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Karger Kompass
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     ISSN (Print) 2296-0368 - ISSN (Online) 2296-0317
     Published by Karger Homepage  [104 journals]
  • Acoustic Correlates of English Rhythmic Patterns for American versus
           Japanese Speakers
    • Abstract:
      Phonetica 2014;71:83-108
       
  • O-MAX Chemotherapy: High Activity in Metastatic Esophagogastric
           Adenocarcinoma and Possible Relation to Subclinical Hemolysis
    • Abstract: Objectives: Our objectives were to confirm the activity of O-MAX chemotherapy in adenocarcinoma of the stomach and esophagus, particularly the high rate of complete remission (CR) and the relation of subclinical hemolysis to CR. Patients and Methods: Twenty-five patients with metastatic esophagogastric adenocarcinoma were treated with O-MAX. Two developed cancer-related hemolytic-uremic syndrome (C-HUS); both achieved CR. Subsequent patients were monitored for serum haptoglobin for subclinical hemolysis. Results: Median survival was 16.5 months. The objective response rate was 90%, with 38% CR. Three patients achieving CR relapsed in the central nervous system and died (2 without systemic disease). Four patients have remained alive, off therapy, the longest for 20 years. Two patients developed clinical C-HUS and 5 of 8 monitored patients developed subclinical hemolysis based on abnormal serum haptoglobin. Four of the patients with subclinical hemolysis achieved CR. Of the 7 patients developing clinical C-HUS or subclinical hemolysis, 6 (86%) achieved CR. Conclusions: O-MAX appears highly active in esophagogastric adenocarcinoma. A few long-term survivors of metastatic disease are being seen. CR and long-term survival appear to correlate with the development of hemolysis. Although highly promising, these results should be considered only as hypothesis-generating and require confirmation in a prospective trial. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel
      Oncology 2014;87:371-380
       
  • Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacological Effects of
           β-Hydroxyphosphocarnitine in Animal Models
    • Abstract: The purpose of this research was to describe the pharmacokinetic parameters of β-hydroxyphosphocarnitine (β-HPC; CAS No. 1220955-20-3) after a single oral dose in rats and rabbits as well as to assess the impact of 14 weeks of β-HPC (100 mg/kg) treatment on the serum metabolites and liver enzymes, body weight, and hepatic steatosis of lean and obese Zucker fa/fa rats. In the case of the rat and rabbit study, the β-HPC area under the curve, biological half-life, and clearance were 2,174.4 versus 3,128 μg∙h/ml, 23.7 versus 8.87 h, and 13.9 versus 151.1 ml/h in the rats versus the rabbits, respectively. The values for the time of maximal concentration were 0.58 versus 1.53 h, for the maximal concentration, they were 62.4 versus 221.4 μg/ml, and for the absorption rate constant 0.02 versus 2.40 h-1, respectively. In the case of the Zucker fa/fa rat study, β-HPC administered orally once a day reduced insulin, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels in the liver and serum; it also reduced weight gain and decreased liver steatosis in obese rats after 14 weeks. β-HPC could therefore potentially be used in the treatment of metabolic syndrome. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel
      Pharmacology 2014;94:90-98
       
  • Drug Fever due to a Single Dose of Pantoprazole
    • Abstract: Although proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are generally well tolerated, with most adverse effects being minor and self-limiting, there are singular reports on hypersensitivity immune reactions triggered by a PPI or its metabolites. Here we report a case of acute drug-induced fever with leukocytosis and a transient increase in CRP due to pantoprazole. This was apparently an idiosyncratic reaction (inflammatory fever), showing no cross-sensitivity towards esomeprazole. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel
      Pharmacology 2014;94:78-79
       
  • Fetal Endoscopic Tracheal Intubation: A New Fetoscopic Procedure to Ensure
           Extrauterine Tracheal Permeability in a Case with Congenital Cervical
           Teratoma
    • Abstract: Congenital neck masses are associated with high perinatal mortality and morbidity secondary to airway obstruction due to a mass effect of the tumor with subsequent neonatal asphyxia and/or neonatal death. Currently, the only technique designed to establish a secure neonatal airway is the ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) procedure, which involves neonatal tracheal intubation while fetal oxygenation is maintained by the uteroplacental circulation in a partial fetal delivery under maternal general anesthesia. We present a case with a giant cervical teratoma and huge displacement and compression of the fetal trachea that was treated successfully at 35 weeks of gestation with a novel fetoscopic procedure to ensure extrauterine tracheal permeability by means of a fetal endoscopic tracheal intubation (FETI) before delivery. The procedure consisted of a percutaneous fetal tracheoscopy under maternal epidural anesthesia using an 11-Fr exchange catheter covering the fetoscope that allowed a conduit to introduce a 3.0-mm intrauterine orotracheal cannula under ultrasound guidance. After FETI, a conventional cesarean section was performed uneventfully with no need for an EXIT procedure. This report is the first to illustrate that in cases with large neck tumors involving fetal airways, FETI is feasible and could potentially replace an EXIT procedure by allowing prenatal airway control. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel
      Fetal Diagn Ther
       
  • Evidence that Nitric Oxide Is a Non-Adrenergic Non-Cholinergic Inhibitory
           Neurotransmitter in the Circular Muscle of the Mouse Distal Colon: A Study
           on the Mechanism of Nitric Oxide-Induced Relaxation
    • Abstract: The gastrointestinal tract is composed of outer longitudinal muscle layers and inner circular muscle layers. Nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and ATP play major roles as non-adrenergic non-cholinergic (NANC) inhibitory neurotransmitters in the longitudinal muscle of the mouse distal colon, whereas it is unclear which NANC inhibitory neurotransmitters are in its circular muscle. We investigated the electric field stimulation (EFS)-induced relaxations in the circular smooth muscle of the distal colon under NANC conditions. In the experiments in which Nω-nitro-L-arginine, an inhibitor of NO synthase, was added, the EFS-induced relaxation decreased in a concentration-dependent manner and finally vanished. In contrast, CO, purinergic receptor ligands, and peptidergic substances do not play major roles as NANC neurotransmitters in the circular muscle of the mouse distal colon. ODQ, an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase, strongly attenuated EFS-induced relaxation. Ryanodine, a Ca2+ release modulator at the sarcoplasmic reticulum, strongly attenuated EFS-induced relaxation as well. Relaxation induced by NOR-1, which generates NO, was inhibited by ODQ and ryanodine. Next, we performed experiments that simultaneously measured tension and the cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt). NOR-1 decreased the tension and [Ca2+]cyt levels in the circular muscle. ODQ and ryanodine strongly attenuated the NOR-1-induced change in both tension and [Ca2+]cyt levels. In this study, we demonstrate that NO functions as a NANC inhibitory neurotransmitter in the circular muscle obtained from the mouse distal colon. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel
      Pharmacology 2014;94:99-108
       
  • The Relationship Between Specific Fatty Acids of Serum Lipids and Serum
           High Sensitivity C- Reactive Protein Levels in Morbidly Obese Women
    • Abstract: Background/Aims: The fatty acid profile in plasma lipids contributes to the increase of plasma high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), a marker of inflammation and predictor of cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between specific fatty acids (FA) of serum lipids and serum hsCRP in morbidly obese woman. Methods: The study included 16 morbidly obese (mean BMI= 43 ± 2.2 kg/m2) non-diabetic woman awaiting bariatric surgery. FA extracted from serum lipids were methylated and analyzed on GC-MS. Commercially available ELISA kits were used to determine the serum inflammatory markers. Results: We demonstrated that total saturated FA (SFA) and total monounsaturated FA (MUFA) of serum lipids were positively correlated with serum hsCRP, whereas both n-3 and n-6 total polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) were negatively correlated with serum hsCRP. Serum interleukin-6 correlated positively with some SFA and MUFA, whereas negatively with some of PUFA. Positive correlation between serum hsCRP and specific SFA and MUFA or negative correlation with PUFA decreased with the increased FA chain length. The number and localization of double bonds also had impact on these correlations. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that individual serum lipid FA levels, depending on the length of FA chain, number and the localization of double bonds are distinctly associated with hsCRP in morbidly obese subjects. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel
      Cell Physiol Biochem 2014;34:1101-1108
       
  • Switching Back to Normal Diet Following High-Fat Diet Feeding Reduces
           Cardiac Vulnerability to Ischaemia and Reperfusion Injury
    • Abstract: Background: We have recently shown that hearts of mice fed high-fat diet exhibit increased vulnerability to ischaemia and reperfusion (I/R) in parallel to changes in catalase protein expression, mitochondrial morphology and intracellular diastolic Ca2+. Aims: To determine whether switching from high-fat back to normal diet alters vulnerability to I/R and to investigate cardiac cellular remodelling in relation to the mechanism(s) underlying I/R injury. Methods and Results: Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet for 19-22 weeks; after which a subset of mice was switched back to normal diet for 4-6 weeks. Hearts from mice switched back to normal diet were more resistant to reperfusion injury compared to hearts from mice fed only high-fat diet. This was associated with a significant reversal in catalase expression (western blotting) and recovery of size and density of mitochondria (electron microscopy). In contrast, switching back to normal diet did not alter cardiomyocyte contractility or Ca2+ transients compared to high-fat diet. Conclusion: This study shows for the first time that switching the diet from high-fat back to normal reduces vulnerability to I/R. This effect is associated with changes in catalase levels and mitochondrial morphology without altering cardiomyocyte contractility or Ca2+ transients. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel
      Cell Physiol Biochem 2014;34:1090-1100
       
  • Effect of Intravitreal Bevacizumab Injection before Ahmed Glaucoma Valve
           Implantation in Neovascular Glaucoma
    • Abstract: Ophthalmologica 2013;229:94–100
       
  • Long-Term Outcome of Polymyositis Treated with High Single-Dose
           Alternate-Day Prednisolone Therapy
    • Abstract: Eur Neurol 2012;68:117–121
       
 
 
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