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Journal Cover Karger Kompass
  [1 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 2296-0368 - ISSN (Online) 2296-0317
   Published by Karger Homepage  [101 journals]
  • Targeting HMGA2 in Retinoblastoma Cells in vitro Using the Aptamer
    • Abstract: High-mobility group A2 (HMGA2) protein regulates retinoblastoma (RB) cancer cell proliferation. Here, a stable phosphorothioate-modified HMGA2 aptamer was used to block HMGA2 protein function in RB cells. HMGA2-aptamer internalisation in RB cells (Y79, Weri Rb1) and non-neoplastic human retinal cells (MIO-M1) were optimised. Aptamer induced dose-dependent cytotoxicity in RB cancer cells (0.25-1.5 µM). Increased expression of TGFβ, SMAD4, CDH1, BAX, CASP 3, PARP mRNA and decreased SNAI1, Bcl2 mRNA levels in aptamer-treated RB cells suggests the activation of TGFβ-SMAD4-mediated apoptotic pathway. Synergistic effect with etoposide was observed in aptamer treated RB cells (p value ≤0.05). No significant toxicity was observed in non-neoplastic retinal cells.
      Ocul Oncol Pathol 2016;2:262-269
      PubDate: 2106-07-02T00:00:00+02:00
  • Coronary Artery Fistulas: Case Series and Literature Review
    • Abstract: Congenital coronary artery fistulas are rare anomalies. As coronary angiography and multidetector computed tomography have become more accessible, they have been increasingly used in the investigation of chest pain and heart failure. Coronary artery fistulas are often an incidental finding, which raises the question of how patients with this condition should be managed. Intervention with either transcatheter closure or surgical closure is often technically possible. Many patients are asymptomatic early after closure. However, follow-up studies have shown post-closure sequelae, such as residual leakage, thrombosis with or without myocardial infarction, and coronary stenosis. Therefore, there has been a shift from intervention towards watchful waiting in asymptomatic patients. In this article, we review the published literature on the natural history and treatment outcomes in individuals with coronary artery fistulas. We present case reports from our clinic and discuss the management of incidental findings of coronary artery fistulas.
      Cardiology 2017;136:93-101
      PubDate: 2017-08-30T00:00:00+02:00
  • T-Cadherin Expression in the Epidermis and Adnexal Structures of Normal
    • Abstract: Background: T-cadherin is an atypical glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored member of the cadherin superfamily of adhesion molecules. The role of T-cadherin in biology of the skin is poorly understood. Expression of T-cadherin in basal keratinocytes and dermal blood vessels of the healthy epidermis has been demonstrated, but studies on expression in skin appendages are rare. Methods: We conducted an immunohistochemical analysis of T-cadherin expression in the epidermis and adnexal structures of normal skin. Results: T-cadherin expression is restricted to basal keratinocytes of the epidermis. The basal cell layer of sebaceous glands was T-cadherin positive, whereas sebocytes were negative. Within apocrine glands, only myoepithelial cells were T-cadherin positive. In contrast, both the secretory coils and excretory ducts of eccrine glands were T-cadherin positive. In terminal hair follicles, the outer root sheath layers strongly expressed T-cadherin throughout different regions of the follicle, with the strongest immunoreactivity at the bulge and suprabulbar regions. T-cadherin and CK15 stem cell marker similarly localized within the bulge and suprabulbar region. T-cadherin and CD34 stem cell marker similarly localized at the suprabulbar level. Conclusion: The specific patterns of T-cadherin expression in the epidermis and adnexal structures suggest an important guardian role in skin homeostasis.
      Dermatopathology 2016;3:68-78
  • Intra- and Inter-Rater Agreement of Anterior Lamina Cribrosa Depth
           Measurements Using Enhanced-Depth Imaging Optical Coherence Tomography
    • Abstract: Purpose: To determine intra- and inter-rater agreement of anterior lamina cribrosa depth (ALCD) manual measurements using enhanced-depth imaging optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT). Methods: Observational study. EDI-OCT of the optic nerve head was performed in healthy subjects. ALCD was defined as the perpendicular distance between the line connecting both edges of Bruch's membrane opening and the anterior border of the lamina cribrosa (LC), at the maximum depth point. Two experienced operators performed manual ALCD measurements of the LC independently, and one of the observers performed the same measurements twice. Intra- and inter-rater agreement was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and concordance correlation coefficients (CCC) for the right eye vertical (REV) and horizontal (REH) scans and left eye vertical (LEV) and horizontal (LEH) scans. Results: 120 eyes of 61 subjects, with a mean age of 62.1 ± 15.0 years. The mean REV, REH, LEV and LEH ALCD were 456.2 ± 84.3, 444.5 ± 92.2, 436.7 ± 81.6, 427.6 ± 82.7 μm, respectively. ALCD intra- and inter-rater ICC and intra- and inter-rater CCC varied between 0.85-0.95, 0.84-0.93, 0.85-0.95 and 0.84-0.93, respectively. Conclusions: ALCD manual intra- and inter-rater measurements with EDI-OCT showed high agreement. EDI-OCT is a reliable tool for ALCD measurement, which can provide potentially useful information for integrated glaucoma management.
      Ophthalmic Res
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate in Healthy Living Potential Kidney Donors: A
           Meta-Analysis Supporting the Construction of the Full Age Spectrum
    • Abstract: Background: Normal kidney function or, more specifically, normal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in men and women and its decline with age is still much debated today. The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation has gender (and race) multiplication factors, accounts for a decline that starts at very young age and assumes that the mean GFR is as high as 120-130 ml/min/1.73 m2 from a young age. The full age spectrum (FAS) estimated mean GFR is about 107 ml/min/1.73 m2 at a young age and remains constant until the age of 40 years and then starts to decline both in men and women. The aim of this research study was to give more insight into ‘normal' GFR levels and the physiological decrease of kidney function with age and to use a meta-analysis to evaluate the mathematical construction of the FAS and the CKD-EPI equation. Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis of published GFR measurements in healthy Caucasian living potential kidney donors (n = 5,482, 46.8% men). Only publications dating from 2000 were selected to avoid the possible influence of body surface area changes in the last decades on the indexed GFR, expressed in ml/min/1.73 m2. Results: We found that the mean GFR ≈ 107 ml/min/1.73 m2 up to the age of 40 years, but renal decline begins beyond 40 years. No evidence could be found for any difference between men and women in the separate age groups. Conclusions: The current meta-analysis supports the mathematical form of the FAS equation, which matches the age/sex dependency of measured GFR for healthy potential living kidney donors.
  • Attenuation of Renal Functional Decline Following Angioplasty and Stenting
           in Atherosclerotic Renovascular Disease
    • Abstract: Background: To date, renal revascularization has not been shown to be advantageous when compared to optimized medical treatment in patients with atheromatous renovascular disease (ARVD). This study aims to investigate the effect of revascularization in patients with pre-intervention worsening renal function and in those with stable renal function. Patients and Methods: In this single-centre observational study, patients who were diagnosed with at least 60% angiographic stenosis unilaterally or bilaterally between January 1996 and October 2008 and who were followed-up until February 2011 were retrospectively analysed. Evolution of renal function was determined from the slope of reciprocal of serum creatinine (RCr-slope) before and after diagnostic angiography or revascularization; this required 5 or more creatinine measurements before and at least another 5 measurements post-procedure. Patients were divided into 2 groups: one comprising patients with negative RCr-slope before the procedure and a second group of patients with prior positive RCr-slope. A stepwise, adjusted logistic regression was used to determine the OR of revascularization on attenuation of RCr-slope. Results: Data for 52 patients were analysed. Median age was 64 (58-72) and median follow-up was 15 (8-34) months. Only patients with a negative RCr-slope (-0.0078 (95% CI -0.0174, -0.0033) dl/mg/month) who underwent revascularization manifested an improved RCr-slope during follow-up (+0.0013 (95% CI -0.0002, 0.0039) dl/mg/month, p < 0.001). This finding remained statistically significant even after the adjustment for proteinuria and bilateral arterial disease. Conclusion: Revascularization may be indicated for patients with ARVD and progressively worsening renal function. This patient subgroup should ideally be evaluated in future randomized controlled trials.
  • Sesquicentennial Tribute to Emil Redlich (1866-1930), The ‘Embodied
           Conscience of Neurology'
    • Abstract: Professor Emil Redlich (1866-1930) of the University of Vienna was born 150 years ago. Raised in a humble environment, he became an eminent researcher and neurology scholar, and succeeded in laying some of the key foundations of neuroanatomy and neuropathology. His name is linked to medical eponyms that define the dorsal root entry zone into the spinal cord, epidemic disseminated encephalomyelitis, narcolepsy, senile plaques and dementia. As its first director, he managed to organize the Maria-Theresien-Schlössel into a first-class neuropsychiatric hospital. The one attribute that his colleagues constantly recognized was his inexorable scientific demeanor, always insisting on a critical checking of the facts before formulating any hypothesis.
      Eur Neurol 2016;76:267-277
  • Effect of Age on Transcranial Doppler Velocities in Patients with
           Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
    • Abstract: Background: It is not well understood whether age impacts transcranial Doppler (TCD) mean flow velocities (MFVs) in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) with or without delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). The aim of our study was to analyze the behavior of TCD MFV during the first 7 days after SAH in patients of different ages and correlate them with the occurrence of DCI. Methods: This study is a databank analysis of patients with SAH admitted between 2010 and 2012 in a single center. We analyzed mean MFV of bilateral middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) in all patients enrolled in the study on days 1, 3 and 7. The correlation between age and TCD MFV was analyzed using a univariate linear regression model. Results: Fifty-five patients were studied. Starting on the third day after the bleeding, increasing age was associated with slower MFVs. This trend was not affected by the interrogation of the right or left MCA. After correction to include only patients who developed DCI, the same findings persisted on days 3 and 7. Conclusion: Older age was correlated with a significant decrease on TCD velocities in patients with SAH, even after correction for patients who developed DCI.
      Eur Neurol 2016;76:261-266
  • Discovering Patterns of Structural Variation by Mining Molecular Fossils
    • Abstract:
      Mol Syndromol
  • The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology: Proposed
           Modifications and Updates for the Second Edition from an International
    • Abstract: The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytology (TBSRTC) was proposed in 2007 at the National Cancer Institute Thyroid Fine Needle Aspiration State of the Art and Science Conference held in Bethesda, Maryland. The aim was to address the inconsistent and sometimes confusing reporting terminologies used for thyroid FNA throughout the world. The TBSRTC consists of 6 diagnostic categories, each associated with an implied risk of malignancy that translates directly into a clinical management algorithm. Since the publication of the TBSRTC cytology Atlas in January 2010, considerable experience has been gained regarding its application in cytology practice, clinical impact, and limitations. In conjunction with the International Academy of Cytology (IAC), an international panel composed of sixteen cytopathologists and an endocrinologist with special interest in thyroid cytology, including several co-authors of the 2010 TBSRTC Atlas, was created to: (1) analyze the current worldwide impact of TBSRTC, (2) report on the current state of TBSRTC based upon a review of the published literature, and (3) provide possible recommendations for a future update of TBSRTC. Herein, we summarize the panel's deliberations and key recommendations that our panel hopes will be useful during the preparation of the second edition of TBSRTC.
      Acta Cytologica
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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