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Karger Kompass    Follow    
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
     ISSN (Print) 2296-0368 - ISSN (Online) 2296-0317
     Published by Karger Homepage  [103 journals]
  • Determinants of Neurological Functional Recovery Potential after Stroke in
           Young Adults
    • Abstract: Background/Objectives: Despite recent progress in stroke prevention and acute treatment, neurorehabilitation remains one of the main methods of treatment in the management of stroke patients. The aim of this study is to point out some important predicting factors of in-hospital neurorehabilitation outcomes. Methods: A rehabilitation registry including all patients who had undergone a standardized program of neurorehabilitation at the neurorehabilitation unit of the Lausanne University Hospital, Lausanne, Switzerland, was created. Patients aged 55 years, gender, aphasia, hemilateral spatial neglect, spasticity, complications, length of stay >70 days, entry FIM >100 and relative possible FIM gain/week of >10% were considered to be significant and independent predicting factors of the neurorehabilitation outcome. Discussion/Conclusion: Some factors of the in-hospital rehabilitation period have been identified before (spasticity, complications, length of stay, relative possible FIM gain/week) and should be considered for a better management of the neurorehabilitation therapy. In addition, a personalized rehabilitation strategy based on the patient's individual needs should be aimed at. The question of resource allocation can also be addressed with regard to the present findings. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel
      Cerebrovasc Dis Extra 2014;4:77-83
  • Interferon-λ in the Context of Viral Infections: Production,
           Response and Therapeutic Implications
    • Abstract: Interferon (IFN)-λ forms the type III IFN family. Although they signal through distinct receptors, type I (IFN-α/β) and type III IFNs elicit remarkably similar responses in cells. However, in vivo, type III and type I IFN responses are not fully redundant as their respective contribution to the antiviral defense highly depends on virus species. IFN-λ is much more potent than IFN-α/β at controlling rotavirus infection. In contrast, clearance of several other viruses, such as influenza virus, mostly depends on IFN-α/β. The IFN-λ receptor was reported to be preferentially expressed on epithelial cells. Cells responsible for IFN-λ production are still poorly characterized but seem to overlap only partly IFN-α/β-producing cells. Accumulating data suggest that epithelial cells are also important IFN-λ producers. Thus, IFN-λ may primarily act as a protection of mucosal entities, such as the lung, skin or digestive tract. Type I and type III IFN signal transduction pathways largely overlap, and cross talk between these IFN systems occurs. Finally, this review addresses the potential benefit of IFN-λ use for therapeutic purposes and summarizes recent results of genome-wide association studies that identified polymorphisms in the region of the IFN-λ3 gene impacting on the outcome of treatments against hepatitis C virus infection. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel
      J Innate Immun
  • Effects of Allopurinol on Endothelial Dysfunction: A Meta-Analysis
    • Abstract: Objective: Several studies have assessed the effect of allopurinol on endothelial function, but these studies were relatively small in size and used different methods of evaluating endothelial function. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the effect of allopurinol on both endothelial-dependent and -independent vasodilatation. Methods: Electronic databases, Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, SCOPUS, EBSCO and the Cochrane Library Central Register of Clinical Trials were searched from January 1985 to July 2013 on clinical trials (randomized and non-randomized) which assessed the effect of allopurinol on endothelial function. We conducted a sensitivity analysis to assess the contribution of each study to the pooled treatment effect by excluding each study one at a time and recalculating the pooled treatment effect for the remaining studies. Treatment effect was significant if p < 0.05. We assessed for heterogeneity in treatment estimates using the Cochran Q test and the χ2 statistic (with substantial heterogeneity defined as values >50%). Results: The final analysis consisted of 11 studies (2 observational and 9 randomized). For the endothelial-dependent vasodilatation there were 6 studies, including 257 patients, that evaluated flow-mediated dilatation and 5 studies with 87 patients that reported data on forearm blood flow response to acetylcholine or flow-dependent vasodilatation. Overall, there was a significant increase in the endothelium-dependent vasodilatation with allopurinol treatment (MD 2.69%, 95% CI 2.49, 2.89%, p < 0.001; heterogeneity χ2 = 319.1, I2 = 96%, p < 0.001). There was only 1 study (100 patients) assessing nitrate-mediated dilatation and 4 studies (73 patients) evaluating forearm blood flow response to sodium nitroprusside as measures of endothelial-independent vasodilatation. The overall analysis (MD -0.08, 95% CI -0.50, 0.34, p = 0.70; heterogeneity χ2 = 9.0, I2 = 44%, p = 0.11) showed no effect of allopurinol treatment on endothelium-independent vasodilatation. Conclusions: We found that treatment of hyperuricemia with allopurinol is associated with an improvement in the endothelial-dependent, but not with the endothelial-independent vasodilatation. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel
      Am J Nephrol 2014;39:348-356
  • Nanoencapsulation in Lipid-Core Nanocapsules Controls Mometasone Furoate
           Skin Permeability Rate and Its Penetration to the Deeper Skin Layers
    • Abstract: Aims: The influence of nanoencapsulation of mometasone furoate (MF) in poly(ε-caprolactone) lipid-core nanocapsules (LNC) on its in vitro human skin permeation and penetration was evaluated. Methods: Semisolid formulations were prepared by increasing the viscosity of LNC using a carbomer (Carbopol® Ultrez at 0.5% w/v). Two complementary techniques (the static Franz diffusion cell model and the Saarbrücken penetration model) were used to evaluate skin permeation/penetration. Results: The drug release rate was decreased by nanoencapsulation. The skin permeability of MF was controlled by the nanoencapsulation as well as by increasing the viscosity. Furthermore, the formulation containing the nanoencapsulated MF controlled the amount of drug reaching the deeper skin layers without changing its accumulation in the stratum corneum. Conclusion: This formulation is suitable for prolonged treatment of skin disorders which should avoid systemic absorption. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel
      Skin Pharmacol Physiol 2014;27:217-228
  • Clinical Imaging Assessments of Knee Osteoarthritis in the Elderly: A
    • Abstract: Knee osteoarthritis (OA) in the elderly is one of the most common degenerative age-related joint diseases leading to typical degradation of articular cartilage with severe pain and limitation of joint motion. Its increasing prevalence due to the demographic development of the society has major implications for individual and public healthcare with the increasing necessity for clinical imaging assessment in a high number of individuals. Although conventional X-ray radiographs are widely considered as gold standard for the assessment of knee OA, in clinical and scientific settings they increasingly bare significant limitations in situations when high resolution and detailed assessment of cartilage is demanded. New imaging modalities are broadening the possibilities in knee OA clinical practice and are offering new insights to help for a better understanding of the disease. X-ray analysis in OA of the knee is associated with many technical limitations and increasingly is replaced by high-quality assessment using magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasonography both in clinical routine and scientific situations. These novel imaging modalities enable an in vivo visualization of the quality of the cartilaginous structure and bone as well as all articular and periarticular tissues. Therefore, the limitations of radiographs in knee OA assessment could be overcome by these techniques. This review article should provide an insight into the most important radiological features of knee OA and their systematic visualization with different imaging approaches that can be used in clinical routine. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • Case Report on the Illness of Paul Klee (1879-1940)
    • Abstract: This article reports on the disease that afflicted Paul Klee, the famous artist. He died before the disease that killed him could be properly diagnosed. There was some conjecture afterwards that he may have suffered from scleroderma. The thorough and diligent research the author of this article has carried out over many years allows him to argue that Paul Klee was suffering from this autoimmune disease since 1935. With a degree of probability that borders on certainty, it seems that the artist suffered from ‘diffuse systemic sclerosis', and it is from this, the most severe form of the rare autoimmune disease, that he died in 1940. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel
      Case Rep Dermatol 2014;6:108-113
  • Managing Age-Related Hearing Loss: How to Use Hearing Aids Efficiently - A
    • Abstract: Using hearing aids may contribute to better functioning in the everyday lives of hearing-impaired older individuals. We introduce an integrative concept for the efficient use of hearing aids that involves both satisfaction with, and behaviour towards, hearing aids. We review theoretical and empirical work on the predictors of the efficient use of hearing aids in everyday life. Furthermore, we contend that the use of hearing aids requires improved understanding of the variability of hearing demands within specific contexts of everyday life (e.g. conversation with family members, listening to music). The efficiency of hearing aid use thus depends on the fit of situational demands, personal resources, and the specific configuration of the hearing aid device. We propose an integrative person-environment-fit model that advances concepts of selection, optimisation, and compensation to hearing aid efficiency. We discuss the implications of this model for research and for practitioners in the field of gerontology. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • Sporotrichosis with Bone Involvement: An Alert to an Occupational Disease
    • Abstract: Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic mycosis caused by a fungus of the genus Sporothrix, which is found in soil. It can be acquired by trauma to the skin. Bone and joint lesions are very rare. The city of Rio de Janeiro is undergoing an epidemic transmitted by cats, and this should be an alert for the risk to professionals in contact with these animals. The patient was a veterinarian who developed occupational sporotrichosis with osteoarticular involvement transmitted by a cat during a consultation. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel
      Case Rep Dermatol 2014;6:114-118
  • Effect of Intravitreal Bevacizumab Injection before Ahmed Glaucoma Valve
           Implantation in Neovascular Glaucoma
    • Abstract: Ophthalmologica 2013;229:94–100
  • Long-Term Outcome of Polymyositis Treated with High Single-Dose
           Alternate-Day Prednisolone Therapy
    • Abstract: Eur Neurol 2012;68:117–121
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