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Journal Cover Interventional Neurology
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   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1664-9737 - ISSN (Online) 1664-5545
   Published by Karger Homepage  [101 journals]
  • Contents Vol. 5, 2016
    • Abstract:
      Intervent Neurol 2016;5:I-IV
      PubDate: 2016-09-16T00:00:00+02:00
       
  • Repeated Mechanical Thrombectomy in Recurrent Large Vessel Occlusion Acute
           Ischemic Stroke
    • Abstract: Background: Endovascular therapy has been proven effective for the treatment of large vessel occlusion strokes (LVOS). However, the feasibility and potential benefits of repeat thrombectomy for recurrent stroke is unclear. We aim to report our experience with repeat thrombectomy for recurrent LVOS. Methods: We reviewed our prospectively collected endovascular database for patients who underwent repeated mechanical thrombectomy. Baseline characteristics, procedural data and outcomes were evaluated. Patients with repeat thrombectomy were compared to patients with single thrombectomy. For patients with repeat thrombectomy, imaging and procedural variables were compared between first and last procedures. Results: Out of 697 patients treated within the study period, 15 patients (2%) had repeat thrombectomies (14 treated twice and one thrice). The mean age was 63 ± 15 years and 40% were males. The median time between the first and last procedure was 18 (1-278) days. Cardioembolism (66%) was the most common etiology, followed by intracranial atherosclerosis (13%) and large vessel atherosclerosis (6%). At 90 days after the last thrombectomy, 60% of patients achieved a modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2 and 20% were deceased. There were no statistically significant differences in demographics, stroke severity, time from last known normal to puncture, reperfusion rates, hemorrhagic complications, good clinical outcomes and mortality between patients who underwent repeat thrombectomy and those who had a single thrombectomy. Conclusion: In properly selected patients suffering recurrent LVOS, repeated mechanical thrombectomy appears to be feasible and safe. A previous thrombectomy should not discourage aggressive treatment as these patients may achieve similar rates of good clinical outcomes as those who undergo single thrombectomy.
      Intervent Neurol 2017;6:1-7
      PubDate: 2016-09-09T00:00:00+02:00
       
  • Arteriovenous Malformations in the Pediatric Population: Review of the
           Existing Literature
    • Abstract: Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in the pediatric population are relatively rare but reportedly carry a higher rate of rupture than in adults. This could be due to the fact that most pediatric AVMs are only detected after rupture. We aimed to review the current literature regarding the natural history and the clinical outcome after multimodality AVM treatment in the pediatric population, as optimal management for pediatric AVMs remains controversial. A multidisciplinary approach using multimodality therapy if needed has been proved to be beneficial in approaching these lesions in all age groups. Microsurgical resection remains the gold standard for the treatment of all accessible pediatric AVMs. Embolization and radiosurgery should be considered as an adjunctive therapy. Embolization provides a useful adjunct therapy to microsurgery by preventing significant blood loss and to radiosurgery by decreasing the volume of the AVM. Radiosurgery has been described to provide an alternative treatment approach in certain circumstances either as a primary or adjuvant therapy.
      Intervent Neurol 2016;5:218-225
      PubDate: 2016-09-01T00:00:00+02:00
       
  • Improving the Evaluation of Collateral Circulation by Multiphase Computed
           Tomography Angiography in Acute Stroke Patients Treated with Endovascular
           Reperfusion Therapies
    • Abstract: Good collateral circulation (CC) is associated with favorable outcomes in acute stroke, but the best technique to evaluate collaterals is controversial. Single-phase computed tomography angiography (sCTA) is widely used but lacks temporal resolution. We aim to compare CC evaluation by sCTA and multiphase CTA (mCTA) as predictors of outcome in endovascular treated patients. Methods: Consecutive endovascular treated patients with M1 middle cerebral artery (MCA) or terminal intracranial carotid artery (TICA) occlusion confirmed by sCTA were included. Two more CTA acquisitions with 8- and 16-second delays were performed for mCTA. Endovascular thrombectomy was performed independently of the CC status according to a local protocol [Alberta Stroke Program Early CT score (ASPECTS) >6, modified Rankin scale (mRS) score
      PubDate: 2016-09-01T00:00:00+02:00
       
  • Erratum
    • Abstract:
      Intervent Neurol 2016;5:193
      PubDate: 2016-08-23T00:00:00+02:00
       
  • The Role of Catheter Angiography in the Diagnosis of Central Nervous
           System Vasculitis
    • Abstract: Background: Central nervous system vasculitis (CNSV) is a rare disorder, the pathophysiology of which is not fully understood. It involves a combination of inflammation and thrombosis. CNSV is most commonly associated with headache, gradual changes in mental status, and focal neurological symptoms. Diagnosis requires the effective use of history, laboratory testing, imaging, and biopsy. Catheter angiography can be a powerful tool in the diagnosis when common and low-frequency angiographic manifestations of CNSV are considered. We review these manifestations and their place in the diagnostic algorithm of CNSV. Summary: We reviewed the PubMed database for case series of CNSV that included 5 or more patients. Demographic and angiographic findings were collected. Angiographic findings were dichotomized between common and low-frequency findings. A system for incorporating these findings into clinical decision-making is proposed. Key Message: CNSV is a diagnostic challenge due to the absence of a true gold standard test. In the absence of such a test, catheter angiography remains a central piece of the diagnostic puzzle when appropriately employed and interpreted.
      Intervent Neurol 2016;5:194-208
      PubDate: 2016-08-11T00:00:00+02:00
       
  • Internal Carotid Artery S-Shaped Curve as a Marker of Fibromuscular
           Dysplasia in Dissection-Related Acute Ischemic Stroke
    • Abstract: Background and Purpose: Craniocervical fibromuscular dysplasia (FMD) is associated with dissections and with S-shaped curves in the internal carotid artery (ICA). We evaluated the occurrence of S-curves in patients presenting with acute strokes due to ICA steno-occlusive dissections. Methods: This was a retrospective review of the interventional databases of two academic tertiary-care institutions. The presence of ICA S-shaped curves, C-shaped curves, 360-degree loops, as well as classic FMD and atherosclerotic changes at the ICA bulb and curve/loop was determined. Cases of carotid dissections were compared with a control group (consecutive non-tandem anterior circulation strokes). Results: Twenty-four patients with carotid dissections were compared to 92 controls. Baseline characteristics and procedural variables were similar, with the exception of younger age, less frequent history of hypertension, diabetes, atrial fibrillation and stent retriever use in patients with dissections. The rates of mTICI2b-3 reperfusion, parenchymal hematoma, good outcome and mortality were similar amongst groups. The frequency of S-curves (any side without superimposed atherosclerosis) was 29% in the dissection group versus 7% in controls (p < 0.01). S-curves were typically mirror images within the dissection group (85% had bilateral occurrence). The frequency of C-shaped and 360-degree curves was similar between groups. FMD changes within the craniocervical arteries were statistically more common in dissection patients. Ten patients (41%) of the dissection group had S-curves or classic FMD changes. Multivariate analysis indicated that S-curves were independently associated with the presence of dissections. Conclusion: S-shaped ICA curves are predictably bilateral, highly associated with carotid dissections in patients with moderate to severe strokes, and may suggest an underlying presence of FMD.
      Intervent Neurol 2016;5:185-192
      PubDate: 2016-07-16T00:00:00+02:00
       
  • Functional Independence following Endovascular Treatment for Basilar
           Artery Occlusion despite Extensive Bilateral Pontine Infarcts on
           Diffusion-Weighted Imaging: Refuting a Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
    • Abstract: Background and Purpose: Extensive brainstem diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) hyperintensity has been associated with poor outcomes. We aim at documenting a series of patients with extensive DWI pontine lesions who achieved independence following endovascular therapy and aggressive medical therapy in the setting of posterior circulation basilar artery occlusion (BAO). Methods: This is a retrospective endovascular database review of a single-operator experience over a 9-year period for patients with (1) complete BAO, (2) extensive bilateral pontine DWI changes and (3) 90-day modified Rankin scale 0-2. Results: Three out of a total of 40 patients met the inclusion criteria. Case 1 was an 18-year-old male with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) 32 on admission, treated 25 h after symptom onset. Case 2 was a 56-year-old male with NIHSS 19, treated 10 h after onset. Case 3 was a 73-year-old male with NIHSS 29, treated 6 h after onset. Full endovascular reperfusion was achieved in all 3 patients. A literature review identified 9 additional cases of extensive pontine DWI changes and good outcome. These patients were young (32 ± 22 years), mostly males (69%), presented with a relatively low posterior circulation Acute Stroke Prognosis Early CT Score (6 ± 1), were treated relatively late from last known normal (13 ± 10 h) and were mostly (84%) treated with endovascular intervention. Conclusion: Extensive bilateral pontine DWI lesions among patients with BAO are not an unequivocal indicator of poor prognosis. We advise strong caution when considering these findings in the treatment decision algorithm.
      Intervent Neurol 2016;5:179-184
      PubDate: 2016-07-15T00:00:00+02:00
       
  • Is Intra-Arterial Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke Less Effective in
           Women than in Men'
    • Abstract: Introduction: Stroke etiology and outcome after ischemic stroke differ between men and women. We examined if sex modifies the effect of intra-arterial treatment (IAT) in a randomized clinical trial of IAT for acute ischemic stroke in the Netherlands (MR CLEAN). Patients and Methods: The primary outcome was the score on the modified Rankin scale at 90 days. We tested for interaction between sex and treatment and estimated the treatment effect by sex with multiple ordinal logistic regression with adjustment for prognostic factors. Results: All 500 patients were included in the analysis; 292 (58.4%) were men. The treatment effect (adjusted common odds ratio) was 2.39 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.55-3.68] in men and 0.99 (95% CI 0.60-1.66) in women (pinteraction = 0.016). In women, mortality was higher in the intervention group than in the control group (24 vs. 15%, p = 0.07). Serious adverse events occurred more often in women than in men undergoing intervention. There were no differences in neuro-imaging outcomes. Discussion and Conclusion: Contrary to other studies, we found a significant interaction between sex and treatment effect in the MR CLEAN trial. Pooled analyses of all published thrombectomy trials did not confirm this finding. In MR CLEAN, women seem to have a slightly more unfavorable profile, causing higher mortality and more serious adverse events, but insufficient to explain the absence of an overall effect. This suggests a play of chance and makes it clear that IAT should not be withheld in women.
      Intervent Neurol 2016;5:174-178
      PubDate: 2016-07-01T00:00:00+02:00
       
  • Local Fibrinolysis in Spontaneous Supratentorial Hematomas: Comparison
           with Surgical and Medical Treatment
    • Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of minimally invasive craniopuncture with local fibrinolysis in the management of supratentorial spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH). Methods: The study included 218 consecutive patients with supratentorial SICH who were assigned to one of three groups: treated with minimally invasive craniopuncture with local fibrinolysis, treated with craniotomy or other minimally invasive techniques without local fibrinolysis, or receiving conservative management alone. Results: Minimally invasive craniopuncture with local fibrinolysis was associated with a lower rate of assisted ventilation, a shorter period of in-hospital stay, a more frequent initiation of early rehabilitation, and a lower mortality rate at all periods of assessment. The overall mortality at 12 months was 19.4% (vs. 50.0 and 33.3% in the two other therapy groups). Lobar (subcortical and cortical) SICHs treated with local fibrinolysis had an overall mortality of 4.8% (vs. 43.5 and 41.7% in the two other therapy groups). On the other hand, SICHs having mixed (basal ganglia and lobar) locations treated with medical therapy alone had an overall mortality of 28.6%, while associated surgery with or without local fibrinolysis increased the overall mortality to over 65%. Conclusions: The study demonstrated the applicability of minimally invasive craniopuncture with local fibrinolysis for the management of supratentorial SICHs and the advantages it may have in certain categories of patients. The method proved particularly useful in lobar SICHs, being associated with the lowest mortality. Mixed SICHs do not represent a predilection for surgical interventions; however, the results related to mixed supratentorial locations need confirmation in larger cohorts.
      Intervent Neurol 2016;5:165-173
      PubDate: 2016-07-01T00:00:00+02:00
       
 
 
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