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Karger Kompass
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     ISSN (Print) 2296-0368 - ISSN (Online) 2296-0317
     Published by Karger Homepage  [104 journals]
  • Acute Eosinophilic and Neutrophilic Pneumonia following Transarterial
           Chemoembolization with Drug-Eluting Beads Loaded with Doxorubicin for
           Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Case Report
    • Abstract: At an intermediate or advanced stage, i.e. stage B or C, based on the Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer classification of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) may be offered as a treatment of palliative intent. We report the case of a patient suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome after TACE with drug-eluting beads loaded with doxorubicin for HCC. To our knowledge, this is the first case described where a bronchoalveolar lavage was performed, and where significant levels of alveolar eosinophilia and neutrophilia were evident, attributed to a pulmonary toxicity of doxorubicin following liver chemoembolization.

  • Exercise Training-Based Pulmonary Rehabilitation Program Is Clinically
           Beneficial for Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis
    • Abstract: Background: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, devastating, interstitial lung disease, with few therapeutic options. IPF is characterized by pulmonary restriction, dyspnea, hypoxemia, exercise intolerance and poor quality of life (QOL). Objectives: We aimed to examine the effect of exercise training (ET) on clinical outcomes in IPF patients. Methods: A randomized controlled study included thirty-two IPF patients (aged 68 ± 8 years) who were allocated either to the ET group (n = 15), participating in a 12-week, twice-weekly 60-min supervised ET-based pulmonary rehabilitation program, or to a control group (n = 17) continuing with regular medical treatment alone. Cardiopulmonary exercise test, 6-min walking distance (6MWD) test, 30-second chair-stand test, pulmonary function tests, dyspnea and QOL were assessed at baseline and at the end of the 12-week intervention. Results: Significant differences were observed between the ET and the control groups in raw mean deltas (Δ = post- - pre-intervention): Δ6MWD, 81 m, p < 0.001; ΔVO2 peak, 2.6 ml/kg/min, p = 0.002; Δwork rate, 22 W, p < 0.001; Δanaerobic threshold, 3.1 ml/kg/min, p < 0.001, and ΔFVC % predicted, 6%, p = 0.038. Dyspnea, QOL and 30-second chair-stand were also improved significantly following the program. Conclusions: ET improves exercise tolerance, functional capacity, pulmonary function, dyspnea and QOL in patients with IPF, suggesting a short-term treatment efficacy for clinical improvement, and should be considered the standard care for IPF.

  • Pre-Procedure Desmopressin Acetate to Reduce Bleeding in Renal Failure:
           Does It Really Work'
    • Abstract: Background: Desmopressin (DDAVP) is often used prior to procedures to minimize bleeding in patients with renal failure; however, there is little evidence to support this practice. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the practice of administration of DDAVP prior to procedures within our division and to determine the number of bleeding episodes for patients who received DDAVP compared to those who did not. Methods: Hospital records of patients who underwent renal biopsy or central line placement between April 2006 and March 2008 were reviewed. Patients with glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
  • Relationship between Serum Uric Acid and Serum Oxidative Stress Markers in
           the Japanese General Population
    • Abstract: Background: Increased production of reactive oxygen species is a condition that is associated with, and plays a role in the progression of, various disorders such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Purpose: To assess in vivo oxidative stress levels and antioxidant potential and to analyze the relationship with serum uric acid (UA) levels. Methods and Results: Oxidative stress levels (derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites, d-ROMs) and antioxidant potential (biological antioxidant potential, BAP) were measured in individuals who underwent a general health screening test, and data were analyzed from 8,025 individuals (2,953 women and 5,072 men) who were free from UA-lowering medication. Higher serum UA levels were associated with increased levels of d-ROMs in both genders, and this trend was more prominent in women. In addition, higher UA levels were also associated with higher BAP in both genders, although the dose dependence was not apparent in men. These associations remained statistically significant after adjusting for age, blood pressure, renal function, albuminuria, C-reactive protein, and insulin resistance index. Conclusions: In individuals who underwent general health screening, serum UA levels were positively associated with both d-ROMs and BAP levels. Whether lowering of UA by lifestyle modification or by medication alters d-ROM/BAP levels awaits further investigations.
      Nephron Clin Pract
  • Characterising Haemodynamic Stress during Haemodialysis Using the Extrema
           Points Analysis Model
    • Abstract: Background and Aims: It is becoming recognised that the process of haemodialysis (HD) itself induces circulatory stress that could be implicated in the observed higher rate of end-organ damage. We aimed to study the haemodynamic performance during HD using the extrema points (EP) analysis model, and to examine the determinants of the model and its relation to circulatory stress. Methods: 63 incident HD patients were studied. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) EP frequencies and baroreflex sensitivity during HD were computed for continuous non-invasive haemodynamic monitoring. Pulse-wave velocity as a measure of arterial stiffness was performed. High-sensitivity troponin-T was also measured. Results: The time of each dialysis session was divided into four quarters. Repeated measures ANOVA of the MAP EP frequencies for all subjects during HD demonstrated a gradual significant increase reaching peak levels at the third quarter of dialysis time and remaining at that peak during the fourth quarter (F(3,171228) = 392.06, p < 0.001). In multivariate regression, lower baroreflex sensitivity was the only independent predictor of higher MAP EP frequencies (β = -0.642, p = 0.001, adjusted R2 for the whole model = 0.385). In linear regression analysis, higher MAP EP frequencies were associated with higher troponin-T levels (β = 0.442, p = 0.002, R2 = 0.19, B = 103.29, 95% CI 38.88-167.70). Conclusion: The EP analysis model using MAP is a novel functional haemodynamic measure that can represent and quantify circulatory stress during HD. This measure seems to be determined by the integrity of the autonomic function in HD and could represent the link between circulatory stress and end-organ damage in HD patients.
      Nephron Clin Pract
  • The Role of Cardiotonic Steroids in the Pathogenesis of Cardiomyopathy in
           Chronic Kidney Disease
    • Abstract: Cardiotonic steroids (CTS) are a new class of hormones that circulate in the blood and are divided into two distinct groups, cardenolides, such as ouabain and digoxin, and bufadienolides, such as marinobufagenin, telocinobufagin and bufalin. They have the ability to bind and inhibit the ubiquitous transport enzyme sodium potassium pump, thus regulating intracellular Na+ concentration in every living cell. Although digoxin has been prescribed to heart failure patients for at least 200 years, the realization that CTS are endogenously produced has intensified research into their physiological and pathophysiological roles. Over the last two decades, substantial evidence has accumulated demonstrating the effects of endogenously synthesised CTS on the kidneys, vasculature and the heart. In this review, the current state of art and the controversies surrounding the manner in which CTS mediate their pathophysiological effects are discussed. Several potential therapeutic strategies have emerged as a result of our increased understanding of the role CTS play in health and disease.
      Nephron Clin Pract
  • Central Venous Oxygen Saturation: A Potential New Marker for Circulatory
           Stress in Haemodialysis Patients'
    • Abstract: Background/Aims: Haemodialysis causes recurrent haemodynamic stress with subsequent ischaemic end-organ dysfunction. As dialysis prescriptions/schedules can be modified to lessen this circulatory stress, an easily applicable test to allow targeted interventions in vulnerable patients is urgently required. Methods: Intra-dialytic central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) and clinical markers (including ultrafiltration, blood pressure) were measured in 18 prevalent haemodialysis patients. Results: Pre-dialysis ScvO2 was 63.5 ± 13% and fell significantly to 56.4 ± 8% at end dialysis (p = 0.046). Ultrafiltration volume, a key driver of dialysis-induced myocardial ischaemia, inversely correlated to ScvO2 (r = -0.680, p = 0.015). Conclusions: This initial study demonstrates ScvO2 sampling is practical, with a potential clinical utility as an indicator of circulatory stress during dialysis.
      Nephron Clin Pract
  • Development of a Formula for Estimation of Sodium Intake from Spot Urine
           in People with Chronic Kidney Disease
    • Abstract: Background/Aims: High sodium intake is associated with adverse cardiovascular and renal outcomes in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and simple methods to facilitate assessment of sodium intake are required. The objective of this study was to develop a new formula to estimate 24-hour urinary sodium (24hUNa) excretion from urinary Na concentration measured on an early morning urine specimen (EM UNa). Methods: Seventy participants from a prospective cohort of patients with CKD stage 3 in primary care, the Renal Risk in Derby (RRID) study, agreed to collect an additional EM UNa on the day after completing a 24-hour urine collection. A formula to estimate 24hUNa from EM UNa and body weight was developed using the coefficients from a multivariable linear regression equation. The accuracy of the formula was tested by calculating the P30 (proportion of estimates within 30% of measured sodium exection), and the ability of the estimated 24hUNa to discriminate between measured sodium intake above or below 100 mmol/day was assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. A Bland-Altman plot was used to estimate the bias and limits of agreement between estimated and measured 24hUNa. Seventy-four additional paired 24hUNa and EM UNa from 50 CKD stage 3 patients in the RRID study were used to validate the formula. Results: The mean difference between measured and estimated 24hUNa was 2.08 mmol/day. Measured and estimated 24hUNa were significantly correlated (r = 0.55; p < 0.001) but accuracy of estimated 24hUNa was low (P30 = 60%). Analysis of the ROC curve with a cut-off point >100 mmol/day yielded an area under the curve of 0.668, sensitivity of 0.85 and specificity of 0.52. Conclusions: We have developed a simple formula to identify people with a high sodium intake from EM UNa, suitable for use in large-cohort or population studies.
      Nephron Clin Pract
  • Effect of Intravitreal Bevacizumab Injection before Ahmed Glaucoma Valve
           Implantation in Neovascular Glaucoma
    • Abstract: Ophthalmologica 2013;229:94–100
  • Long-Term Outcome of Polymyositis Treated with High Single-Dose
           Alternate-Day Prednisolone Therapy
    • Abstract: Eur Neurol 2012;68:117–121
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