background: Rapid advances in liver imaging have improved the evaluation of hepatocarcinogenesis and early diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this situation, detection of early-stage HCC in its development is important for the improvement of patient survival and optimal treatment strategies. Because early HCCs are considered precursors of progressed HCC, precise differentiation between a dysplastic nodule (DN), especially a high-grade DN, and early HCC is important. In clinical practice, these nodules are frequently called “borderline hepatic nodules.” Summary: This article discusses radiological and pathological characteristics of these borderline hepatic nodules and offers an understanding of multistep hepatocarcinogenesis by focusing on the descriptions of the imaging changes in the progression of DN and early HCC. Detection and accurate diagnosis of borderline hepatic nodules are still a challenge with contrast enhanced ultrasonography, CT, and MRI with extracellular contrast agents. However, gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI may be useful for improving the diagnosis of these borderline nodules. Key Messages: Since there is a net effect of incomplete neoangiogenesis and decreased portal venous flow in the early stage of hepatocarcinogenesis, borderline hepatic nodules commonly show iso- or hypovascularity. Therefore, precise differentiation of these nodules remains a challenging issue. In MRI using hepatobiliary contrast agents, signal intensity of HCCs on hepatobiliary phase (HBP) is regarded as a potential imaging biomarker. Borderline hepatic nodules are seen as nonhypervascular and hypointense nodules on the HBP, which is important for predicting tumor behavior and determining appropriate therapeutic strategies.
      Liver Cancer 2017;6:189-203
  • A New Era of Systemic Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma with
           Regorafenib and Lenvatinib
    • Abstract:
      Liver Cancer 2017;6:177-184
  • APPLE News
    • Abstract:
      Liver Cancer 2017;6:173
  • The APPLE Association President's Message
    • Abstract:
      Liver Cancer 2017;6:174
  • Information of APPLE 2017
    • Abstract:
      Liver Cancer 2017;6:175
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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