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Journal Cover Liver Cancer
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   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 2235-1795 - ISSN (Online) 1664-5553
   Published by Karger Homepage  [120 journals]
  • Validation and Potential of Albumin-Bilirubin Grade and Prognostication in
           a Nationwide Survey of 46,681 Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients in Japan:
           The Need for a More Detailed Evaluation of Hepatic Function
    • Abstract: Background/Aim: Recently, albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) scoring/grading, consisting of only albumin and total bilirubin, has been proposed. We examined the efficacy of this grading system for determining hepatic function in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods/Materials: The prognoses of 46,681 HCC patients based on results obtained from a nationwide survey conducted in Japan from 2001 to 2007 were evaluated using (1) Japan Integrated Staging (JIS), consisting of Child-Pugh classification and TNM staging (TNM), (2) modified JIS (m-JIS), consisting of liver damage grading and TNM, and (3) ALBI-TNM (ALBI-T), consisting of ALBI grading and TNM, and the results were compared. A subanalysis was also performed to define a cutoff value for ALBI scores for a more detailed stratification of hepatic function. Results: ALBI-T, JIS, and m-JIS each showed good capacity for the stratification of prognoses. Although the Akaike information criterion for ALBI-T was nearly equal to that for JIS and m-JIS, the Kaplan-Meier curves and median survival times obtained with ALBI-T were always superior to the corresponding scores. When the indocyanine green retention test (
       
  • Treatment Stage Migration Maximizes Survival Outcomes in Patients with
           Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treated with Sorafenib: An Observational Study
    • Abstract: Background: Level I evidence supports the use of sorafenib in patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage C hepatocellular carcinoma, where heterogeneity in efficacy exists due to varying clinicopathologic features of the disease. Aim: We evaluated whether prior treatment with curative or locoregional therapies influences sorafenib-specific survival. Methods: From a prospective data set of 785 consecutive patients from international specialist centres, 264 patients (34%) were treatment naïve (TN) and 521 (66%) were pre-treated (PT), most frequently with transarterial chemoembolization (n = 413; 79%). The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS) from sorafenib initiation with prognostic factors tested on uni- and multivariate analyses. Results: Median OS for the entire cohort was 9 months; the median sorafenib duration was 2.8 months, with discontinuation being secondary to progression (n = 454; 58%) or toxicity (n = 149; 19%). PT patients had significantly longer OS than TN patients (10.5 vs. 6.6 months; p < 0.001). Compared to TN patients, PT patients had a better Child-Pugh (CP) class (CP A: 57 vs. 47%; p < 0.001) and a lower BCLC stage (BCLC A-B, 40 vs. 30%; p = 0.007). PT status preserved an independent prognostic role (p = 0.002) following adjustment for BCLC stage, α-fetoprotein, CP class, aetiology, and post-sorafenib treatment status. PT patients were more likely to receive further anticancer treatment after sorafenib (31 vs. 9%; p < 0.001). Conclusion: Patients receiving sorafenib after having failed curative or locoregional therapies survive longer and are more likely to receive further treatment after sorafenib. This suggests an incremental benefit to OS from sequential exposure to multiple lines of therapy, justifying treatment stage migration in eligible patients.
      Liver Cancer 2017;6:313-324
       
  • Consensus on Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Small-Sized
           Hepatocellular Carcinoma at the 7th Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer
           Expert Meeting
    • Abstract: Background: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is an advanced technique of external beam radiation therapy that delivers large ablative doses of radiation. In the past decade, many cancer centers have adopted SBRT as one mode of radically treating small-sized hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), based on encouraging clinical outcomes. SBRT thus seems reasonable as first-line treatment of inoperable HCC confined to the liver. However, most of the clinical studies to date have been retrospective in nature, with key issues still under investigation. Summary: The above-mentioned publications were subjected to scrutiny, fueling discussions at the 7th Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert (APPLE 2016) Meeting on various clinical variables, such as indications for SBRT, therapeutic outcomes, treatment-related toxicities, doses prescribed, and specific techniques. The consensus reached should be of interest to all professionals active in the treatment of HCC, especially radiation oncologists. Key Messages: SBRT is a safe and effective therapeutic option for patients with small-sized HCC, offering substantial local control, improved overall survival, and low toxicity.
      Liver Cancer 2017;6:264-274
       
  • Lenvatinib in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    • Abstract:
      Liver Cancer 2017;6:253-263
       
  • Sorafenib versus Hepatic Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy as Initial
           Treatment for Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Advanced Portal Vein Tumor
           Thrombosis
    • Abstract: Objective: To investigate the validity of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy with low-dose 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin (LFP) versus sorafenib as first-line treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with portal vein tumor thrombosis (Vp3, Vp4). Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the cases of Child-Pugh A advanced HCC with Vp3 or Vp4 treated with LFP or sorafenib between October 2002 and December 2013. Results: There were 32 patients in the LFP group and 14 patients in the sorafenib group. The objective response rate/disease control rate was 31.3/56.3% in the LFP group and 0/28.6% in the sorafenib group. The median survival time (MST) (309 vs. 120 days; p = 0.009) and the median time to treatment failure (109 vs. 37 days; p = 0.022) were significantly longer in the LFP group than in the sorafenib group. In the LFP group, a relatively favorable outcome (MST, 622 days) was obtained among the response cases. Among the nonresponse cases in the LFP group, at the time of cessation of LFP, 70.4% of cases were Child-Pugh A and 88.9% of cases maintained a score of ≤7 points; of the cases in whom Child-Pugh A was maintained, the survival period from the time of LFP discontinuation was significantly longer in the cases in whom sorafenib was introduced as a secondary treatment after LFP than in the cases treated with best supportive care (220 vs. 89 days; p = 0.002). The main adverse event with LFP was grade 3 or higher cytopenia, which was manageable, and adverse event-induced discontinuation was significantly lower as compared with sorafenib (p = 0.002). Conclusion: For the treatment of HCC with Vp3/Vp4, it is desirable to initially use LFP and then immediately change to sorafenib if no response is obtained.
      Liver Cancer 2017;6:275-286
       
  • An Ecological Study of the Association between Air Pollution and
           Hepatocellular Carcinoma Incidence in Texas
    • Abstract: Introduction: Primary liver cancer is a significant cause of cancer-related death in both the United States and the world at large. Hepatocellular carcinoma comprises 90% of these primary liver cancers and has numerous known etiologies. Evaluation of these identified etiologies and other traditional risk factors cannot explain the high incidence rates of hepatocellular carcinoma in Texas. Texas is home to the second largest petrochemical industry and agricultural industry in the nation; industrial activity and exposure to pathogenic chemicals have never been assessed as potential links to the state's increased incidence rate of hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods: The association between the county-level concentrations of 4 air pollutants known to be linked to liver cancer, vinyl chloride, arsenic, benzene, and 1,3-butadiene, and hepatocellular carcinoma rates was evaluated using nonparametric generalized additive logistic regression and gamma regression models. Hepatocellular carcinoma incidence rates for 2000-2013 were evaluated in comparison to 1996 and 1999 pollution concentrations and hepatocellular carcinoma rates for the subset of 2006-2013 were evaluated in comparison to 2002 and 2005 pollution concentrations, respectively. Results: The analysis indicates that the relationship between the incidence of liver cancer and air pollution and risk factors is nonlinear. There is a consistent significant positive association between the incidence of liver cancer and hepatitis C prevalence rates (gamma all years, p < 0.05) and vinyl chloride concentrations (logistic 2002 and 2005, p < 0.0001; gamma 2002 and 2005, p < 0.05). Conclusions: This study suggests that vinyl chloride is a significant contributor to the incidence of liver cancer in Texas. The relationship is notably nonlinear. Further, the study supports the association between incidence of liver cancer and prevalence of hepatitis B.
      Liver Cancer 2017;6:287-296
       
  • Clinical Factors Predicting Better Survival Outcome for Pulmonary
           Metastasectomy of Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    • Abstract: Background: In patients with lung metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), it remains uncertain how a better survival outcome can be predicted after metastasectomy. This study aims to identify clinical factors that may be used to guide patient selection for such a therapeutic modality. A total of 28 patients who received pulmonary metastasectomy for HCC between 1993 and 2012 were identified. All relevant clinical factors were extracted from medical records up to September 2015. Patients were classified into high- and low-risk groups according to survival outcome after metastasectomy. All pertinent clinical factors were analyzed for correlation with survival outcome. Summary: The overall survival of 28 patients after pulmonary metastasectomy was studied first. The survival curve was biphasic and reached a plateau at 40 months after metastasectomy. The results indicate the presence of 2 groups of patients with a different survival outcome. Among all clinical parameters, remission status in the liver before pulmonary metastasectomy and distant metastasis-free interval between the last treatment of HCC and the occurrence of lung metastasis were found to be significantly associated with excellent survival outcome after pulmonary metastasectomy (p = 0.019 and 0.007 by Fisher exact test, and p = 0.002 and 0.0002 by Cox regression analysis).
      Liver Cancer 2017;6:297-306
       
  • Association of Serum Ferritin with Diabetes and Alcohol in Patients with
           Non-Viral Liver Disease-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    • Abstract: Introduction: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a leading cause for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Sri Lanka. Diabetes mellitus, alcohol abuse, and liver inflammation are known to increase the risk of HCC. The present study evaluates serum ferritin levels in a cohort of patients with non-viral HCC (nvHCC). Methodology: Consecutive patients with nvHCC presenting to the Colombo North Liver transplant Service, Ragama, from January 2012 to July 2013 were investigated. All were negative for hepatitis B and C. At registration, 5 mL of serum was separated into plain tubes, stored at -80°C and analysed for ferritin using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Correlation between the serum ferritin and patient risk factors, liver status, and tumour characteristics were analysed. Results: There were 93 patients with nvHCC (median age 65 [12-82] years; 82 [88.2%] males). The median ferritin level was 246.2 μg/L, and 38 (40.86%) patients had elevated ferritin. Non-diabetics (median 363.5 mg/L, p = 0.003) and alcohol abusers (median 261.2 mg/L, p = 0.018) had higher ferritin levels. On multiple-variable analysis, being non-diabetic (p = 0.013) and alcoholic (p = 0.046) was significantly associated with high serum ferritin. No association was found with body mass index, tumour stage, size, macrovascular invasion, number of nodules, alpha-fetoprotein, bilirubin, international normalized ratio, and survival. Conclusion: In patients with nvHCC, serum ferritin levels are higher in non-diabetics and alcoholics.
      Liver Cancer 2017;6:307-312
       
  • The 8th Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert Meeting (APPLE 2017). The
           Art & Science of Conquering Liver Cancer. Singapore, July 14-16, 2017:
           Abstracts
    • Abstract:
      Liver Cancer 2017;6(suppl 1):1-71
       
  • Title Page / Table of Contents
    • Abstract:
      Liver Cancer 2017;6(suppl 1):I-IV
       
 
 
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