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Journal Cover Interventional Neurology
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   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1664-9737 - ISSN (Online) 1664-5545
   Published by Karger Homepage  [120 journals]
  • Support of New Triage Protocol among Acute Stroke Care Providers
    • Abstract: Objective: We conducted an online survey to gauge the acceptance of sending acute stroke patients with suspected large vessel occlusion (LVO) directly to an endovascular-capable hospital (ECH) even if that means bypassing a closer alteplase-capable hospital (ACH) without endovascular capability. Methods: The survey was composed of two cases of acute stroke, one with cortical symptoms suggestive of LVO and the other without. In each case, responders were asked to choose between triaging to a closer ACH or an ECH that is further away and to provide an opinion regarding the maximum extra travel time they would tolerate if they chose the ECH. The survey was sent electronically to national groups of neurologists, emergency department (ED) physicians, emergency medical service (EMS) directors, and stroke coordinators. Results: There were 320 responders from 44 states, most of them with 10 years or more of experience. Most of the responders, 72.5%, chose ECH for the LVO case, while 56% chose ACH for the non-LVO case. There were marked differences in responses by specialty: neurology strongly supported ECH for LVO and strongly supported ACH for non-LVO, most ED and EMS chose ECH for both cases, and stroke coordinators were the least supportive of bypassing ACH. Almost all groups agreed on 30 min as the acceptable extra transfer time to ECH. Conclusion: Among the survey responders, there is a broad acceptance of the idea of bypassing ACH and going straight to ECH when LVO is suspected; however, there is less agreement on triaging patients with non-LVO stroke.
      Intervent Neurol 2018;7:241–245
  • Abciximab (ReoPro) Dosing Strategy for the Management of Acute
           Intraprocedural Thromboembolic Complications during Pipeline Flow
           Diversion Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms
    • Abstract: Background: Flow diversion with the Pipeline embolization device (PED) is an effective neuro­endovascular method and increasingly accepted for the treatment of cerebral aneurysms. Acute in situ thrombosis is a known complication of PED procedures. There is limited experience in the flow diversion literature on the use of abciximab (ReoPro) for the management of acute thrombus formation in PED cases. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively on patients who received intra-arterial (IA) ReoPro with or without subsequent intravenous (IV) infusion during PED flow diversion treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Results: A total of 30 cases in patients with a mean age of 56.7 years (range 36–84) and a mean aneurysm size of 8.6 mm (range 2–25) were identified to have intraprocedural thromboembolic complications during PED treatment. IA ReoPro was administered in all cases, with 20 cases receiving increments of 5-mg boluses and 10 cases receiving a 0.125 mg/kg IA bolus (half cardiac dosing). Complete or partial recanalization was achieved in 100% of the cases. IV ReoPro infusion at 0.125 μg/kg/min for 12 h was administered postprocedurally in 22 cases with a residual thrombus. Postprocedurally, 18 patients were transitioned from clopidogrel (Plavix) to prasugrel (Effient). The majority of the cases (23/30; 77%) were discharged home. Periprocedural intracranial hemorrhage was noted in 2 cases (7%) and radiographic infarct was noted in 4 cases (13%), with an overall mortality of 0% at the time of initial discharge. Clinical follow-up was available for 28/30 patients. The average duration of follow-up was 11.7 months, at which time 23/28 (82%) of the patients had a modified Rankin Scale score of 0. Conclusions: IA ReoPro administration is an effective and safe rescue strategy for the management of acute intraprocedural thromboembolic complications during PED treatment. Using a dosing strategy of either 5-mg increments or a 0.125 mg/kg IA bolus (half cardiac dosing) can provide high rates of recanalization with low rates of hemorrhagic complications and long-term morbidity.
      Intervent Neurol 2018;7:218–232
  • Carotid Stenting for Treatment of Symptomatic Carotid Webs: A
           Single-Center Case Series
    • Abstract: Background and Purpose: Carotid webs are an increasingly recognized cause of acute is­chemic stroke, particularly in younger adults. The optimal medical and surgical strategies for managing these lesions have not been well established. We report a single-center case series of carotid stenting for treatment of symptomatic carotid webs. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients undergoing stent placement for treatment of symptomatic carotid webs were included. Carotid webs were defined as a thin intraluminal filling defect along the posterior wall of the carotid bulb just beyond the carotid bifurcation on CTA. Data were collected on demographic characteristics, antiplatelet management, clinical presentation, imaging findings, treatment characteristics, complications, and stroke recurrence rates. Descriptive statistics are reported. Results: A total of 4 patients were treated. Their mean age was 44 years (range 30–50). Three patients were female and 1 was male. All patients were symptomatic presenting with ipsilateral transient ischemic attacks or stroke. Patients were placed on dual antiplatelet therapy with ticagrelor and aspirin prior to the procedure. There were no ischemic or hemorrhagic complications. Three patients had postoperative bradycardia, 1 of whom required atropine immediately following stenting. No patients had recurrent ischemic events. Conclusions: Stent placement for treatment of carotid webs can be performed safely. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.
      Intervent Neurol 2018;7:233–240
  • Preclinical Evaluation of the NeVaTM Stent Retriever: Safety and Efficacy
           in the Swine Thrombectomy Model
    • Abstract: Background: A novel stent retriever device with an enhanced radial force profile, enlarged offset openings, and a closed distal end has been developed. Objective: Evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the NeVaTM thrombectomy device in animal model of thrombo-occlusive disease. Materials and Methods: Seven swine were used in safety and efficacy studies. Thrombo-occlusive disease was modeled using 4 emboli morphologies; 2 distinct models of autologous whole blood thrombi, plasma-enriched thrombi, and Onyx® emboli. A total of 35 vascular occlusions and retrievals were performed using emboli of variable sizes. Pre- and post-modified thrombolysis in cerebral ischemia (mTICI) scores, number of retrievals, and the presence of angiographic complications were recorded. In the safety study, a total of 6 clot retrievals were completed and the vascular territory examined grossly and harvested for histopathological evaluation. A semiquantitative vasospasm study was performed. Radial force testing was performed on NeVaTM and control devices for comparison. Results: Near-full or full reperfusion (mTICI 2b/3) was achieved in 34/35 occlusions after a mean of 1.2 passes. Full reperfusion (TICI 3) was achieved in 17/17 of whole blood clot occlusions (ranging between 10 and 20 mm) after a mean of 1.06 passes. The rate of mTICI 2b/3 reperfusion was 10/11 (mean, 1.6 passes) and 5/5 (mean, 1.0 passes) for Onyx® and plasma-enriched clot emboli, respectively. Histopathological vessel injury and vasospasm scores were comparable to predicate studies. Radial force curves demonstrated increased expansive radial force and similar compressive radial force compared to predicate devices. Conclusions: Our preclinical results support the use of the NeVaTM device in a clinical trial to determine if this novel design improves upon current stent retriever outcomes.
      Intervent Neurol 2018;7:205–217
  • Pomona Large Vessel Occlusion Screening Tool for Prehospital and Emergency
           Room Settings
    • Abstract: Background: Early identification of patients with acute ischemic strokes due to large vessel occlusions (LVO) is critical. We propose a simple risk score model to predict LVO. Method: The proposed scale (Pomona Scale) ranges from 0 to 3 and includes 3 items: gaze deviation, expressive aphasia, and neglect. We reviewed a cohort of all acute stroke activation patients between February 2014 and January 2016. The predictive performance of the Pomona Scale was determined and compared with several National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) cutoffs (≥4, ≥6, ≥8, and ≥10), the Los Angeles Motor Scale (LAMS), the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Severity (CPSS) scale, the Vision Aphasia and Neglect Scale (VAN), and the Prehospital Acute Stroke Severity Scale (PASS). Results: LVO was detected in 94 of 776 acute stroke activations (12%). A Pomona Scale ≥2 had comparable accuracy to predict LVO as the VAN and CPSS scales and higher accuracy than Pomona Scale ≥1, LAMS, PASS, and NIHSS. A Pomona Scale ≥2 had an accuracy (area under the curve) of 0.79, a sensitivity of 0.86, a specificity of 0.70, a positive predictive value of 0.71, and a negative predictive value of 0.97 for the detection of LVO. We also found that the presence of either neglect or gaze deviation alone had comparable accuracy of 0.79 as Pomona Scale ≥2 to detect LVO. Conclusion: The Pomona Scale is a simple and accurate scale to predict LVO. In addition, the presence of either gaze deviation or neglect also suggests the possibility of LVO.
      Intervent Neurol 2018;7:196–203
  • Stent Reconstruction of Carotid Tonsillar Loop Dissection Using
           Telescoping Peripheral Stents
    • Abstract: Background: Endovascular treatment options for internal carotid artery (ICA) dissection with tandem intracranial occlusion are evolving. We report 2 cases of stent reconstruction of carotid loop dissections. Methods: Two patients with symptomatic ICA dissections of true 360° tonsillar loops and tandem intracranial occlusions were treated with manual aspiration thrombectomy (MAT) and telescoping Zilver self-expanding peripheral stents. Patient demographics, clinical presentations, endovascular techniques, and clinical outcomes were reviewed. Results: In both cases, MAT achieved modified Treatment in Cerebral Ischemia scale 2B reperfusion, and complete endovascular reconstruction of the dissected extracranial loop was performed. Both patients had improved pre- to postintervention National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores (16 to 0 and 14 to 0), and both had modified Rankin scale scores of 1 at 3-month follow-up. Conclusions: Stent reconstruction of complex cerebrovascular anatomy is increasingly feasible with advancements in stent technology and catheter support system design. This technique may be of use to neuroendovascular surgeons who encounter variant ICA anatomy.
      Intervent Neurol 2018;7:189–195
  • A Review of Pre-Intervention Prognostic Scores for Early Prognostication
           and Patient Selection in Endovascular Management of Large Vessel Occlusion
    • Abstract: Background: Endovascular therapy (ET) has emerged as a highly effective treatment for acute large vessel occlusion stroke (LVOS). Tools that facilitate optimal patient selection of patients for ET are needed in order to maximize therapeutic benefit in a cost-effective manner. Several pre-intervention prognostic scores for prediction of outcomes in LVOS patients and patient selection for ET have been developed and validated, but their clinical use has been limited. Here, we review existing pre-intervention prognostic scores, compare their prognostic accuracies and levels of validation and identify gaps in current knowledge. Summary: We have reviewed published literature pertinent to development, validation, and implementation of pre-intervention prognostic scores for LVOS. Using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the prognostic accuracies of validated pre-interventional scores (Pittsburgh Response to Endovascular therapy [PRE], Totaled Health Risks in Vascular Events [THRIVE], Houston Intra-Arterial Therapy-2 (HIAT-2), Stroke Prognostication using Age and NIHSS [SPAN-100]) were compared in published work. Pre-intervention scores predicted functional out comes at 3 months with moderate prognostic accuracies (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve range 0.68–0.73). Using successful reperfusion (mTICI 2B/3) as the therapeutic objective of ET and 3-month modified Rankin Score 0–2 as good clinical outcome, patients most likely to clinically benefit from endovascular reperfusion can be identified using the PRE and HIAT-2 scores. Scores that incorporate collateral imaging or perfusion-based estimation of core and penumbra have not been published. Existing scores are predominantly limited to anterior circulation LVOS, and implementation studies of pre-interventional scores are lacking. Key Messages: Pre-intervention prognostic scores can serve as useful adjuncts for patient selection in ET for acute LVOS. Pre-intervention scores including HIAT-2, THRIVE, SPAN-100, and PRE have comparable moderate prognostic accuracies for good 3-month outcomes and can identify patients who derive maximal benefit from successful reperfusion. Improvements in prognostic accuracy may be achieved by incorporating variables such as collateral status and perfusion imaging data. Implementation and impact studies using pre-intervention scores are needed to guide clinical application.
      Intervent Neurol 2018;7:171–181
  • Association of Blood Glucose and Clinical Outcome after Mechanical
           Thrombectomy for Acute Ischemic Stroke
    • Abstract: Background: Elevated blood glucose levels following acute ischemic stroke have been associated with adverse clinical outcomes in thrombolytic and nonthrombolytic treated patients. The current study examined multiple blood glucose parameters and their association with modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at 3 months following mechanical thrombectomy and hospital discharge. Methods: Acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing mechanical thrombectomy with a retrievable stent at two stroke centers were studied. Admission blood glucose level, maximum blood glucose during the hospital stay, and serial blood glucose measurements within the first 24 h of hospital admission were recorded. Variability in blood glucose level was represented by the standard deviation of the serial measurements within the first 24 h. The following demographic and clinical data was also collected: age, sex, baseline NIHSS score, onset-to-reperfusion times, hemoglobin A1c, and stroke mechanism. Results: 79 patients were identified; at 3 months, 35 patients had an mRS score of 0–2 and 44 had had an mRS of 3–6. Among the blood glucose variables, standard deviation of blood glucose in the first 24 h following admission and maximum blood glucose during hospital stay were significantly higher in the mRS 3–6 group. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, only the standard deviation of blood glucose remained significant (OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.02–1.11, p = 0.003) in a model that adjusted for admission NIHSS score (p = 0.016) and number of stent retriever passes (p = 0.042). Conclusions: Greater blood glucose variability following acute ischemic stroke is associated with worse clinical outcome in patients undergoing mechanical thrombectomy.
      Intervent Neurol 2018;7:182–188
  • 447 Consecutive Cases of Pipeline Flex Flow Diversion Utilizing a Novel
           Large-Bore Intracranial Intermediate Catheter: Nuances and Institutional
           Experience with the Syphontrak
    • Abstract: Background: The increasing complexity of modern neurointerventions has necessitated a shift in intracranial access techniques towards more robust distal support platforms. Here we present our experience with the Syphontrak Support Catheter (Codman Neuro, Raynham, MA, USA) in the triaxial platform for the implantation of the second-generation Pipeline Flex embolization device (PED Flex; Medtronic Neurovascular, Irvine, CA, USA). Methods: We retrospectively identified patients who underwent PED Flex treatment utilizing the Syphontrak at a single institution. The procedural data collected included parent artery tortuosity, patient demographics, aneurysm characteristics, other equipment utilized, and catheter-related complications. Results: A total of 47 consecutive aneurysm flow diversions were successfully performed using the Syphontrak. The patients’ age ranged from 25 to 80 years (mean 57.3 ± 11.6) and 85% were women. The average aneurysm size was 4.8 ± 2.7 mm (range 2–14). All cases were in the anterior circulation, with 6 (12%) aneurysms located beyond the internal carotid artery termination. Significant cervical carotid tortuosity was present in 23% (11/47) of the cases and moderate-to-severe cavernous tortuosity (cavernous grade ≥2) in 51% (24/47) of the cases. The mean fluoroscopy time was 36.6 ± 14.8 min. In 12/47 cases (26%), vasospasm prophylaxis with intra-arterial verapamil infusion was performed. The Syphontrak was tracked to the intended distal position in all cases, with a 100% technical success of PED Flex implantation. Forty-six (98%) of the 47 patients were discharged home after an average length of stay of 1.38 days. No iatrogenic catheter-related vessel injury occurred. Transient, minor neurological morbidity occurred in 3 cases (6%) and 1 patient had a minor ischemic event (NIHSS score #x3c; 4) in the periprocedural period. Conclusion: The Syphontrak is a new large-bore, multi-durometer intermediate catheter (IC) designed for use in modern neurointerventional procedures. We have shown its utility in 47 successful cases of PED Flex flow diversion of a wide range of complexity. The IC provides robust and atraumatic distal intracranial access while also providing an enhanced image quality with its large 0.060″ inner diameter.
      Intervent Neurol 2018;7:153–163
  • Pipeline Flex Embolization of Flow-Related Aneurysms Associated with
           Arteriovenous Malformations: A Case Report
    • Abstract: Background: An estimated 0.1% of the population harbors brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Diagnosis and workup of AVMs include thorough evaluation for characterization of AVM angioarchitecture and careful assessment for concomitant aneurysms. The presence of coexisting aneurysms is associated with an increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage, with a published risk of 7% per year compared to patients with AVMs alone with a risk of 3%. Comprehensive AVM management requires recognition of concomitant aneurysms and prioritizes treatment strategies to mitigate the aggregate risk of intracranial hemorrhage associated with AVM rupture in patients with coexisting aneurysms. Endovascular treatment of these flow-related aneurysms can offer a cure, while avoiding open surgery. Successful flow-diverting embolization techniques, efficacy, and outcomes have been previously described for a variety of aneurysm types and locations. However, use of a flow diverter has not been previously described for the treatment of high-flow aneurysms on AVM-feeding vessels. Case Presentation: We report 2 cases of large AVMs within eloquent cortex associated with flow-related aneurysms in patients presenting initially with suspected intracerebral hemorrhage secondary to AVM rupture. Discussion: No consensus currently exists to guide treatment of intracranial aneurysms associated with AVMs. Surgical management addressed AVM embolization initially, as the vasculopathology with the highest rupture risk. Subsequently, Pipeline embolization of the associated aneurysms with adequate antiplatelet treatment was performed before scheduled radiosurgery to decrease the risk of AVM rupture or rebleed. This represents a novel and promising use of the Pipeline Embolization Device. Additional cases and longer follow-up will be needed to further assess the efficacy of this technique.
      Intervent Neurol 2018;7:164-170
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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