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Journal Cover Karger Kompass
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   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 2296-0368 - ISSN (Online) 2296-0317
   Published by Karger Homepage  [101 journals]
  • Targeting HMGA2 in Retinoblastoma Cells in vitro Using the Aptamer
    • Abstract: High-mobility group A2 (HMGA2) protein regulates retinoblastoma (RB) cancer cell proliferation. Here, a stable phosphorothioate-modified HMGA2 aptamer was used to block HMGA2 protein function in RB cells. HMGA2-aptamer internalisation in RB cells (Y79, Weri Rb1) and non-neoplastic human retinal cells (MIO-M1) were optimised. Aptamer induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity in RB cancer cells (0.25-1.5 µM). Increased expression of TGFβ, SMAD4, CDH1, BAX, CASP 3, PARP mRNA and decreased SNAI1, Bcl2 mRNA levels in aptamer-treated RB cells suggests the activation of TGFβ-SMAD4-mediated apoptotic pathway. Synergistic effect with etoposide was observed in aptamer treated RB cells (p value ≤0.05). No significant toxicity was observed in non-neoplastic retinal cells.
      Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016;2:262-269
      PubDate: 2106-07-02T00:00:00+02:00
  • Coronary Artery Fistulas: Case Series and Literature Review
    • Abstract: Congenital coronary artery fistulas are rare anomalies. As coronary angiography and multidetector computed tomography have become more accessible, they have been increasingly used in the investigation of chest pain and heart failure. Coronary artery fistulas are often an incidental finding, which raises the question of how patients with this condition should be managed. Intervention with either transcatheter closure or surgical closure is often technically possible. Many patients are asymptomatic early after closure. However, follow-up studies have shown post-closure sequelae, such as residual leakage, thrombosis with or without myocardial infarction, and coronary stenosis. Therefore, there has been a shift from intervention towards watchful waiting in asymptomatic patients. In this article, we review the published literature on the natural history and treatment outcomes in individuals with coronary artery fistulas. We present case reports from our clinic and discuss the management of incidental findings of coronary artery fistulas.
      Cardiology 2017;136:93-101
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T00:00:00+02:00
  • Locoregional Therapies of Cholangiocarcinoma
    • Abstract:
      Visc Med
  • Roles of 1,25(OH)2D3 and Vitamin D Receptor in the Pathogenesis of
           Rheumatoid Arthritis and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus by Regulating the
           Activation of CD4+ T Cells and the PKCĪ“/ERK Signaling Pathway
    • Abstract: Background/Aims: The study aims to elucidate the roles of 1,25(OH)2D3 and vitamin D receptor (VDR) in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) by regulating the activation of CD4+ T cells and the PKCδ/ERK signaling pathway. Methods: From January 2013 to December 2015, a total of 130 SLE patients, 137 RA patients and 130 healthy controls were selected in this study. Serum levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 and VDR mRNA expression were detected by ELISA and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Density gradient centrifugation was performed to separate peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). CD4+ T cells were separated using magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS). CD4+T cells in logarithmic growth phase were collected and assigned into 9 groups: the normal control group, the normal negative control (NC) group, the VDR siRNA group, the RA control group, the RA NC group, the VDR over-expressed RA group, the SLE control group, the SLE NC group, and the VDR over-expressed SLE group. The mRNA and protein expressions of VDR, PKCδ, ERK1/2, CD11a, CD70 and CD40L were detected by RT-qPCR and Western blotting. Bisulfite genomic sequencing was conducted to monitor the methylation status of CD11a, CD70 and CD40L. Results: Compared with healthy controls, serum 1,25(OH)2D3 level and VDR mRNA expression in peripheral blood were decreased in SLE patients and RA patients. With the increase of concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment, the VDR mRNA expression and DNA methylation levels of CD11a, CD70 and CD40L were declined, while the expressions of PKCδ, ERK1/2, CD11a, CD70 and CD40L were elevated in SLE, RA and normal CD4+T cells. Compared with the SLE contro, RA control, SLE NC and RA NC groups, the expressions of PKCδ, ERK1/2, CD11a, CD70 and CD40L decreased but DNA methylation levels of CD11a, CD70 and CD40L increased in the VDR over-expressed SLE group and VDR over-expressed RA group. However, compared with the normal control and normal NC groups, the expressions of PKCδ, ERK1/2, CD11a, CD70 and CD40L increased, but DNA methylation levels of CD11a, CD70 and CD40L decreased in the VDR siRNA group. Compared with the normal control group, the expressions of PKCδ, ERK1/2, CD11a, CD70 and CD40L increased, but DNA methylation levels of CD11a, CD70 and CD40L decreased in the SLE control and RA control groups. Conclusion: Our study provide evidence that 1,25(OH)2D3 and VDR could inhibit the activation of CD4+ T cells and suppress the immune response of SLE and RA through inhibiting PKCδ/ERK pathway and promoting DNA methylation of CD11a, CD70 and CD40L.
      Cell Physiol Biochem 2016;40:743-756
  • Errata
    • Abstract:
      Cell Physiol Biochem 2016;40:818
  • In Vitro Effects of HAS-2 Gene Silencing on the Proliferation and
           Apoptosis of the MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cell Line
    • Abstract: Background: Breast cancer is characterized by a distinct metastatic pattern involving the regional lymph nodes, bone marrow, lung and liver. This study is aimed to investigate the effects of silencing the HAS-2 gene on the proliferation and apoptosis of human breast cancer cells. Methods: MCF-7 cells were collected and assigned into control, scrambled siRNA and HAS-2- siRNA groups. After transfection, the morphological changes in the MCF-7 cells were observed using phase contrast microscopy. qRT-PCR and Western blot assays were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression of apoptosis-related proteins. CCK-8 and flow cytometry were performed to evaluate cell proliferation, the cell cycle and apoptosis. Results: In the control and the scrambled siRNA groups, cells grew adhered to the wall and mainly showed a spindle shape with a clear nucleolus. Compared with the control and scrambled siRNA groups, increases in the number of cells in early apoptosis and metaphase cells in apoptosis were observed in the HAS-2-siRNA group. The HAS-2-siRNA group showed decreased expression of HAS-2 relative to that in the control and scrambled siRNA groups. No significant differences in cell proliferation, cell cycle distribution or apoptosis were noted between the control and scrambled siRNA groups. In the HAS-2-siRNA group, the cell proliferation ability decreased significantly, but the number of cells in the G0/G1 stage, the number of apoptotic cells and the expression of caspase-3 and caspase-9 increased significantly. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that HAS-2 gene silencing may inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis in the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line.
      Cell Physiol Biochem 2016;40:807-817
  • Network Meta-Analysis of Pharmacological Agents for Osteoporosis Treatment
           and Fracture Prevention
    • Abstract: Background and Objective: Osteoporosis afflicts a large number of populations in the world and is featured by systemic impairment of bone mass and strength which may further trigger an increase in the risk of fragile fractures. This network meta-analysis (NMA) is designed to distinguish therapies more preferable than others with respect to efficacy and safety. Methods: We searched the medical literature for relevant studies systematically. Both direct and indirect evidence were synthesized to compare the efficacy, described by odds ratios (OR) and 95% credible intervals (CrI). Moreover, the surface under cumulative ranking curve was calculated to rank probabilities with respect to clinical outcomes. The new non-vertebral fractures, hip and wrist fractures, and adverse events were evaluated in this NMA. Results: Patients treated by alendronate, denosumab, teriparatide were associated with a reduced risk of new non-vertebral fractures compared to those treated by placebo. Alendronate, denosumab and zoledronic acid had better efficacy in preventing hip fractures. With respect to wrist fractures prevention, no significant difference was observed. Zoledronic acid exhibited significantly increased risk of adverse events than placebo, alendronate, denosumab, and raloxifene. According to SUCRA, teriparatide ranked highest in new non-vertebral fractures prevention, etidronate and denosumab balanced safety and efficacy well. Conclusion: In summary, teriparatide appeared to be the most efficacious drug for preventing new non-vertebral fractures, while etidronate and denosumab were preferable for balancing safety and efficacy well.
      Cell Physiol Biochem 2016;40:781-795
  • MiR-181a Targets PHLPP2 to Augment AKT Signaling and Regulate
           Proliferation and Apoptosis in Human Keloid Fibroblasts
    • Abstract: Background/Aims: Keloids are fibrous overgrowths induced by cutaneous injury. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as post-transcriptional gene repressors and participants in a diverse array of pathophysiological processes leading to skin disease. The purpose of the current study was to explore the precise functions of miR-181a in human keloid development and the underlying mechanisms. Methods: A miRNA microarray analysis was performed to compare expression profiles between keloid and normal skin tissues. Quantitative real-time PCR was conducted to estimate miR-181a expression. Cell proliferation was determined using the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and 5-ethynyl-2-deoxyuridine (EdU) assays, and cell cycle and apoptosis were detected with flow cytometry. Direct targets of miR-181a were identified using the luciferase reporter assay. Results: miR-181a was significantly upregulated in human keloid tissues and fibroblasts, compared with their control counterparts. Overexpression of miR-181a enhanced keloid fibroblast DNA synthesis and proliferation and inhibited apoptosis, whereas miR-181a suppression triggered the opposite effects. Moreover, miR-181a suppressed the expression of PH domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase 2 (PHLPP2) through direct interactions with its 3′UTR region and subsequently enhanced AKT activation. Overexpression of PHLPP2 without its 3′UTR attenuated the effects of miR-181a on cell proliferation and apoptosis in keloid fibroblast cells. Furthermore, miR-181a mimics increased normal skin fibroblast proliferation. Conclusions: Our results highlight a novel pathway mediated by miR-181a, which may be effectively used as a therapeutic target for treatment of keloids.
      Cell Physiol Biochem 2016;40:796-806
  • Screening of Bioactive Ingredients in Ligusticum Chuanxiong Hort for
           Protection against Myocardial Ischemia
    • Abstract: Background/Aims: To study the spectrum-effect relationship and effective components of Ligusticum Chuanxiong Hort. (LCH) on the protection of canine myocardial ischemia. Methods: Fingerprint spectrum of LCH extracts was developed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and a canine model of acute myocardial ischemia was established by ligating the coronary artery. Bivariate correlation analysis and multivariate regression analysis were used to correlate the pharmacodynamics of LCH extract and its common peaks in HPLC. Results: The bioactive components of LCH were ligustrazine, ferulic acid, cnidilide and ligustilide. Ligustrazine and ferulic acid could significantly reduce serum lactic acid in canine model of acute myocardial ischemia, while ligustilide could significantly reduce the elevation of serum free fatty acid. Conclusions: The spectrum-effect relationship study shows that the effective components of LCH are ligustrazine, ferulic acid, cnidilide and ligustilide, which have protective effect on myocardial ischemia.
      Cell Physiol Biochem 2016;40:770-780
  • PRSS8 is Downregulated and Suppresses Tumour Growth and Metastases in
           Hepatocellular Carcinoma
    • Abstract: Background: Protease serine 8 (PRSS8), a trypsin-like serine peptidase, has been shown to function as a tumour suppressor in various malignancies. The present study aimed to investigate the expression pattern, prognostic value and the biological role of PRSS8 in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: PRSS8 expression in 106 HCC surgical specimens was examined by Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry, and its clinical significance was analysed. The role of PRSS8 in cell proliferation, apoptosis and invasion were examined in vitro and in vivo. Results: PRSS8 mRNA and protein expression were decreased in most HCC tumours from that in matched adjacent non-tumour tissues. Low intratumoral PRSS8 expression was significantly correlated with poor overall survival (OS) in patients with HCC (P = 0.001). PRSS8 expression was an independent prognostic factor for OS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.704, P = 0.009). Furthermore, restoring PRSS8 expression in high metastatic HCCLM3 cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation and invasion. In contrast, silencing PRSS8 expression in non-metastatic HepG2 cells significantly enhanced cell growth and invasion. Moreover, our in vivo data revealed that attenuated PRSS8 expression in HepG2 cells greatly promoted tumour growth, while overexpression of PRSS8 remarkably inhibited tumour growth in an HCCLM3 xenograft model. Enhanced cell growth and invasion ability mediated by the loss of PRSS8 expression was associated with downregulation of PTEN, Bax and E-cadherin and an upregulation in Bcl-2, MMP9 and N-cadherin. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that PRSS8 may serve as a tumour suppressor in HCC progression, and represent a valuable prognostic marker and potential therapeutic target for HCC.
      Cell Physiol Biochem 2016;40:757-769
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Heriot-Watt University
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