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Journal Cover Karger Kompass
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   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal  (Not entitled to full-text)
   ISSN (Print) 2296-0368 - ISSN (Online) 2296-0317
   Published by Karger Homepage  [105 journals]
  • Downregulation of UBAP2L Inhibits the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
           via SNAIL1 Regulation in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells
    • Abstract: Background/Aims: Dysregulation of ubiquitin-associated protein 2-like (UBAP2L) has been reported in tumors, but its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression is unclear. Methods: The expression levels of UBAP2L in HCC tissues and HCC cell lines were detected by western blot and quantitative real-time (qRT) PCR. The effects of UBAP2L expression on HCC cell biological traits, including migration and invasion, were investigated by wound healing assay and matrigel transwell assay. Simultaneously, the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers including E-cadherin, CK-18, N-cadherin, Vimentin, Claudin7 and the promoter activity of E-cadherin were detected by western blot and qRT-PCR. Subsequently, role of SNAIL1 in UBAP2L-mediated EMT and the mechanism underlying UBAP2L-mediated SNAIL1 expression were further investigated. Results: UBAP2L was overexpressed in human HCC tissues compared with peri-tumoral tissues. Downregulation of UBAP2L inhibited migration, invasion and the EMT in highly metastatic HCC cell lines. Furthermore, UBAP2L knockdown inhibited expression of the transcriptional repressor SNAIL1 and its ability to bind to the E-cadherin promoter via SMAD2 signaling pathway, which in turn resulted in increased E-cadherin expression. Additionally, bioinformatics analysis showed that expression of UBAP2L is correlated with poor prognosis in patients with HCC. Conclusions: UBAP2L plays a critical role in maintenance of the metastatic ability of HCC cells via SNAIL1 Regulation and is predictive of a poor clinical outcome.
      Cell Physiol Biochem 2017;41:1584–1595
  • MicroRNA-9 Inhibits NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in Human Atherosclerosis
           Inflammation Cell Models through the JAK1/STAT Signaling Pathway
    • Abstract: Background/Aims: MicroRNA-9 (miR-9) is involved in inflammatory reaction in atherosclerosis; however, its function and regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. We aimed to uncover the exact roles of miR-9 and downstream signaling pathways using in vitro human atherosclerosis models. Methods: We used oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-stimulated human THP-1 derived macrophages, oxLDL-stimulated human primary peripheral blood monocytes and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or Alum-stimulated human THP-1 derived macrophages as in vitro atherosclerosis inflammation models. Transient transfection of over-expression vectors, small interference RNAs (siRNAs) or antisense oligonucleotides was used to regulate intracellular protein or miR-9 levels. Cell responses and signal transduction were detected by multiple assays including Western blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and luciferase reporter assay. Results: MiR-9 inhibited while anti-miR-9 antisense oligonucleotides induced interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in all in vitro models. Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) and matrix metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13) were identified as the target genes of miR-9. In oxLDL-stimulated human THP-1 derived macrophages, knockdown of JAK1 by siRNA blocked the phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and mimicked the effects of miR-9. In the same model, JAK1 knockdown blocked the phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 in the nuclei and the phosphorylation of NF-κB IκBα in the cytoplasm. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that miR-9 could inhibit activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and attenuate atherosclerosis-related inflammation, likely through the JAK1/STAT1 signaling pathway. Therefore, miR-9 may serve as a potential therapeutic target for atherosclerosis.
      Cell Physiol Biochem 2017;41:1555–1571
  • Prevention of TLR9 Pathway in Warm Ischemia in Porcine Donor Liver after
           Cardiac Death
    • Abstract: Objective: To investigate effect of warm ischemia after cardiac death on activation of TLR9 pathway in porcine liver. Methods: Donor of cardiac death (DCD) model was established with Duroc, Landrace, Large White crossbred pigs. Liver tissues from the animals were harvested at 0, 5, 10, 15, 25 and 30 minutes after warm ischemia for analysis of expression of TLR9, IRF7, IFN-β, and TNF-α at mRNA and protein levels by real-time PCR and western blot, respectively, and for assessment of NF-κB/DNA binding activity by western blot detection of p65 protein. Results: Ischemia induced TLR9, IRF7, IFN-β, and TNF-α expression at both mRNA and protein levels in an ischemic time dependent manner. Among them, expression of TNF-α and IFN- β was induced later than TLR9 and IRF7 did. Ischemia also enhanced NF-κB binding to DNA in the DCD liver tissue. Pretreatment with iCpG specifically blocked activation of TLR9 pathway triggered by ischemia in liver and protected the animals from ischemia-caused liver tissue damage. Conclusion: Warm ischemia activates TLR9 pathways in the porcine liver tissue. Blocking TLR9 pathway could offer protection from ischemia-caused liver tissue in DCD liver transplantation.
      Cell Physiol Biochem 2017;41:1547–1554
  • Discovering the Relative Efficacy of Inhaled Medications for Chronic
           Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Multiple Treatment Comparisons
    • Abstract: Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is managed by three major classes of inhaled medications: inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), long-acting Beta 2-agonist (LABA), long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA). Single inhaled medication is usually replaced by combined inhaled medications for efficacy enhancement. However, this practice should be supported by clinical evidence for large-scale implementations. Methods: The relative efficacy of inhaled medications is determined by three endpoints: changes in the trough forced expiratory volume in 1 second (tFEV1), changes in the St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) score and the proportion of SGRQ responders which represents a reduction in SGRQ total score at week 24 of ≥4.0. A total of 76 eligible studies were identified in PubMed and Embase. Relevant data were extracted for the purpose of evidence synthesis. Then, raw mean differences (MD) and odds ratios (ORs) were produced by using the network meta-analysis. Results: Patients with ICS + LABA, ICS + LABA + LAMA, LABA, LABA + LAMA, LAMA exhibited significant increases in the tFEV1 compared to those with placebo (P #x3c; 0.05). Moreover, patients with ICS + LABA + LAMA exhibited the largest increase in the average tFEV1 and the largest decrease in the average SGRQ scores compared to those with placebo. COPD patients with ICS + LABA + LAMA were far more likely to achieve a significant reduction in the SGRQ scores compared to those with placebo or other inhaled medications (OR #x3e; 1). Conclusions: The combined inhaled medication of ICS + LABA + LAMA may be more efficacious than other inhaled medications for COPD patients.
      Cell Physiol Biochem 2017;41:1532–1546
  • A Study of Biological Rhythm Disturbances in Polish Remitted Bipolar
           Patients using the BRIAN, CSM, and SWPAQ Scales
    • Abstract: Background/Aims: The Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (BRIAN) is a novel tool allowing for a complex assessment of biological rhythms. We compared patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and healthy control subjects (HC) using the Polish version of the BRIAN scale. Method: Fifty-four remitted BD patients (17 males and 37 females aged 52 ± 13 years) and 54 healthy control subjects (25 males and 29 females aged 42 ± 14 years) were studied. In addition to the BRIAN scale, the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM) and the Sleep-Wake Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SWPAQ) were employed. Results: The Polish version of the BRIAN scale displayed high feasibility and consistency, showing that the patients had greater biological rhythm disturbances than the controls. After regression analysis, significant differences were obtained for the BRIAN subscales activity and predominant chronotype, and for the SWPAQ items quality of night-time sleep and ability to stay awake. We obtained positive correlations between higher BRIAN scores and morningness and eveningness, but the correlations with vigilance and the ability to stay awake (on the SWPAQ) were negative. Conclusions: Using the BRIAN scale, we confirmed the greater disturbances of biological rhythm in Polish remitted bipolar patients, compared with healthy controls. The differences between these 2 groups in sleep-awake patterns were also demonstrated by the SWPAQ scores. In contrast to other studies, we were unable to confirm an evening chronotype as a discriminating factor between remitted bipolar patients and healthy subjects. This can be explained by the older age and the use of lithium by a significant proportion of the patients.
      Neuropsychobiology 2016;74:125-130
  • Clinical Trial of Vadadustat in Patients with Anemia Secondary to Stage 3
           or 4 Chronic Kidney Disease
    • Abstract: Background: Therapeutic options for the treatment of anemia secondary to chronic kidney disease (CKD) remain limited. Vadadustat (AKB-6548) is an oral hypoxia-inducible factor prolyl-hydroxylase domain (HIF-PHD) inhibitor that is being investigated for the treatment of anemia secondary to CKD. Methods: A phase 2a, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging trial (NCT01381094) was undertaken in adults with anemia secondary to CKD stage 3 or 4. Eligible subjects were evenly randomized to 5 groups: 240, 370, 500, or 630 mg of once-daily oral vadadustat or placebo for 6 weeks. All subjects received low-dose supplemental oral iron (50 mg daily). The primary endpoint was the mean absolute change in hemoglobin (Hb) from baseline to the end of treatment. Secondary endpoints included iron indices, safety, and tolerability. Results: Ninety-three subjects were randomized. Compared with placebo, vadadustat significantly increased Hb after 6 weeks in a dose-dependent manner (analysis of variance; p < 0.0001). Vadadustat increased the total iron-binding capacity and decreased concentrations of ferritin and hepcidin. The proportion of subjects with at least 1 treatment-emergent adverse event was similar between vadadustat- and placebo-treated groups. No significant changes in blood pressure, vascular endothelial growth factor, C-reactive protein, or total cholesterol were observed. Limitations of this study included its small sample size and short treatment duration. Conclusions: Vadadustat increased Hb levels and improved biomarkers of iron mobilization and utilization in patients with anemia secondary to stage 3 or 4 CKD. Global multicenter, randomized phase 3 trials are ongoing in non-dialysis-dependent and dialysis-dependent patients.
      Am J Nephrol 2017;45:380-388
  • Genetic Polymorphisms in DEFB1 and miRNA202 Are Involved in Salivary Human
           β-Defensin 1 Levels and Caries Experience in Children
    • Abstract: The antimicrobial peptides human β-defensins (hBDs) are encoded by β-defensin genes (DEFBs) and are possibly involved in caries susceptibility. In this study we aimed (1) to investigate the relationship between salivary hBDs and caries and (2) to evaluate the association of genetic polymorphisms in DEFB1 and microRNA202 (miRNA202) with salivary levels of hBDs and caries experience. Two data sets were available for this study, totalizing 678 Brazilian children. Dental examination and saliva collection were performed in all included children. The salivary level for hDB1, hBD2, and hBD4 was assessed by ELISA sandwich technique in 168 children. The DNA was extracted from saliva, and polymorphisms in DEFB1 and miRNA202 were analyzed by real-time PCR. Statistical analysis was performed to investigate the associations between caries experience, hBD salivary level, genotype, and allele distribution, with an alpha of 0.05. The hBD1 level was significantly higher in caries-free children (p < 0.0001). The miRNA202 was associated with a lower level of salivary hBD1 (p < 0.05). Also, the polymorphic distribution of miRNA202 was associated with caries (p = 0.006). The polymorphisms in DEFB1 were not associated with hBD salivary level and caries experience (p > 0.05). In conclusion, our results indicate that genetic polymorphism in miRNA202 is involved in hBD1 salivary level as well as caries experience in children.
      Caries Res 2017;51:209-215
  • What Is the Key to Improving Renal Transplant Recipients' Awareness of
           Skin Cancer Risk'
    • Abstract: Background: Previous studies have shown poor compliance rates regarding sun protection among organ transplant recipients. Objective: The main objective of the present study was to assess the awareness among renal transplant recipients (RTRs) of their risk of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) development and their sunscreen use. The influence of several potentially relevant variables was also assessed in order to identify possible weak points on which to concentrate efforts in this respect. Methods: A total of 132 RTRs (92 males and 40 females) were included. The following information was collected and elaborated: (a) demographics; (b) skin phototype; (c) educational level; (d) time elapsed since transplantation; (e) immunosuppressive treatments; (f) previous dermatological visits; (g) patients' awareness of their NMSC risk; (h) use of sunscreen; and (i) previous documented NMSCs or NMSCs found during the study visit. Results: Overall, 65 patients (49.2%) expressed awareness of their susceptibility to skin cancers. A high educational level was the main factor associated with patients' awareness. Thirty-six RTRs (27.3%) reported using sunscreen regularly. High educational level and awareness of personal susceptibility to NMSC development were the most relevant factors associated with sun protection habits. Conclusion: The present study showed the low level of sunscreen use among RTRs and their scanty awareness of personal skin cancer risk. Since educational level has been found to be highly related to both awareness of cancer risk and adequate use of sunscreen among RTRs, it is necessary to improve the way education is delivered by dermatologists and nephrologists, especially to subjects with a low educational level.
  • Gross Hematuria Is More Common in Male and Older Patients with Renal
           Tuberculosis in China: A Single-Center 15-Year Clinical Experience
    • Abstract: Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the clinical features of renal tuberculosis and identify the age- and gender-related differences. Methods: A total of 419 patients at the Peking University First Hospital from January 2000 to July 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Data on demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, complications, laboratory results, radiologic imaging, surgical procedures, and pathology features were collected and compared between genders and 3 different age groups (under 40 years, 41-60, years and over 60 years). Results: The most common local presentations were lower urinary tract symptoms (65.2%), flank pain (37.9%), and gross hematuria (26.3%). Constitutional symptoms were also observed in 38.9% of the patients. Gross hematuria was more common in male patients (32.2%) and older patients (45.5%). Flank pain was more common in female patients (43.6%). Patients younger than 40 years of age had lower frequencies of calcification of the urinary tract (22.2%) and kidney atrophy (4.2%) in CT. In the postoperative pathological reports, atrophy (35.9%) and fibrosis (38.5%) were found to be significantly more common in older patients. Conclusions: While gross hematuria is more prevalent in older patients and male patients, flank pain is more common in female patients. Radiological and pathological features including calcification of the urinary tract, fibrosis, and kidney atrophy are more common in older patients.
      Urol Int
  • Hemorrhagic Transformations after Thrombectomy: Risk Factors and Clinical
    • Abstract: Background: Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a major complication of acute ischemic stroke, potentially associated with clinical deterioration. We attempted to identify risk factors and evaluated clinical relevance of minor and major HTs following endovascular thrombectomy (ET) in isolated middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusions. Methods: This is a retrospective single-center analysis of 409 patients with isolated MCA occlusion treated with ET. Patients' and procedural characteristics, severity of HT according to the European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study criteria, and clinical outcomes were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression models with standard retention criteria (p < 0.1) were used to determine risk factors and clinical relevance of HT. Results are shown as adjusted OR (aOR) and respective 95% CIs. Good neurologic short-term outcome was defined as National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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