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Journal Cover Interventional Neurology
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   ISSN (Print) 1664-9737 - ISSN (Online) 1664-5545
   Published by Karger Homepage  [105 journals]
  • Feasibility of Real-Time Angiographic Perfusion Imaging in the Treatment
           of Cerebral Vasospasm
    • Abstract: Background: Objective assessment and quantification of the severity of cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is not routinely utilized. We investigated the feasibility of angiographic perfusion imaging derived from digital subtraction angiography (DSA) following endovascular vasospasm treatment procedures. Methodology: Real-time blood flow analysis was performed using parametric color coding on pre- and postintervention DSA. Semiquantitative parenchymal perfusion parameters (arrival time [AT] of contrast, time to peak [TTP] opacification, and mean transit time [MTT] of contrast) were calculated across 3 vascular territories (anterior cerebral artery [ACA], middle cerebral artery [MCA], and lenticulostriate arteries) using standard 2-D angiographic perfusion software. The pre- and postintervention arterial vessel diameters were compared. Results: Twelve endovascular vasospasm treatments in 6 patients were performed. All patients received intra-arterial vasodilator therapy with either nimodipine, milrinone, or both. Following intra-arterial intervention, parenchymal flow analysis showed improvement in TTP and MTT across all vascular territories (p < 0.002) and improvement in AT in the ACA and MCA territories (p < 0.03). Improvement in parenchymal perfusion parameters was associated with improvement in vessel diameters in all territories following treatment (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Real-time parenchymal perfusion imaging during endovascular vasospasm treatment procedures is feasible and provides reliable semiquantitative measurement of angiographic treatment response.
      Intervent Neurol 2017;6:163-169
  • Anchoring Pipeline Flow Diverter Construct in the Treatment of Traumatic
           Distal Cervical Carotid Artery Injury
    • Abstract: Background: Traumatic extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) dissections are uncommon and can be difficult to treat. Thinning of adventitia and dilatation may occur following arterial dissection, thus resulting in a fusiform pseudoaneurysm, which can subsequently cause bleeding, expanding, or pulsatile hematoma. Currently, medical management with anticoagulation remains the first line of treatment and yields good outcomes in 75% of cases with a mortality rate of 3-4%. Endovascular intervention is indicated with failure of medical therapy, progressive enlargement of a traumatic pseudoaneurysm, acute flow-related infarcts due to vessel occlusion, or when anticoagulation is contraindicated due to risk of pseudoaneurysm rupture and hemorrhage. Recognized interventional treatments include parent artery occlusion with or without revascularization, endovascular coil embolization, and covered stenting. Summary: A wide variety of endovascular stents are available that are capable of opening a stenosed vessel while obliterating the associated false lumen and providing a scaffold for embolization of the pseudoaneurysm. The use of the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) in the management of traumatic intracranial pseudoaneurysms has been described. However, there are few reports on the usage of the PED for treating traumatic extracranial ICA dissection and/or pseudoaneurysms. However, a potential complication of the use of PED in the extracranial ICA is a hypothetical tendency to migrate in a mobile vessel. Thus, the risk of migration of the PED has encouraged practitioners to adopt strategies to limit this risk. Key Messages: We describe different techniques employed to anchor the flow-diverting construct within tortuous, mobile vessels.
      Intervent Neurol 2017;6:153-162
  • Utilizing CT with Maximum Intensity Projection Reconstruction Bypassing
           CTA Improves Time to Groin Puncture in Large Vessel Occlusion Stroke
    • Abstract: Background and Purpose: Prior to thrombectomy for proximal anterior circulation large vessel occlusion (LVO) stroke, recent trials have utilized CT angiography (CTA) for vascular imaging immediately following noncontrast CT (NCCT) for decision-making, but thin-section NCCT with automated maximum intensity projection (MIP) reconstruction also has high accuracy in demonstrating the site of an occluding thrombus. We hypothesized that performing thin-section NCCT with MIP alone prior to thrombectomy improves the time to groin puncture (GP) compared to performing CTA after NCCT. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of anterior circulation LVO thrombectomy at our tertiary care academic medical center. All stroke patients evaluated with thin-section NCCT (0.625 mm) with automated MIP reconstructions alone and those who had additional CTA were included. We excluded transfer patients, in-hospital strokes, posterior circulation strokes, and patients that were evaluated with stroke imaging other than NCCT or CTA prior to thrombectomy. The study groups were compared for duration from NCCT to GP and total stroke imaging duration. Results: From March 2008 through August 2015, 34 thrombectomy patients met the inclusion/exclusion criteria - 13 in the NCCT and 20 in the NCCT+CTA group. The total stroke imaging duration was shorter in the NCCT group than in the NCCT+CTA group (2 min [1-6] vs. 28 min [23-65]; p < 0.001). The NCCT-only group had a shorter time from NCCT to GP (68 min [32-99] vs. 104 min [79-128]; p = 0.030). Conclusion: Avoiding advanced imaging for patients with anterior circulation LVO in whom thin-section NCCT with MIPs reveals a hyperdense sign significantly shortens the imaging-to-GP time.
      Intervent Neurol 2017;6:147-152
  • Rescue Treatment with Pipeline Embolization for Postsurgical Clipping
           Recurrences of Anterior Communicating Artery Region Aneurysms
    • Abstract: Background: Postsurgical clipping aneurysm recurrences or residuals can be difficult to manage with either traditional open microsurgical approaches or endosaccular coiling. Endoluminal parent vessel reconstruction with flow diversion may be an ideal method for treating these recurrences by avoiding reoperative surgery or intraprocedural aneurysm rupture with aneurysm access. Method: We retrospectively reviewed a single-center aneurysm database identifying all anterior communicating artery (ACom) region aneurysms with recurrences after microsurgical clipping. Cases subsequently treated with Pipeline embolization device (PED) were identified for analysis. Results: Nine PED neurointerventions were performed for the treatment of 6 ACom region recurrent aneurysms after surgical clipping (ACom, n = 4 and A1-A2 junction, n = 2). Of the 6 aneurysms treated, 4 were previously ruptured. Mean patient age was 59.5 ± 6.9 years (range 50-67 years). Mean aneurysm size was 5.1 ± 2.2 mm (range 3-9 mm). Mean fluoroscopy time was 44.1 ± 12.4 min. A single PED, deployed from ipsilateral A2 to ipsilateral A1, was used in 6 cases. No instances of periprocedural complications were encountered. Angiographic follow-up was available in all aneurysms; 5 of these 6 (83%) demonstrated complete aneurysm occlusion. Conclusion: Flow diversion with PED can be a safe and efficacious treatment approach for recurrent ACom region aneurysms after surgical clipping.
      Intervent Neurol 2017;6:135-146
  • Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm Treatment with the Pipeline
           Embolization Device: A Single-Center Experience with Long-Term Follow-Up
    • Abstract: Introduction: The pipeline embolization device (PED) is increasingly used in the endovascular management of cerebral aneurysms. Longitudinal data regarding safety and benefit of the PED in anterior communicating (ACOM) artery aneurysms are limited and particularly lacking in residual ACOM artery aneurysms. We report the use of the PED in 3 patients with ACOM artery aneurysms who were previously coiled. Methods: Three patients with ACOM artery aneurysms, all previously treated with coiling and with recurrence of the aneurysm neck, were treated with the PED. All obtained follow-up diagnostic cerebral angiograms at either 3 or 6 months. Results: Mean age of patients was 59 years. All patients received cerebral angiograms at a minimum of 3 months after treatment with the PED. Follow-up angiography was performed up to a mean of 10 months at which time point all cases demonstrated complete aneurysm occlusion, without any stenosis in the parent artery. Conclusion: The PED can be safely used for the treatment of ACOM artery aneurysms. Complete aneurysm obliteration can be achieved in cases refractory to endovascular coiling. These findings warrant replication in a larger data set.
      Intervent Neurol 2017;6:126-134
  • Mechanical Thrombectomy for M2 Occlusions: A Single-Centre Experience
    • Abstract: Background: The recent success of several mechanical thrombectomy trials has resulted in a significant change in the management of patients presenting with stroke. However, questions still remain as to whether certain groups will benefit from mechanical thrombectomy. In particular, it is still uncertain whether mechanical thrombectomy should be performed in the M2 branches and, more generally, in the distal vasculature. Methods: We retrospectively analysed our prospectively maintained database of all patients undergoing mechanical thrombectomy between January 2008 and August 2016. We collected demographic, radiological, procedural and outcome data. Results: We identified 106 patients that met our inclusion criteria. The mean age of the patients was 68 ± 13.8 years, and there were 58 (54.7%) male patients. Associated medical conditions were common with hypertension seen in 71% of the patients. The average Alberta Stroke Program Early CT (ASPECT) score on admission was 8.5 ± 1.7. The mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 11.8 ± 7.02. The mean duration of the procedure was 103 ± 3.4 min, and the average number of thrombectomy attempts required was 1.8 (range 1-8). Angiographically, Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction Scale (TICI) ≥2b was obtained in 90.5% of the patients. Five patients (4.7%) had symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage on follow-up. At 90-day follow-up, 54.6% of the patients had a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score 0-2, and 71.5% had an mRS score ≤3. There were 15 deaths at 90 days (14.1%). Conclusion: Mechanical thrombectomy in patients with solitary M2 clots is technically possible and carries a high degree of success with a good safety profile. Patients with confirmed M2 occlusion should be considered for mechanical thrombectomy.
      Intervent Neurol 2017;6:117-125
  • Radiation Exposure during Neurointerventional Procedures in Modern Biplane
           Angiographic Systems: A Single-Site Experience
    • Abstract: Background and Purpose: Per the ALARA principle, reducing the dose delivered to both patients and staff must be a priority for endovascular therapists, who should monitor their own practice. We evaluated patient exposure to radiation during common neurointerventions performed with a recent flat-panel detector angiographic system and compared our results with those of recently published studies. Methods: All consecutive patients who underwent a diagnostic cerebral angiography or intervention on 2 modern flat-panel detector angiographic biplane systems (Innova IGS 630, GE Healthcare, Chalfont St Giles, UK) from February to November 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Dose-area product (DAP), cumulative air kerma (CAK) per plane, fluoroscopy time (FT), and total number of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) frames were collected, reported as median (interquartile range), and compared with the previously published literature. Results: A total of 755 consecutive cases were assessed in our institution during the study period, including 398 diagnostic cerebral angiographies and 357 interventions. The DAP (Gy × cm2), fontal and lateral CAK (Gy), FT (min), and total number of DSA frames were as follows: 43 (33-60), 0.26 (0.19-0.33), 0.09 (0.07-0.13), 5.6 (4.2-7.5), and 245 (193-314) for diagnostic cerebral angiographies, and 66 (41-110), 0.46 (0.25-0.80), 0.18 (0.10-0.30), 18.3 (9.1-30.2), and 281 (184-427) for interventions. Conclusion: Our diagnostic cerebral angiography group had a lower median and was in the 75th percentile of DAP and FT when compared with the published literature. For interventions, both DAP and number of DSA frames were significantly lower than the values reported in the literature, despite a higher FT. Subgroup analysis by procedure type also revealed a lower or comparable DAP.
      Intervent Neurol 2017;6:105-116
  • Utilization of a Novel, Multi-Durometer Intracranial Distal Access
           Catheter: Nuances and Experience in 110 Consecutive Cases of Aneurysm Flow
    • Abstract: Background: Coaxial catheter support systems provide a safe and stable foundation in endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms. Increasingly, robust distal intracranial support is sought during complex neurointerventions. The AXS Catalyst 5 distal access catheter (Cat5) is a new intracranial catheter designed for improved trackability and stability. We report the first experience using Cat5 for aneurysm treatment by flow diversion. Methods: A single-center aneurysm database was reviewed for cases of aneurysm treatment with the Pipeline embolization device (PED) that utilized Cat5. Data were collected for patient demographics, aneurysm characteristics, procedural details, catheter positions, vessel tortuosity, and catheter related complications. Results: One hundred and ten cases of aneurysm flow diversion were successfully performed using Cat5. Patient age ranged from 21 to 86 years (mean 57 ± 12.5 years) with 84% women. Aneurysm size ranged from 2 to 28 mm (mean 5.7 ± 5.0 mm), with 97% in the anterior circulation. Twenty-four aneurysms (22%) were located beyond the ICA termination. Significant cervical carotid tortuosity was present in 26% of cases, and moderate to severe cavernous tortuosity (cavernous grade ≥2) in 45% of cases. Cat5 was tracked to the intended distal position in all cases with 100% technical success of PED implantation. No iatrogenic catheter-related vessel injury occurred, and major neurological morbidity occurred in 1 patient (1%). Summary: The Cat5 is a novel, multi-durometer cranial distal access catheter designed for use in tri-axial systems. We have demonstrated the utility of Cat5 in 110 successful cases of flow diversion with a wide range of complexity. This catheter is a new tool in the neurointerventionalist's armamentarium to achieve robust and atraumatic distal access.
      Intervent Neurol 2017;6:90-104
  • Endovascular Embolization of Intracranial Infectious Aneurysms in Patients
           Undergoing Open Heart Surgery Using n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate
    • Abstract: Introduction: Mycotic aneurysms are a serious complication of infective endocarditis with increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage. Patients undergoing open heart surgery for valve repair or replacement are exposed to anticoagulants, increasing the risk of aneurysm bleeding. These patients may require endovascular or surgical aneurysm treatment prior to heart surgery, but data on this approach are scarce. Methods: Retrospective review of consecutive patients with infectious endocarditis and mycotic aneurysms treated endovascularly with Trufill n-butyl cyanoacrylate (n-BCA) at the Cleveland Clinic between January 2013 and December 2015. Results: Nine patients underwent endovascular treatment of mycotic aneurysms with n-BCA (mean age of 39 years). On imaging, 4 patients had intracerebral hemorrhage, 2 had multiple embolic infarcts, and the rest had no imaging findings. Twelve mycotic aneurysms were detected (3 patients with 2 aneurysms). Seven aneurysms were in the M4 middle cerebral artery segment, 4 in the posterior cerebral artery distribution, and 1 in the callosomarginal branch. n-BCA was diluted in ethiodized oil (1:1 to 1:2). Embolization was achieved in a single rapid injection with immediate microcatheter removal. Complete aneurysm exclusion was achieved in all cases without complications. All patients underwent open heart surgery and endovascular embolization within a short interval, 2 with both procedures on the same day. There were no new hemorrhages after aneurysm embolization. Conclusions: Endovascular embolization of infectious intracranial aneurysms with liquid embolics can be performed successfully in critically ill patients requiring immediate open heart surgery and anticoagulation. Early embolization prior to and within a short interval from open heart surgery is feasible.
      Intervent Neurol 2017;6:82-89
  • Embolization of Sacral Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas: A Case Series and
           Literature Review
    • Abstract: The authors report 2 cases of sacral dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) presenting with gradual neurologic decline characterized by progressive lower extremity weakness and bowel and bladder incontinence. Spinal angiography demonstrated a sacral dural AVF with perimedullary vein engorgement and drainage extending to the level of the cervical spine in both cases. The fistulas were completely obliterated with n-BCA (n-butyl cyanoacrylate) embolic agent in one case, and with ethylene vinyl alcohol (Onyx) in the second, resulting in improvement of the symptoms in both patients. The unique features of this case report include the rare location of the fistula's origin, the necessity for complete spinal angiography, and the use of intraoperative monitoring in one case to guide embolization treatment.
      Intervent Neurol 2017;6:73-81
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Heriot-Watt University
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