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Journal Cover Liver Cancer
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   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal  (Not entitled to full-text)
   ISSN (Print) 2235-1795 - ISSN (Online) 1664-5553
   Published by Karger Homepage  [105 journals]
  • Albumin-Bilirubin Grade and Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treatment Algorithm
    • Abstract:
      Liver Cancer 2017;6:185-188
  • Albumin-Bilirubin (ALBI) Grade as Part of the Evidence-Based Clinical
           Practice Guideline for HCC of the Japan Society of Hepatology: A
           Comparison with the Liver Damage and Child-Pugh Classifications
    • Abstract: Aim/Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of 3 classifications for assessing liver function, the liver damage and Child-Pugh classifications and the newly proposed albumin-bilirubin (ALBI) grade, in order to examine the feasibility of evaluating hepatic function using ALBI grade with the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treatment algorithm used in Japan. Methods: We analyzed the medical records of 3,495 Japanese HCC patients admitted from 2000 to 2015, which were comprised of 1,580 patients hospitalized in the Ehime Prefecture area and used as a training cohort (Ehime group), and 1,915 others who were used for validation (validation group). ALBI score used for grading (≤-2.60 = grade 1, greater than -2.60 to ≤-1.39 = grade 2, greater than -1.39 = grade 3) as well as clinical features and prognosis (Japan Integrated Staging [JIS], modified JIS, ALBI-TNM [ALBI-T] score) were retrospectively investigated. Results: For prediction of liver damage A, the values for sensitivity and specificity, positive predictive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratios of ALBI-1 and Child-Pugh A were similar among the 2 groups. Akaike information criterion results showed that prognosis based on ALBI grade/ALBI-T score was better than that based on liver damage/modified JIS score and Child-Pugh/JIS score (22,291.8/21,989.4, 22,379.6/22,076.0, 22,392.1/22,075.1, respectively). The cutoff values for ALBI score for indocyanine green retention rate at 15 min (ICG-R15)
  • How to Differentiate Borderline Hepatic Nodules in Hepatocarcinogenesis:
           Emphasis on Imaging Diagnosis
    • Abstract: Background: Rapid advances in liver imaging have improved the evaluation of hepatocarcinogenesis and early diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this situation, detection of early-stage HCC in its development is important for the improvement of patient survival and optimal treatment strategies. Because early HCCs are considered precursors of progressed HCC, precise differentiation between a dysplastic nodule (DN), especially a high-grade DN, and early HCC is important. In clinical practice, these nodules are frequently called “borderline hepatic nodules.” Summary: This article discusses radiological and pathological characteristics of these borderline hepatic nodules and offers an understanding of multistep hepatocarcinogenesis by focusing on the descriptions of the imaging changes in the progression of DN and early HCC. Detection and accurate diagnosis of borderline hepatic nodules are still a challenge with contrast enhanced ultrasonography, CT, and MRI with extracellular contrast agents. However, gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI may be useful for improving the diagnosis of these borderline nodules. Key Messages: Since there is a net effect of incomplete neoangiogenesis and decreased portal venous flow in the early stage of hepatocarcinogenesis, borderline hepatic nodules commonly show iso- or hypovascularity. Therefore, precise differentiation of these nodules remains a challenging issue. In MRI using hepatobiliary contrast agents, signal intensity of HCCs on hepatobiliary phase (HBP) is regarded as a potential imaging biomarker. Borderline hepatic nodules are seen as nonhypervascular and hypointense nodules on the HBP, which is important for predicting tumor behavior and determining appropriate therapeutic strategies.
      Liver Cancer 2017;6:189-203
  • A New Era of Systemic Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma with
           Regorafenib and Lenvatinib
    • Abstract:
      Liver Cancer 2017;6:177-184
  • APPLE News
    • Abstract:
      Liver Cancer 2017;6:173
  • The APPLE Association President's Message
    • Abstract:
      Liver Cancer 2017;6:174
  • Information of APPLE 2017
    • Abstract:
      Liver Cancer 2017;6:175
  • APPLE News
    • Abstract:
      Liver Cancer 2017;6:99-100
  • MicroRNAs for the Prediction of Early Response to Sorafenib Treatment in
           Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    • Abstract: Background: Several studies suggest the role of circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) as biomarkers of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the serum miRNA profile associated with the response to sorafenib remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to clarify the specific miRNAs in serum that could predict the early response of HCC to sorafenib treatment. Summary: Analyzing the sera from 16 HCC patients, we selected five miRNAs that showed differences in serum levels between patients with and without tumor responses among 179 known secretory miRNAs by using locked nucleic acid probe-based quantitative PCR. Through further analysis using a validation cohort that included 53 HCC patients who underwent sorafenib treatment and 8 healthy control subjects, we found that miR-181a-5p and miR-339-5p showed significant differences in serum levels among patients with partial response (PR), stable disease (SD), and progressive disease (PD), where PR patients showed the highest and PD the lowest levels. We also analyzed the factors associated with disease control (DC; PR or SD) 3 months after the initiation of sorafenib treatment; patients with DC showed a significantly higher level of serum miR-181a-5p than non-DC patients or healthy control subjects (p = 0.0349 and 0.0180 for DC vs. non-DC and control vs. non-DC by Tukey-Kramer test, respectively). We further conducted multivariate analysis among HCC patients with Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage C using extrahepatic metastasis, serum decarboxyprothrombin, and miR-181a-5p levels as covariables; serum miR-181a-5p was the only independent factor for achieving DC (p = 0.0092, odds ratio 0.139, and 95% confidence interval 0.011-0.658). In addition, miR-181a-5p level was also the only independent factor affecting overall survival (p = 0.0194, hazard ratio 0.267, and 95% confidence interval 0.070-0.818). Key Messages: A high serum level of miR-181a-5p before treatment is associated with DC after the initiation of sorafenib.
      Liver Cancer 2017;6:113-125
  • Factors Influencing Surveillance for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients
           with Liver Cirrhosis
    • Abstract: Objective: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide, and a rising cause of cancer mortality in the U.S. Liver cirrhosis is the major risk factor for HCC. Surveillance of persons with cirrhosis facilitates early detection and improves outcomes. We assessed the surveillance rate for HCC within a major academic health system and identified factors influencing surveillance. Patients and Methods: We examined the surveillance rate for HCC using liver ultrasound, CT, or MRI, and factors influencing surveillance in a cohort of 369 Minnesota residents with cirrhosis seen at the Mayo Clinic between 2007 and 2009. Results: Ninety-three percent of cirrhosis patients received at least one surveillance study, but only 14% received the recommended uninterrupted semiannual surveillance. Thirty percent received ≥75% of recommended surveillance, and 59% received ≥50% of recommended surveillance. Factors increasing surveillance included gastroenterology or hepatology specialist visits (p < 0.0001), advanced liver disease as assessed by hepatic encephalopathy (p = 0.0008), and comorbid illness as assessed by diabetes mellitus (p = 0.02). Age, sex, race, residence, cirrhosis etiology, or number of primary care visits did not significantly affect the rate of surveillance. Conclusions: While the rate of surveillance in a major academic health system was higher than reported in other studies, surveillance was heavily dependent on visits to a subspecialist. This suggests a major and urgent national need to improve identification of individuals at risk for HCC in the primary care setting and the initiation and maintenance of surveillance by primary care practitioners.
      Liver Cancer 2017;6:126-136
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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