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Journal Cover Interventional Neurology
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   ISSN (Print) 1664-9737 - ISSN (Online) 1664-5545
   Published by Karger Homepage  [120 journals]
  • Moderate to Severe Anemia Is Associated with Poor Functional Outcome in
           Acute Stroke Patients Treated with Mechanical Thrombectomy
    • Abstract: Background: Anemia will negatively affect cerebral collaterals and penumbra. Eventually, it may cause worse clinical outcomes and even increase mortality rates in stroke patients. Anemia has recently been suggested to be an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of the presence of anemia on clinical outcomes in ischemic stroke patients undergoing mechanical thrombectomy. Methods: This was a retrospective study involving the prospectively and consecutively collected data of 90 adult patients between January 2015 and August 2016. Hemoglobin (Hb) cutoff levels were accepted as 12 g/dL for women and 13 g/dL for men. Patients having anemia were further divided into three subgroups as severe anemia (Hb
  • Early Outcome after Intracranial Hemorrhage Related to Non-Vitamin K Oral
    • Abstract: Background: Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a serious, life-threatening, but fortunately rare complication of non-vitamin K oral anticoagulant (NOAC) therapy. There are limited data on NOAC-related ICH prognosis. Methods: All consecutive patients admitted to a single center due to acute NOAC-related ICH from September 2012 until the beginning of 2017 were included. Risk factors, type of NOAC, and location of ICH were evaluated. Risk for ischemic and bleeding events and clinical status upon admission and at discharge were evaluated using standard scales. Results: Thirty-four patients aged 77.8 ± 8.3 years with NOAC-related ICH were included. The main predisposing risk factors were age and arterial hypertension. The median CHA2DS2-VASc score was 3.4 and the median HAS-BLED score was 1.8. Eighteen patients were treated with rivaroxaban, 11 with dabigatran, and 5 with apixaban. Ten patients (29%) had a favorable outcome with a modified Rankin Scale score ≤2 and 13 patients (38%) died. The location of the ICH was mainly intraparenchymal and subdural. Conclusions: Our retrospective single-center study shows that the mortality rate with NOAC-related ICH is
  • Clinical and Angiographic Outcomes with the Combined Local Aspiration and
           Retriever in the North American Solitaire Stent-Retriever Acute Stroke
           (NASA) Registry
    • Abstract: Background: Various techniques are used to enhance the results of mechanical thrombectomy with stent-retrievers, including proximal arrest with balloon guide catheter (BGC), conventional large bore proximal catheter (CGC), or in combination with local aspiration through a large-bore catheter positioned at the clot interface (Aspiration-Retriever Technique for Stroke [ARTS]). We evaluated the impact of ARTS in the North American Solitaire Acute Stroke (NASA) registry. Summary: Data on the use of the aspiration technique were available for 285 anterior circulation patients, of which 29 underwent ARTS technique, 131 CGC, and 125 BGC. Baseline demographics were comparable, except that ARTS patients are less likely to have hypertension or atrial fibrillation. The ARTS group had more ICA occlusions (41.4 vs. 22% in the BGC, p = 0.04 and 26% in CGC, p = 0.1) and less MCA/M1 occlusions (44.8 vs. 68% in BGC and 62% in CGC). Time from arterial puncture to reperfusion or end of procedure with ARTS was shorter than with CGC (54 vs. 91 min, p = 0.001) and was comparable to the BGC time (54 vs. 67, p = 0.11). Final degree of reperfusion was comparable among the groups (TICI [modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction] score 2b or higher was 72 vs. 70% for CGC vs. 78% for BGC). Procedural complications, mortality, and good clinical outcome at 90 days were similar between the groups. Key Messages: The ARTS mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke patients appears to yield better results as compared to the use of CGCs with no significant difference when compared to BGC. This early ARTS technique NASA registry data are limited by the earlier generation distal large bore catheters and small sample size. Future studies should focus on the comparison of ARTS and BGC techniques.
      Intervent Neurol 2018;7:26-35
  • Contents Vol. 6, 2017
    • Abstract:
      Intervent Neurol 2017;6:I-IV
  • Spontaneous Resolution of Post-Traumatic Direct Carotid-Cavernous Fistula
    • Abstract: Post-traumatic carotid-cavernous fistulas are due to a tear in the wall of the cavernous carotid artery, leading to shunting of blood into the cavernous sinus. These are generally high-flow fistula and rarely resolve spontaneously. Most cases require endovascular embolization. We report a case of Barrow type A carotid-cavernous fistula which resolved spontaneously.
      Intervent Neurol 2018;7:1-5
  • Permanent Deployment of the Solitaire FRâ„¢ Device in the Basilar Artery
           in an Acute Stroke Scenario
    • Abstract: Background: Scarce reports exist of permanent deployment of Solitaire FR™ devices for arterial steno-occlusive disease as it is primarily indicated for temporary deployment for thrombectomy in large-vessel, anterior-circulation ischemic strokes. Even more scarce are reports describing permanent deployment of the Solitaire device for posterior circulation strokes. Summary: We present 2 cases where the Solitaire device was electrolytically detached to re-establish flow in an occluded or stenotic basilar artery in acutely symptomatic patients. In both cases, a 4 × 15 mm Solitaire device was positioned across the stenotic or occluded portion of the basilar artery and electrolytically detached to maintain vessel patency. Both cases had good clinical outcomes with a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of 1 (from 24) on 90-day follow-up and an NIHSS score of 2 (from 7) on 30-day follow-up. Key Messages: Permanent deployment of the Solitaire device may potentially be a safe and effective means of maintaining vessel patency in an occluded or stenotic basilar artery.
      Intervent Neurol 2018;7:6-11
  • Novel Distal Emboli Protection Technology: The EmboTrap
    • Abstract: Background: Over the course of the thrombectomy procedure, clot fragments may become dislodged and lead to downstream emboli due to manipulation of an endovascular device. The EmboTrap thrombectomy system features an inner stent channel with an outer stent trap design that may potentially reduce the risk of distal clot fragmentation during clot removal. We tested the hypothesis that distal emboli to both the same and new territory generated during mechanical thrombectomy are a function of device design. Methods: EmboTrap and Solitaire thrombectomy were conducted in an in vitro model system that mimicked a middle-cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion within a complete circle of Willis vascular replica and a contrast-enhanced clot analog. Emboli generated during the procedure with a size >1,000 μm were collected and measured with calipers. The Coulter principle was used to characterize emboli with a size between 200 and 1,000 µm. Results: EmboTrap thrombectomy resulted in a significant reduction in the risk of large emboli (>1,000 μm) formation as compared to first-generation stent retriever thrombectomy (p = 0.031, Fisher exact test). The majority of emboli >1,000 μm (∼80%) were found in the MCA, regardless of device type. There was no significant difference between the EmboTrap and Solitaire in 200 to 1,000 μm emboli formation (p = 0.89, Mann-Whitney test). When combining all emboli in the most dangerous range (>200 μm), EmboTrap offered a size reduction of emboli (p = 0.022). Conclusion: The risk of distal embolization can be altered with improved stent retriever design. When encountering fragment-prone clots, EmboTrap thrombectomy may lower the risk of distal embolization.
      Intervent Neurol 2017;6:268-276
  • Hybrid Retrograde-Antegrade Recanalization of Acute Basilar Artery
    • Abstract: Acute basilar artery (BA) occlusion has a very poor prognosis. Recanalization can be challenged by bilateral vertebral artery (VA) occlusions, arterial dissection, or advanced atherosclerotic disease. We describe a case in whom the BA was accessed and recanalized through a retrograde-antegrade approach from the anterior circulation using a large posterior communicating artery (PCOM). Once the BA had been crossed retrogradely through the PCOM, another microcatheter was advanced antegradely through the VA into the BA and right posterior cerebral artery using the “buddy-wire” technique. In this way the BA was recanalized and reconstructed with stents. This technical note demonstrates a new approach to BA treatment when the antegrade access is hampered by advanced VA/BA disease or dissection.
      Intervent Neurol 2017;6:263-267
  • Multimodal Therapy for Non-Superacute Vertebral Basilar Artery Occlusion
    • Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of multimodal therapy for patients with non-superacute vertebral basilar artery occlusion. Method: We performed a retrospective analysis of multimodal therapy for patients with vertebral basilar artery occlusion. All patients who were beyond the time window to receive intravenous thrombolysis and who had deterioration of symptoms after drug treatment received small-balloon dilatation of the occlusive artery to estimate vascular occlusion aetiology. Thrombectomy with a Solitaire AB system was applied to the thrombus, and angioplasty with intracranial stents was used to treat stenosis. During the 3-month follow-up, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and modified Rankin scale (mRS) scores were recorded regularly. Results: We included 12 patients with a mean age of 60.4 (SD: 12.9) years. The average score on the NIHSS was 16.6 (SD: 11.6), and the average time from onset to admission was 95 h (SD: 121). The arteries were recanalized for all patients, but the degree of residual stenosis in the parent artery was 17.5% (SD: 20.1). During the follow-up period, one patient died of pulmonary haemorrhage and infection, and another patient died from haemorrhage related to high perfusion. After 3 months of follow-up, the 10 surviving patients showed an average NIHSS score of 7.9 (SD: 8.7) and an average mRS score below 2 (1.3 ± 1.4). Conclusion: For patients with posterior circulation stroke due to basilar artery or vertebral artery occlusion who present to the hospital 6 h after symptom onset and who exhibit deterioration of symptoms after drug treatment, multimodal recanalization of the occluded artery may be a feasible and safe therapy.
      Intervent Neurol 2017;6:254-262
  • Mechanical Thrombectomy for Middle Cerebral Artery Division Occlusions: A
           Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
    • Abstract: Background: Middle cerebral artery division (M2) occlusion was significantly underrepresented in recent mechanical thrombectomy (MT) randomized controlled trials, and the approach to this disease remains heterogeneous. Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of outcomes at 90 days among patients undergoing MT for M2 middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusions. Methods: Five clinical databases were searched from inception through September 2016. Observational studies reporting 90-day modified Rankin Scale scores for patients undergoing MT for M2 MCA occlusions with an M1 MCA control group were selected. The primary outcome of interest was good clinical outcome 90 days after MT of an M1 or M2 MCA occlusion. Secondary outcomes of interest included mortality and excellent clinical outcome, recanalization rates, significant intracerebral hemorrhage, and procedural complications. Results: A total of 323 publications were identified, and 237 potentially relevant articles were screened. Six studies were included in the analysis (M1 = 1,203, M2 = 258; total n = 1,461). We found no significant differences in good clinical outcomes (1.10 [95% CI, 0.83-1.44]), excellent clinical outcomes (1.07 [0.65-1.79]), mortality at 3 months (0.85 [0.58-1.24]), recanalization rates (1.06 [0.32-3.48]), and significant intracranial hemorrhage (1.19 [0.61-2.30]). Conclusions: MT of M2 MCA occlusions is as safe as that of main trunk MCA occlusions, and comparable in terms of clinical outcomes and hemorrhagic complications. Randomized clinical trials are needed to assess the impact of MT in patients with M2 occlusions, given that M1 MCA occlusions have different natural histories than M2 occlusions.
      Intervent Neurol 2017;6:242-253
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