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Journal Cover Interventional Neurology
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   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1664-9737 - ISSN (Online) 1664-5545
   Published by Karger Homepage  [105 journals]
  • Trends in Endovascular Treatment of Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhages
    • Abstract: Introduction: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) accounts for 5% of all strokes; 30-day mortality is as high as 40%. We sought to evaluate outcomes of aSAH patients treated 2004-2014 by endovascular therapy (EVT), to demonstrate associated trends, and to evaluate angioplasty use for aSAH-related cerebral vasospasm. Methods: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) database 2004-2014 was used to derive a study cohort using ICD-9 codes. Survey procedures were used to adjust for stratified cluster design of NIS. NIS trend weights were used to generate national estimates. Mortality during hospitalization and use of angioplasty for aSAH-induced cerebral vasospasm trends were evaluated with multivariate regression analysis. Results: We identified n = 10,822 (weighted n = 52,062) EVT-treated aSAH hospitalizations. Increasing years independently predicted decreased mortality (odds ratio [OR] 0.926, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.905-0.948, p < 0.0001), decreased utilization of angioplasty (age ≥50 years [OR 0.916, 95% CI 0.867-0.968, p = 0.0019] and age
  • Septoplasty: Scepter Balloon Angioplasty for Vasospasm after Aneurysmal
           Subarachnoid Hemorrhage
    • Abstract: Introduction: Balloon angioplasty can be a requisite approach for the treatment of symptomatic and/or severe vasospasm. Dual-lumen microcatheter balloons have multiple potential advantages for this indication including accommodating a 0.014-inch wire and the potential to deliver superselective vasodilators directly via the microcatheter prior to angioplasty. Methods: The authors reviewed a 3-year institutional experience with the Scepter XC balloon (Microvention, Tustin, CA, USA) in the treatment of postaneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage vasospasm, focusing on treatment methods, angiographic, and clinical results. Results: Sixty-four vessels were treated in 18 patients. Fifteen cases were performed under intravenous (i.v.) conscious sedation (83%). The mean pretreatment stenosis was 59% (range 40-80), and the mean post-treatment stenosis was 12% (range 0-40). Five vessels in 3 patients were subsequently retreated via angioplasty for recurrent vasospasm (8%). There were no complications related to the passage of the balloon microcatheter or inflation of the balloon such as dissection or vessel rupture. Of 14 patients with delayed cerebral ischemia, 7 had complete symptomatic resolution after treatment, and 3 had significant symptomatic improvement. Four patients did not improve after treatment though 3 already had confirmed infarcts on imaging prior to angiography. Conclusion: The Scepter XC is a safe and effective balloon microcatheter for angioplasty of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage, allowing for superselective delivery of a vasodilator. Its ease of deliverability and visibility often allows for the performance of the procedure under i.v. conscious sedation.
      Intervent Neurol 2017;6:229-235
  • Optional Endovascular Therapy of Dissecting Posterior Cerebral Artery
    • Abstract: Background: Posterior cerebral artery aneurysms are uncommon, with an occurrence rate of less than 1% of intracranial aneurysms. They have various shapes, including saccular and fusiform. Dissecting aneurysms may occur in distal posterior cerebral artery and they may affect the whole artery. Endovascular therapy is considered as a safe method of treatment and there are different techniques for endovascular therapy. Summary: Posterior cerebral artery aneurysms are uncommon. Endovascular therapy is considered as a safe method of treatment and there are different techniques for endovascular therapy. We present here three cases collected from Maison Blanche Hospital (Intervention Neuroradiology Department, CHU Reims, France) during 2011-2012; they were females, at a young age and the affected side was on the right. The first case was affected at the P2-P3 segment, the aneurysm was fusiform in shape and she presented with ischemic stroke, while the second and third cases were affected at the P2 segment, the aneurysms being saccular in shape; one of them presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage with a history of migraine and the other patient presented with ischemic stroke. All of them had no history of trauma, hypertension or other diseases. One patient was treated by coiling and sacrificing the parent artery, the second patient was treated with stent-assisted coils, and the third one was treated by coiling without sacrificing the parent artery.
      Intervent Neurol 2017;6:219-228
  • Internal Carotid Artery and the Proximal M1 Segment Are Optimal Targets
           for Mechanical Thrombectomy
    • Abstract: Background and Purpose: Mechanical thrombectomy (MT) is an established treatment of acute anterior circulation stroke caused by large vessel occlusion (LVO). We compared the clinical outcome (3-month modified Rankin Scale, mRS) in hyperacute (
  • Comparison of Vacuum Pressures and Forces Generated by Different Catheters
           and Pumps for Aspiration Thrombectomy in Acute Ischemic Stroke
    • Abstract: Background: Direct aspiration thrombectomy is an increasingly utilized technique in endovascular stroke treatment that relies on vacuum and suction force to remove the clot. This report assesses the pressures and forces generated by different catheters and pumps. Methods: Vacuum pressures were measured using a vacuum gauge for several catheters (Stryker Catalyst6, Penumbra Ace 064, Medtronic Arc 061, and Penumbra 041) and pumps (Penumbra pump, 60-mL syringe, and the ASPIRE device). Suction forces were calculated based on pressure and catheter tip size (force = area × pressure). Vacuum pressures and forces were also assessed with a coaxial microcatheter (Rebar 18; inner diameter = 0.021 inches), mimicking a combined aspiration and stent retriever approach. Results: All catheters transmitted similar vacuum pressures, but suction force was proportionate to catheter tip area. Pump vacuum pressures were also similar, although the Penumbra pump (mean -25.63 inches Hg [inHg]) was slightly weaker than the syringe and the ASPIRE device (-27.04 and -27.58 inHg, respectively; p < 0.001, two-way ANOVA). A coaxial microcatheter lowered the mean vacuum pressure by only 1.2 inHg (p = 0.005), though it would theoretically create a very significant reduction in suction force if partially blocking the aspiration catheter tip area. Conclusions: All catheters transmit similar vacuum pressure, but the suction force on the clot is stronger with larger catheter tips. Coaxial microcatheters will have a minimal impact on suction force as long as they are proximal to the aspiration catheter tip. Currently available thrombectomy suction devices, including the Penumbra pump, the ASPIRE handheld pump, and the 60-mL syringe, all develop similar vacuum pressures.
      Intervent Neurol 2017;6:199-206
  • A Comparison of Mechanical Thrombectomy in the M1 and M2 Segments of the
           Middle Cerebral Artery: A Review of 585 Consecutive Patients
    • Abstract: Background: Mechanical thrombectomy for anterior-circulation large-vessel occlusion has shown benefit; however, the question of whether this technique is safe and effective in the distal vasculature remains unanswered. We sought to compare the outcome data from mechanical thrombectomy of the M2 branches of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) with those of the M1 segment. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of patients with acute ischaemic stroke undergoing mechanical thrombectomy of isolated M1 or M2 branches of the MCA between August 2008 and August 2016. Results: We identified 585 patients, 479 with M1 occlusions and 106 with M2 occlusions. The average age was 72 ± 12.8 and 68 ± 13.8 years, respectively (p = 0.007). The baseline Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomographic (ASPECT) score was similar in both cohorts, but patients with M1 occlusions presented with higher mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores of 15.7 compared to 11.8 (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the average procedure time for each cohort; fewer thrombectomy attempts were required in the M2 cohort (2.3 vs. 1.8, p = 0.0004), but the overall time to recanalization was longer in the M2 cohort (353 vs. 399 min, p < 0.001). Similar rates of successful reperfusion (Thrombolysis in Ischaemic Stroke score [TICI] ≥2b 88.5 vs. 90.5%, p = 0.612) were seen, but food outcome (modified Rankin Scale ≤2) was lower in M1 occlusions (37.2 vs. 54.3%, p < 0.001). Rates of symptomatic intracranial haemorrhage were similar. Conclusion: Good clinical outcomes can be achieved for both groups with no significant differences in procedure length, final TICI recanalization rates or intracranial haemorrhage between the M1 and M2 cohorts.
      Intervent Neurol 2017;6:191-198
  • Cost Analysis of the Addition of Hyperacute Magnetic Resonance Imaging for
           Selection of Patients for Endovascular Stroke Therapy
    • Abstract: Background and Purpose: Patient selection is important to determine the best candidates for endovascular stroke therapy. In application of a hyperacute magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocol for patient selection, we have shown decreased utilization with improved outcomes. A cost analysis comparing the pre- and post-MRI protocol time periods was performed to determine if the previous findings translated into cost opportunities. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively identified individuals considered for endovascular stroke therapy from January 2008 to August 2012 who were ≤8 h from stroke symptoms onset. Patients prior to April 30, 2010 were selected based on results of the computed tomography/computed tomography angiography alone (pre-hyperacute), whereas patients after April 30, 2010 were selected based on results of MRI (post-hyperacute MRI). Demographic, outcome, and financial information was collected. Log-transformed average daily direct costs were regressed on time period. The regression model included demographic and clinical covariates as potential confounders. Multiple imputation was used to account for missing data. Results: We identified 267 patients in our database (88 patients in pre-hyperacute MRI period, 179 in hyperacute MRI protocol period). Patient length of stay was not significantly different in the hyperacute MRI protocol period as compared to the pre-hyperacute MRI period (10.6 vs. 9.9 days, p < 0.42). The median of average daily direct costs was reduced by 24.5% (95% confidence interval 14.1-33.7%, p < 0.001). Conclusions: Use of the hyperacute MRI protocol translated into reduced costs, in addition to reduced utilization and better outcomes. MRI selection of patients is an effective strategy, both for patients and hospital systems.
      Intervent Neurol 2017;6:183-190
  • Safety and Efficacy of Low-Profile, Self-Expandable Stents for Treatment
           of Intracranial Aneurysms: Initial and Midterm Results - A Systematic
           Review and Meta-Analysis
    • Abstract: Low-profile stents seem to be associated with a higher incidence of thromboembolic events compared with preexisting stents. We conducted a systematic review of 11 eligible reports and a meta-analysis of 7 reports with respect to the clinical efficacy and safety of low-profile stents. There were 217 intracranial aneurysms reported; 22% were ruptured aneurysms. In all, 72% were treated using single stenting, 19% were treated using overlapping stenting, and 6% were treated using balloon angioplasty followed by stenting; 3% were used to assess the flow diverter effect in a dissecting aneurysm or were treated using unexpected subtotal coil packing. On immediate postprocedural angiographic results, Raymond class I and II obliteration was obtained in 87% of the aneurysms. On angiographic results at 3-6 months, Raymond class I and II obliteration or stability was obtained in 79% of the aneurysms, and Raymond class III obliteration was obtained in 3% of the aneurysms. The recurrence rate on follow-up of intracranial aneurysms was 6.5% (5.7% with LEO Baby and 1.3% with LVIS Jr). The periprocedural complication rate was 12.4%. Periprocedural thromboembolism occurred in 6.5% of the cases. The rate of in-stent stenosis on follow-up of intracranial aneurysms was 10%. In the midterm result, the recurrence rate with use of low-profile, self-expandable stents was relatively low compared to that with use of other self-expandable stents. In the meta-analysis comparing LEO Baby with LVIS Jr, the obliteration rate at 6 months was not significantly different, but the periprocedural complication rate was relatively low with LVIS Jr.
      Intervent Neurol 2017;6:170-182
  • Feasibility of Real-Time Angiographic Perfusion Imaging in the Treatment
           of Cerebral Vasospasm
    • Abstract: Background: Objective assessment and quantification of the severity of cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is not routinely utilized. We investigated the feasibility of angiographic perfusion imaging derived from digital subtraction angiography (DSA) following endovascular vasospasm treatment procedures. Methodology: Real-time blood flow analysis was performed using parametric color coding on pre- and postintervention DSA. Semiquantitative parenchymal perfusion parameters (arrival time [AT] of contrast, time to peak [TTP] opacification, and mean transit time [MTT] of contrast) were calculated across 3 vascular territories (anterior cerebral artery [ACA], middle cerebral artery [MCA], and lenticulostriate arteries) using standard 2-D angiographic perfusion software. The pre- and postintervention arterial vessel diameters were compared. Results: Twelve endovascular vasospasm treatments in 6 patients were performed. All patients received intra-arterial vasodilator therapy with either nimodipine, milrinone, or both. Following intra-arterial intervention, parenchymal flow analysis showed improvement in TTP and MTT across all vascular territories (p < 0.002) and improvement in AT in the ACA and MCA territories (p < 0.03). Improvement in parenchymal perfusion parameters was associated with improvement in vessel diameters in all territories following treatment (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Real-time parenchymal perfusion imaging during endovascular vasospasm treatment procedures is feasible and provides reliable semiquantitative measurement of angiographic treatment response.
      Intervent Neurol 2017;6:163-169
  • Anchoring Pipeline Flow Diverter Construct in the Treatment of Traumatic
           Distal Cervical Carotid Artery Injury
    • Abstract: Background: Traumatic extracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) dissections are uncommon and can be difficult to treat. Thinning of adventitia and dilatation may occur following arterial dissection, thus resulting in a fusiform pseudoaneurysm, which can subsequently cause bleeding, expanding, or pulsatile hematoma. Currently, medical management with anticoagulation remains the first line of treatment and yields good outcomes in 75% of cases with a mortality rate of 3-4%. Endovascular intervention is indicated with failure of medical therapy, progressive enlargement of a traumatic pseudoaneurysm, acute flow-related infarcts due to vessel occlusion, or when anticoagulation is contraindicated due to risk of pseudoaneurysm rupture and hemorrhage. Recognized interventional treatments include parent artery occlusion with or without revascularization, endovascular coil embolization, and covered stenting. Summary: A wide variety of endovascular stents are available that are capable of opening a stenosed vessel while obliterating the associated false lumen and providing a scaffold for embolization of the pseudoaneurysm. The use of the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) in the management of traumatic intracranial pseudoaneurysms has been described. However, there are few reports on the usage of the PED for treating traumatic extracranial ICA dissection and/or pseudoaneurysms. However, a potential complication of the use of PED in the extracranial ICA is a hypothetical tendency to migrate in a mobile vessel. Thus, the risk of migration of the PED has encouraged practitioners to adopt strategies to limit this risk. Key Messages: We describe different techniques employed to anchor the flow-diverting construct within tortuous, mobile vessels.
      Intervent Neurol 2017;6:153-162
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Heriot-Watt University
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