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Journal Cover   Interventional Neurology
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1664-9737 - ISSN (Online) 1664-5545
   Published by Karger Homepage  [103 journals]
  • Contents Vol. 3, 2014
    • Abstract:
      Intervent Neurol 2014;3:I-IV
  • Neurointerventional Stenting and Antiplatelet Function Testing: To Do or
           Not to Do'
    • Abstract: Background and Purpose: Platelet function testing in neurointerventional (NI) procedures is still controversial. We compared the clinical outcomes between antiplatelet responders and nonresponders based on the results of the VerifyNow (VN) testing method. Methods: This is a retrospective single-center analysis of all consecutive patients who underwent NI stenting procedures from January 2007 through July 2013 and had documented preprocedural aspirin (ASA) and clopidogrel VN assays. Patients were divided into two groups based on their responsiveness to antiplatelet. Baseline characteristics, good functional outcome measured by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 90 days, combined procedural complication rate defined as postprocedural stroke, in-stent thrombosis, and intraoperative rupture were compared between the two groups. Results: Our cohort included 37 patients: 26 were in the responder group (RG) and 11 were in the nonresponder group (NRG). Baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups. Even though the combined complication rate was similar between the two groups [NRG: 2/11 (18%) vs. RG: 2/26 (7%); p = 0.33], there was a trend for a higher rate of good functional outcome (90-day mRS: 0-2) in the RG (22/22, 100%) as compared to the NRG (8/10, 80%) (p = 0.0907). Conclusion: Overall, utilizing the VN antiplatelet function testing did not significantly change the clinical outcome after the NI procedures. Larger randomized trials are warranted to provide a better understanding of the utility of the antiplatelet testing in NI stenting procedures.
      Intervent Neurol 2014;3:184-189
  • Early Experience with the TransForm™ Occlusion Balloon Catheter: A
           Single-Center Study
    • Abstract: Background and Objective: Balloon-assisted coil embolization has become an important adjunct in the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms. The management of broad-necked cerebral aneurysms is technically perplexed due to a variety of factors, which include the difficulty in defining the aneurysm-parent vessel interface angiographically and problems in achieving complete aneurysmal occlusion. This could later predispose to regrowth or recanalization. We sought to determine the safety and efficacy of the TransForm™ occlusion balloon catheter (TOBC) for the coiling of intracranial aneurysms at our institute. Methods: A retrospective review was performed to identify TOBC cases between May 1, 2013, and April 30, 2014. Results: A total of 24 TOBC cases were identified. In 23 cases, the TOBC was used for balloon-remodeled coil embolization, and in 1 case, it was used for vasospasm treatment alone. Out of the total 24 cases in which the TOBC was used, 16 (66.6%) were ruptured aneurysms. Stents were used in 6/23 (26%) cases. In all cases, the balloon could be placed as intended. The inflation and deflation times ranged from 3 to 4 s. No serious complications were noted. In the experience of the authors, the balloon performed the intended role in most cases. Conclusions: This series shows that the TOBC is feasible, safe and useful in the treatment of cerebral aneurysms. The balloon was traceable to the intended site and the preparation, inflation and deflation times were short. We believe that the TOBC has effective utility in treating broad-necked and small aneurysms.
      Intervent Neurol 2014;3:174-183
  • Demographic and Technical Risk Factors of 30-Day Stroke, Myocardial
           Infarction, and/or Death in Standard- and High-Risk Patients Who Underwent
           Carotid Angioplasty and Stenting
    • Abstract: Background: Carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) is an accepted treatment to prevent stroke in patients with carotid artery stenosis. The purpose of this study is to identify risk factors for major complications after CAS. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study that was conducted at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in southern Iran from March 2011 to June 2014. Consecutive patients undergoing CAS were enrolled. Both standard- and high-risk patients for endarterectomy were enrolled. Demographic data, atherosclerotic risk factors, site of stenosis, degree of stenosis, and data regarding technical factors were recorded. Thirty-day stroke, myocardial infarction, and/or death were considered as the composite primary outcomes of the study. Results: A total of 251 patients were recruited (mean age: 71.1 ± 9.6 years; male: 65.3%). Of these, 178 (70.9%) were symptomatic, 73 (29.1%) were diabetic, 129 (51.4%) were hyperlipidemic, 165 (65.7%) were hypertensive, and 62 (24.7%) patients were smokers. CAS was performed for left internal carotid artery (ICA) in 113 (45.4%) patients. Fourteen (5.6%) patients had sequential bilateral stenting. Mean stenosis of operated ICA was 80.2 ± 13.8%. An embolic protection device was used in 203 (96.2%) patients. Pre- and postdilation were performed in 39 (18.5%) and 182 (86.3%) patients, respectively. Composite outcomes were observed in 3.6% of patients (3.2% stroke, 0% myocardial infarction, and 1.2% death). Left-sided lesions and the presence of diabetes mellitus were significantly associated with poor short-term outcome (p = 0.025 and p = 0.020, respectively). Conclusion: There was a higher risk of short-term major complications in diabetic patients and for left carotid artery intervention.
      Intervent Neurol 2014;3:165-173
  • Safety and Efficacy of Mechanical Thrombectomy Using Stent Retrievers in
    • Abstract: Background: The treatment of choice for acute ischaemic stroke is the intravenous administration of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator within 3-4.5 h of symptom onset. However, the use of a thrombolytic would be limited by its narrow therapeutic window and contraindications. As a result, in recent years, techniques such as mechanical thrombectomy have emerged, which employ thrombus retrieval devices, such as stent retrievers (Solitaire™, Trevo® or Revive™), whose safety and efficacy in the endovascular treatment of acute ischaemic stroke is analysed in this article. Methods: A systematic literature search was undertaken until March 2015. The quality of evidence was assessed according to the GRADE methodology. A meta-analysis of the results of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was performed, and the weighted average for the case series' sample size was calculated (Review Manager v5.2 and SPSS v19). Results: Seventeen primary studies (2 RCTs, Solitaire™ and Trevo® vs. Merci®, and 15 case series) were selected. The RCT results show that stent retrievers have a safety profile similar to the Merci® device. However, both Solitaire™ and Trevo® achieved a higher recanalisation success rate (OR, 4.56; 95% CI, 2.63-7.90; p < 0.00001) and appropriate clinical outcome at 90 days (OR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.52-4.25; p < 0.0004), although the 90-day mortality rate was similar in both groups (OR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.17-3.37; p = 0.70). Conclusions: Stent retrievers appear to be safe and effective devices, achieving high recanalisation rates and good clinical outcomes in the endovascular treatment of patients with acute ischaemic stroke due to the occlusion of intracranial arteries in comparison with the clot retriever Merci®.
      Intervent Neurol 2014;3:149-164
  • Ipsilateral Infarct in Newly Diagnosed Cervical Internal Carotid Artery
           Atherosclerotic Occlusion
    • Abstract: Objective: We aimed to determine factors associated with recent infarct (RI) in patients with newly identified atherosclerotic cervical internal carotid artery occlusion (CICAO). Methods: This was a retrospective review of consecutive patients who underwent cervical CT angiography from 2002 to 2006 at a single tertiary center. RI was defined by positive diffusion-weighted imaging/apparent diffusion coefficient magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the correspondent CICAO territory. Subjects were dichotomized into those with a RI versus patients with no RI (No-RI). Results: Of 2,459 patients with cervical CT angiograms in the study period, 108 (4.4%) had complete medical records and brain MRI and were included. The mean age was 64 ± 13 years, 58% were men, and 62 (57%) had a RI. The demographics of the RI and No-RI patients were comparable, with the exception that those with RI had a lower frequency of coronary artery disease (CAD, 13 vs. 54%; p < 0.01) and dyslipidemia (38 vs. 69%; p < 0.01). The use of antiplatelets was not statistically different between the groups (56 vs. 71%; p = 0.1). Subjects with RI were less likely on statins (21 vs. 56%; p < 0.01) and antihypertensives (9 vs. 71%; p < 0.01). Multivariate regression revealed that CAD, the use of statins, and the use of antihypertensives were associated with No-RI CICAO presentation. Conclusion: The use of statins and antihypertensives is associated with a decreased risk of RI atherosclerotic CICAO.
      Intervent Neurol 2014;3:142-148
  • Coil Embolization of Wide-Neck Bifurcation Aneurysms Using a
           Single-Balloon Microcatheter
    • Abstract: Background: Coil embolization of wide-neck cerebral aneurysms frequently requires stent or balloon assistance. Such approaches to coil embolization increase the procedural complexity, adding risk and cost. Objective: To describe a series of coil embolization procedures performed using a single-balloon microcatheter to treat wide-neck aneurysms and establish the safety, feasibility and efficacy of this technique. Methods: A retrospective review was performed to identify cases in which the Ascent balloon (Codman Neurovascular, Raynham, Mass., USA) was used as a single-balloon microcatheter for aneurysm coil embolization at two institutions. Clinical, demographic and angiographic data were obtained, and aneurysm volumes as well as packing densities (PD) were calculated. Results: Eight cerebral aneurysms were treated using this technique. Six of these were unruptured. The aneurysms had an average neck diameter of 3.7 mm, and the maximum dimension ranged from 5 to 11 mm, with a mean of 7.5 mm. The mean aspect ratio was 2.07. The mean volume of the aneurysms was 180.38 mm3. The average PD achieved in these 8 aneurysms was 41.79%. Complete occlusion with coil embolization [Raymond-Roy Occlusion Classification (RROC) 1] was achieved in all cases except one, where a small residual was left deliberately and the occlusion grade was RROC 2. There were no intraprocedural complications. Conclusion: This initial experience demonstrates the feasibility and immediate outcomes of a single-balloon microcatheter technique in coil embolization of wide-neck cerebral aneurysms. This technique may be used to achieve a high PD, comparable to that obtained with stent-assisted coiling or coiling alone, while avoiding permanent stent placement and potentially reducing thromboembolic complications.
      Intervent Neurol 2014;3:135-141
  • Comparison of Intraoperative Indocyanine Green Angiography and Digital
           Subtraction Angiography for Clipping of Intracranial Aneurysms
    • Abstract: Background: Residual aneurysm after microsurgical clipping carries a risk of aneurysm growth and rupture. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) remains the standard to determine the adequacy of clipping. Intraoperative indocyanine green (ICG) angiography is increasingly utilized to confirm optimal clip positioning across the neck and to evaluate the adjacent vasculature. Objective: We evaluated the correlation between ICG and DSA in clipped intracranial aneurysms. Methods: A retrospective study of patients who underwent craniotomy and microsurgical clipping of intracranial aneurysms with ICG for 2 years. Patient characteristics, presentation details, operative reports, and pre- and postclipping angiographic images were reviewed to determine the adequacy of the clipping. Results: Forty-seven patients underwent clipping with ICG and postoperative DSA: 57 aneurysms were clipped; 23 patients (48.9%) presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Nine aneurysms demonstrated a residual on DSA not identified on ICG (residual sizes ranged from 0.5 to 4.3 mm; average size: 1.8 mm). Postoperative DSA demonstrated no branch occlusions. Conclusion: Intraoperative ICG is useful in the clipping of intracranial aneurysms to ensure a gross patency of branch vessels; however, the presence of residual aneurysms and subtle changes in flow in branch vessels is best seen by DSA. This has important clinical implications with regard to follow-up imaging and surgical/endovascular management.
      Intervent Neurol 2014;3:129-134
  • Spontaneous Thrombosis of a Ruptured Brain Arteriovenous Malformation: The
           Argument for Early Conservative Management
    • Abstract: Generally, definitive treatment of brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVM) presenting with hemorrhage is recommended to prevent recurrent hemorrhage. The risk of craniotomy and resection of BAVM has been well described using the Spetzler-Martin grading scale; however, the optimal timing for the definitive treatment of ruptured BAVM remains unclear. We report an interesting case of spontaneous BAVM thrombosis in which the patient presented with right occipital intracerebral hemorrhage caused by ruptured right occipital micro-BAVM. A preoperative angiogram 4 months later demonstrated spontaneous thrombosis of the AVM. Despite the risk of re-bleeding, the decision to defer treatment in the acute stage of illness in this case was based on the absence of high-risk angioarchitectural features in the arteriovenous malformations (AVM). It is important to emphasize the potential benefits of early conservative management, particularly in patients with low-risk angiographic features. We also review the literature of spontaneous BAVM thrombosis and discuss the potential benefit of early conservative management.
      Intervent Neurol 2014;3:122-128
  • Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke: Considerations from
           Recent Randomized Trials
    • Abstract: Background: Despite increasing use of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator therapy, the large number of patients ineligible for treatment or for whom treatment is ineffective has become problematic. Summary: The number of endovascular treatments for acute ischemic stroke is increasing each year. This treatment provides higher recanalization rates for occluded vessels but may lead to hemorrhagic complications such as subarachnoid hemorrhage. Results were announced for three randomized controlled trials in 2013, with all failing to show the superiority of endovascular treatment. These results have had a major negative impact, but a new randomized controlled trial, the Multicenter Randomized CLinical trial of Endovascular treatment for Acute ischemic stroke in the Netherlands (MR CLEAN), showed that acute endovascular treatment was superior to standard medical treatment in terms of clinical outcomes. With this positive result, interim analyses from other randomized trials appear likely to show the effectiveness of endovascular treatment. Key Message: Clinical evidence of acute stroke intervention using mechanical devices might be established in the near future.
      Intervent Neurol 2014;3:115-121
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