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Journal Cover   Interventional Neurology
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 1664-9737 - ISSN (Online) 1664-5545
   Published by Karger Homepage  [104 journals]
  • Spontaneous Thrombosis of a Ruptured Brain Arteriovenous Malformation: The
           Argument for Early Conservative Management
    • Abstract: Generally, definitive treatment of brain arteriovenous malformations (BAVM) presenting with hemorrhage is recommended to prevent recurrent hemorrhage. The risk of craniotomy and resection of BAVM has been well described using the Spetzler-Martin grading scale; however, the optimal timing for the definitive treatment of ruptured BAVM remains unclear. We report an interesting case of spontaneous BAVM thrombosis in which the patient presented with right occipital intracerebral hemorrhage caused by ruptured right occipital micro-BAVM. A preoperative angiogram 4 months later demonstrated spontaneous thrombosis of the AVM. Despite the risk of re-bleeding, the decision to defer treatment in the acute stage of illness in this case was based on the absence of high-risk angioarchitectural features in the arteriovenous malformations (AVM). It is important to emphasize the potential benefits of early conservative management, particularly in patients with low-risk angiographic features. We also review the literature of spontaneous BAVM thrombosis and discuss the potential benefit of early conservative management.
      Intervent Neurol 2014;3:122-128
  • Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke: Considerations from
           Recent Randomized Trials
    • Abstract: Background: Despite increasing use of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator therapy, the large number of patients ineligible for treatment or for whom treatment is ineffective has become problematic. Summary: The number of endovascular treatments for acute ischemic stroke is increasing each year. This treatment provides higher recanalization rates for occluded vessels but may lead to hemorrhagic complications such as subarachnoid hemorrhage. Results were announced for three randomized controlled trials in 2013, with all failing to show the superiority of endovascular treatment. These results have had a major negative impact, but a new randomized controlled trial, the Multicenter Randomized CLinical trial of Endovascular treatment for Acute ischemic stroke in the Netherlands (MR CLEAN), showed that acute endovascular treatment was superior to standard medical treatment in terms of clinical outcomes. With this positive result, interim analyses from other randomized trials appear likely to show the effectiveness of endovascular treatment. Key Message: Clinical evidence of acute stroke intervention using mechanical devices might be established in the near future.
      Intervent Neurol 2014;3:115-121
  • Periprocedural Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Mechanical Thrombectomy for
           Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Stent Retriever Era
    • Abstract: Background: Early reperfusion is critical for favorable outcomes in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Stent retrievers lead to faster and more complete reperfusion than previous technologies. Our aim is to compare the cost-effectiveness of stent retrievers to the previous mechanical thrombectomy devices. Methods: Retrospective review of endovascularly treated large-vessel AIS. Data from all consecutive patients who underwent thrombectomy from January 2012 through November 2012 were collected. Baseline characteristics, the total procedural cost, the rates of successful recanalization [modified thrombolysis in cerebral ischemia (mTICI) scores of 2b or 3], and the length of stay at the hospital were compared between the stent retriever (SR) and the non-stent retriever (NSR) groups. Results: After excluding the patients who underwent concomitant extracranial stenting (n = 22) or received intra-arterial tissue plasminogen activator only (n = 6), the entire cohort included 150 patients. The cost of the reperfusion procedure was significantly higher in the SR compared to the NSR group (USD 13,419 vs. 9,308, p
  • Thrombolysis in Chinese Ischemic Stroke Patients with Renal Dysfunction
    • Abstract: Background: Current data concerning the relationship between renal function and clinical outcome among stroke patients treated with intravenous thrombolytic therapy are conflicting. Our aim is to analyze whether the clinical outcome of Chinese ischemic stroke patients treated with thrombolytic therapy is affected by the presence of renal dysfunction. Methods: Chinese patients who received intravenous thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke were recruited. Renal dysfunction was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)
  • Implementation of Intraoperative Neurophysiological Monitoring during
           Endovascular Procedures in the Central Nervous System
    • Abstract: Background and Objective: Intraoperative monitoring (IOM) has been used in different surgical disciplines since the 1980s. Nonetheless, regular routine use of IOM in interventional neuroradiology units has only been reported in a few centers. The aim of this study is to report our experience, 1 year after deciding to implement standardized IOM during endovascular treatment of vascular abnormalities of the central nervous system. Methods: Basic recordings included somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) and motor-evoked potentials (MEPs). Corticobulbar motor-evoked potentials and flash-visual-evoked potentials were also recorded depending on the topography of the lesion. Intra-arterial provocative tests (PTs) with amobarbital and lidocaine were also performed. All patients except 1 were under total intravenous anesthesia. Clinical outcome was assessed prospectively and correlated with IOM events. Results: Twelve patients and 15 procedures were monitored during the inclusion period. Significant IOM events were detected during 3 of the 15 procedures (20%). We observed temporary MEP changes in 2 cases which resolved after interruption of the embolization or application of corrective measures, leaving no postoperative neurological deficits. In 1 case, persistent SEP and MEP deterioration was detected secondary to a frontal hematoma, resulting in mild sensory-motor deficit in the right upper extremity after the procedure. Overall, 12 PTs (4 spinal cord and 8 brain abnormalities) were performed using lidocaine and sodium amytal injections. One positive result occurred after the injection of lidocaine. No false negatives were detected. Conclusions: IOM may provide continuous real-time data about the functional status of eloquent areas and pathways of the central nervous system in patients under general anesthesia. It therefore allows us to detect early neurological damage in time to perform specific actions that may prevent irreversible neurological deficits.
      Intervent Neurol 2014;3:85-100
  • High-Flow Carotid Cavernous Fistula and the Use of a Microvascular Plug
           System: Initial Experience
    • Abstract: Purpose: We report our initial experience using a detachable microvascular plug system to occlude the internal carotid artery during endovascular treatment of high-flow carotid cavernous fistula. Case and Technique: An 87-year-old patient was admitted for acute-onset double vision with associated right-eye ptosis. Exam revealed a pupil-sparing, partial right third cranial nerve palsy. MRI showed a carotid cavernous fistula with high-flow drainage. Digital subtraction angiography showed a high-flow, right-sided, direct carotid cavernous fistula with flow from the proximal right internal carotid artery. The ophthalmic artery, posterior communicating artery and anterior communicating arteries supplied retrograde flow to the fistula through the internal carotid artery. Obliteration of the fistula was achieved through coil embolization in combination with proximal and distal microvascular plugs (Reverse Medical, Irvine, Calif., USA). Conclusion: The microvascular plug is a new addition to current endovascular embolization devices for the treatment of high-flow, direct carotid cavernous fistulas. This technique offers easy navigability through tortuous arteries, precise localization and immediate occlusion, which may allow shorter procedure and fluoroscopy times and increased cost-effectiveness. Larger case series are needed to support our observation.
      Intervent Neurol 2014;3:78-84
  • The Development of Carotid Stent Material
    • Abstract: Endovascular angioplasty with stenting is a promising option for treating carotid artery stenosis. There exist a rapidly increasing number of different stent types with different materials. The bare-metal stent is the most commonly used stent with acceptable results, but it leaves us with the problems of thrombosis and restenosis. The drug-eluting stent is a breakthrough as it has the ability to reduce the restenosis rate, but the problem of late thrombosis still has to be addressed. The biodegradable stent disappears after having served its function. However, restenosis and degradation rates remain to be studied. In this article, we review every stent material with its characteristics, clinical results and complications and point out the standards of an ideal carotid stent.
      Intervent Neurol 2014;3:67-77
  • Aggressive Medical Care in Young Chinese Patients with Ischemic Stroke of
           Undetermined Etiology: A Retrospective Study
    • Abstract: Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the clinical and angiographic characteristics of ischemic stroke of undetermined etiology in young Chinese adults and to observe the effects of medication on their long-term outcomes. Methods: A total of 179 consecutive young patients with ischemic stroke of undetermined etiology were retrospectively analyzed for clinical and angiographic characteristics, laboratory tests, the choice of drug treatment, and follow-up outcomes. Any predictive power for recurrent stroke and new lesions or aggravated stenosis was analyzed. Results: 170 patients were clinically followed up for a median of 25 months (range, 4-92), and 65 patients with 114 lesions had angiographic follow-up for a median of 7 months. A total of 53 patients were enrolled in a routine medical management (RMM) group, and 117 were treated with corticosteroids plus RMM (aggressive medical management, AMM). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that differences in the 2-year cumulative stroke-free rate and in the 18-month cumulative worsening and/or new lesion-free rate between the RMM and AMM groups were significant (p < 0.05). Multivariate and Cox regression analyses revealed that the choice of drug therapy and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were associated with recurrent stroke, that AMM was independently associated with a decreased risk of worsening lesion, and that worsening lesion was the only independent predictor of recurrent stroke. Conclusion: Compared with RMM, AMM is more efficacious in the prevention of secondary ischemic stroke and progressive arterial lesions among young adults with ischemic stroke of undetermined etiology.
      Intervent Neurol 2014;3:56-66
  • Large Deep White Matter Lesions May Predict Futile Recanalization in
           Endovascular Therapy for Acute Ischemic Stroke
    • Abstract: Objective: This study investigated whether large ischemic lesions in the deep white matter (DWM) on pretreatment diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) predict futile recanalization. Methods: Consecutive acute stroke patients with anterior circulation ischemia who underwent successful arterial recanalization with thrombolysis in cerebral infarction grade 2b or 3 were enrolled. A large DWI-DWM lesion was defined as a hyperintense lesion in the DWM on initial DWI, located mainly between the anterior and posterior horns of the lateral ventricle. The Alberta Stroke Program Early CT score on CT and DWI and stroke volume on initial DWI were recorded. Stroke severity was assessed using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score. Futile recanalization was defined as a 30-day modified Rankin scale score of 3-6 despite successful recanalization. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of futile recanalization. Results: In 35 of 46 patients (76%) with successful recanalization, futile recanalization was observed in 20 patients (57%). Patients with futile recanalization were older (median age 74 vs. 58 years; p = 0.053), had higher initial NIHSS scores (median 17 vs. 9; p = 0.042), and a higher prevalence of large DWI-DWM lesions (45 vs. 9%; p = 0.022). Logistic regression analysis showed that a large DWI-DWM lesion was an independent predictor of futile recanalization (OR 13.97; 95% CI 1.32-147.73; p = 0.028). Conclusion: Patients with large preintervention DWI-DWM lesions may be poor candidates for endovascular therapy.
      Intervent Neurol 2014;3:48-55
  • Endovascular Treatment of Proximal Aortic Arch Lesions through a
           Retrograde Approach
    • Abstract: Tandem atherosclerotic lesions of the carotid bifurcation and the ipsilateral proximal common carotid artery (CCA) or innominate arteries (IA) can be challenging to treat. A surgical approach may treat the lesion at the carotid bifurcation, but proximal CCA or IA lesions require a major surgical exposure. An endovascular approach is challenging as well since anatomic variations, such as a type III aortic arch, can render navigation very difficult. We report our experience in the hybrid surgical and endovascular treatment of complex proximal CCA and IA lesions. Eleven patients who underwent hybrid procedures with surgical exposure (with or without endarterectomy) of the carotid artery and retrograde endovascular intervention of a proximal lesion were included in the study. The mean percentage of stenosis was 81%. Seven patients underwent a carotid endarterectomy (CEA), and 4 patients underwent only a surgical cutdown for retrograde endovascular access of the IA or left CCA. All procedures were technically successful. Eight patients had no symptoms within 30 days of the procedure. The hybrid retrograde endovascular approach through carotid exposure with or without CEA appears to be effective and safe in selected patients who have a high-risk complex anatomy of tandem lesions.
      Intervent Neurol 2014;3:41-47
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