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Journal Cover Liver Cancer
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   ISSN (Print) 2235-1795 - ISSN (Online) 1664-5553
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  • APPLE News
    • Abstract:
      Liver Cancer 2016;5:152-153
       
  • APPLE News
    • Abstract:
      Liver Cancer 2016;5:88-89
       
  • Breakthrough Imaging in Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    • Abstract:
      Liver Cancer 2016;5:47-54
       
  • Imaging Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Recent Advances of
           Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography with SonoVue®
    • Abstract: Due to the ability to detect the typical contrast-imaging pattern for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), that is hyperenhancement in the arterial phase and hypoenhancement in the late phase on a cirrhotic background, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) was included in the American diagnostic algorithm for HCC in 2005. However, its role has been questioned because of the possibility of misdiagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma. The present review aims to describe the advantages and disadvantages of CEUS applications using Sonovue® for HCC. In particular there is focus on the accuracy of CEUS in detecting the typical HCC pattern, the CEUS patterns of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), the risk of misdiagnosis with HCC, the diagnostic use of CEUS in cases of locoregional and systemic treatments, and the evaluation of response to antiangiogenic treatment using dedicated software.
      Liver Cancer 2016;5:55-66
       
  • Optimal Selection of Radiotherapy as Part of a Multimodal Approach for
           Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    • Abstract: A multimodal approach to treatment is a basic oncologic principle with proven survival benefits for most cancer types. However, existing guidelines recommend single modalities for treating each stage of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Nonetheless, multimodal approaches can be considered for HCC, depending on the characteristics of the disease in individual cases. Radiotherapy (RT), an effective local modality, is a critical element of most multimodal approaches. Improved RTtechnology and increased understanding of the tolerance of the liver to radiation have contributed to the popularity of RT for treating liver tumors in clinical practice. Consequently, numerous reports have described the effects of RT on liver cancer, despite a lack of stringent evidence for its benefits. RT can be delivered using various technologies and approaches, which may be the source of some confusion. For example, high-dose ablative RT can be curative on its own, or high-dose ablative or conventional RT can complement other treatments such as radiofrequency ablation and transarterial chemoembolization. Combinations of systemic agents and RT can also be applied. This review discusses the optimal selection of RT as part of a multimodal approach for HCC.
      Liver Cancer 2016;5:139-151
       
  • Tumor Heterogeneity in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Facing the Challenges
    • Abstract: Tumor heterogeneity in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), such as that found in second primary tumors after curative treatment, synchronous multifocal tumors of different clonality, or intratumor heterogeneity, poses severe challenges for the development and administration of systemic molecular targeted therapies. Various methodologies, including historical DNA ploidy analysis, integrated hepatitis B virus DNA analysis, DNA fingerprinting, and next-generation sequencing technologies, are used to explore tumor heterogeneity in HCC. It is estimated that 30%-60% of recurrent or metastatic tumors harbor clones different from the primary tumor, 22%-79% of synchronous tumors vary clonally, and 12%-66% of single tumors contain intratumor heterogeneity. Substantial intertumor and intratumor heterogeneity renders biomarker identification, which is critical for the development and administration of molecular targeted therapy, challenging when applied to a single tumor biopsy specimen. The use of circulating tumor cells or circulating tumor DNA to evaluate overall tumor heterogeneity may help resolve this problem. This article reviews previous studies of tumor heterogeneity and discusses the implications and future opportunities regarding tumor heterogeneity in HCC.
      Liver Cancer 2016;5:128-138
       
  • Selection Criteria and Current Issues in Liver Transplantation for
           Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    • Abstract: Liver transplantation (LT) is an ideal treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) because it not only resects HCCs but it also replaces the underlying damaged liver with normal tissue. However, the selection criteria are still a matter of debate. After the introduction of the Milan criteria, some expanded criteria focusing on tumor size and number have been proposed. In addition, new expanded criteria considering tumor biology have been proposed using tumor markers and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. This review summarizes the selection criteria in LT for HCC and introduces current issues focusing on the treatment for hepatitis C virus infection and the significance of sarcopenia in this field.
      Liver Cancer 2016;5:121-127
       
  • Outcomes of Hepatic Resection in Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma Patients
           with Diabetes, Hypertension, and Dyslipidemia: Significance of Routine
           Follow-Up
    • Abstract: Background: The outcomes of hepatic resection in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) patients with diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension (HT), and dyslipidemia (DL) (metabolic components) remain unclear. Methods: The outcomes of 43 ICC patients without known risk factors for ICC who underwent hepatic resection were retrospectively reviewed. These patients were divided into three groups: those followed-up for metabolic components at least every 6 months (follow-up group, n=16), those not followed-up for metabolic components (no follow-up group, n=14), and those without metabolic components (control group, n=13). Results: In the follow-up group, 13 (81%) patients were further examined for ICC during follow-up because of abnormal screening results, such as elevated serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) concentrations or detection of hepatic tumor on ultrasonography and/or computed tomography, whereas most patients in the other two groups exhibited ICC-related symptoms. No patient in the follow-up group exhibited lymph node metastasis, whereas 43% of those in the no follow-up group and 46% in the control group had lymph node metastasis (p=0.005 and 0.004 vs. the follow-up group, respectively). All 16 patients in the follow-up group were diagnosed as International Union Against Cancer pathologic stage I or II (early stage). There were no significant differences in the incidence of postoperative recurrence between the three groups; however, the incidence of extrahepatic recurrence was lower in the follow-up group than in the no follow-up group and the control group (13% vs. 78% vs. 63%, p=0.0232). The 1-, 3-, and 5-year overall survivalrates in the follow-up group were better than those in the no follow-up and control groups (93/93/66% vs. 77/34/34% and 85/24/0%, p=0.034 and 0.001, respectively). Conclusions: Routine measurement of serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase and/or CA19-9 levels and imaging examinations every 12 months (or 6 months, if possible) are recommended during follow-up for DM, HT, and DL to detect ICC at an early stage.
      Liver Cancer 2016;5:107-120
       
  • Heterogeneity and Subclassification of Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer Stage
           B
    • Abstract:
      Liver Cancer 2016;5:91-96
       
  • National Cancer Centre Singapore Consensus Guidelines for Hepatocellular
           Carcinoma
    • Abstract: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the 6th most common cancer in the world, but the second most common cause of cancer death. There is no universally accepted consensus practice guidelines for HCC owing to rapid developments in new treatment modalities, the heterogeneous epidemiology and clinical presentation of HCC worldwide. However, a number of regional and national guidelines currently exist which reflect practice relevant to the epidemiology and collective experience of the consensus group. In 2014, clinicians at the multidisciplinary Comprehensive Liver Cancer Clinic (CLCC) at the National Cancer Centre Singapore (NCCS) reviewed the latest published scientific data and existing international and regional practice guidelines, such as those of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network, American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver, and modified them to reflect local practice. These would serve as a template by which treatment outcomes can be collated and benchmarked against international data. The NCCS Consensus Guidelines for HCC have been successfully implemented in the CLCC since their publication online on 26th September 2014, and the guidelines allow outcomes of treatment to be compared to international data. These guidelines will be reviewed periodically to incorporate new data.
      Liver Cancer 2016;5:97-106
       
 
 
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