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Journal Cover Karger Kompass Pneumologie
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   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 2296-0368 - ISSN (Online) 2296-0317
   Published by Karger Homepage  [120 journals]
  • Endomorphins: Promising Endogenous Opioid Peptides for the Development of
           Novel Analgesics
    • Abstract: Endomorphin-1 (EM1) and endomorphin-2 (EM2) are two endogenous ligands that belong to the opioid peptide family and have the highest affinity and selectivity for the µ-opioid receptor (MOR). The neuroanatomical distribution, ultrastructural features and neural circuitry of EM-containing neuronal structures have been morphologically demonstrated. In addition, the modulation effects of the EMs in different areas reflect their potential endogenous roles in many major physiological processes, including their remarkable roles in the transmission and modulation of noxious information. The distinguished antinociceptive property of the EMs in acute and chronic pain, including neuropathic pain, cancer pain and inflammatory pain, has been revealed and investigated for therapeutic purposes. However, EMs exert adverse effects in the gastrointestinal, urinary, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems, which impede the development of EMs as new analgesics. Numerous studies have synthesized and investigated EM analogues and demonstrated that these EM derivatives had improved pharmacological properties, supporting their therapeutic perspectives. In the present review, the results of previous studies, particularly morphological and pharmacological studies, were summarized. Finally, EM modifications and their potential clinical implications were described. Applying this knowledge about EMs may provide information for further investigations in clinical application.
      Neurosignals 2017;25:98–116
  • Administration of Curcumin Protects Kidney Tubules Against Renal
           Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury (RIRI) by Modulating Nitric Oxide (NO)
           Signaling Pathway
    • Abstract: Background/Aims: To explore the protective effect of curcumin on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (RIRI) in rats, and its influence on nephridial tissue’s NO and cGMP levels as well as downstream signaling pathway, to elucidate the possible mechanism of curcumin on RIRI. Methods: 36 Sprague Dawley rats (SD rats) were randomly divided into Sham group, Model group, curcumin (CUR +) Model group, 12 rats per group. They were all given RIRI model preparation by unilateral artery occlusion method. All groups’ β2-MG in urine in 24h, serum Cr and BUN were compared, and UAER were calculated. Nitric oxide synthase (NOS), cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), Caspase-3 expression were all determined by western blot. Nitric oxide (NO), NOS and cGMP levels were also examined by using ELISA. All groups’ nephridial histomorphology and kidney tubules score were evaluated and compared. Results: β2-MG and UAER in urine, serum Cr and BUN, in renal tissue were all elevated in Model of RIRI, indicating the success of animal model of RIRI establishment, and above index in CUR + Model group were all lower than those in Model group. Furthermore, iNOS, NO, cGMP, PKG and Caspase-3 in renal tissue were all increased in Model of RIRI, indicating the NO signaling pathway was activated, which is one of the pathogenesis of RIRI, and above index in CUR + Model group were all lower than those in Model group, suggesting that inactivation of iNOS/NO/cGMP/PKG signaling pathway is one of the reasons that explain the protective effect of curcumin in RIRI. Conclusion: The activation of iNOS/NO/cGMP/PKG signaling pathway and the consequent promoted apoptosis of renal tubules are significantly involved in the pathogenesis of development of RIRI, and curcumin treatment could protect renal tubules against RIRI, at least partially, by suppressing the activated iNOS/NO/cGMP/PKG signaling pathway.
      Cell Physiol Biochem 2017;44:401–411
  • Mitochondria Targeted Peptide Attenuates Mitochondrial Dysfunction,
           Controls Inflammation and Protects Against Spinal Cord Injury-Induced Lung
    • Abstract: Background/Aims: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a common and devastating disease, which results in systemic inflammatory response syndrome and secondary lung injury. Mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation are closely related to lung injury in diverse disease models. No studies have demonstrated the effects of mitochondrial targeted peptide SS-31 in a mouse model of SCI-induced lung injury. Methods: Immediately after injury, mice in the treatment groups received a daily, single-dose intraperitoneal injection of SS-31 and for the next 2 days. The sham and SCI groups also received a daily single dose of vehicle (DMSO and 0.9% NaCl, 1: 3). The lung tissue of mice was examined after SCI, and tissue damage, apoptosis, inflammation, and mitochondrial dysfunction were recorded. Results: SS-31 treatment attenuated lung edema and tissue damage. Furthermore, SS-31 treatment reduced apoptosis of alveolar type II cells, the number of total macrophages and M1 macrophages, and neutrophil infiltration. Moreover, SS-31 treatment attenuated reactive oxygen species levels, reversed mitochondrial dysfunction and inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Conclusions: Collectively, our results demonstrate that SS-31 attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction, controls inflammatory responses, and alleviates the severity of lung damage in a mouse model of SCI-induced lung injury.
      Cell Physiol Biochem 2017;44:388–400
  • Acute Effects of Vitamin C Exposure On Colonic Crypts: Direct Modulation
           of pH Regulation
    • Abstract: Background/Aim: Colorectal cancer is still considered a leading cause of death in the United States and worldwide. One potential way to improve survival besides detection is to look to new therapeutic agents that can be taken prophylactically to reduce the risk of tumor formation. For cancer cells to grow and invade, a higher (more alkaline) intracellular pH must occur. We chose to examine a specific nutraceutical agent, which is Vitamin C. The acute effect of Vitamin C exposure on normal colonic crypts has been studied, providing some insight into how Vitamin C achieve its effect. Methods: Distal colon was excised from rats. Following enzymatic digestion single colonic crypts were isolated. Colonic crypts were loaded with pH sensitive dye to measure the intracellular pH changes. Crypts were exposed to solutions +/- Vitamin C. Results: 10 mM Vitamin C decreased Na+-dependent intracellular pH recovery. Vitamin C modulates SVCT leading to changes in proton extrusion. Vitamin C entry occurs via either SVCT2 on the basolateral membrane or by transcellular passive diffusion through tight junctions to the apical membrane and then active transport via SVCT1. Conclusion: Acute addition of Vitamin C to the basolateral membrane maintains low intracellular pH for a longer period which could halt and/or prevent tumor formation.
      Cell Physiol Biochem 2017;44:377–387
  • Effect of Huagantongluofang, a Chinese Traditional Medicine, in Hepatic
           Fibrogenesis in a Mouse Model of Biliary Cirrhosis
    • Abstract: Background: Biliary cirrhosis (BC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease, in which hepatic fibrosis is an early symptom. This study aimed to identify the biological function and the therapeutic effect of a Chinese traditional medicine, HuaGanTongLuoFang (HGTLF), in a mouse model of BC. Methods: The mice (n = 72) were randomly divided into a sham group (n =12) and BC group (n = 60). The animals in the BC group were then randomly divided into five groups (n = 12 in each) and treated with three different doses of HGTLF, ureodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), or normal saline (the model group). Four weeks later, serum and liver tissues were obtained from all the animals for analyses. Hematoxylin and eosin (H#38;E) staining was used to quantify the hepatic morphology, while real-time PCR and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to determine the level of hepatic fibrosis-related genes. Results: Compared with the model group, all three doses of HGTLF improved hepatic function, as well as reducing inflammation and fibrogenesis. The best therapeutic effect was observed in the high-dose HGTLF group. Furthermore, HGTLF contributed to down-regulation of hepatic fibrosis-related genes (platelet-derived growth factor [PDGF], transforming growth factor-β [TGF-β], p38, nuclear factor-κB [NF-kB], intercellular adhesion molecular-1 [ICAM-1], and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 [TIMP-1]). Conclusion: The data suggested that HGTLF effectively improved liver function and the morphology of the liver tissue in a mouse model of BC, possibly via suppression of hepatic fibrosis-related signals.
      Cell Physiol Biochem 2017;44:368–376
  • Increased Th1/Th17 Responses Contribute to Low-Grade Inflammation in
           Age-Related Macular Degeneration
    • Abstract: Background/Aims: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the primary cause of senior blindness in developed countries. Mechanisms underlying initiation and development of AMD remained known. Methods: We examined the CD4+ T cell compartments and their functions in AMD patients. Results: AMD patients presented significantly higher frequencies of interferon (IFN)-γ-expressing and interleukin (IL)-17-expressing CD4+ T cells than healthy controls. The levels of IFN-γ and IL-17 expression by CD4+ T cells were significantly higher in AMD patients. These IFN-γ-expressing Th1 cells and IL-17-expressing Th17 cells could be selectively enriched by surface CCR3+ and CCR4+CCR6+ expression, respectively. Th1 and Th17 cells from AMD patients promoted the differentiation of monocytes toward M1 macrophages, which were previously associated with retinal damage. Th1 and Th17 cells also increased the level of MHC class I expression in human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE)-1 cells, while Th1 cells increased the frequency of MHC class II-expressing RPE-1 cells. These proinflammatory effects were partly, but not entirely, induced by the secretion of IFN-γ and IL-17. Conclusions: This study demonstrated an enrichment of Th1 cells and Th17 cells in AMD patients. These Th1 and Th17 cells possessed proinflammatory roles in an IFN-γ- and IL-17-dependent fashion, and could potentially serve as therapeutic targets.
      Cell Physiol Biochem 2017;44:357–367
  • MEG3 Suppresses Human Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor Cells Growth and
           Metastasis by Down-Regulation of Mir-183
    • Abstract: Background/Aims: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are rare neoplasms which arise from pancreatic islet cells. Recently, lncRNA MEG3 has been reported as a tumor suppressor in variety cancers. This study aimed to reveal the functional effects of MEG3 on pNETs which has not been uncovered previously. Methods: The expression of MEG3, miR-183, and BRI3 in BON1 cells were altered by transfection with their specific vectors/shRNA, or mimic/inhibitor. Thereafter, cell viability, apoptosis, the protein expressions of cell cycle related factors, and apoptosis associated factors, as well as cell migration and invasion were respectively assessed by typan blue staining, flow cytometry, western blotting, and transwell assay. Results: MEG3 was low expressed in BON1 and QGP-1 cells, when compared to three normal cell lines (HEK293, CCL-153, and EC-304). MEG3 overexpression decreased BON1 cells viability, invasion, migration, but significantly induced apoptosis. miR-183 was a direct target of MEG3, and miR-183 up-regulation abolished the anti-growth and anti-metastasis effects of MEG3 overexpression on BON1 cells. Moreover, BRI3 was a target of miR-183, and BRI3 exhibited a tumor-promoting role possibly via activation of p38/ERK/AKT and Wnt/β-Catenin signaling in BON1 cells. Conclusion: This study demonstrated a tumor suppressive effect of MEG3 in BON1 cells that suppresses tumor cells growth and metastasis. A novel regulatory mechanism has been revealed that modulation of MEG3/miR-183/BRI3 axis may be pivotal in pNET.
      Cell Physiol Biochem 2017;44:345–356
  • Xia-Yu-Xue Decoction Inhibits Intestinal Epithelial Cell Apoptosis in
           CCl4-Induced Liver Fibrosis
    • Abstract: Background/Aims: Intestine-derived endotoxin is thought to play a role in the development of liver fibrosis. However, the pathological change in the intestine during liver fibrosis is still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the effects of Xia-yu-xue decoction (XYXD) on intestinal inflammation, apoptosis, and tight junction integrity in the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver fibrosis. Methods: Murine liver fibrosis was developed by CCI4 treatment three times per week over a 6-week period. The CCl4-treated mice were divided into two groups: the CCl4-water group (n=8, CCl4) and the CCl4-XYXD group (n=8, CCl4+XYXD). The CCl4+XYXD mice were treated with XYXD from the beginning of the first week. The expression of inflammatory cytokines and apoptotic molecules were examined using immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR, and western blot. The intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis was examined by TUNEL staining. The tight junction-related molecules, such as ZO-1, claudin, and occludin in the gut were measured by real-time PCR. Results: In CCl4-treated mice damage of the intestinal epithelia and infiltration of inflammatory cells into the lamina propria and muscular layer were observed. Proinflammatory markers MCP-1, TNF-α, CXCL11, IL-6, and CD68 were significantly increased in the intestinal epithelia in CCI4-treated mice. The expression of pro-apoptotic molecules including Fas and Bax was increased in the intestinal epithelia in CCI4-treated mice compared with that in control. The number of TUNEL-positive intestinal epithelial cells was also markedly increased in CCl4-treated mice. The expression of the tight junction proteins including ZO-1, claudin, and occludin was significantly decreased in CCI4-treated mice compared with that in control mice. Notably, XYXD treatment ameliorated increased inflammatory markers and apoptosis-related molecules and decreased tight-junction proteins in CCl4-treated mice. Conclusion: CCl4-treatment increased expression of proinflammatory cytokines and pro-apoptotic molecules and disrupted tight junction integrity in the intestine. XYXD treatment ameliorated intestinal inflammation, cell death, and tight junction disintegrity induced by CCl4 treatment, suggesting that XYXD inhibits CCl4-mediated liver fibrosis at least in part by ameliorating the intestinal epithelial damage.
      Cell Physiol Biochem 2017;44:333–344
  • Study of HSPB6: Insights into the Properties of the Multifunctional
           Protective Agent
    • Abstract: HSPB6(Heat shock protein B6), is also referred to as P20/HSP20. Unlike other many other members of sHSP(small Heat shock protein) family, which tend to form high-molecular-mass oligomers, in solution, human HSPB6 only forms dimers. However, it still exhibits chaperon-like activity comparable with that of HSPB5. It is expressed ubiquitously, with high and constitutive expression in muscular tissues. sHSPs characteristically function as molecular chaperones and HSPB6 also has a molecular chaperone activity. HSPB6 is up-regulated in response to diverse cellular stress or damage and protect cells from otherwise lethal conditions. HSPB6 is widely recognized as a principle mediator of cardioprotective signaling and recent studies have unraveled the protective role of HSPB6 in disease or injury to the central nervous system. Moreover, accumulating evidence has implicated HSPB6 as a key mediator of diverse vital physiological processes, such as smooth muscle relaxation, platelet aggregation. The versatility of HSPB6 can be explained by its direct involvement in regulating different client proteins and its ability to form heterooligomer with other sHSPs, which seems to be dependent on HSPB6 phosphorylation. This review focuses on the properties including expression and regulation pattern, phosphorylation, chaperon activity, multiple cellular targets of HSPB6, as well as its possible role in physical and pathological conditions.
      Cell Physiol Biochem 2017;44:314–332
  • Altered Circular RNA Expression in Patients with Repeated Implantation
    • Abstract: Background/Aims: CircRNAs play an important role in regulating gene expression and the specific role of circRNAs in the pathogenesis of repeated implantation failure remains unclear. The aim of this study is to assess the differentially expressed circRNAs in patients with repeated implantation failure. Methods: We screened circRNA expression profiles in endometrial biopsies taken from six women with repeated implantation failure and control group using circRNA microarray. Bioinformatic analyses were applied to study these differentially expressed circRNAs. Furthermore, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was performed to confirm these results. Results: The data from circRNA microarrays clearly revealed that 856 unique circRNAs were significantly altered (p#x3c;0.05). The up-regulated expression of hsa_circRNA_070616, hsa_circRNA_103716, hsa_circRNA_104001, hsa_circRNA_104854 and the down-regulated expression of hsa_circRNA_004183, hsa_circRNA_044353, hsa_circRNA_404686 were further validated by qRT-PCR. Conclusion: this study demonstrates that a number of circRNAs were differentially expressed in patients with repeated implantation failure compared with normal controls and may offer novel molecular candidates for diagnosis and clinical treatment of embryo implantation failures.
      Cell Physiol Biochem 2017;44:303–313
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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