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Journal Cover Interventional Neurology
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   ISSN (Print) 1664-9737 - ISSN (Online) 1664-5545
   Published by Karger Homepage  [121 journals]
  • Endovascular Acute Ischemic Stroke Treatment with FlowGate Balloon Guide
           Catheter: A Single-Center Observational Study of FlowGate Balloon Guide
           Catheter Use
    • Abstract: Background: Treatment of large vessel occlusion acute ischemic stroke with mechanical thrombectomy has become the standard of care after recent clinical trials. However, the degree of recanalization with stent retrievers remains very important in overall outcomes. We sought to review the utility of a new balloon guide catheter (BGC) in improving the degree of recanalization in conjunction with mechanical thrombectomy. Methods: The medical records of a prospectively collected endovascular ischemic stroke database were reviewed. All consecutive strokes when a FlowGate BGC was used with a thrombectomy stent retriever were identified. Use of a FlowGate BGC, number of passes, final Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) score, trackability, and use of adjunct devices were all collected and analyzed. Results: Use of a FlowGate BGC resulted in 64% (33/52) first-pass effect (FPE) of TICI 2b/3, and specifically 46% (24/52) TICI 3 FPE (true FPE). A total of 52/62 (84%) of thrombectomy cases were treated with BGCs. In the remaining 10, the BGC was not inflated or used due to the clot not being visualized or the lesions being distal and BGC use thus not deemed appropriate. Adjunct use of an aspiration catheter was seen in 12% (6/52) of cases. The overall success with FlowGate BGCs with one or more passes of TICI 2b/3 was 94% (49/52). Trackability was achieved in 92% (57/62) of cases. Conclusions: Use of the FlowGate BGC as an adjunct to mechanical thrombectomy was associated with good FPE and an overall recanalization of TICI 2b/3 of 94%.
      Intervent Neurol 2018;7:327–333
  • A Serpiginous Pericallosal Anterior Cerebral Artery
    • Abstract: The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) is a unique artery with many important variations with substantial clinical significance. Tortuous intracranial arteries usually occur in basilar, communicating, anterior, posterior cerebral arteries and in the white matter arterioles. This could happen for many reasons including but not limited to ageing, hypertension, patients with Moyamoya disease, congenital malformation, or increased flow associated with elastin degradation. While dolichoectasia of the ACA has been described even in children, to our knowledge, a serpiginous ACA without ectasia has not been reported, especially in the pediatric population.
      Intervent Neurol 2018;7:323–326
  • Transvenous Embolization of Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas of the
           Hypoglossal Canal: Report of Three Cases and Review of the Literature
    • Abstract: In this article, we report three cases of dural arteriovenous fistulas of the hypoglossal canal treated via transvenous approach. We also perform a review of the literature on the endovascular management of this type of lesions with particular attention to the dangerous extracranial-intracranial anastomoses that can occur at this level.
      Intervent Neurol 2018;7:315–322
  • 5-French SOFIA: Safe Access and Support in the Anterior Cerebral Artery,
           Posterior Cerebral Artery, and Insular Middle Cerebral Artery
    • Abstract: Introduction: Distal access catheters are an infrequent focus of technical notes in neurointervention. The 5-French SOFIA’s unique design allows for compatibility with 6-French guide catheters, while its supple construction allows for remarkably distal access for a catheter with a 0.055-inch inner diameter. Methods: The authors reviewed a prospectively maintained endovascular database for cases utilizing the 5-French SOFIA from February 2017 through November 2017. Case type, SOFIA location, microcatheter used, and catheter-related complications were noted. Results: Over the evaluated period, the 5-French SOFIA was utilized in 33 cases, including 13 aneurysm treatments, 10 arteriovenous shunt embolizations, 5 stroke thrombectomies, and 5 other cases. Of 5 flow diversion cases, 1 was for a symptomatic cavernous internal carotid artery aneurysm necessitating transradial access, another for a ruptured A3 aneurysm, and another for a middle cerebral artery (M2) aneurysm; 2 were more proximal aneurysms. Thrombectomies were for M2 (n = 3) or A2 (n = 2) occlusions. In all cases, the 5-French SOFIA reached its anticipated distal target without complication or the need to utilize a smaller/alternative catheter. Of these 33 cases, there were 10 cases of distal SOFIA target locations: 6 M2/M3, 3 anterior cerebral arteries (ACA), and 1 posterior cerebral artery (PCA). M2/M3 and PCA catheterization was achieved over 2.1-Fr microcatheters; ACA catheterization employed a 2.9-Fr microcatheter for pipeline embolization and a deployed stentriever in the setting of two thrombectomies. Conclusion: The 5-French SOFIA can be safely utilized for distal, superselective catheterization in the context of complex neurointervention, including aneurysm and arteriovenous shunt embolization and distal thrombectomy.
      Intervent Neurol 2018;7:308–314
  • High-Risk Features of Delayed Clinical Progression in Cerebral Venous
           Thrombosis: A Proposed Prediction Score for Early Intervention
    • Abstract: Background: Anticoagulation is the mainstay treatment for cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT). A subset of patients might deteriorate despite anticoagulation, and in such cases, endovascular therapy is recommended. Methods: A retrospective review was performed on subjects with CVT from January 2005 to October 2016. The primary outcome was clinical deterioration. Bivariate analysis, multiple logistic regression modeling, and linear discriminant analysis were used to determine a predictive model for deterioration; the results from these models were used to construct a CVT score in order to measure the individual likelihood of deterioration. Results: We identified 147 subjects with CVT. The majority were treated with anticoagulation (n = 109, 74.15%); 38 (25.85%) were found to have deterioration, 12 (8.16%) of whom underwent endovascular intervention. The most important risk factors of deterioration, per bivariate analysis, included decreased level of consciousness (odds ratio [OR] = 5.76; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.59–12.77) and papilledema (OR = 4.52; 95% CI 1.55–13.18). The final multivariable model also included CVT location score (number of sinuses involved), oral contraceptive pill use, sodium level, platelet count, and seizure activity on presentation. This model had a predictive ability to identify deterioration of 83.2%, with a sensitivity of 71.4% and a specificity of 76.2%. Patients with a CVT score of ≥5 have at least 50% chance of deterioration. Conclusions: Decreased mental status, seizure activity, papilledema, number of involved sinuses, as well as sodium level and platelet count are the most important factors in predicting deterioration after CVT. This group may represent a subset of patients in whom early endovascular therapy may be considered.
      Intervent Neurol 2018;7:297–307
  • Epidemiology of Intracranial Hemorrhage Associated with Oral
           Anticoagulants in Spain: Trends in Anticoagulation Complications Registry
           – The TAC 2 Study
    • Abstract: Objective: Patients receiving treatment with oral anticoagulants (OACs) are at risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). In this study, we describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients receiving OACs who experience ICH and compare those receiving vitamin K antagonists (ICH-VKAs) with those receiving direct OACs (ICH-DOACs). Methods: We performed a national, multicenter, descriptive, observational, retrospective study of all adult patients receiving OACs who were admitted to the neurology department with ICH over a 1-year period. The study population was divided into 2 groups (ICH-VKAs and ICH-DOACs). Epidemiological, clinical, radiological, and therapy-related variables, as well as functional outcome, were compared at 3 months. A total of 366 cases were included (331 ICH-VKAs, 35 ICH- DOACs). Results: The crude annual incidence of OAC-induced ICH was 3.8 (95% CI, 2.78–3.41) per 100,000 inhabitants/year. The mean (± SD) age was greater for ICH-DOACs (81.5 ± 8.3 vs. 77.7 ± 8.3 years; p = 0.012). The median (IQR) volume of the hemorrhage was lower for ICH-DOACs (11 [30.8] vs. 25 [50.7] mL; p = 0.03). The functional independence rate at 3 months (modified Rankin Scale, mRS #x3c; 3) was similar in both groups, although stroke-related mortality was greater in ICH-VKAs (40 vs. 72.7%; p = 0.02). The most frequently indicated poststroke antithrombotic therapy was DOACs (38.7%). Conclusion: We found that the incidence of OAC-induced ICH was greater than in previous studies. Hemorrhage volume and mortality were lower in ICH-DOACs than in ICH-VKAs. After stroke, DOACs were the most frequently indicated antithrombotic treatment.
      Intervent Neurol 2018;7:284–295
  • LVIS Jr Device for Y-Stent-Assisted Coil Embolization of Wide-Neck
           Intracranial Aneurysms: A Multicenter Experience
    • Abstract: Background and Purpose: Complex wide-neck intracranial aneurysms are challenging to treat. We report a multicenter experience using the LVIS Jr stent for “Y-stent”-assisted coiling embolization of wide-neck bifurcation aneurysms. Methods: Seven centers provided retrospective data on patients who underwent Y-stenting. Technical complications, immediate posttreatment angiographic results, clinical outcomes, and imaging follow-up were assessed. Results: Thirty patients/aneurysms were treated: 15 basilar tip, 8 middle cerebral artery, 4 anterior communicating artery, 1 pericallosal, and 2 posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms. The mean aneurysm size was 11 mm and the mean dome-to-neck ratio was 1.3 mm. Twenty-four aneurysms were unruptured and treated electively, and 6 were acutely ruptured. Fifty-eight LVIS Jr stents were successfully deployed without any technical issue. One pro­cedural and transient in-stent thrombosis resolved with the intravenous infusion of a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor. Five periprocedural complications (within 30 days) occurred: 2 periprocedural neurological complications (1 small temporal stroke that presented with transient aphasia and 1 posterior cerebral artery infarct) and 3 nonneurological periprocedural complications (2 retroperitoneal hematomas, and 1 patient developed a disseminated intravascular coagulopathy). One permanent complication (3.3%) directly related to Y-stenting was reported in the patient who suffered the posterior cerebral artery infarct. Immediate complete obliteration (Raymond-Roy Occlusion Classification [RROC] I–II) was achieved in 26 cases (89.6%). Twenty-four patients had clinical and imaging follow-up (mean 5.2 months). Complete angiographic occlusion (RROC I–II) was observed in 23 patients (96%). A good functional outcome with a modified Rankin Scale score ≤2 was achieved in 26 cases. Conclusions: In this multicenter case series, Y-stent-assisted coiling of wide-neck aneurysms with the LVIS Jr device was feasible and relatively safe. Follow-up imaging demonstrated very low recanalization rates.
      Intervent Neurol 2018;7:271–283
  • Acute In-Stent Thrombosis after Carotid Angioplasty and Stenting: A Case
           Report and Literature Review
    • Abstract: Background: Based on the results of a recent randomized controlled trial, carotid artery stenting (CAS) was regarded as a relatively safe, less invasive treatment of internal carotid artery stenosis. However, cerebral thromboembolic events are the most common complications of CAS. Especially acute stent thrombosis following CAS will be fatal without prompt diagnosis and revascularization. Case Report: We report a case of acute stent thrombosis in whom carotid revascularization was performed successfully via arterial thrombolysis and balloon postdilation. A 79-year-old man with hypertension was hospitalized for an episode of transient ischemic attack. Computed tomography angiography revealed subtotal occlusion in the left carotid artery. Aspirin (100 mg) and clopidogrel (75 mg) were administered daily for 5 days before the procedure. CAS was performed under local anesthesia. The first postprocedural angiogram showed the stent looked good. However, a repeat angiogram showed in-stent thrombosis 2 min after withdrawal of the cerebral protection filter. Interestingly, the patient presented no neurologic deficit. After an additional 2,000 U of heparin had been administered intravenously, a microcatheter (SL-14; Boston Scientific, USA) was positioned to the in-stent thrombosis. Next, a total dose of 10 mg of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator was injected into the thrombus via the microcatheter within 10 min, which led to partial recanalization with antegrade flow. However, complete occlusion of the lesion occurred 5 min later. Under the guidance of angiography roadmap, a protection filter (Emboshield NAV6; Abbott Vascular, USA) was deployed at the distal part of the stent and redilation of the stent was performed with a 5 × 30 mm balloon (Viatrac 14 Plus; Abbott Vascular) at 14 atm. Finally, carotid revascularization was performed successfully, proven by postprocedural angiogram. Conclusion: Acute carotid stent thrombosis (ACST) can have devastating effects on the survival of the patient. For ACST when the stent does not fully adhere to the blood vessel, a mechanical approach should be a feasible solution to the problem.
      Intervent Neurol 2018;7:265–270
  • Progressive Neurological Decline with Deep Bilateral Imaging Changes: A
           Protean Presentation of Dural Arteriovenous Fistulae
    • Abstract: Intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulae (DAVF) within the deep cerebral vasculature are diagnostically challenging because of their variable clinical presentation and typical bilateral neuroimaging findings mimicking inflammatory, infectious, and metabolic processes. Increasingly, reports have emerged highlighting the diagnostic and treatment challenges of these lesions and their associated high morbidity and rapid clinical deterioration when untreated. We describe here a case series of 4 patients with deep cerebral DAVF who presented with impaired arousal or memory and behavioral changes. In all patients, the initial differential diagnosis included metabolic, inflammatory, infectious, or neoplastic disease, with an eventual correct diagnosis obtained after catheter angiography had demonstrated arterialization of the deep venous structures, including the vein of Galen. All patients were successfully treated with endovascular embolization, with 1 patient requiring additional surgical treatment. We review the contemporary diagnostic evaluation and management of DAVF within the deep cerebral vasculature. With rapid diagnosis and treatment, a favorable outcome is possible.
      Intervent Neurol 2018;7:256–264
  • Mechanical Thrombectomy in Elderly Stroke Patients with Mild-to-Moderate
           Baseline Disability
    • Abstract: Background: The number of elderly patients suffering from ischemic stroke is rising. Randomized trials of mechanical thrombectomy (MT) generally exclude patients over the age of 80 years with baseline disability. The aim of this study was to understand the efficacy and safety of MT in elderly patients, many of whom may have baseline impairment. Methods: Between January 2015 and April 2017, 96 patients ≥80 years old who underwent MT for stroke were selected for a chart review. The data included baseline characteristics, time to treatment, the rate of revascularization, procedural complications, mortality, and 90-day good outcome defined as a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of 0–2 or return to baseline. Results: Of the 96 patients, 50 had mild baseline disability (mRS score 0–1) and 46 had moderate disability (mRS score 2–4). Recanalization was achieved in 84% of the patients, and the rate of symptomatic hemorrhage was 6%. At 90 days, 34% of the patients had a good outcome. There were no significant differences in good outcome between those with mild and those with moderate baseline disability (43 vs. 24%, p = 0.08), between those aged ≤85 and those aged #x3e; 85 years (40.8 vs. 26.1%, p = 0.19), and between those treated within and those treated beyond 8 h (39 vs. 20%, p = 0.1). The mortality rate was 38.5% at 90 days. The Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) predicted good outcome regardless of baseline disability (p #x3c; 0.001 and p = 0.009, respectively). Conclusion: Advanced age, baseline disability, and delayed treatment are associated with sub­optimal outcomes after MT. However, redefining good outcome to include return to baseline functioning demonstrates that one-third of this patient population benefits from MT, suggesting the real-life utility of this treatment.
      Intervent Neurol 2018;7:246–255
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