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Journal Cover Interventional Neurology
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   ISSN (Print) 1664-9737 - ISSN (Online) 1664-5545
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  • Prognostic Value of the 24-Hour Neurological Examination in Anterior
           Circulation Ischemic Stroke: A post hoc Analysis of Two Randomized
           Controlled Stroke Trials
    • Abstract: Background: Early prognostication of long-term outcomes following ischemic stroke can facilitate medical decision-making. We hypothesized that the 24-hour National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) predicts 3-month clinical outcomes in anterior circulation stroke. Methods: Secondary analyses of the Interventional Management of Stroke 3 (IMS3) and intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) for acute ischemic stroke [National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke (NINDS) IV tPA] trials were performed. In participants with documented 24-hour NIHSS and 3-month Modified Rankin Scale (mRS), the predictive power of the 24-hour NIHSS and 24-hour NIHSS improvement for 3-month outcomes [mRS 0-2 and Barthel Index (BI) ≥95] was assessed. Percentages of good outcome (mRS 0-2 or BI ≥95) at 3, 6, and 12 months and mean quality of life (EQ5D™) index at 3 months across 24-hour NIHSS quartiles were compared. Results: The majority of the study participants were included (IMS3 n = 587/656, NINDS IV tPA n = 619/624). The 24-hour NIHSS was correlated with 3-month mRS (R = 0.73) with excellent predictive power for mRS 0-2 [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.91] and BI ≥95 (AUC = 0.9) in both cohorts. A model with the 24-hour NIHSS alone correctly classified 82-84% of patients in both cohorts. The percentages of good outcomes at 3-12 months across 24-hour NIHSS quartiles were similar in both cohorts. mRS 0-2 was achieved by 75.6-77.7% of patients with 24-hour NIHSS ≤11 but by only 1.4-3.6% with 24-hour NIHSS ≥20. The EQ5D index at 3 months varied among NIHSS 0-4 (mean 0.86 ± 0.16), 5-11 (0.77 ± 0.18), and 12-19 (0.59 ± 0.26) quartiles. Conclusions: The 24-hour NIHSS strongly predicts long-term stroke outcomes and is associated with quality of life. Its easy availability, reliability, and validity support its use as an early prognostic marker and surrogate of clinical outcome in ischemic stroke.
      Intervent Neurol 2015;4:120-129
  • Lower Intraprocedural Systolic Blood Pressure Predicts Good Outcome in
           Patients Undergoing Endovascular Therapy for Acute Ischemic Stroke
    • Abstract: Background: It is unknown if intraprocedural blood pressure (BP) influences clinical outcomes and what BP parameter best predicts outcomes in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients who undergo intra-arterial therapy (IAT) for emergent large vessel occlusion. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 147 patients who underwent IAT for anterior circulation AIS from January 2008 to December 2012 at our institution. Baseline demographics, stroke treatment variables, and detailed intraprocedural hemodynamic variables were collected. Results: The entire cohort consisted of 81 (55%) females with a mean age of 66.9 ± 15.6 years and a median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of 16 (IQR 11-21). Thirty-six (24.5%) patients died during hospitalization, 25 (17%) achieved a 30-day modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2, and 24 (16.3%) suffered symptomatic parenchymal hematoma type 1/2 hemorrhage. Patients who achieved a good outcome had a significantly lower admission NIHSS score, a higher baseline CT ASPECTS score, and a lower rate of ICA terminus occlusions. Successful recanalization was more frequent in the good-outcome group, while symptomatic hemorrhages occurred only in poor-outcome patients. The first systolic BP (SBP; 146.5 ± 0.2 vs. 157.7 ± 25.6 mm Hg, p = 0.042), first mean arterial pressure (MAP; 98.1 ± 20.8 vs. 109.7 ± 20.3 mm Hg, p = 0.024), maximum SBP (164.6 ± 27.6 vs. 180.9 ± 18.3 mm Hg, p = 0.0003), and maximum MAP (125.5 ± 18.6 vs. 138.5 ± 24.6 mm Hg, p = 0.0309) were all significantly lower in patients who achieved good outcomes. A lower maximum intraprocedural SBP was an independent predictor of good outcome (adjusted OR 0.929, 95% CI 0.886-0.963, p = 0.0005). Initial NIHSS score was the only other independent predictor of a good outcome. Conclusion: Lower intraprocedural SBP was associated with good outcome in patients undergoing IAT for AIS, and maximum SBP was an independent predictor of good outcome. SBP may be the optimal hemodynamic variable to monitor intraprocedurally during IAT and may predict outcome.
      Intervent Neurol 2015;4:151-157
  • Society of Vascular and Interventional Neurology (SVIN) Stroke
           Interventional Laboratory Consensus (SILC) Criteria: A 7M Management
           Approach to Developing a Stroke Interventional Laboratory in the Era of
           Stroke Thrombectomy for Large Vessel Occlusions
    • Abstract: Brain attack care is rapidly evolving with cutting-edge stroke interventions similar to the growth of heart attack care with cardiac interventions in the last two decades. As the field of stroke intervention is growing exponentially globally, there is clearly an unmet need to standardize stroke interventional laboratories for safe, effective, and timely stroke care. Towards this goal, the Society of Vascular and Interventional Neurology (SVIN) Writing Committee has developed the Stroke Interventional Laboratory Consensus (SILC) criteria using a 7M management approach for the development and standardization of each stroke interventional laboratory within stroke centers. The SILC criteria include: (1) manpower: personnel including roles of medical and administrative directors, attending physicians, fellows, physician extenders, and all the key stakeholders in the stroke chain of survival; (2) machines: resources needed in terms of physical facilities, and angiography equipment; (3) materials: medical device inventory, medications, and angiography supplies; (4) methods: standardized protocols for stroke workflow optimization; (5) metrics (volume): existing credentialing criteria for facilities and stroke interventionalists; (6) metrics (quality): benchmarks for quality assurance; (7) metrics (safety): radiation and procedural safety practices.
      Intervent Neurol 2016;5:1-28
  • Advances in the Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment of Bow Hunter's
           Syndrome: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature
    • Abstract: Bow hunter's syndrome (BHS), also known as rotational vertebral artery (VA) occlusion syndrome, is a rare yet treatable type of symptomatic vertebrobasilar insufficiency resulting from mechanical occlusion or stenosis of the VA during head and neck rotation or extension. The symptoms of BHS range from transient vertigo to posterior circulation stroke. The underlying pathology is dynamic stenosis or compression of the VA by abnormal bony structures with neck rotation or extension in many cases, such as osteophyte, disc herniation, cervical spondylosis, tendinous bands or tumors. Imaging approaches, such as Doppler sonography, computed tomography and angiography, as well as magnetic resonance imaging and angiography, are widely used in the diagnosis and evaluation of this syndrome. Digital subtraction angiography with head rotation remains the gold standard diagnostic method. Conservative management, surgery and endovascular procedures are the three major treatment methods for BHS, whereas some symptomatic patients may need operative treatment including surgery and endovascular procedures when conservative management is not adequate.
      Intervent Neurol 2016;5:29-38
  • Training Guidelines for Endovascular Stroke Intervention: An International
           Multi-Society Consensus Document
    • Abstract:
      Intervent Neurol 2016;5:51-56
  • Erratum
    • Abstract:
      Intervent Neurol 2015;4:82
  • Contents Vol. 4, 2015
    • Abstract:
      Intervent Neurol 2015;4:I-IV
  • Systematic Review and Pooled Analyses of Recent Neurointerventional
           Randomized Controlled Trials: Setting a New Standard of Care for Acute
           Ischemic Stroke Treatment after 20 Years
    • Abstract: Background: Recent advances in the treatment of ischemic stroke have focused on revascularization and led to better clinical and functional outcomes. A systematic review and pooled analyses of 6 recent multicentered prospective randomized controlled trials (MPRCT) were performed to compare intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV tPA) and endovascular therapy (intervention) with IV tPA alone (control) for anterior circulation ischemic stroke (AIS) secondary to large vessel occlusion (LVO). Objectives: Six MPRCTs (MR CLEAN, ESCAPE, EXTEND IA, SWIFT PRIME, REVASCAT and THERAPY) incorporating image-based LVO AIS were selected for assessing the following: (1) prespecified primary clinical outcomes of AIS patients in intervention and control arms: good outcomes were defined by a modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2 at 90 days; (2) secondary clinical outcomes were: (a) revascularization rates [favorable outcomes defined as modified Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction scale (mTICI) score of 2b/3]; (b) symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH) rates and mortality; (c) derivation of number needed to harm (NNH), number needed to treat (NNT), and relative percent difference (RPD) between intervention and control groups, and (d) random effects model to determine overall significance (forest and funnel plots). Results: A total of 1,386 patients were included. Good outcomes at 90 days were seen in 46% of patients in the intervention (p < 0.00001) and in 27% of patients in the control groups (p < 0.00002). An mTICI score of 2b/3 was achieved in 70.2% of patients in the intervention arm. The sICH and mortality in the intervention arm compared with the control arm were 4.7 and 14.3% versus 7.9 and 17.8%, respectively. The NNT and NNH in the intervention and control groups were 5.3 and 9.1, respectively. Patients in the intervention arm had a 50.1% (RPD) better chance of achieving a good 90-day outcome as compared to controls. Conclusions: Endovascular therapy combined with IV tPA (in appropriately selected patients) for LVO-related AIS is superior to IV tPA alone. These results support establishing an endovascular therapy in addition to IV tPA as the standard of care for AIS secondary to LVO.
      Intervent Neurol 2016;5:39-50
  • Consecutive Endovascular Treatment of 20 Ruptured Very Small (<3 mm)
           Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms
    • Abstract: Background: Small aneurysms located at the anterior communicating artery carry significant procedural challenges due to a complex anatomy. Recent advances in endovascular technologies have expanded the use of coil embolization for small aneurysm treatment. However, limited reports describe their safety and efficacy profiles in very small anterior communicating artery aneurysms. Objective: We sought to review and report the immediate and long-term clinical as well as radiographic outcomes of consecutive patients with ruptured very small anterior communicating artery aneurysms treated with current endovascular coil embolization techniques. Methods: A prospectively maintained single-institution neuroendovascular database was accessed to identify consecutive cases of very small (
  • Fractional Flow Assessment for the Evaluation of Intracranial
           Atherosclerosis: A Feasibility Study
    • Abstract: Purpose: Current studies on endovascular intervention for intracranial atherosclerosis select patients based on luminal stenosis. Coronary studies demonstrated that fractional flow measurements assess ischemia better than anatomical stenosis and can guide patient selection for intervention. We similarly postulated that fractional flow can be used to assess ischemic stroke risk. Methods: This was a feasibility study to assess the technical use and safety of applying a pressure guidewire to measure fractional flow across intracranial stenoses. Twenty patients with severe intracranial stenosis were recruited. The percentage of luminal stenosis, distal to proximal pressure ratios (fractional flow) and the fractional flow gradients across the stenosis were measured. Procedural success rate and safety outcomes were documented. Results: All 20 patients had successful crossing of stenosis by the pressure guidewire. Ten patients underwent angioplasty, and 5 had stenting performed. There was one perforator stroke, but not related to the use of the pressure wire. For the 13 patients with complete pre- and postintervention data, the mean preintervention stenosis, fractional flow and translesional pressure gradient were 76.2%, 0.66 and 29.9 mm Hg, whilst the corresponding postintervention measurements were 24.7%, 0.88 and 10.9 mm Hg, respectively. Fractional flow (r = -0.530, p = 0.001) and the translesional pressure gradient (r = 0.501, p = 0.002) only had a modest correlation with the luminal stenosis. Conclusion: Fractional flow measurement by floating a pressure guidewire across the intracranial stenosis was technically feasible and safe in this study. Further studies are needed to validate its use for ischemic stroke risk assessment.
      Intervent Neurol 2016;5:65-75
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