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Journal Cover Interventional Neurology
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   ISSN (Print) 1664-9737 - ISSN (Online) 1664-5545
   Published by Karger Homepage  [120 journals]
  • Safety of Diagnostic Cerebral and Spinal Digital Subtraction Angiography
           in a Developing Country: A Single-Center Experience
    • Abstract: Background: Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) remains the gold standard imaging modality for cerebrovascular disorders. In contrast to developed countries, the safety of the procedure is not extensively reported from the developing countries. Herein, we present a retrospective analysis of the basic technique, indications, and outcomes in 286 patients undergoing diagnostic cerebral and spinal angiography in a developing country, Pakistan. Methods: A retrospective review of patient demographics, procedural technique and complication rates of 286 consecutive patients undergoing the diagnostic cerebral/spinal angiography procedure at one institution from May 2013 to December 2015 was performed. Neurological, systemic, or local complications occurring within and after 24 h of the procedure were recorded. Results: Mean age reported for all patients was 49.7 years. Of all the 286 cases, 175 were male (61.2%) and the rest female (111, 38.8%). Cerebral DSA was performed in 279 cases (97.6%), with 7 cases of spinal DSA (2.4%). Subarachnoid hemorrhage was the most common indication for DSA accounting for 88 cases (30.8%), closely followed by stroke (26.6%) and arteriosclerotic vascular disease (23.1%). No intra- or post-procedural neurological complications of any severity were seen in any of the 286 cases. One case of asymptomatic aortic dissection was reported (0.3%) in the entire cohort of patient population. Conclusion: Diagnostic cerebral/spinal digital subtraction angiography was found to be safe in Pakistan, with complication rates at par with and comparable to those reported in the developed world.
      Intervent Neurol 2018;7:99-109
  • Clinical and Imaging Outcomes of Endovascular Therapy in Patients with
           Acute Large Vessel Occlusion Stroke and Mild Clinical Symptoms
    • Abstract: Background: The minimal stroke severity justifying endovascular intervention remains elusive. However, a significant proportion of patients presenting with large vessel occlusion stroke (LVOS) and mild symptoms go untreated and face poor outcomes. We aimed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients presenting with LVOS and low symptom scores (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score ≤8) undergoing endovascular therapy (ET). Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected ET database between September 2010 and March 2016. Endovascularly treated patients with LVOS and a baseline NIHSS score ≤8 were included. Baseline patient characteristics, procedural details, and outcome parameters were collected. Efficacy outcomes were the rate of good outcome (90-day modified Rankin Scale score 0-2) and of successful reperfusion (modified Treatment in Cerebral Infarction [mTICI] score 2b-3). Safety was assessed by the rate of parenchymal hematoma (parenchymal hematoma type 1 [PH-1] and parenchymal hematoma type 2 [PH-2]) and 90-day mortality. Logistic regression was used to identify predictors of good clinical outcomes. Results: A total of 935 patients were considered; 72 patients with an NIHSS score ≤8 were included. Median [IQR] age was 61.5 years [56.2-73.0]; 39 patients (54%) were men. Mean (SD) baseline NIHSS score, computed tomography perfusion core volume, and ASPECTS were 6.3 (1.5), 7.5 mL (16.1), and 8.5 (1.3), respectively. Twenty-eight patients (39%) received intravenous tissue plasminogen activator. Occlusions locations were as follows: 29 (40%) proximal MCA-M1, 20 (28%) MCA-M2, 6 (8%) ICA terminus, and 9 (13%) vertebrobasilar. Tandem occlusion was documented in 7 patients (10%). Sixty-seven patients (93%) achieved successful reperfusion (mTICI score 2b-3); 52 (72%) had good 90-day outcomes. Mean final infarct volume was 32.2 ± 59.9 mL. Parenchymal hematoma occurred in 4 patients (6%). Ninety-day mortality was 10% (n = 7). Logistic regression showed that only successful reperfusion (OR 27.7, 95% CI 1.1-655.5, p = 0.04) was an independent predictor of good outcomes. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that ET is safe and feasible for LVOS patients presenting with mild clinical syndromes. Future controlled studies are warranted.
      Intervent Neurol 2018;7:91-98
  • Recommendations for Endovascular Care of Stroke Patients
    • Abstract: The field of neurointerventional radiology (NIR) therapy, including acute ischemic stroke intervention, endovascular intracranial aneurysm management, and treatment of intra- and extracranial large-vessel disease, has evolved over the past 18 years. To support this specialized advanced care requires nursing standards of care for staff to provide direct patient care in NIR suites and intensive management of this high-risk patient population. The intent of this paper is to provide a complementary document for the Stroke Interventional Laboratory Consensus (SILC) statement that will specifically address the nursing standards of care for patients in an NIR suite.
      Intervent Neurol 2018;7:65-90
  • A Prospective Multicenter Trial of the TransForm Occlusion Balloon
           Catheter: Trial Design and Results
    • Abstract: Background and Purpose: Adjunctive treatments like balloon-assisted coil embolization (BACE) and stent-assisted coil embolization play a major role in the treatment of wide-neck and large intracranial aneurysms. The TransForm™ Occlusion Balloon Catheter (TOBC) registry is intended to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and efficiency of BACE using the TOBC. Method and Study Design: The TOBC registry is a prospective multicenter registry trial. Seven sites in the USA and 1 site in Spain participated and enrolled 81 patients. Results: The performance and safety of the TOBC was evaluated based on scoring for different variables. Scores were measured using a semiquantitative rating scale (1 = excellent, 5 = poor). The mean scores for these variables were as follows: visibility under fluoroscopy, 1.8; ability to reach the intended site, 1.6; stability during first positioning, 1.5; stability during inflation, 1.6; stability during deflation, 1.6; ability to temporarily stop flow, 1.6; and ability to assist in coil embolization, 1.7. The mean inflation and deflation times were 4.9 and 5.6 s, respectively. Complete obliteration of the aneurysm (Raymond class I) was achieved in 69.4% of the BACE cases. Thrombus formation occurred in 4/81 (4.8%) of the cases. In all cases, the thrombus resolved with medications, no patient suffered an infarction, and an underlying hypercoagulable state from subarachnoid hemorrhage was considered a contributing factor. Vessel rupture occurred in 1/81 (1.2%) of the cases, but was unrelated to TOBC use. Conclusion: BACE using the TOBC is safe and effective. All variables assessed for performance showed good-to-excellent results.
      Intervent Neurol 2018;7:53-64
  • Balloon-Assisted Cannulation for Difficult Anterior Cerebral Artery Access
    • Abstract: The anterior communicating artery is a common location for intracranial aneurysms. Compared to surgical clipping, endovascular coiling has been shown to improve outcomes for patients with ruptured aneurysms and we have seen a paradigm shift favoring this technique for treating aneurysms. Access to the anterior cerebral artery can be challenging, especially in patients with tortuous anatomy or subarachnoid hemorrhage or in patients presenting with vasospasm. We present a technique for cannulating the anterior cerebral artery using a balloon inflated in the proximal middle cerebral artery as a rebound surface.
      Intervent Neurol 2018;7:48-52
  • Is the Efficacy of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke
    • Abstract: Background: Several reports refer to differences in stroke between females and males, namely in incidence and clinical outcome, but also in response to treatments. Driven by a recent analysis of the MR CLEAN trial, which showed a higher benefit from acute stroke endovascular treatment (EVT) in males, we intended to determine if clinical outcomes after EVT differ between sexes, in a real-world setting. Methods: We analyzed 145 consecutive patients submitted to EVT for anterior circulation large-vessel occlusion, between January 2015 and September 2016, and compared the outcomes between sexes. Results: Our population was represented by 81 (55.9%) females, with similar baseline characteristics (pre-stroke disability, baseline NIHSS, and ASPECTS), rate of previous intravenous thrombolysis, time from onset to recanalization, and rate of revascularization; with the exception that women were on average 4 years older and had more hypertension, and men in turn had more tandem occlusions and atherosclerotic etiology (all p < 0.05). Even after adjusting for these statistically significant variables and for intravenous thrombolysis (as some studies advocate a different response to this treatment between sexes), there were no differences in intracranial hemorrhage, functional independence (mRS ≤2 in 60.9% males vs. 66.7% in females, p = 0.48; adjusted p = 0.36), or mortality at 3 months. Conclusion: In a real-world setting, we found no sex differences in clinical and safety outcomes after acute stroke EVT. Our results support the idea that women are equally likely to achieve good outcomes as men after acute stroke EVT.
      Intervent Neurol 2018;7:42-47
  • Provocative Testing Prior to Anterior Cerebral Artery Fusiform Aneurysm
    • Abstract: We report 2 cases of parent artery occlusion (PAO) for anterior cerebral artery (ACA) fusiform aneurysm embolization after superselective provocative testing was performed to confirm distal territory viability. The first case involves a patient in the second decade of life who presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage and underwent PAO after a balloon test occlusion in the distal ACA revealed no neurophysiology changes. The second case involves another patient in the forth decade of life who presented with an enlarging pseudoaneurysm and underwent PAO after a sodium amobarbital infusion in the distal ACA revealed no clinical change. Both patients tolerated PAO without clinical compromise. PAO after provocative testing may be a safe and effective strategy in the management of fusiform aneurysm treatment. Key Messages: Provocative testing with superselective balloon test occlusion and sodium amobarbital infusion are both viable options for clinical and physiological interrogation of brain tissue prior to parent vessel occlusion. Neurophysiological monitoring may be a useful surrogate for clinical examination after provocative testing, particularly if patients were treated under general anesthesia.
      Intervent Neurol 2018;7:36-41
  • 10th Annual Meeting. 5th Annual Stroke Center Workshop. Society of
           Vascular and Interventional Neurology. November 8-11, 2017, Boston, MA:
    • Abstract:
      Intervent Neurol 2017;6(suppl 1):1-130
  • Title Page
    • Abstract:
      Intervent Neurol 2017;6(suppl 1):I-II
  • Moderate to Severe Anemia Is Associated with Poor Functional Outcome in
           Acute Stroke Patients Treated with Mechanical Thrombectomy
    • Abstract: Background: Anemia will negatively affect cerebral collaterals and penumbra. Eventually, it may cause worse clinical outcomes and even increase mortality rates in stroke patients. Anemia has recently been suggested to be an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of the presence of anemia on clinical outcomes in ischemic stroke patients undergoing mechanical thrombectomy. Methods: This was a retrospective study involving the prospectively and consecutively collected data of 90 adult patients between January 2015 and August 2016. Hemoglobin (Hb) cutoff levels were accepted as 12 g/dL for women and 13 g/dL for men. Patients having anemia were further divided into three subgroups as severe anemia (Hb
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