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Journal Cover Liver Cancer
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   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 2235-1795 - ISSN (Online) 1664-5553
   Published by Karger Homepage  [121 journals]
  • Cabozantinib as a Second-Line Agent in Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    • Abstract:
      Liver Cancer
       
  • Response to the Comments on Cicalese et al.: “An Ecological Study of the
           Association between Air Pollution and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Incidence
           in Texas”
    • Abstract:
      Liver Cancer
       
  • European Council of Vinyl Manufacturers Comments on Cicalese et al.: “An
           Ecological Study of the Association between Air Pollution and
           Hepatocellular Carcinoma Incidence in Texas”
    • Abstract:
      Liver Cancer
       
  • Vinyl Institute Comments on Cicalese et al.: “An Ecological Study of the
           Association between Air Pollution and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Incidence
           in Texas”
    • Abstract:
      Liver Cancer
       
  • No Muscle Depletion with High Visceral Fat as a Novel Beneficial Biomarker
           of Sorafenib for Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    • Abstract: Background: Sorafenib is a standard therapy for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, no predictive biomarkers of sorafenib efficacy have been discovered. Herein, we investigated the impact of body composition, such as skeletal muscle and visceral fat, on the prognosis of advanced HCC patients treated with sorafenib. Methods: We enrolled 100 patients with advanced HCC treated with sorafenib. Prior to receiving sorafenib therapy, skeletal muscle index (SMI) and visceral fat area (VFA) were measured using computed tomography at the third lumbar vertebra and umbilical level, respectively. Muscle depletion was defined as an SMI value #x3c; 42 cm2/m2 in men and #x3c; 38 cm2/m2 in women. High VFA (H-VFA) was defined as a value ≥100 cm2. In addition to SMI and VFA, we also analyzed various clinical parameters as potential prognostic factors. Results: Multivariate analysis showed that having a tumor number #x3c; 7 (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.409, p #x3c; 0.001), absence of extrahepatic spread (EHS) (HR = 0.562, p #x3c; 0.001), absence of muscle depletion (HR = 0.498, p = 0.006), and H-VFA (HR = 0.556, p = 0.031) were significant factors for long-term survival. Therefore, we evaluated the prognosis of those with no muscle depletion with H-VFA. The no muscle depletion with H-VFA group showed significantly longer survival than the other group (median survival time 15.6 vs. 11.0 months, p = 0.003). Multivariate analysis showed that having a tumor number #x3c; 7 (HR = 0.454, p = 0.001), absence of EHS (HR = 0.511, p = 0.008), and no muscle depletion with H-VFA (HR = 0.454, p = 0.002) were significant predictors of survival. Conclusions: We identified no muscle depletion with H-VFA as a novel biomarker for advanced HCC patients treated with sorafenib.
      Liver Cancer
       
  • Multidisciplinary Taiwan Consensus Recommendations for the Use of
           DEBDOX-TACE in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treatment
    • Abstract: Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the first-line treatment in patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In recent years, there has been increasing clinical evidence that drug-eluting beads provide a combined ischemic and cytotoxic effect that may be superior to conventional TACE, with low systemic toxicity. The therapeutic value of TACE performed using the embolic microsphere DC Bead loaded with doxorubicin (drug-eluting bead doxorubicin [DEBDOX]) has been shown by several randomized controlled trials. Since Lencioni et al. [Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol 2012; 35: 980–985] published the first widely accepted technical recommendations on HCC embolization with DEBDOX-TACE in 2012, new studies have contributed to a better understanding of when and how to apply this new therapeutic modality, and they have yet to be incorporated into an updated guideline. Additionally, differences in the underlying liver pathology and practice of transcatheter embolization between Asian and Western populations have not been adequately addressed, and there remain significant variations in the TACE protocols adopted in different parts of the world. These mainly revolve around the number and type of chemotherapeutic agents used, type of embolic material, reliance on Lipiodol, and selectivity of catheter positioning. As a result of these issues, it has been difficult to interpret and compare results obtained from different centers in a systematic fashion. To address these concerns, we convened a panel of experts specializing in different aspects of HCC treatment to craft an updated set of recommendations that better reflect recent clinical experiences and are tailored to the use of DEBDOX-TACE in Taiwan. The conclusions of this expert panel are described in the following article.
      Liver Cancer
       
  • A Phase I/Randomized Phase II Study to Evaluate the Safety,
           Pharmacokinetics, and Efficacy of Nintedanib versus Sorafenib in Asian
           Patients with Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    • Abstract: Background: Nintedanib is an oral, triple angiokinase inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor/platelet-derived growth factor/fibroblast growth factor receptors. This randomized, multicenter, open-label, phase I/II study evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics, maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in terms of dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs), and efficacy of nintedanib versus sorafenib in Asian patients with unresectable advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients and Methods: For the phase I portion, patients were stratified into two groups according to their alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST) and Child-Pugh score at baseline. For phase I, the primary endpoint was determination of the MTD in terms of DLTs. For phase II, patients with a Child-Pugh score of 5–6, an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance score ≤2, and an ALT/AST ≤2× the upper limit of normal were enrolled and randomized 2: 1 to nintedanib 200 mg twice daily (b.i.d.) (the MTD determined in phase I) or sorafenib 400 mg b.i.d. continuously in 28-day cycles until intolerable adverse events (AEs) or disease progression (PD); treatment beyond PD was allowed if clinical benefit was perceived. The primary endpoint for phase II was time to progression (TTP) by central independent review (CIR; by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors v1.0); the secondary endpoints included overall survival (OS). All analyses were exploratory. Results: The MTD was 200 mg in both groups. For phase II, 95 patients were randomized to nintedanib (n = 63) or sorafenib (n = 32). For nintedanib and sorafenib, respectively, the median CIR TTP was 2.8 vs. 3.7 months (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.21, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.73–2.01) and the median OS 10.2 vs. 10.7 months (HR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.59–1.49). Nintedanib-treated patients had fewer grade 3 or higher AEs (56 vs. 84%), serious AEs (46 vs. 56%), and AEs leading to dose reduction (19 vs. 59%) and drug discontinuation (24 vs. 34%). AEs associated more frequently with nintedanib were vomiting and nausea, whereas those associated more frequently with sorafenib were ALT/AST increases, diarrhea, rash, and palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome. Conclusions: Nintedanib showed numerically similar efficacy to sorafenib for CIR TTP and OS in Asian patients with advanced HCC and adequate liver function. AEs were generally manageable.
      Liver Cancer
       
  • Effectiveness of Particle Radiotherapy in Various Stages of Hepatocellular
           Carcinoma: A Pilot Study
    • Abstract: Aim: We analyzed the effectiveness of external particle radiotherapy (PRT) as an alternative therapy for various stages of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: Eighty-three patients with HCC underwent PRT in our hospital from 2007 to 2015 (proton beam radiation in 58 patients and carbon ion radiation in 25 patients), including patients with early-stage HCC (single HCC measuring ≤3 cm, Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer [BCLC] stage 0 or A) (group A, n = 30), those with intermediate-stage HCC (HCCs measuring ≥3 cm but inoperable or multinodular and transcatheter arterial embolization [TACE]-refractory, BCLC stage B) (group B, n = 31), and those with advanced-stage HCC (HCC with portal invasion or extrahepatic metastasis) (group C, n = 22). The median radiation dose was 72.6 GyE (range 50–74) for proton beam radiation and 45.0 GyE (range 45–52.8) for carbon beam radiation. Local control ability was defined as continuous shrinkage of the tumor size without development of new lesions for ≥6 months after PRT. Results: The rates of local control of the target tumor at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years were 91.9, 86.3, and 84.8%, respectively. The overall survival rates at 1, 2, and 3 years were 83.0, 65.6, and 55.1%, respectively. Patients in group A showed the best survival rates (100.0% at 1 year and 85.9% at 2 years). The 1-year survival rate was poor in group C (63.6%) despite a good local tumor control rate of 74.7%. The overall survival rates were significantly better in groups A and B than in group C. Conclusions: The local control rates after PRT were sufficiently high compared to TACE or sorafenib. Thus, PRT should be adopted for patients with difficult-to-treat HCC in the early and intermediate stages.
      Liver Cancer
       
  • The Prognosis of Single Large Hepatocellular Carcinoma Was Distinct from
           Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Stage A or B: The Role of Albumin-Bilirubin
           Grade
    • Abstract: Background/Aims: Whether single large hepatocellular carcinoma (SLHCC) is classified as Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) stage A or B is still controversial. We aimed to compare the clinical manifestations, treatment modalities, and prognoses among patients with SLHCC and those in BCLC stage A and B. Methods: We enrolled 2,285 treatment-naive hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients with BCLC stage A or B from October 2007 to December 2015. Factors in terms of prognoses were analyzed by multivariate analysis. Results: We enrolled 1,210, 466, and 609 patients in a BCLC-A, SLHCC, and BCLC-B group, respectively. After a median follow-up duration of 21.2 months, 898 patients had died. The cumulative 5-year survival rates were 57.0, 42.6, and 27.3% for patients in the BCLC-A, SLHCC, and BCLC-B groups, respectively, which were significantly different (p #x3c; 0.001). Multivariate analysis indicated that the following independent risk factors were associated with poor prognosis: age #x3e; 65 years, alkaline phosphatase #x3e; 100 U/L, creatinine #x3e; 1.0 mg/dL, alpha-fetoprotein #x3e; 20 mg/mL, noncurative treatment, albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) grade, and HCC staging. Subgroup analysis also confirmed that patients in the SLHCC group had a survival rate intermediate to those in the BCLC-A and BCLC-B groups. However, for patients in the SLHCC group and with ALBI grade 1, outcomes were close to those in the BCLC-A group, especially in the setting of curative treatment. For those with ALBI grades 2 or 3, the prognoses were similar to those of the SLHCC and BCLC-B groups. Conclusion: Patients in the SLHCC group had an overall survival rate intermediate to those of the BCLC-A and BCLC-B groups. It is suggested that the SLHCC group could be classified as occupying a different stage from the BCLC stages A and B. The ALBI grade could help to stratify SLHCC into a different prognostic group. However, the results need to be validated externally in other regions of the world.
      Liver Cancer
       
  • Long-Term Prognostic Factors after Hepatic Resection for Hepatitis C
           Virus-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma, with a Special Reference to Viral
           Status
    • Abstract: Background: Although studies have reported on long-term (10-year) survival after hepatic resection for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), they did not focus on patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related HCC, and the contribution of antiviral therapy to long-term survival (especially ≥15 years) has not been adequately examined. We investigated the long-term outcome after hepatic resection for HCV-related HCC, including the effects of interferon (IFN) therapy, and the changes in prognostic factors according to postoperative duration. Methods: The data of 207 patients who underwent hepatic resection for HCV-related HCC between January 1992 and December 2001 were retrospectively reviewed. We investigated the disease-free and overall survival rates after surgery and analyzed the prognostic factors at 5, 10, and 15 years postoperatively. Results: The proportion of patients who survived at 5, 10, and 15 years after hepatic resection was 52% (n = 107), 18% (n = 38), and 9% (n = 19). The overall survival rate was significantly higher in patients who achieved sustained virological response (SVR) with IFN therapy than in those without SVR. Tumor-related factors such as multiple tumor, microscopic vascular invasion, and a high indocyanine green retention rate at 15 min (ICGR15) were unfavorable prognostic factors for 5-year survival. Conversely, a low ICGR15 and SVR were favorable prognostic factors at 10 years, and SVR alone was a favorable prognostic factor at 15 years postoperatively; no tumor-related factors were prognostic factors at 10 and 15 years postoperatively. Conclusion: The prognostic factors varied according to the duration after hepatic resection for HCV-related HCC. Tumor-related factors were unfavorable prognostic factors in the early postoperative period, whereas SVR and good liver function were favorable prognostic factors at 10 and 15 years postoperatively. Achievement of SVR with IFN therapy is essential for long-term (≥15 years) survival after hepatic resection for HCV-related HCC.
      Liver Cancer
       
 
 
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