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Journal Cover   Liver Cancer
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 2235-1795 - ISSN (Online) 1664-5553
   Published by Karger Homepage  [104 journals]
  • Clinical Practice Guidelines for Hepatocellular Carcinoma Differ between
           Japan, United States, and Europe
    • Abstract:
      Liver Cancer 2015;4:85-95
  • Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Cirrhotic Patients with Portal
           Hypertension: Relevance of Hagen-Poiseuille's Law
    • Abstract: Background: Hepatic decompensation in cirrhosis heralds an accelerated course with poor survival. An increase in hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG), rather than surrogate tests of liver function, appears to be the sole predictor of decompensation after surgical resection. We propose that hepatic sinusoidal walls become less elastic as cirrhosis progresses. Decompensation signals the development of increased vessel wall rigidity. The pressure-flow characteristics then become subject to Hagen-Poiseuille's law, which applies only to rigid, cylindrical vessels. Thereafter, HVPG rises exponentially (by a factor inversely proportional to the fourth power of the net radius of functional sinusoidal vessels , 1/r4, at any given hepatic blood flow rate. This review attempts to correlate liver stiffness, risk of decompensation and outcomes from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with cirrhosis. Summary: We compare the complexity of autoregulation in the normal elastic liver, which has a unique dual blood supply, with that in the rigid cirrhotic liver. We also review, in the context of background liver cirrhosis, the management of HCC which is in essence, a solid mass of unorganized cells that exacerbates liver stiffness. We discuss the differential effects of various therapeutic modalities such as liver transplantation, loco-regional therapy and drugs on HCC outcomes, based on their effects on HVPG. Key Messages: Increased hepatic artery supply, or the hepatic artery buffer response, may be the only available method for autoregulation or maintenance of hepatic blood flow in the cirrhotic liver. In HCC, loco-regional therapies, including partial resection of the cirrhotic liver, can exacerbate portal hypertension by increasing blood flow within the remnant organ. We conclude that studies of HVPG reduction as part of HCC management may be beneficial and are warranted.
      Liver Cancer 2014;3:428-438
  • Hong Kong Consensus Recommendations on the Management of Hepatocellular
    • Abstract: Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is particularly prevalent in Hong Kong because of the high prevalence of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection; HCC is the fourth commonest cancer in men and the seventh commonest in women, and it is the third leading cause of cancer death in Hong Kong. The full spectrum of treatment modalities for HCC is available locally; however, there is currently no local consensus document detailing how these modalities should be used. Summary: In a series of meetings held between May and October 2013, a multidisciplinary group of Hong Kong clinicians − liver surgeons, medical oncologists, clinical oncologists, hepatologists, and interventional radiologists − convened to formulate local recommendations on HCC management. These recommendations consolidate the most current evidence pertaining to HCC treatment modalities, together with the latest thinking of practicing clinicians engaged in HCC management, and give detailed guidance on how to deploy these modalities effectively for patients in various disease stages. Key messages: Distinct from other regional guidelines, these recommendations provide guidance on the use of antiviral therapy to reduce the incidence of HCC in CHB patients with cirrhosis and to reduce recurrence of CHB-related HCC.
      Liver Cancer 2015;4:51-69
  • Surveillance, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Outcome of Liver Cancer in Japan
    • Abstract: Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common type of cancer and the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. HCC is most common in Asia, but its prevalence is rapidly increasing in Western countries; consequently, HCC is a global medical issue that urgently needs to be addressed. Japan is the only developed country that has experienced both hepatitis B-related and hepatitis C-related HCC and has a long history of innovation when it comes to new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, such as computed tomography angiography, anatomical resection, ablation, and transarterial chemoembolization. Among these innovations, a nationwide surveillance program was well established by the 1980s, and such a long-term national program does not exist anywhere else in the world. Summary: More than 60% of the initially detected HCCs in Japan are Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage 0 or A, which can undergo curative therapies such as resection, ablation, or transplantation. The recent 5-year survival rate of HCC patients in Japan was 43% and the median survival time was 50 months. In addition, both incidence and mortality rates are drastically declining as a result of the successful surveillance program, careful diagnostic flow, and extensive repeated treatments. Key Message: Japan's successful model in the surveillance, diagnosis, and treatment of HCC should be adopted as widely as possible to improve the survival of HCC patients worldwide.
      Liver Cancer 2015;4:39-50
  • Insufficient Ablative Margin Determined by Early Computed Tomography May
           Predict the Recurrence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Radiofrequency
    • Abstract: Tumor recurrence in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients after radiofrequency ablation (RFA) remains common; some studies have reported that insufficient ablative margin after RFA might contribute to HCC recurrence. The aim of this study was to investigate whether insufficient ablative safety margins determined by early computed tomography (CT) predicts HCC recurrence after RFA. This retrospective study recruited patients with a single HCC lesion after RFA in our department between May 2013 and March 2014. Early follow-up CT was performed within 7 days after RFA. An adequate ablative margin assessed by follow-up CT was defined as (maximum post-RFA CT radius)3/(maximum pre-RFA CT radius + 5 mm)3> 1. All patients in whom complete ablation was achieved underwent a CT scan every 3 months for early detection of HCC recurrence. In total, 72 patients (48 male, mean age 69.4 years) were analyzed. Of these, eight patients had local tumor progression, four had intra-hepatic distant recurrence, and two had extra-hepatic metastasis. Insufficient ablative margin, defined as an ablative volume with a safety margin of less than 5 mm, was an important predictor of local tumor progression (LTP) (p = 0.015) and overall recurrence (p = 0.012). The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of an insufficient ablative margin for predicting LTP and overall recurrence were 36.4%, 97.2%, 50.0%, and 87.9%, and 46.2%, 89.7%, 42.9%, and 87.9%, respectively. An ablative volume with an ablative margin of less than 5 mm is associated with higher rates of both LTP and overall recurrence in HCC after RFA.
      Liver Cancer 2015;4:26-38
  • Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in the Community: Disparities in
           Standard Therapy
    • Abstract: Background and Aims: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) incidence is expected to rise dramatically over the next decades because of increasing hepatitis C infections and obesity-related comorbidities. However, little information exists regarding the treatment of patients with HCC in the community setting. The purpose of this article was to characterize patterns of diagnosis, treatment, and survival for HCC in the community. Methods: We identified 946 HCC patients in the 2007 National Cancer Institute's Patterns of Care study. Chi-square analyses and multivariable regression were used to examine patient and provider factors associated with treatment and survival by stage at diagnosis. Results: Our primary findings indicate that liver transplants, embolization, or radiofrequency ablation for Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage A patients were performed significantly less often for non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, patients in the highest income quartile, and patients with Medicaid. Patients with stage D disease were less likely to receive cancer therapy if they had Medicaid insurance compared to private insurance (p
  • Malignant Transformation of Hepatocellular Adenoma: How Frequently Does It
    • Abstract:
      Liver Cancer 2015;4:1-5
  • Yttrium-90 Microspheres: A Review of Its Emerging Clinical Indications
    • Abstract: Background: Many patients with liver malignancies are not candidates for resection, and systemic therapies are often not effective. Radioembolization (RE) is an alternative treatment for this group of patients. The safety and efficacy of RE with yttrium 90 (Y90) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or metastatic colon cancer to the liver have been proven in several studies. However, fewer studies have focussed on the safety and efficacy of RE with Y90 in other extrahepatic primary and secondary liver cancers. The effect on outcomes of concomitant use of Y90 with a systemic therapy is still currently under investigation. Summary: A review of the published data on the use of RE as stand-alone, concomitant or sequential with other treatment modalities in HCC and other primary and secondary liver cancer is reported here. Key message: RE for the treatment of HCC and other extrahepatic, primary and secondary liver cancer has reasonable efficacy and acceptable toxicities. Definitive studies to establish the role of RE in the treatment of such malignancies are warranted.
      Liver Cancer 2015;4:6-15
  • Yttrium-90 Microsphere Radioembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    • Abstract: Yttrium-90 (Y90) radioembolization is an emerging strategy to treat liver malignancies, and clinical data supporting its use have accumulated in recent years. Y90-radioembolization has shown clinical effectiveness in intermediate and advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, with a favorable safety profile. Retrospective data show similar levels of effectiveness to transarterial chemoembolization in intermediate hepatocellular carcinoma, with some evidence of better tolerance. While phase 3 studies comparing Y90-radioembolization to chemoembolization in intermediate hepatocellular carcinoma would be difficult to conduct, studies comparing or combining Y90-radioembolization with sorafenib are under way. Questions also remain about the most suitable modalities for defining the dose to administer. Phase 3 studies are under way to clarify the place of Y90-radioembolization in the algorithm of HCC treatment.
      Liver Cancer 2015;4:16-25
  • JSH Consensus-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of
           Hepatocellular Carcinoma: 2014 Update by the Liver Cancer Study Group of
    • Abstract: The Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma proposed by the Japan Society of Hepatology was updated in June 2014 at a consensus meeting of the Liver Cancer Study Group of Japan. Three important items have been updated: the surveillance and diagnostic algorithm, the treatment algorithm, and the definition of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) failure/refractoriness. The most important update to the diagnostic algorithm is the inclusion of gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging as a first line surveillance/diagnostic tool. Another significant update concerns removal of the term “lipiodol” from the definition of TACE failure/refractoriness. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel
      Liver Cancer 2014;3:458-468
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