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Karger Kompass
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     ISSN (Print) 2296-0368 - ISSN (Online) 2296-0317
     Published by Karger Homepage  [104 journals]
  • Surgical Management of Severe Complications Arising from Uveitis in
           Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis
    • Abstract: Purpose: Evaluate outcomes from severe ocular complications of juvenile idiopathic arthritis following surgery. Methods: Eleven eyes of 7 patients underwent complete vitrectomy and peeling of the inner limiting membrane. Inclusion criteria were: anteroposterior segment involvement, hypotony, inflammation control of less than 3 months, compliance issues, rapidly progressive disease. Phacoemulsification was allowed if the patient was >6 years old and inflammation free >3 months. The alternative was a complete lensectomy. Results: Visual acuity improved from a logMAR of 1.48 to 0.37 (p < 0.0001), and 0.20 at 6 and 12 months (p < 0.0001). No flare-up was observed within the first 6 months. Five eyes developed inflammation between 7 and 19 months. Glaucoma developed in 5 eyes at a median of 16 months. No patient developed cystoid macular edema. Conclusion: Extensive pars plana vitrectomy and cataract extraction can lead to significant improvement in visual acuity. Patients continue to require long-term immunosuppression and adequate follow-up.
  • An Internet-Based Ecological Momentary Assessment Study Relying on
           Participants' Own Mobile Phones: Insights from a Study with Young Adult
    • Abstract: Background: In this paper we describe a novel Internet-based cell phone-optimized assessment technique (ICAT) to conduct an ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study. Participants could access the assessment instrument via the web browsers of their mobile phones. Methods: We report results from 92 young adult smokers (18-25 years old) who completed the baseline assessment and the first of 4 waves (3 days/wave) of EMA. Random prompts were issued via text messages sent to the participants. The participants were also instructed to self-initiate reports of smoking situations. Results: Compliance with the study protocols was low. In total, the participants completed 885 assessments during the 3 days of monitoring. Only 50.2% of random prompts were responded to, and 52.4% of those were completed within the first 10 min after issuing. Furthermore, reports of smoking situations were rarely self-initiated. In a multivariate regression analysis, age (positively) and female gender (negatively) predicted the number of completed assessments. Conclusions: This study adds to the limited experiences made with ICAT in substance use research. Similar to the few prior ICAT studies, compliance was low compared to traditional EMA studies. While using ICAT is technically feasible, specific improvements should be implemented to tap ICAT's full potential in future studies.
      Eur Addict Res 2015;21:1-5
  • Prevalence of and Potential Influencing Factors for Alcohol Dependence in
    • Abstract: Alcohol use disorders (AUDs), and alcohol dependence (AD) in particular, are prevalent and associated with a large burden of disability and mortality. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of AD in the European Union (EU), Iceland, Norway, and Switzerland for the year 2010, and to investigate potential influencing factors. The 1-year prevalence of AD in the EU was estimated at 3.4% among people 18-64 years of age in Europe (women 1.7%, men 5.2%), resulting in close to 11 million affected people. Taking into account all people of all ages, AD, abuse and harmful use resulted in an estimate of 23 million affected people. Prevalence of AD varied widely between European countries, and was significantly impacted by drinking cultures and social norms. Correlations with level of drinking and other drinking variables and with major known outcomes of heavy drinking, such as liver cirrhosis or injury, were moderate. These results suggest a need to rethink the definition of AUDs.
      Eur Addict Res 2015;21:6-18
  • Uptake of Noninvasive Prenatal Testing in Chinese Women Following Positive
           Down Syndrome Screening
    • Abstract: Objectives: To investigate how the introduction of noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) influenced women's testing choices following a positive Down syndrome screening. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to compare differences in the uptake rates of invasive prenatal diagnosis (IPD) or no testing in one public hospital 1 year before (pre-NIPT) and 1 and 2 years after the introduction of NIPT in private in August 2011 using descriptive analysis and a χ2 test. Conventional screening was funded publicly, but NIPT was not. Multivariable binary logistic regression was used to determine factors affecting choices. Results: In pre-NIPT and in years 1 and 2 after the introduction of NIPT, 306, 362 and 401 women who screened positive were seen, respectively. In year 1 and year 2, 12.6 and 26.7% of them underwent NIPT while IPD was decreased by 16.3 and 25.6%, respectively (p < 0.001). Both chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis decreased in year 1, but only the former in year 2. However, the rate of declining further testing was similar before and after NIPT (p = 0.213). In multivariable analysis, first trimester screening, nulliparity and working women were significant predictors of accepting NIPT, while only nulliparity was a predictor of declining IPD (OR = 0.61). Conclusions: Introduction of NIPT resulted in a significant decrease in IPD for 2 consecutive years.
      Fetal Diagn Ther
  • Second-Trimester Placental Volume and Vascular Indices in the Prediction
           of Small-for-Gestational-Age Neonates
    • Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the ability of second-trimester placental volume and vascular indices to predict small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth weight pregnancies. Material and Methods: Women with singleton pregnancies were prospectively evaluated at 17-20 weeks of gestation. Second-trimester placental volume and vascular indices were obtained and calculated using volume organ computer-aided analysis and three-dimensional (3D) power Doppler ultrasound. Participants were followed until delivery and their medical records were reviewed, including maternal age, parity and pregestational body weight and body height, as well as the gestational age, birth weight and gender of the fetus. Results: Of the 163 women with complete follow-up, 20 gave birth to SGA and 143 to appropriate-for-gestational-age (AGA) neonates. The mean second-trimester placental volume was significantly lower in the SGA than in the AGA group (170.6 ± 49.8 vs. 213.5 ± 75.8 cm3, p = 0.015). None of the vascular indices, including the vascularization index, flow index and vascularization flow index, differed significantly between the two groups. We also found that the optimum cutoff for placental volume at a gestational age of 17-18 weeks was 189.7 cm3. Discussion: Second-trimester placental volume was positively correlated with neonatal birth weight. Second-trimester placental volume measured on 3D ultrasound may be predictive of SGA neonates.
      Fetal Diagn Ther
  • Infantile Hemangioma-Like Vascular Lesion in a 26-Year-Old Woman after
    • Abstract: A 26-year-old woman (G2P1A1) presented with a 5-week history of multiple red marks on her body after a therapeutic abortion. A physical examination found 15 palpable red marks on her head, neck, chest, arms and legs. Proliferating endothelial cells, which expressed CD31, CD34, von Willebrand factor, but not Glut-1 and merosin, were observed in the lesional area by histopathological analyses. Histocompatibility antigen typing of 2 lesions was identical to a sample from peripheral blood. Accelerated regression was observed in 2 lesions treated by intralesional injection of betamethasone, while spontaneous regression was observed within 9 months in the remaining lesions without any treatment. Rapid growth, spontaneous regression and histological analyses in this case support the diagnosis of ‘infantile hemangioma-like vascular lesion'.
  • Pre- and Postshunting Magnetization Transfer Ratios Are in Accordance with
           Neurological and Behavioral Changes in Hydrocephalic Immature Rats
    • Abstract: Hydrocephalus is a common neurological condition in children characterized by an imbalance between the production and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), causing abnormal fluid accumulation in the brain cavities. Shunt systems have been used to drain excess CSF and to prevent progressive ventricular enlargement. However, despite improvements in these systems, neurological and structural changes cannot always be reversed. Our aim was to evaluate the magnetization transfer ratio as a biomarker for the effectiveness of a CSF shunt system to treat neurological and behavioral disorders observed in experimental hydrocephalus. Seven-day-old Wistar rats were used in this study. The pups were subjected to hydrocephalus induction via 20% kaolin intracisternal injection. After confirmation of ventriculomegaly by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), a group of animals underwent placement of a ventriculosubcutaneous shunt (VSS). The reduction in ventricular size in hydrocephalic rats operated with functional VSS was observed as a decrease in ventricular ratio values and preservation of the corpus callosum thickness. Magnetization transfer values were significantly increased and matched to the recovery process of axonal myelination observed based on more-intense blue staining by solochrome cyanin. The histopathological analysis revealed a reduction in reactive astrocytes by means of GFAP immunostaining. The hydrocephalic rats operated with functional VSS also showed significant progress in motor and exploratory activities, similar to the control animals, at the end of the experiment. In conclusion, the VSS system employed 7 days after hydrocephalus induction was able to prevent structural damage and restore the axonal myelination process in periventricular structures by stabilizing and reducing the ventricular enlargement, and the results are in accordance with the magnetization transfer ratio in MRI.
      Dev Neurosci
  • Altered Expression of Aquaporin 1 and 5 in the Choroid Plexus following
           Preterm Intraventricular Hemorrhage
    • Abstract: Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) with posthemorrhagic ventricular dilatation (PHVD) is a common cause of hydrocephalus in infants. Dysregulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production by the choroid plexus may contribute to the development of PHVD. The aquaporins (AQPs), transmural water transporting proteins, are believed to contribute to CSF production. The aim of the study was to characterize the expression and localization of AQP1, 4 and 5 in the choroid plexus following preterm IVH. Using a preterm rabbit pup model, the mRNA expression, protein level and localization of AQP1, 4 and 5 were investigated in the choroid plexus at 24 and 72 h following IVH with PHVD. Further, AQP1, 4 and 5 expression were characterized in primary human plexus epithelial cells exposed to CSF from preterm human infants with IVH and to hemoglobin metabolites. IVH with PHVD in the immature brain caused a downregulation of AQP1 mRNA, the key AQP in CSF production, but an upregulation of AQP1 protein level with apical epithelial cell localization. Notably, AQP5 was expressed in the choroid plexus with upregulated mRNA expression and protein levels during PHVD with apical epithelial cell localization. Analysis of human choroid plexus epithelial cells in vitro, following exposure to posthemorrhagic CSF and to hemin, displayed results concordant with those observed in vivo, i.e. downregulation of AQP1 mRNA and upregulation of AQP5 mRNA expression. AQP4 was neither detectable in vivo nor in vitro. The changes observed in AQP1 and AQP5 expression in the choroid plexus suggest an adaptive response following IVH with possible functional implications for the development of PHVD.
      Dev Neurosci
  • Effect of Intravitreal Bevacizumab Injection before Ahmed Glaucoma Valve
           Implantation in Neovascular Glaucoma
    • Abstract: Ophthalmologica 2013;229:94–100
  • Long-Term Outcome of Polymyositis Treated with High Single-Dose
           Alternate-Day Prednisolone Therapy
    • Abstract: Eur Neurol 2012;68:117–121
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