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Journal Cover Interventional Neurology
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   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1664-9737 - ISSN (Online) 1664-5545
   Published by Karger Homepage  [101 journals]
  • Contents Vol. 5, 2016
    • Abstract:
      Intervent Neurol 2016;5:I-IV
      PubDate: 2016-09-16T00:00:00+02:00
  • Repeated Mechanical Thrombectomy in Recurrent Large Vessel Occlusion Acute
           Ischemic Stroke
    • Abstract: Background: Endovascular therapy has been proven effective for the treatment of large vessel occlusion strokes (LVOS). However, the feasibility and potential benefits of repeat thrombectomy for recurrent stroke is unclear. We aim to report our experience with repeat thrombectomy for recurrent LVOS. Methods: We reviewed our prospectively collected endovascular database for patients who underwent repeated mechanical thrombectomy. Baseline characteristics, procedural data and outcomes were evaluated. Patients with repeat thrombectomy were compared to patients with single thrombectomy. For patients with repeat thrombectomy, imaging and procedural variables were compared between first and last procedures. Results: Out of 697 patients treated within the study period, 15 patients (2%) had repeat thrombectomies (14 treated twice and one thrice). The mean age was 63 ± 15 years and 40% were males. The median time between the first and last procedure was 18 (1-278) days. Cardioembolism (66%) was the most common etiology, followed by intracranial atherosclerosis (13%) and large vessel atherosclerosis (6%). At 90 days after the last thrombectomy, 60% of patients achieved a modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2 and 20% were deceased. There were no statistically significant differences in demographics, stroke severity, time from last known normal to puncture, reperfusion rates, hemorrhagic complications, good clinical outcomes and mortality between patients who underwent repeat thrombectomy and those who had a single thrombectomy. Conclusion: In properly selected patients suffering recurrent LVOS, repeated mechanical thrombectomy appears to be feasible and safe. A previous thrombectomy should not discourage aggressive treatment as these patients may achieve similar rates of good clinical outcomes as those who undergo single thrombectomy.
      Intervent Neurol 2017;6:1-7
      PubDate: 2016-09-09T00:00:00+02:00
  • Arteriovenous Malformations in the Pediatric Population: Review of the
           Existing Literature
    • Abstract: Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in the pediatric population are relatively rare but reportedly carry a higher rate of rupture than in adults. This could be due to the fact that most pediatric AVMs are only detected after rupture. We aimed to review the current literature regarding the natural history and the clinical outcome after multimodality AVM treatment in the pediatric population, as optimal management for pediatric AVMs remains controversial. A multidisciplinary approach using multimodality therapy if needed has been proved to be beneficial in approaching these lesions in all age groups. Microsurgical resection remains the gold standard for the treatment of all accessible pediatric AVMs. Embolization and radiosurgery should be considered as an adjunctive therapy. Embolization provides a useful adjunct therapy to microsurgery by preventing significant blood loss and to radiosurgery by decreasing the volume of the AVM. Radiosurgery has been described to provide an alternative treatment approach in certain circumstances either as a primary or adjuvant therapy.
      Intervent Neurol 2016;5:218-225
      PubDate: 2016-09-01T00:00:00+02:00
  • Improving the Evaluation of Collateral Circulation by Multiphase Computed
           Tomography Angiography in Acute Stroke Patients Treated with Endovascular
           Reperfusion Therapies
    • Abstract: Good collateral circulation (CC) is associated with favorable outcomes in acute stroke, but the best technique to evaluate collaterals is controversial. Single-phase computed tomography angiography (sCTA) is widely used but lacks temporal resolution. We aim to compare CC evaluation by sCTA and multiphase CTA (mCTA) as predictors of outcome in endovascular treated patients. Methods: Consecutive endovascular treated patients with M1 middle cerebral artery (MCA) or terminal intracranial carotid artery (TICA) occlusion confirmed by sCTA were included. Two more CTA acquisitions with 8- and 16-second delays were performed for mCTA. Endovascular thrombectomy was performed independently of the CC status according to a local protocol [Alberta Stroke Program Early CT score (ASPECTS) >6, modified Rankin scale (mRS) score
      PubDate: 2016-09-01T00:00:00+02:00
  • Erratum
    • Abstract:
      Intervent Neurol 2016;5:193
      PubDate: 2016-08-23T00:00:00+02:00
  • The Role of Catheter Angiography in the Diagnosis of Central Nervous
           System Vasculitis
    • Abstract: Background: Central nervous system vasculitis (CNSV) is a rare disorder, the pathophysiology of which is not fully understood. It involves a combination of inflammation and thrombosis. CNSV is most commonly associated with headache, gradual changes in mental status, and focal neurological symptoms. Diagnosis requires the effective use of history, laboratory testing, imaging, and biopsy. Catheter angiography can be a powerful tool in the diagnosis when common and low-frequency angiographic manifestations of CNSV are considered. We review these manifestations and their place in the diagnostic algorithm of CNSV. Summary: We reviewed the PubMed database for case series of CNSV that included 5 or more patients. Demographic and angiographic findings were collected. Angiographic findings were dichotomized between common and low-frequency findings. A system for incorporating these findings into clinical decision-making is proposed. Key Message: CNSV is a diagnostic challenge due to the absence of a true gold standard test. In the absence of such a test, catheter angiography remains a central piece of the diagnostic puzzle when appropriately employed and interpreted.
      Intervent Neurol 2016;5:194-208
      PubDate: 2016-08-11T00:00:00+02:00
  • Internal Carotid Artery S-Shaped Curve as a Marker of Fibromuscular
           Dysplasia in Dissection-Related Acute Ischemic Stroke
    • Abstract: Background and Purpose: Craniocervical fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is associated with dissections and with S-shaped curves in the internal carotid artery (ICA). We evaluated the occurrence of S-curves in patients presenting with acute strokes due to ICA steno-occlusive dissections. Methods: This was a retrospective review of the interventional databases of two academic tertiary-care institutions. The presence of ICA S-shaped curves, C-shaped curves, 360-degree loops, as well as classic FMD and atherosclerotic changes at the ICA bulb and curve/loop was determined. Cases of carotid dissections were compared with a control group (consecutive non-tandem anterior circulation strokes). Results: Twenty-four patients with carotid dissections were compared to 92 controls. Baseline characteristics and procedural variables were similar, with the exception of younger age, less frequent history of hypertension, diabetes, atrial fibrillation and stent retriever use in patients with dissections. The rates of mTICI2b-3 reperfusion, parenchymal hematoma, good outcome and mortality were similar amongst groups. The frequency of S-curves (any side without superimposed atherosclerosis) was 29% in the dissection group versus 7% in controls (p < 0.01). S-curves were typically mirror images within the dissection group (85% had bilateral occurrence). The frequency of C-shaped and 360-degree curves was similar between groups. FMD changes within the craniocervical arteries were statistically more common in dissection patients. Ten patients (41%) of the dissection group had S-curves or classic FMD changes. Multivariate analysis indicated that S-curves were independently associated with the presence of dissections. Conclusion: S-shaped ICA curves are predictably bilateral, highly associated with carotid dissections in patients with moderate to severe strokes, and may suggest an underlying presence of FMD.
      Intervent Neurol 2016;5:185-192
      PubDate: 2016-07-16T00:00:00+02:00
  • Endovascular Therapy Demonstrates Benefit over Intravenous Recombinant
           Tissue Plasminogen Activator Based on Repeatedly Measured National
           Institutes of Health Stroke Scale
    • Abstract: Background and Purpose: The Interventional Management of Stroke (IMS) III trial was a randomized controlled trial designed to compare the effect of endovascular therapy after intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (i.v. rt-PA) as compared to i.v. rt-PA alone. The primary outcome was modified Rankin Scale at 90 days. Secondary outcomes included National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), which was assessed repeatedly through 90 days. The objective of this analysis is to evaluate the treatment effect of endovascular therapy over time on NIHSS. Methods: 656 subjects were enrolled in the IMS III trial, including 434 subjects randomized to endovascular therapy and 222 to i.v. rt-PA only. NIHSS scores evaluated at 40 min, 24 h, Day 5, and Day 90 were included in the analysis. A covariance structure model was used to investigate the treatment effect on NIHSS over time, adjusting for relevant covariates including baseline stroke severity. Model assumptions were valid. Results: Based on the covariance structure model, after adjusting for relevant baseline covariates, a significant time-by-treatment interaction effect (p = 0.0137) was observed. Only NIHSS at Day 90 showed a significant treatment effect (p = 0.0473), with subjects in the endovascular arm having a lower NIHSS (less neurologic deficit) compared to the i.v. rt-PA arm. Conclusions: The IMS III trial demonstrated an endovascular treatment effect based on the secondary outcome of NIHSS. However, the magnitude of this treatment effect varied by the time of assessment. It was only at Day 90 that the endovascular arm had a significantly lower NIHSS compared to that in the i.v. rt-PA arm.
      Intervent Neurol 2017;6:25-30
  • Stent Retriever-Mediated Manual Aspiration Thrombectomy for Acute Ischemic
    • Abstract: Background and Purpose: Stent retriever thrombectomy and manual aspiration thrombectomy (MAT) have each been shown to lead to high rates of recanalization as single-modality endovascular stroke therapy. We sought to describe the safety and efficacy of a multimodal approach combining these two techniques termed ‘stent retriever-mediated manual aspiration thrombectomy' (SMAT) and compared them to MAT alone. Methods: Retrospective review of a prospectively acquired acute endovascular stroke database. Results: 195 consecutive patients with large-vessel occlusion were identified between July 2013 and April 2015. Occlusion distribution was as follows: 52% middle cerebral artery segment 1 (M1), 6% M2, 29% internal carotid artery, and 13% vertebrobasilar. Median onset to treatment time was 278 min. Intravenous rtPA was administered in 33% of cases, whereas 34% of cases had symptom onset beyond 8 h. Effective recanalization (TICI 2b/3) was achieved in 91% of patients and in 49% of patients, only a single pass was necessary. Median groin puncture to recanalization time was 40 min. Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage occurred in 5% of patients. Favorable outcomes defined as a modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2 were noted in 42% of patients. Compared with MAT alone, SMAT achieved a similar rate of effective recanalization (91 vs. 88%, p = n.s.) but was associated with faster access to reperfusion times (49 vs. 77 min, p < 0.00001). Conclusions: SMAT is a safe and efficacious method to achieve rapid revascularization that leads to faster recanalization compared to manual aspiration alone. Future prospective comparisons are necessary to establish the most clinically effective therapy for acute thrombectomy.
      Intervent Neurol 2017;6:16-24
  • Heads Up! A Novel Provocative Maneuver to Guide Acute Ischemic Stroke
    • Abstract: Background: A common dilemma in acute ischemic stroke management is whether to pursue recanalization therapy in patients with large vessel occlusions but minimal neurologic deficits. We describe and report preliminary experience with a provocative maneuver, i.e. 90-degree elevation of the head of bed for 30 min, which stresses collaterals and facilitates decision-making. Methods: A prospective cohort study of
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