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Journal Cover   Liver Cancer
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   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 2235-1795 - ISSN (Online) 1664-5553
   Published by Karger Homepage  [101 journals]
  • Apple News
    • Abstract:
      Liver Cancer 2015;4:200
       
  • Current Status of Hepatic Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy
    • Abstract: Background: Hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) is frequently used to treat advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Asian countries. However, there is a lack of evidence supporting the use of HAIC. Summary: Many studies report high response rates in patients with advanced HCC receiving HAIC, and clinical responses translate to survival benefits. Therefore, prediction of an antitumor response is important in selecting appropriate treatments. There are no proven post-sorafenib therapeutic measures or procedures for HCC patients with poor liver function, and HAIC is one of the few options for patients in these situations. Despite studies showing its effectiveness, the use of HAIC for treatment of advanced HCC is unclear because convincing data from large-scale randomized clinical trials are lacking. For HAIC to become a standard treatment for HCC, such trials must establish its efficacy compared with other HCC therapies; prediction of antitumor response in HAIC may aid trial design, and a multi-center, open-labelled, randomized clinical trial of HAIC in advanced HCC is currently in progress. Optimization of HCC treatment protocols and regimens is also required. Key message: We think that both HAIC and sorafenib are effective treatments for advanced HCC, and this review presents evidence supporting this contention.
      Liver Cancer 2015;4:188-199
       
  • Recent Advances in Tumor Ablation for Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    • Abstract: Image-guided tumor ablation for early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an accepted non-surgical treatment that provides excellent local tumor control and favorable survival benefit. This review summarizes the recent advances in tumor ablation for HCC. Diagnostic imaging and molecular biology of HCC has recently undergone marked improvements. Second-generation ultrasonography (US) contrast agents, new computed tomography (CT) techniques, and liver-specific contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have enabled the early detection of smaller and inconspicuous HCC lesions. Various imaging-guidance tools that incorporate imaging-fusion between real-time US and CT/MRI, that are now common for percutaneous tumor ablation, have increased operator confidence in the accurate targeting of technically difficult tumors. In addition to radiofrequency ablation (RFA), various therapeutic modalities including microwave ablation, irreversible electroporation, and high-intensity focused ultrasound ablation have attracted attention as alternative energy sources for effective locoregional treatment of HCC. In addition, combined treatment with RFA and chemoembolization or molecular agents may be able to overcome the limitation of advanced or large tumors. Finally, understanding of the biological mechanisms and advances in therapy associated with tumor ablation will be important for successful tumor control. All these advances in tumor ablation for HCC will result in significant improvement in the prognosis of HCC patients. In this review, we primarily focus on recent advances in molecular tumor biology, diagnosis, imaging-guidance tools, and therapeutic modalities, and refer to the current status and future perspectives for tumor ablation for HCC.
      Liver Cancer 2015;4:176-187
       
  • Surgical and Locoregional Therapy of HCC: TACE
    • Abstract: Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is performed worldwide for patients with intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). TACE has produced survival advantages in two randomized controlled trials and a meta-analysis, and is currently the mainstay of treatment for this stage of HCC. However, there are currently no global guidelines regarding the dose, choice or combination of cytotoxic agents for TACE; therefore, it is difficult to compare data from different TACE studies. In Japan, most of the TACE procedures have been based on iodized oil as conventional TACE, utilizing the microembolic and drug-carrying characteristic of iodized oil. Superselective TACE with lipiodol is the primary TACE procedure that has reported satisfactory levels of local control associated with a lower risk of complications. Conversely, TACE performed using drug-eluting beads has been widely used in western countries, and this has shown similar tumor response and median survival compared to conventional TACE. Moreover, the combination of TACE and molecular targeted agents is now ongoing to evaluate the synergistic effect. In this review, the indication, technical issues, and complications of TACE are reviewed.
      Liver Cancer 2015;4:165-175
       
  • The 6th Asia-Pacific Primary Liver Cancer Expert Meeting (APPLE 2015),
           Evidence and Consensus on HCC Management. Osaka, Japan, July 3-5, 2015:
           Abstracts
    • Abstract:
      Liver Cancer 2015;4:1-257
       
  • Locoregional Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    • Abstract:
      Liver Cancer 2015;4:163-164
       
  • Potential Role of Phosphorylation as a Regulator of
           Aspartyl-(asparaginyl)-β-hydroxylase: Relevance to Infiltrative
           Spread of Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    • Abstract: Abundant expression of aspartyl-(asparaginyl)-β-hydroxylase (AAH) correlates with infiltrative growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Herein, we examine the role of phosphorylation in relation to AAH's protein expression, hydroxylase activity, promotion of cell motility, and activation of Notch signaling in human Huh7 hepatoma cells. Predicted glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) , protein kinase A (PKA), protein kinase C (PKC), and casein kinase 2 (CK2) phosphorylation sites encoded by human AAH cDNA were ablated by S/T#x2192;A site-directed mutagenesis using N-Myc-tagged constructs in which gene expression was controlled by a cytomegalovirus promoter. Functional consequences were assessed in transiently transfected Huh7 cells. Cells transfected with wildtype AAH had significantly increased AAH expression, catalytic activity, HES-1 expression, and directional motility relative to controls. Single phosphorylation site mutations in the C-terminus largely abrogated these effects and further inhibited catalytic activity relative to that in cells transfected with empty vector, whereas the effects of single point mutations within the N-terminus were more varied. In contrast, AAH cDNAs carrying multiple phosphorylation site mutations exhibited wildtype levels of AAH catalytic activity suggesting that the effects of AAH phosphorylation are complex and non-uniform. AAH expression and function can be modulated by direct phosphorylation of the protein. These findings suggest additional strategies for inhibiting infiltrative growth of HCC.
      Liver Cancer 2015;4:139-153
       
  • Was Hypervascular Hepatocellular Carcinoma Visible on Previous Gadoxetic
           Acid-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Images'
    • Abstract: Background: During the follow-up of patients with chronic liver disease, hypervascular hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) can develop either from pre-existing high-risk nodules or by de novo hepatocarcinogenesis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, by retrospective analysis, the detectability and signal intensity on previous hepatocyte-phase gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (EOB-MRI) of hypervascular HCC initially detected on current EOB-MRIs. Methods: We examined 50 initially detected hypervascular HCCs that showed typical enhancement features on EOB-MRI in 39 patients whose previous EOB-MRI images obtained 6-19 months earlier were available. The detectability of each hypervascular HCC on the hepatocyte phase images of previous EOB-MRIs was assessed. The imaging features on hepatocyte-phase images of previous EOB-MRIs at the locations where hypervascular HCCs were found on the current EOB-MRI images were classified as detectable or undetectable. The signal intensities of detectable nodules (defined as group A) on hepatocyte-phase images of previous EOB-MRIs were classified as hypo-, iso-, or hyperintensity. Nodules undetectable on the hepatocyte-phase images of previous EOB-MRIs were assigned to group B. Results: Twenty-two (22/50, 44%) hypervascular HCCs were detectable on the earlier hepatocyte phase images (group A). In contrast, 28 (28/50, 56%) hypervascular HCCs were not detectable on the hepatocyte phase of earlier EOB-MRI images (group B). Conclusion: When the previous EOB-MRI images were used as the reference, more than half (28/50, 56%) of hypervascular HCCs initially appearing on the current EOB-MRI images were found not to have developed from nodules detectable on the previous MRIs through the traditionally accepted process of multistep carcinogenesis. Instead, they seemed to have developed via an “imaging-occult” process of carcinogenesis in patients with chronic liver diseases.
      Liver Cancer 2015;4:154-162
       
  • Apple News
    • Abstract:
      Liver Cancer 2015;4:137
       
  • Apple News
    • Abstract:
      Liver Cancer 2015;4:84
       
 
 
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