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Journal Cover Karger Kompass
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   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 2296-0368 - ISSN (Online) 2296-0317
   Published by Karger Homepage  [105 journals]
  • Difficulty in the Cytodiagnosis of Mammary Analogue Secretory Carcinoma:
           Survey of 109 Cytologists with a Case Originating from a Minor Salivary
    • Abstract: Background: Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) of the salivary gland shows morphologic similarities and shares an immunophenotype and characteristic ETV6-NTRK3 translocation with secretory carcinoma of the breast. We present a buccal case of MASC along with a survey-based debate about its cytologic diagnosis by fine-needle aspiration (FNA). Case: FNA of the buccal nodule of a 58-year-old Japanese man was initially performed by 3 cytologists who gave different assessments of the Papanicolaou classification (i.e., class II, III, and V). To investigate the potential for discrepant diagnosis of MASC on a larger scale, we distributed a survey with questions about the cytological diagnosis of the present case to cytologists at other institutions. A total of 109 cytologists completed the survey, providing varying assessments of the Papanicolaou classification: class I/II (14%), class III (53%), and class IV/V (33%). Most of the respondents (72%) could not identify a particular tumor or disease. Even the respondents who identified a particular tumor suggested widely differing diagnoses, from a benign lesion to various malignant tumors. Only 2 respondents correctly identified MASC. Conclusion: Our experience and the results of the survey suggest difficulty in the cytodiagnosis of MASC.
      Acta Cytologica
  • Cytological Criteria to Distinguish Phyllodes Tumour of the Breast from
    • Abstract: Objective: To determine whether there are significant differences between fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumours with regard to selected cytomorphological features. Study Design: A 10-year retrospective review was performed of patients who underwent excision of a fibroadenoma or phyllodes tumour and in whom a preoperative fine-needle aspiration was performed. The following cytological criteria were assessed: number of stromal and epithelial fragments, stromal-to-epithelial ratio, stromal cellularity, stromal borders, stromal atypia, and proportion of background wavy spindled cells. Patient age, tumour laterality, and tumour size were recorded. Results: Fifty fibroadenomas and 17 phyllodes tumours were included. Compared to phyllodes tumours, fibroadenomas had a larger number of epithelial fragments, a smaller number of stromal fragments, and a lower stromal-to-epithelial ratio. The stroma tended to be less cellular and less atypical compared to phyllodes tumours and the background cellular population contained fewer spindled cells. Conclusion: Fibroadenomas and phyllodes tumours differ with regard to various cytological features, aiding in their distinction on fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
      Acta Cytologica
  • False-Negative Rate of Papanicolaou Testing: A National Survey from the
           Thai Society of Cytology
    • Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the performance of Papanicolaou smear screening in Thailand at the national level, and to propose recommendations for continuing quality control. Study Design: This study was conducted by The Thai Society of Cytology and involved 124 laboratories in 76 provinces during 2010-2014. Random sampling suggested recalling of 10% of slides defined as negative at routine screenings (10% random rescreening [R10] model) directly from the reading unit. Results: Out of 330,075 smears covered by the rescreening project throughout its 5-year duration, the rates of abnormal, unsatisfactory, and normal results were 0.63, 1.82, and 97.55%, respectively. Abnormal findings were largely represented by ASC-US (54%) and L-SIL (21%). The average false-negative rate (FNR) measured at the level of L-SIL and higher was 13.8%. Conclusion: The national project was developed to address the accuracy of cervical cancer screening and to promote internal quality assurance based on the R10, on-site surveys, and education. The major output parameters of this study (FNR and number and distribution of abnormal cases on rescreening) improved significantly in the main phase of the project (2012-2014), after revising substantial logistics issues encountered during the first 2 years of this study. This project provided objective measurable evidence related to the quality of cytology-based cervical cancer screening in Thailand.
      Acta Cytologica
  • Multiple Lymph Node Basin Drainage in Trunk Melanoma Is Not Associated
           with Survival of Sentinel Lymph Node-Positive Patients
    • Abstract: Objectives: This study was aimed at investigating the prognostic role of multiple lymph node basin drainage (MLBD) in patients with positive sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy. Background: MLBD is frequently observed in patients with trunk melanoma undergoing SLN. The prognostic value of MLBD in SLN-positive patients is still debated. Methods: Retrospective data from 312 trunk melanoma patients with positive SLN biopsy (1991-2012) at 6 Italian referral centres were gathered in a multicentre database. MLBD was defined at preoperative lymphoscintigraphy. Clinical and pathological data were analysed for their association with disease-free interval (DFI) and disease-specific (DSS) survival. Results: MLBD was identified in 34.6% of patients (108/312) and was significantly associated with >1 positive SLN (37 vs. 15.2%; p < 0.001) and with >1 positive lymph node (LN) after complete lymph node dissection (CLND) (50.9 vs. 34.8%; p = 0.033). No differences were observed according to drainage pattern in patients who had negative and positive non-SLN at CLND. MLBD was not associated with either DFI or DSS. Multivariate analyses showed that tumour thickness, ulceration, and number of metastatic LNs were associated with worse DFI and DSS, while regression confirmed its protective role in survival. Conclusion: In positive SLN patients, MLBD has no association with survival, which is mainly related to American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) prognostic factors. Since the overall number of positive LNs drives the prognosis, the importance of a CLND in all the positive basins is confirmed.
  • Quantitative Low-Dose Computed Tomography of the Lung Parenchyma and
           Airways for the Differentiation between Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary
           Disease and Asthma Patients
    • Abstract: Background: It is difficult to differentiate between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma in clinics; therefore, for diagnostic purposes, imaging-based measurements could be beneficial to differentiate between the two diseases. Objectives: We aim to analyze quantitative measurements of the lung and bronchial parameters that are provided by low-dose computed tomography (CT) to differentiate COPD and asthma from an imaging perspective. Materials and Methods: 69 COPD patients, 52 asthma patients, and 20 healthy subjects were recruited to participate in CT imaging and pulmonary function tests (PFTs). Comparative analysis was performed to identify differences between COPD and asthma in CT measurements. PFT measurements enabled validation of the differentiation between COPD and asthma patients. Results: There were significant differences among the COPD, asthma, and healthy control groups. The differences were more significant among the following: inspiratory emphysema index (EI)-950 (%), expiratory lung volume, expiratory mean lung density (MLD), and expiratory EI-950 (%) and EI-850 (%). The COPD group had a significantly higher EI-950 (%) than the asthma group (p = 0.008). There were significant differences among the three groups in lumen area (LA), wall area (WA), total area, and Pi10WA. The asthma group had significantly higher WA%/WV% than both the COPD (p = 0.002) and the control group (p = 0.012). There was high sensitivity in EI-950 (%), EI-850 (%) and expiratory MLD in the parenchyma and high sensitivity in LA and Pi10WA in small airways in the differential diagnosis of COPD and asthma. Conclusion: To aid the diagnosis, CT can provide quantitative measurements to differentiate between COPD and asthma patients.
  • Risk Factors for Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults: A Systematic
           Review of Observational Studies
    • Abstract: We performed a systematic review of the literature to establish conclusive evidence of risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Observational studies (cross-sectional, case-control, and cohort studies) the primary outcome of which was to assess risk factors for CAP in both hospitalized and ambulatory adult patients with radiologically confirmed pneumonia were selected. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale specific for cohort and case-control designs was used for quality assessment. Twenty-nine studies (20 case-control, 8 cohort, and 1 cross-sectional) were selected, with 44.8% of them focused on elderly subjects ≥65 years of age and 34.5% on mixed populations (participants' age >14 years). The median quality score was 7.44 (range 5-9). Age, smoking, environmental exposures, malnutrition, previous CAP, chronic bronchitis/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, functional impairment, poor dental health, immunosuppressive therapy, oral steroids, and treatment with gastric acid-suppressive drugs were definitive risk factors for CAP. Some of these factors are modifiable. Regarding other factors (e.g., gender, overweight, alcohol use, recent respiratory tract infections, pneumococcal and influenza vaccination, inhalation therapy, swallowing disorders, renal and liver dysfunction, diabetes, and cancer) no definitive conclusion could be established. Prompt assessment and correction of modifiable risk factors could reduce morbidity and mortality among adult CAP patients, particularly among the elderly.
  • Langerhans Cells Express IL-17A in the Epidermis of Chromoblastomycosis
    • Abstract: Chromoblastomycosis (CBM) is a chronic fungal infection that affects skin and subcutaneous tissue, and little is known about the immunological aspects of such lesions. We have previously described the high expression of IL-17 in this group. Understanding the innate immune response of patients with CBM would improve the knowledge of its immunopathogenesis and contribute to the most appropriate therapies. Nineteen biopsies of verrucous form were obtained from patients with clinical and histopathological diagnosis of CBM, without treatment. This was done with a double immunostaining with conventional immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence technique as well as confocal microscopy to detect Langerin and IL-17 expression. All of the specimens that were analyzed showed expression of Langerin in the epidermis - the same as the control group. However, only the CBM group presented cells expressing CD207 in the dermis. Interestingly, the coexpression of IL-17 and Langerin was visualized along the epidermis and dermis in 100% of the lesion group. We demonstrated for the first time in situ coexpression of IL-17 and Langerin (CD207) in epidermal cells of patients with CBM and speculated on their role as IL-17-producing cells or whether they could be a new subpopulation of dendritic cells distinct from Langerhans cells.
      Biomed Hub 2017;2:477954
  • Sweet Taste Perception and Dental Caries in 13- to 15-Year-Olds: A
           Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study
    • Abstract: Dietary habits and, in particular, the intake frequency of sucrose are of major importance for the development of dental caries. The perception of sweet taste is believed to have an influence on sucrose intake and therefore affects the predisposition to dental caries. The aim was to study the caries experience and sweet taste perception and to further analyze the possible relationship between the 2 tested variables in 13- to 15-year-old children from 3 different geographical areas. A cross-sectional survey comprising 669 children (220 Italian, 224 Mexican, and 225 Saudi Arabian) was conducted. The children were examined in their school setting. A sweet taste perception level was determined by the sweet taste threshold (TT) and sweet taste preference (TP). The sweet test was performed with sucrose solutions varying in concentration from 1.63 to 821.52 g/L. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) and DMFS indices were used to diagnose caries. The highest mean value for TT was found for Italian children followed by Saudi and Mexican. Saudi schoolchildren showed the highest mean values for TP and DMFS, followed by Italian and Mexican. A statistically significant difference for TP, TT, DMFS, and initial caries was found between the 3 countries. A weak yet positive correlation was found between taste perception (TT and TP) versus DMFS and manifest caries in all 3 countries (r = 0.137-0.313). The findings of the present study showed a variation in sweet taste perception between the 3 countries, which may influence the caries outcome of the children in the individual countries.
      Caries Res 2017;51:443-450
  • Unmet Care Needs in the Oldest Old Primary Care Patients with Cognitive
           Disorders: Results of the AgeCoDe and AgeQualiDe Study
    • Abstract: Background: In the future, an increase in health care needs in the elderly is expected. Reports on unmet care needs of the oldest old with cognitive disorders are pending. This study aims at exploring unmet needs in the oldest old primary care patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. Furthermore, the association between sociodemographic and clinical factors and unmet needs ought to be analyzed. Methods: Based on the study “Needs, Health Service Use, Costs and Health-Related Quality of Life in a Large Sample of Oldest-Old Primary Care Patients (85+)” (AgeQualiDe), 749 patients (unimpaired, MCI, and dementia) aged 85 years and older, their relatives (n = 421), and general practitioners (GPs) (n = 607) were assessed. Descriptive, inferential, and regression analyses were run. Results: Most unmet needs were observed in dementia patients, although needs were less frequently rated as unmet by dementia patients themselves as compared to relatives and GPs. Unmet needs were associated with MCI and dementia; other risk factors were age, education, and marital status. Conclusion: This study provides first data on unmet needs according to different perceptions in the elderly with MCI and dementia in Germany. Need assessments should be part of medical examinations to ensure a high-quality health care in the elderly.
      Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord 2017;44:71-83
  • miR-26a/b Inhibit Tumor Growth and Angiogenesis by Targeting the HGF-VEGF
           Axis in Gastric Carcinoma
    • Abstract: Background/Aims: Abnormal expression of HGF is found in various cancers and correlates with tumor proliferation, metastasis and angiogenesis. However, the regulatory mechanism of the HGF-VEGF axis remains unclear. Methods: The expression characteristic of HGF in human gastric cancer tissues was shown by an immunohistochemistry assay, and the expression levels of target protein were detected by Western blot. The relative levels of miR-26a/b and target mRNA were examined by qRT-PCR. We used bioinformatics tools to search for miRNAs that can potentially target HGF. A luciferase assay was used to confirm direct targeting. Furthermore, the functions of miR-26a/b and HGF were evaluated by cell proliferation and migration assays in vitro and by the mouse xenograft tumor model in vivo. Results: We found that the HGF protein was clearly increased while miR-26a/b were dramatically down-regulated in gastric cancer. miR-26a/b directly bind to the 3’-UTR of HGF mRNA at specific targeting sites. We demonstrated that the repression of the HGF-VEGF pathway by miR-26a/b overexpression suppressed gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration. Furthermore, miR-26a/b also showed an anti-tumor effect in the xenograft mouse model by suppressing tumor growth and angiogenesis. Conclusions: miR-26a/b could suppress tumor tumorigenesis and angiogenesis by targeting the HGF-VEGF axis and could serve as a potential treatment modality for targeted therapy in the clinical treatment of gastric cancer.
      Cell Physiol Biochem 2017;42:1670–1683
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