Journal Cover Liver Cancer
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   ISSN (Print) 2235-1795 - ISSN (Online) 1664-5553
   Published by Karger Homepage  [120 journals]
  • Lenvatinib May Drastically Change the Treatment Landscape of
           Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    • Abstract:
      Liver Cancer
  • Combination Cancer Immunotherapy in Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    • Abstract:
      Liver Cancer
  • Hong Kong Consensus Statements for the Management of Unresectable
           Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    • Abstract: Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is highly prevalent in Hong Kong due to the high prevalence of chronic hepatitis B infection. Liver cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the third most common cause of cancer death. Due to the high case load, there is a high level of local expertise in treating HCC, and the full spectrum of treatment modalities is available. This document summarizes how these modalities should be used based on the latest evidence. Summary: In 2 meetings held in early 2017, a multidisciplinary group of Hong Kong clinicians, including liver surgeons, interventional radiologists, clinical oncologists, and medical oncologists, met to update local consensus statements for management of HCC. These statements are based on the latest evidence and give detailed guidance on how to deploy these modalities, in particular for cases of HCC which are not suited to surgical resection. Key Messages: These statements give detailed information on how to decide if a patient is a candidate for resection, methods to improve candidacy for resection, and guidance for use of various nonsurgical interventions to manage patients ineligible for resection.
      Liver Cancer
  • Liver Stiffness Measured by Two-Dimensional Shear-Wave Elastography:
           Prognostic Value after Radiofrequency Ablation for Hepatocellular
    • Abstract: Purpose: To evaluate the prognostic value of liver stiffness (LS) measured using two-dimensional (2D) shear-wave elastography (SWE) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated by radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Methods: The Institutional Review Board approved this retrospective study and informed consent was obtained from all patients. A total of 134 patients with up to 3 HCCs ≤5 cm who had undergone pre-procedural 2D-SWE prior to RFA treatment between January 2012 and December 2013 were enrolled. LS values were measured using real-time 2D-SWE before RFA on the procedural day. After a mean follow-up of 33.8 ± 9.9 months, we analyzed the overall survival after RFA using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard regression model. The optimal cutoff LS value to predict overall survival was determined using the minimal p value approach. Results: During the follow-up period, 22 patients died, and the estimated 1- and 3-year overall survival rates were 96.4 and 85.8%, respectively. LS measured by 2D-SWE was found to be a significant predictive factor for overall survival after RFA of HCCs, as was the presence of extrahepatic metastases. As for the optimal cutoff LS value for the prediction of overall survival, it was determined to be 13.3 kPa. In our study, 71 patients had LS values ≥13.3 kPa, and the estimated 3-year overall survival was 76.8% compared to 96.3% in 63 patients with LS values
  • Patient Selection for Transarterial Chemoembolization in Hepatocellular
           Carcinoma: Importance of Benefit/Risk Assessment
    • Abstract: Background: Liver cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death, with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounting for most primary liver cancers and most commonly arising from a history of advanced chronic liver disease. Among the available therapies, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the most widely utilized and is considered the first-line treatment recommended for patients staged as intermediate HCC (Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage B). If applied correctly, TACE can produce survival benefits without adversely affecting hepatic functional reserve. Summary: The aim of this nonsystematic review is to evaluate the evidence supporting TACE, with a special interest in intermediate HCC, for which this treatment is recommended in first line. However, intermediate HCC represents a broad and heterogeneous group of patients, not all of whom will benefit from TACE. This review highlights the importance of appropriate patient selection for initial TACE and for retreatment. It also evaluates evidence for the treatment of patients who become refractory to TACE. Some patients may, in fact, benefit from early switch (i.e., after 1 or 2 TACE treatments) to systemic therapies rather than continuing retreatments with TACE in order to preserve liver function, thus allowing sequential first- and second-line drug therapies. Key Messages: Careful assessment of an individual patient's benefit/risk ratio is recommended before any TACE session is considered to ensure optimal long-term outcomes in intermediate HCC.
      Liver Cancer
  • Short-Term Outcomes following Hepatectomy in Elderly Patients with
           Hepatocellular Carcinoma: An Analysis of 10,805 Septuagenarians and 2,381
           Octo- and Nonagenarians in Japan
    • Abstract: Background: As the population is aging, the indication for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) resection in patients aged over 80 years will increase. Japan is facing the most aging society worldwide. We examined the safety of hepatectomy in octogenarians and nonagenarians using large-scale data from the Diagnosis Procedure Combination database, a national administrative database in Japan. Method: We conducted a survey to collect data for all inpatients from 2007 and 2012. We identified 27,094 patients who underwent hepatectomy for HCC. Patients' age was divided into the following five categories: ≤59, 60-69, 70-79, 80-84, and ≥85 years (n = 5,099, 8,809, 10,805, 2,011, and 370, respectively). The primary outcomes of hepatectomy were in-hospital death within 90 days and complications. Logistic regression analyses were performed to analyze the impact of age on the outcomes with the adjustment of other individual-level factors. Results: The mortality and morbidity rates were 2.6 and 23.4%, respectively. Compared with patients in their 70s, the mortality rate was significantly lower in patients aged ≤59 years (odds ratio [OR], 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.26-0.45; p < 0.01) and in those in their 60s (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.53-0.74; p < 0.01). However, no significant difference was observed in patients aged 80-84 years (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.78-1.385; p = 0.844) and those aged ≥85 years (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.50-1.79; p = 0.870). Based on the multivariate logistic regression analysis, age ≥70 years, male gender, low hospital volume, and surgical procedure were identified as independent predictors of mortality. Conclusions: The operative risk for hepatectomy gradually increases with age until patients are in their 70s, and it appears to reach a plateau among septuagenarian. Indeed, age over 70 years can also be a risk factor for HCC. By considering the aging risk, surgeons can attain good outcome after hepatectomy even in octo- and nonagenarian patients.
      Liver Cancer
  • Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Japan as a World-Leading Model
    • Abstract:
      Liver Cancer
  • Association between Loss of Skeletal Muscle Mass and Mortality and Tumor
           Recurrence in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and
    • Abstract: Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has multiple prognostic factors, and there is an increase in knowledge about the body composition and physical status of patients with HCC. The present meta-analysis aimed to explore whether loss of skeletal muscle mass is associated with mortality and tumor recurrence in patients with HCC. Method: A systematic search was conducted for published literature using PubMed, Embase, and Scopus. We included cohort or case-control studies investigating patients with HCC. The primary and secondary outcomes were the associations of loss of skeletal muscle mass with overall survival and tumor recurrence, respectively, expressed by a summary hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Result: A total of 13 studies comprising 3,111 patients were included. The summary HRs calculated by either univariate or multivariate analysis both suggested a significant association between sarcopenia and all-cause mortality (crude HR = 2.04, 95% CI: 1.74-2.38; adjusted HR = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.60-2.37). Similarly, loss of skeletal muscle mass was associated with tumor recurrence (crude HR = 1.85, 95% CI: 1.44-2.37; adjusted HR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.27-2.45). The stratified analysis showed that treatment types and inclusion of body mass index or body weight in the Cox regression model did not modify both clinical outcomes. With an increase in cut-off values of muscle mass on computed tomography images (especially for male patients), there was an insignificant trend of stronger associations between loss of skeletal muscle mass and all-cause mortality. Conclusion: Loss of skeletal muscle mass is associated with increased all-cause mortality and tumor recurrence in patients with HCC. Further prospective studies incorporating measurements of muscle strength and physical function are warranted to see whether inclusion of both parameters better predicts the outcome than use of muscle mass only.
      Liver Cancer
  • The Asia Pacific Consensus Statement on Laparoscopic Liver Resection for
           Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Report from the 7th Asia-Pacific Primary Liver
           Cancer Expert Meeting Held in Hong Kong
    • Abstract: Background: Laparoscopic liver resection has been gaining momentum, and it has become an accepted practice after the two international consensus conferences where experts worked up guidelines to standardize this approach and improve its safety. However, most laparoscopic hepatectomies were performed in patients with liver metastases. The concurrent presence of liver cirrhosis with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) poses a great challenge to clinicians trying to establish a routine use of laparoscopic liver resection for HCC. Summary: The first Asia Pacific consensus meeting on laparoscopic liver resection for HCC was held in July 2016 in Hong Kong. A group of expert liver surgeons with experience in both open and laparoscopic hepatectomy for HCC convened to formulate recommendations on the role and perspective of laparoscopic liver resection for primary liver cancer. The recommendations consolidate the most recent evidence pertaining to laparoscopic hepatectomy together with the latest thinking of practicing clinicians involved in laparoscopic hepatectomy, and give detailed guidance on how to deploy the treatment effectively for patients in need. Key Message: The panel of experts gathered evidence and produced recommendations providing guidance on the safe practice of laparoscopic hepatectomy for patients with HCC and cirrhosis. The inherent advantage of the laparoscopic approach may result in less blood loss if the procedure is performed in experienced centers. The laparoscopic approach to minor hepatectomy, particularly left lateral sectionectomy, is a preferred practice for HCC at experienced centers. Laparoscopic major liver resection for HCC remains a technically challenging operation, and it should be carried out in centers of excellence. There is emerging evidence that laparoscopic liver resection produces a better oncological outcome for HCC when compared with radiofrequency ablation, particularly when the lesions are peripherally located. Augmented features in laparoscopic liver resection, including indocyanine green fluorescence, 3D laparoscopy, and robot, will become important tools of surgical treatment in the near future. A combination of all of these features will enhance the experience of the surgeons, which may translate into better surgical outcomes. This is the first consensus workforce on laparoscopic liver resection for HCC, which is a unique condition that occurs in the Asia Pacific region.
      Liver Cancer
  • Preoperative Low Muscle Mass and Low Muscle Quality Negatively Impact on
           Pulmonary Function in Patients Undergoing Hepatectomy for Hepatocellular
    • Abstract: Background: Sarcopenia is a prognostic factor for mortality in digestive surgery. However, the correlation between preoperative cardiopulmonary function and sarcopenia in patients undergoing hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. Methods: The present study investigated the impact of preoperative sarcopenia on cardiopulmonary function in 402 patients who underwent first hepatectomy for HCC between April 2005 and April 2015. The quantity and quality of skeletal muscle were evaluated using psoas muscle index (PMI) and intramuscular adipose tissue content (IMAC), respectively, as determined from preoperative computed tomography imaging. Correlations between preoperative cardiopulmonary function and sarcopenic factors (PMI and IMAC) were evaluated. Results: No significant correlations were found between left ventricular ejection fraction and the two sarcopenic factors. On the other hand, preoperative vital capacity (VC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) correlated significantly with PMI (p < 0.001 each) in males and with IMAC (p < 0.001 each) in females. Moreover, VC and FEV1 in the preoperative low PMI (p < 0.001 each) and high IMAC (p = 0.002 and p < 0.001, respectively) groups were significantly lower than in the normal group in males. In females, VC and FEV1 were significantly lower in the preoperative high IMAC group than in the normal group (p < 0.001 each). Conclusion: Preoperative low muscle mass in males and low muscle quality in males and females were significantly associated with pulmonary dysfunction.
      Liver Cancer
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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